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UNIVERSIDAD DE MANILA
COLLEGE OF LAW

Syllabus
CONSTITUTIONAL LAW I
ATTY. CHERRY P. CANDA-MELODIAS, CESO V

REFERENCES:
Philippine Political Law (Isagani Cruz)
The 1987 Constitution of the Philippines (Fr. Joaquin Bernas Jr., SJ)
CONCEPT OF STATE

1. People

Citizenship (Article IV)

Distinguished from nationality
Modes of Acquiring citizenship
Citizens of the Philippines
- Moy Ya Lim Yao v. Commissioner of Immigration, 41 SCRA 292
- Djumantan v. Domingo, Jan. 30, 1995
Election of Philippine citizenship
- In re: Vicente Ching, Bar Matter No. 914, October 1, 1999
Doctrine of implied election
- Co v. HRET, G.R. No. 92191-92, July 30, 1991
Natural-born citizens
- Bengson v. HRET, G.R. No. 142840, May 7, 2001
- Tecson v. Comelec, G.R. No. 161434, March 3, 2004
Dual citizenship & dual allegiance
- Mercado v. Manzano, GR 135083, May 26, 1999
Res judicata in citizenship cases
Doctrine of Indelible Allegiance

Naturalization
- Republic v. De la Rosa, 232 SCRA 785

Loss of citizenship
- By naturalization in a foreign country
- Frivaldo v. Comelec, 174 SCRA 245
- Labo v. Comelec, 176 SCRA 1
- By express renunciation or expatriation
- Yu v. Defensor-Santiago, 169 SCRA 364

Reacquisition of citizenship, RA 8171
Retroactivity of Repatriation
- Frivaldo v. Comelec, 257 SCRA 727, June 28, 1996

Suffrage (Article V)

- Akbayan Youth v. Comelec, G.R. No. 147066, March 26, 2001
- Makalintal v. Comelec, GR 157013, July 10, 2003
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2. Territory (Article I)

Philippine Archipelago; Archipelago Doctrine; UN Convention on the Law of the Sea

3. Government

Functions
Constituent vs. Ministrant
Laissez-faire vs. Welfare State
Doctrine of Parens Patriae
- Gov't. of Phil. Islands v. Monte de Piedad, 35 Phil. 728
- Cabanas v. Pilapil, 58 SCRA 94
Classification
- De Jure
- De Facto
- Lawyers League v. Aquino, GR 73748, May 22, 1986

4. Sovereignty

Effects of Change in sovereignty
- People v. Perfecto, 43 Phil. 887
- Macariola v. Asuncion, 114 SCRA 77
Effects of Belligerent Occupation

Doctrine of Jus Postliminium
Dominium vs. Imperium
Derogation of Philippine Sovereignty; The Visiting Forces Agreement
- Bayan v. Zamora, G.R. No. 138570, October 10, 2000

DOCTRINE OF STATE IMMUNITY
Basis
- U.S.A. vs. Reyes, March 1, 1993

Immunity of Foreign States & Diplomats
Principle of par in parem non habet imperium
Process of Suggestion
- The Holy See v. RTC, GR 101949, Dec. 1, 1994

Determination of Immunity by the Department of Foreign Affairs
- Liang v. People, G.R. No. 125865, January 28, 2000

Immunity of International Organizations and Agencies
- SEAFDEC v. NLRC, 241 SCRA 580
- Callado v. IRRI, 244 SCRA 210
- DFA v. NLRC, Sept. 18, 1996

Immunity of Government Agencies
Incorporated
Municipal Corporations
- Municipality of San Fernando v. Judge Firme, 195 SCRA 692


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Unincorporated
If principal function is governmental
- Farolan v. CTA 217 SCRA 298
If proprietary, suable

Suits against Public Officers
- City of Angeles v. CA, Aug. 28,1996
- Veterans Manpower v. CA, 214 SCRA 286
- Wylie v. Rarang, 209 SCRA 357

Consent to be sued

Express Consent
- Republic v. Feliciano, 148 SCRA 424
General Law
- CA 327; PD 1445; Art. 2180; Act No. 3038
Special Law
- Meritt v. Gov't. of the Phil. Islands, 34 Phil. 311
Implied Consent
When State commences litigation
- Froilan v. Pan Oriental Shipping, Sept. 30, 1954
When State enters into a business contract
- USA v. Ruiz, 136 SCRA 487

Suability not outright liability
- Meritt v. Gov't. of the Phil. Islands, 34 Phil. 311
- Fontanilla v. Maliaman, 194 SCRA 486

Consent to be sued does not include consent to execution
- Republic v. Villasor, 54 SCRA 84
- Municipality of San Miguel v. Fernandez, 130 SCRA 56
- Municipality of Makati v. CA, 190 SCRA 206

Immunity cannot be used to perpetrate an injustice on a citizen
- Ministerio v. CFI of Cebu, 40 SCRA 464


PRINCIPLES AND STATE POLICIES

Republicanism

Manifestations
1. Nemo est supra leges
- Villavicencio v. Lukban, 39 Phil. 778
2. Rule of majority

3. Accountability of Public Officials
4. Bill of Rights
5. Legislature cannot pass irrepealable laws
6. Separation of Powers
Principle of Blending of Powers
Principle of Checks and Balances
- The Steel Seizure case, 343 US 579, 96 L.Ed. 1153
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- Bowsher v. Synar, 478 US 714
- Senate v. Ermita (E.O.464), G.R. No. 169777

7. Non-delegation of powers
- Phil. Interisland Shipping Ass'n. v. CA, GR 100481, Jan. 22, 1997

Potestas delegata non delegare potest

Permissible Delegation
a. Tariff Powers to the President
b. Emergency Powers to the President
- First Emergency Powers cases, 84 Phil. 368
- Second Emergency Powers cases, 92 Phil. 603
c. Delegation to the People
d. Delegation to Local Government Units
e. Delegation to the Administrative Bodies
Power of Subordinate Legislation
- Miners Association v. Factoran, GR 98332, Jan. 16, 1995
Principle of Subdelegation of Powers
Doctrine of Qualified Political Agency

Tests for valid delegation
a. Completeness Test
b. Sufficient Standard Test
- Ynot v. IAC, 148 SCRA 659
- De la Llana v. Alba, 112 SCRA 294
Legislative standard need not be expressed
- Hirabashi v. United States, 320 US 99
- Chiongbian v. Orbos, 245 SCRA 253
8. State Immunity (supra)
9. Election through popular will

Act of State

Incorporation Clause
Conflict between municipal law and international law
- Ichong v. Hernandez, 101 Phil. 115
Civilian Supremacy
- IBP v. Zamora, G.R. No. 141284, August 15, 2000
Government to serve and protect the people
People to defend the State
Separation of Church and State
Independent Foreign Policy
Nuclear Free Philippines
Just and dynamic social order

Social Justice
- Calalang v. Williams, 70 Phil. 726
Respect for human dignity and human rights
Fundamental Equality of men and women

Promotion of health and ecology
- Oposa v. Factoran, GR 1010183, July 30, 1993
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- MMDA et al vs Concerned Residents of Manila Bay 2008

Priority to education, science and technology
Protection to labor
Land Reform
- Ass'n. of Small Land Owners v. Sec. of Agrarian Reform, 175 SCRA 343

Regalian Doctrine
- Republic v. CA, CCP Intervenor, GR 103882, Nov. 25, 1998
- Cruz v. DENR Secretary, G.R. No. 135385, December 6, 2000
- La Bugal-Blaan Tribal Assn. v. DENR Secretary, GR 127882, Jan. 27, 2004

Inalienable Lands of the Public Domain
- Chavez v. PEA & AMARI, GR 133250, Nov. 11, 2003

Independent People's organizations

Family and Youth
- Meyer v. Nebraska, 263 US 393
- Pierce v. Society of Sisters, 268 US 510
- Wisconsin v. Yoder, 40 LW 4476
- Cabanas v. Pilapil, 58 SCRA 94

Self-reliant and independent national economy
- Taada v. Angara (GATT case), GR 118295, May 2, 1997

Communication and information in nation-building

THE PHILIPPINE CONSTITUTION

Nature of the Constitution
Definition;
Classification;
Qualities and essential parts of a good written Constitution

Ratification / Political vs. Justiciable Question
- Javellana v. Executive Secretary, 50 SCRA 33

Constitutional Construction
- Perfecto v. Meer, 85 Phil. 552
- Endencia v. David, 93 Phil. 696
- Nitafan v. Commisioner of Internal Revenue, 152 SCRA 284

Self-executing provisions
- Manila Prince Hotel v. GSIS, GR 122156, Feb. 3, 1997

Constitutional History
Pre-1935 Constitution
Schurman Commission; Taft Commission; Spooner Amendment; Philippine Bill of 1902
Jones Law of 1916; Tydings-McDuffie Act of 1934

1935 Constitution

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Declaration of Martial Law
- Aquino v. Enrile, 59 SCRA 183

1973 Constitution
- Javellana v. Executive Secretary, 50 SCRA 33

1986 Snap Presidential Election
- Philippine Bar Association. v. Comelec, 140 SCRA 455

People Power Revolt
Proclamation No. 1, Feb. 25, 1986
Proc. No. 3, Mar. 25, 1986
- Lawyers League v. Aquino, GR 73748, May 22, 1986
- In re: Bermudez, 145 SCRA 160
Freedom Constitution

1987 Constitution
- In re: Letter of Reynato Puno, June 29, 1992, 210 SCRA

Effectivity of the 1987 Constitution
- De Leon v. Esguerra, 153 SCRA 602

LEGISLATIVE DEPARTMENT (Article VI)

Legislative power
Initiative, referendum and Recall
- Defensor-Santiago v. Comelec, GR 127325, March 19, 1997
Indirect Initiative
- SBMA v. Comelec, Sept. 26, 1996
Recall
- Garcia v. Comelec, Oct. 5, 1993
Loss of confidence, a political question
- Evardone v. Comelec, 204 SCRA 464, 472

Bicameralism vs. Unicameralism

Senate (Composition; Qualifications; Term of office)

House of Representatives
Composition (District Representatives; Party-list Representatives)

Party-list Representatives
- Veterans Federation Party v. Comelec, G.R. No. 136781, October 6, 2000
- Ang Bagong Bayani-OFW Labor Party v. Comelec, G.R. No. 147589, June 26,2001

Apportionment of Legislative Districts
- Baker v. Carr, 369 US 186
- Mariano v. Comelec, 242 SCRA 211
- Montejo v. Comelec, GR 118702, Mar. 19, 1995
Gerrymandering
Doctrine of Equal Representation


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Qualifications
- Marcos v. Comelec, 248 SCRA 300
- Aquino v. Comelec, Sept. 18, 1995
Theory of legal impossibility

Natural-born
- Bengson v. HRET, G.R. No. 142840, May 7, 2001

Term of office

Privileges

Freedom from Arrest
Parliamentary Immunity
- Eastland v. US Servicemen's Fund, 421 US 491
- Hutchinson v. Proxmire, 443 US 111
- Jimenez v. Cabangbang, 17 SCRA 714

Disqualifications and Inhibitions
Effect of Imprisonment
- People v. Jalosjos, G.R. Nos. 132875-76, February 3, 2000

Sessions; Adjournment; Officers
- Santiago v. Guingona, G.R. No. 147589, June 26, 2001

Quorum
- Avelino v. Cuenco, 83 Phil. 17

Rules of Proceedings
- Arroyo v. De Venecia (Sin-taxes case), GR 127255, Aug. 14, 1997

Discipline of members
Suspension vs. Preventive Suspension
- Santiago v. Sandiganbayan, G.R. No. 128055. April 18, 2001

Enrolled Bill Theory
- Mabanag v. Lopez Vito, 78 Phil. 1
- Casco Chemical v. Gimenez, 7 SCRA 347
Legislative Journal vs. Enrolled Bill

Electoral Tribunals
Composition
- Bondoc v. Pineda, 201 SCRA 792
- Abbas v. Senate Electoral Tribunal, 166 SCRA 651
Powers
- Aquino v. Comelec, Sept. 18, 1995
- Sampayan v. Daza, 213 SCRA 807
Jurisdiction over Proclamation Controversy
- Caruncho v. Comelec, G.R. No. 135996, September 30, 1999

Commission on Appointments
Composition
- Guingona v. Gonzales, 214 SCRA 789
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Powers
- Sarmiento v. Mison, 156 SCRA 549

Powers of Congress
General Legislative Power
Limitations
Substantive Limitations
Procedural Limitations
One Bill, one subject
- Guzman v. Comelec, G.R. No. 129118, July 19, 2000
Sufficiency of Title
- Phil. Judges Association v. Prado, GR 105371, Nov. 11, 1993
- Chongbian v. Orbos, 245 SCRA 253
Bills that must originate exclusively from the House
- Tolentino v. Secretary of Finance, GR 115455, Aug. 25, 1994
- Decision on Motion for Reconsideration, Oct. 30, 1995
Three readings on separate days
Bicameral Conference Committee

Legislative Process
Approval of Bills
Presidential veto
Pocket veto
Item veto
- Bengzon v. Drilon, 208 SCRA 133

Legislative veto; One-House Veto
- Immigration Service v. Chadha, 462 US 919, 77 L.Ed.2d 317
- Phil. Constitution Association v. Enriquez, 235 SCRA 506

Power of the Purse
Implied limitations on appropriation measure
- Guingona v. Carague, 196 SCRA 221
Constitutional limitations and rules
Riders
Sub rosa appropriation
Prohibition against transfer of appropriation
o Phil. Constitution Association v. Enriquez, 235 SCRA 506
o LAMP vs Secretary of Budget and Management (2012)
o Greco Belgica et al vs Sec. Paquito Ochoa et al (November 19, 2013)

Power of Taxation
- McCulloch v. Maryland, 17 US (4 Wheat, 316)

Power of Legislative Investigation
- Senate v. Ermita (E.O.464), G.R. No. 169777
- Bengzon v. Senate Blue Ribbon Committee, 203 SCRA 767

Power to Punish contempt
- Arnault v. Nazareno, 87 Phil. 29
- Arnault v. Balagtas, 97 Phil. 358


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Power to declare existence of state of war
- The Prize cases, 67 US 635, 17 L.Ed. 459
- Mora v. McNamara, 389 US 934, 19 L.Ed.2d 287

EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENT (Article VII)

President and Vice-President
Qualifications
Natural-born Citizen
- Tecson v. Comelec, G.R. No. 161434, March 3, 2004

Election
Congress as canvassing board
Supreme Court as Electoral Tribunal
- Defensor-Santiago v. Ramos, PET Case no. 001, Feb. 13, 1996
Term of office

Privileges
Official residence
Salary

Presidential Immunity
- In re: Bermudez, 145 SCRA 160
- Beltran v. Makasiar, 167 SCRA 393
- US v. Nixon, 418 US 683, 41 L.Ed.2d 1039
- Nixon v. Fitzgerald, 457 US 731
- Clinton v. Jones, 520 US 681, May 27, 1997
- Estrada v. Arroyo, G.R. No. 146738, March 2, 2001
- Decision on Motion for Reconsideration, April 3, 2001

Prohibitions and inhibitions

Rules on Succession
Vacancy at beginning of term
Vacancy during the term
Temporary Disability

Removal of the President
- Estrada v. Arroyo, G.R. No. 146738, March 2, 2001
- Decision on Motion for Reconsideration, April 3, 2001

Powers
Executive Power
- Planas v. Gil, 67 Phil. 62
- Myers, Administratrix v. United States, 272 US 52

Legislative Powers
- Municipality of San Juan v. CA, Sept. 29, 1997
- Ople v. Torres, GR 127685, July 23, 1998

Residual Powers
- Marcos v. Manglapus, 177 SCRA 668

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Power to Determine National Policy
- The Steel Seizure case, 343 US 579, 96 L.Ed. 1153

Prosecution of Crimes
- Webb v. De Leon, 247 SCRA 652

Creation of Preparatory Committee on Constitutional Reforms
- Gonzales v. Narvasa, G.R. No. 140835, August 14, 2000

Appointing Power
Discretionary power
- Flores v. Drilon, GR 104732, June 22, 1993
- Gordon v. Judge Santos, CA-GR Sp No. 48339, Aug. 21, 1998
- Gordon v. CA, GR 134900, Sept. 1, 1998
- Luego v. Civil Service Commission, 143 SCRA 327
Classes of Appointment
- Gaminde v. COA, G.R. No. 140335, December 13, 2000
Appointments subject to confirmation of Commission on Appointments
- Sarmiento v. Mison, 156 SCRA 549
- Manalo v. Sistoza, GR 107369, Aug. 11, 1999
Limitations on the Appointment Power
Power of Removal

Power of Control
Control vs. Supervision
- Drilon v. Lim, GR 112497, Aug. 4, 1994
Alter-ego Principle or Doctrine of Qualified Political Agency
- Carpio v. Executive Secretary, Feb. 14, 1992
The Executive Secretary
- Lacson-Magallanes v. Pano, 21 SCRA 895

Military Powers
Commander-in-chief clause
- Ex Parte Milligan, 71 US 2
- David v. Macapagal-Arroyo (PP1017), GR 171396, May 3, 2006
- Aquino v. Military Commission No. 2, 63 SCRA 546
- Olaguer v. Military Commission No. 34, 150 SCRA 144
- Carpio v. Executive Secretary, supra

Calling Out the Armed Forces
- IBP v. Zamora, G.R. No. 141284, August 15, 2000

Declaration of State of Rebellion
- Lacson v. Perez, G.R. No. 147780, May 10, 2001

Declaration of martial law
- Aquino v. Enrile, 59 SCRA 183

Suspension of the privilege of the writ of habeas corpus
- Barcelon v. Baker, 5 Phil. 87
- Montenegro v. Castaeda, 91 Phil. 882
- Lansang v. Garcia, 42 SCRA 448
- Garcia-Padilla v. Enrile, 121 SCRA 472
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Pardoning Power
- People v. Salle, 250 SCRA 581, Dec. 4, 1995
- Monsanto v. Factoran, 170 SCRA 190
- Garcia v. Chairman, COA, 226 SCRA 356
Pardon vs. Amnesty

Diplomatic Power
- Dames & Moore v. Regan, 453 US 654
Treaties vs. Executive Agreements

Power to Impound
- Philconsa v. Enriquez, Aug. 19, 1994

JUDICIAL DEPARTMENT ( Article VIII)
Judicial Power
Expanded jurisdiction
Effect on the political question doctrine

Jurisdiction
- Diaz v. CA, Dec. 5, 1994
- First Lepanto Ceramics v. CA, Oct. 7, 1994

Constitutional Safeguards to insure independence of the Judiciary
Justices/judges may not be designated to any agency performing non-judicial
functions
Fiscal Autonomy

POWER OF JUDICIAL REVIEW

- Marbury v. Madison, 5 US 137, 2 L.Ed. 60
- Defensor-Santiago v. Guingona, GR 134577, Nov. 18, 1998
- Francisco v. House of Representatives, GR 160261, Nov. 10, 2003

Judicial Supremacy vs. Constitutional Supremacy

Political vs. Justiciable Question
- Baker v. Carr, 396 US 186
- Nixon v. US, 506 US 224
- Goldwater v. Carter, 444 US 996, 62 L.Ed.2d 428
- Sanidad v. Comelec, 73 SCRA 333
- Estrada v. Arroyo, G.R. No. 146738, March 2, 2001
- Brillantes v. Concepcion, GR 163193, June 15, 2004

Presumption of Constitutionality
- Lim v. Pacquing, GR 115044, Jan. 27, 1995

Requisites of Judicial Review:

1. Actual Case or Controversy
- Board of Optometry v. Colet, GR 122241, July 30, 1996
- Mariano v. Comelec, 242 SCRA 211
- Fernandez v. Torres, 215 SCRA 489
- La Bugal-Blaan Tribal Assn. v. DENR Secretary, GR 127882, Jan. 27, 2004
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Ripeness
- City of Los Angeles v. Lyons, 461 US 95, 75 L.Ed.2d 675

Mootness
- David v. Macapagal-Arroyo (PP1017), GR 171396, May 3, 2006
- La Bugal-Blaan Tribal Assn. v. DENR Secretary, GR 127882, Dec. 1, 2004
- DeFunis v. Odegaard, 416 US 312, 40 L.Ed.2d 164

2. Proper Party

Conventional Standing
- Warth v. Seldin, 422 US 490, 45 L.Ed.2d. 343

Representative Standing

Jus Tertii standing
- Craig v. Boren, 429 US 190, 50 L.Ed.2d. 397

Transcendental importance to the public
- Tatad v. Garcia, 243 SCRA 436
- Kilosbayan v. Guingona, 232 SCRA 110
- Kilosbayan v. Morato, 246 SCRA 540
- Kilosbayan v. Morato (Recon.), GR 118910, Nov. 16, 1995

Standing of members of Congress
- Philconsa v. Enriquez, 235 SCRA 506
- Bagatsing v. Committee on Privatization, GR 112399, July 14, 1995

Standing of Integrated Bar of the Philippines
- IBP v. Zamora, G.R. No. 141284, August 15, 2000

Standing of the Government to question its own laws
- People v. Vera, 65 Phil. 56

Taxpayers Suits
- Bayan v. Zamora, G.R. No. 138570, October 10, 2000
- Gonzales v. Narvasa, G.R. No. 140835, August 14, 2000

3. Question must be raised at the earliest possible opportunity

4. Constitutional question must the very "lis mota" of the case

Doctrine of Purposeful Hesitation
- Drilon v. Lim, GR 112497, Aug. 4, 1994

Functions of Judicial Review

Effects of Declaration of Unconstitutionality
Doctrine of Operative Fact
- Republic v. CA, GR 79732, Nov. 8, 1993

Appointment to the Judiciary
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Procedure for Appointment
Judicial and Bar Council

Supreme Court
Composition
En Banc & Division cases
Fortich v. Corona, G.R. No. 131457, August 19, 1999

Powers
Supervision over the Judiciary
- Dolalas v. Office of the Ombudsman, Dec. 24, 1996
Rule-making powers
- Maniago v. CA, 253 SCRA 674
Mandatory Review of Death Penalty Cases
- People v. Esparas, GR 120034, Aug. 20, 1996
Writ of Amparo
Equipoise Doctrine
Decisions of the Court
- Nicos Industrial Corp. v. CA, 206 SCRA 127
- Prudential Bank v. Castro, 158 SCRA 646

Power to control execution of decision
- Echegaray v. Secretary of Justice, GR 132601, Jan. 19, 1999

Tenure of Justices/Judges
- De la Llana v. Alba, 112 SCRA 294
Removal and Discipline
- Maceda v. Ombudsman, GR 102781, Apr. 22, 1993
- People v. Gacott, 246 SCRA 52
Salaries
- Perfecto v. Meer, 85 Phil. 552
- Endencia v. David, 93 Phil. 696
- Nitafan v. Commisioner of Internal Revenue, 152 SCRA 284

INDEPENDENT CONSTITUTIONAL COMMISSION ( Article IX)

Safeguards to insure the independence of the Commissions
Prohibition on appointment in an acting capacity
- Brillantes v. Yorac, 192 SCRA 358
Disqualifications and Inhibitions
Decisions - Certiorari to the Supreme Court
- Galido v. Comelec, Jan. 18, 1991
- Reyes v. RTC, 244 SCRA 41
- Garces v. CA, July 17, 1996
SC Revised Admin. Cir. 1-95

1. Civil Service Commission
Scope of the Civil Service
- DOH v. NLRC, 251 SCRA 700
Approval of appointments
- Luego v. Civil Service Commission, 143 SCRA 327
- Ramonte v. CSC, 244 SCRA 498

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2. Commission on Elections
En Banc and Division cases
- Sarmiento v. Comelec, 212 SCRA 307
Powers and Functions
- Relampagos v. Cumba, 243 SCRA 690
- Loong v. Comelec, GR 133676, Apr. 14, 1999
Exclusive Original Jurisdiction and Appellate Jurisdiction
- Guieb v. Fontanilla, 247 SCRA 348, Aug. 14, 1995
Special Registration of New Voters
- Akbayan Youth v. Comelec, G.R. No. 147066, March 26, 2001

3. Commission on Audit
- Commissioner of Internal Revenue v. COA, GR 101976, Jan. 29, 1993

AUTONOMY OF LOCAL GOVERNMENTS (Article X)

Decentralization of Administration vs. decentralization of Power
- Limbonas v. Mangelin, 170 SCRA 786
- Basco v. PAGCOR, 197 SCRA 52

Autonomous Region
- Disomangcop v. DPWH Secretary, GR 149848, November 25, 2004

Indigenous Cultural Communities
- Cruz v. DENR Secretary, G.R. No. 135385, December 6, 2000

Honest public service and full public disclosure

ACCOUNTABILITY OF PUBLIC OFFICERS (Article XI)

Impeachment
Impeachable Officers
Grounds for Impeachment
Procedure
- Romulo v. Yniguez, 141 SCRA 263
Impeachment and Criminal Prosecution
- Estrada v. Arroyo, G.R. No. 146738, March 2, 2001
- Decision on Motion for Reconsideration, April 3, 2001

Sandiganbayan
Jurisdiction
- Lacson v. Executive Secretary, G.R. No. 128096, January 20, 1999

Ombudsman
Supervision and control
- Acop v. Office of the Ombudsman, 248 SCRA 566
Prosecutorial Powers
- Camanag v. Guerrero, GR 121017, Feb. 17, 1997
Power to issue subpoena; Form of complaint
- Almonte v. Vasquez, 244 SCRA 266
Power to Investigate Administrative Charges
Concurrent with the Office of the President
- Hagad v. Dadole, 241 SCRA 242
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Concurrent with the DOJ
- Honasan v. DOJ Panel of Investigating Prosecutors, GR 159747, Apr. 13, 2004
Power to investigate cases of ill-gotten wealth after Feb. 25, 1996
- Republic v. Sandiganbayan, Sept. 24, 1994
Ombudsman for the Military
- Agbay v. Deputy Ombudsman for the Military, G.R. No. 134503, July 2, 1999

Special Prosecutor
- Zaldivar v. Gonzales, 160 SCRA 843

Commission on Human Rights
Powers and Functions of the Commission
- Cario v. CHR, GR 96681, Dec. 2, 1991
Civil Rights vs. Political Rights
- Simon v. CHR, 229 SCRA 117, Jan. 5, 1994
Fiscal Autonomy
- CHR Employees Assn. v. CHR, GR No. 155336, Nov. 25, 2004

Presidential Commission on Good Government
- Chavez v. PCGG, GR 130716, Dec. 9, 1998
- Cojuangco v. Roxas, 195 SCRA 797
- Republic v. Sandiganbayan, 258 SCRA 685
- Romualdez v. Sandiganbayan, 244 S 152

Sequestration
- Republic v. Sandiganbayan, GR 106244, Jan. 22, 1997

Order signed by only one commissioner
- Republic v. Sandiganbayan, GR 113420, Mar. 7, 1997

Imprescriptibility of Right of State to Recover Ill-gotten Wealth
- Presidential Committee on Behest Loans v. Desierto,
(G.R. No. 130140, October 25, 1999)

AMENDMENT PROCESS (ARTICLE XVII)

Amendment vs. Revision
Procedure
1. Proposal
a. By Congress
b. By a Constitutional Convention
Theories on Position of Constitutional Convention
c. By the People thru Initiative
RA 6735
- Defensor-Santiago v. Comelec, GR 127325, March 19, 1997

2. Ratification
Doctrine of Proper Submission
- Tolentino v. Comelec, 41 SCRA 702

Judicial Review of Amendments
- Javellana v. Executive Secretary, 50 SCRA 30
- Sanidad v. Comelec, 73 SCRA 333