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Metal Casting

Andriya Narasimhulu
Assistant Professor
Division of MPAE
NSIT, Dwarka
New Delhi-110078
Design of patterns, moulds and cores; solidification and cooling; riser
and gating design, design considerations.
Casting is a metal shaping method by pouring the molten metal into a
refractory mould with a cavity of the shape to be made, and allowing
it to solidify, when solidified the object is taken out from the
refractory mould by breaking the mould and the solidified object is
called casting.
Molten metal flows into any small section in the mould cavity and as such any
intricate shapes internal or external can be made with this process
Ferrous and non-ferrous metals can also be casted
Weight reduction can be achieved
Poor dimensional accuracy
Typical application of sand casting processes are cylinder blocks, liners,
machine tool beds, pistons, piston rings, mill rolls, wheels, housings, water
supply pipes and specials and bells
Casting Terms
Flask : it is the one which holds the sand mould intact
Pattern : it is a replica of the final object to be made with some modifications.
Parting line : this is the dividing line between the two moulding flasks that makes up the
sand mould.
Bottom board : it is a board normally made of wood which is used at the start of the
mould making
Facing sand : the small amount of carbonaceous material sprinkled on the inner surface
of the moulding cavity to give a better surface finish to the castings.
Moulding sand : it is the freshly prepared refractory material used for making the mould
cavity. It is the mixture of silica, clay and water
Backing sand : it is what constitutes most of the refractory material found in the mould.
This is made up of used in burnt sand.
Core : it is used for making hollow cavities in castings
Pouring basin : a small funnel shaped cavity at the top of the mould into which the
molten metals is poured
Sprue : the passage through which the molten metal from the pouring basin reaches the
mould cavity. In many cases it controls the flow of metal into the mould.
Runner : the passage ways in the parting plane through which
molten metal flow is regulated before they reach the mould cavity
Gate : the actual entry point through which molten metal enters
mould cavity
Chaplet : chaplet are used to support cores inside the mould cavity to
take care of its own weight and over come the metallostatic forces.
Chill : chills are metallic objects which are placed in the mould to
increase the cooling rate of castings to provide uniform or desired
cooling rate
Riser : it is a reservoir of molten metal provided in the casting so that
not metal can flow back into the mould cavity when there is a
reduction in volume of metal due to solidification
Steps in Casting
Pattern making
Mould and core making
Pouring and solidification
Pattern Making
Pattern size = casting size Allowance
Shrinkage positive allowances this increases the dimension of the pattern
Machining - positive allowances this increases the dimension of the pattern
Shake this is a negative allowance
Shrinkage Allowance
Pouring Temperature ( Liquid)
Freezing temperature (Liquid)
Freezing temperature (Solid)
Room temperature (Solid)
Liquid shrinkages is compensated by providing risers
Solid shrinkages is compensated by providing shrinkage allowance
Liquid Sensible heat Liquid shrinkage
Liquid - Solid Latent heat Liquid shrinkage or
Liquid Solid shrinkage
Solid Sensible heat Solid shrinkage
Solid shrinkage is proportional to the coefficient of linear thermal
expansion or contraction
Shrinkage allowance coefficient of thermal expansion
Shrinkage allowance is generally specified by 1 in 50 , 1 in 100 or 1 in
Allowance = L T = L ( T
Grey cast iron expanding from high temperature to low temperature
for this material negative allowance has to be provided
Invar material has zero coefficient of thermal expansion
Admirality material has heighest coefficient of thermal expansion
Liquid shrinkage (Riser size) Largest for aluminium
Solid shrinkage (Pattern size) Largest for brass or admirality
Total shrinkage (Liquid + Solid) Largest for solid cast steel
Machining Allowance 2 mm/sec
For any pattern first we have to provide machining allowance then
shrinkage allowance
Draft Allowance
For vertical dimensions this allowance is provided
10 to 20 mm/m -- 1
to 3
--- for external surface
50 to 60 mm/m -- 5
to 8
--- for internal surface
For the pattern materials of mercury, wax, polystyrene no need to
provide the draft allowance
Shake allowance
No shake allowance for the materials of of mercury, wax, polystyrene
Distortion Allowance
If L/T ratio is higher larger distortion allowance is to be
Provided and vice versa
Properties of Pattern materials
Low density or light in weight
Low or no moisture absorption
Good surface finish is to be produces
Easy in fabrication
It should be cheap
Pattern material
1. Wood = 0.5 to 0.8 gm/cc
2. Metal
a. Aluminum - = 2.8 gm/cc
b. White metal
c. Titanium - = 4.5 gm/cc cost is very high
When metal is produced from the metal pattern double shrinkage must be provided on wood
pattern to produce the metal pattern
3. Plastics - = 0.5 to 1 gm/cc
a. Polystyrene - this will be used fro producing the large casting like machine tool beds
4. Wax ornaments will produced. This is generally used for producing complex
shaped and also in investment castings
if wax as pattern material uses only dry sand mould to avoid the rat tail
5. Mercury where the machining is not required this will be used.
at -39
C it will get freezing, we can reduce the temperature of mercury up
to -70
C to -100
for small and complex shapes this material will be used.
Mould and core making
Mould sand
Loam sand contains 50% of clay
Green sand contains 6 to 8 % of water
Dry Sand contains 3 to 5 % of sodium silicate in place of water
Generally the mould sand contains
1. Silica sand Quartz , felspur
2. Clay - 15 to 25 % this is up to 50% of clay and 18% of moisture called loam
sand example: bentanite, kailinite
Bentanite :
Sodium Investment High dry strength
Calcium southern bent green strength is high
Fire clay is facing material
3. Water : 6 to 8%
4. Additives
a. Wood powder for increasing the collapsibility. Example: Starch, cereal and dexture
b. Coal dust - for increasing the refractoriness
Classification of Sands
1. Natural sand; Ex: River sand
2. Synthetic or Artificial Sand
Properties of Moulding sand
1. Porosity : this can be measured by permeability number

Where V = volume of specimen in cc == 2000 CC
H = height of specimen in cm === Dia of Specimen = 5.08 cm
P = air pressure in gm/cm.sq. == 10 gm/ cm
A = cross sectional area ==
T = time taken by the air to pass through the sand (seconds)
Asper ASTM Standard

for standard values

Clay content increases Porosity decreases
Ramming force increases Porosity decreases and strength increases
Silicon particles size increases porosity increases
Strength :
Green strength Addition of water
Dry strength with out addition of water
Hot strength : this can be determined by UTM
Refractoriness : ability to withstand for high temperature. This can be increased by
addition of coal powder and this can be determined by oxyacetylene torch.
Cohesiveness: adhering capability with in the sand particle
Adhesiveness: adhering capability of the sand particle with the walls of the pattern
Cohesiveness and adhesiveness can be determined by inter laminar shear stress
Collapsibility: this can be determined by vibration testing. It should be as high as
possible. For improving this the wood powder is added to moulding sand. If
strength increases the collapsibility decreases.
Flow ability: easiness in flowing of the moulding sand. Flow ability increases by
reducing the particle size of sand.
These can be determined by
tensile, compressive and shear
Making the mould
1. Hand moulding
2. Machine moulding
a. Jolting
b. Squeezing
c. Jolt & squeezing
d. Sand slinging initial cost is very high, uniform cross section patterns are
preferable, projected patterns are not preferrable
Types of patterns
1. Single piece pattern for simple jobs
2. Split piece pattern or two piece pattern for intricate casting
3. Gated pattern
4. Cope and drag pattern
5. Match plate pattern small casting with higher dimensional accuracy and for large
6. Loose piece pattern when the contour of the part is such that with drawing the
pattern from the mould is not possible
7. Follow board pattern when some patterns having the same position of pattern is
structurally weak
8. Sweep pattern generating for large shapes which are axi-symmetrical or prismatic in
nature such as bell shaped
9. Skelton pattern for large casting, require small quantities
Pattern color code
1. Red or orange surface not to be finished and left as cast
2. Yellow surface to be machined
3. Black on core printing for unmachined openings
4. Green on seats of and for loose pieces and lose core prints
5. Diagonal black strips with clear varnish on to strengthen the weak
patterns or to shorten a casting
Core making - Properties
1. Green strength
2. High collapsibility
3. High strength
4. Higher refractoriness to with stand higher temperature
5. Dry strength
6. Permeability
7. Collapsibility
8. Friability the ability to crumble
9. Smoothness
10. Low gas emission
It Iis possible with CO
moulding with dry sand
the dry sand consists the sodium silicate, whenever sending the
it is react with sodium silicate and it is forming silica gel, and it
will gives the high strength. For increasing the high strength we
have to use the CO
moulding for making cores
Types of cores
Green sand cores
Dry sand cores
Unbalances core
Balanced core
Cover core
Vertical core
Drop core
Core prints
These are provided so that the cores are securely and correctly positioned
in the mould cavity
The main force acting on the core when metal is poured into the mould
cavity is due to buoyancy. The buoyant force can be calculated as the
difference in the weight of the liquid metal to that of the core material of
the same volume as that of the exposed core
P = v * g (-d)
Where P = buoyant force in N
v = volume of the core in the mold cavity in cm
= weight density of the liquid metal in gm/cm
d = weight density of core material
P = 0.25 (
Where V = total volume of the core in the mould
V =


H +

) H
P 350
Where A = core print area in mm
Support provided by core print = 350 A in N
Un support load = P -350A
If P-350A 0 ----- no additional supports are required
If P-350 0 ------ the additional support must be provided
This support cab be provided by using the chaplets
in general empirical relation 1 N = 29 mm
cross sectional area
chaplete of unsupported load
The component which is used the additional support in the casting. It
can be made by same material the casting is to be done.
Chaplet is a integral part of the casting.
The caplets also provides the directional solidification during casting
For uniform cross sectional casting the riser will be provided at the
top of the mould. For non uniform cross sectional castings the riser
will be provide at near to the thickest portion than the thinnest
For avoiding the shrinkage cavities we have to increase the thermal
conductivity. For increasing the thermal conductivity by placing the
metallic strips by this or pieces are called chills.
Basically the chills are provides the directional solidification.
Chills should have the high thermal conductivity
For avoiding sand erosions metallic strips will be places at the corners
of the casting
These are also used for the directional solidification
Time taken for filling the cavity =

In gating system always preferable is laminar flow, not turbulent flow
and not translational flow
Elements of Gating System
1. Pouring Basin it acts as a reservoir
2. Sprue made by circular tapered c/s to avoid aspiration affect
3. Sprue base wall
4. Runner
5. Runner extension
6. Ingate in general the shape of the ingate is tripoizodal c/s in
7. Riser
It is always uniform tripoizodal C/s

Where A = Area of runner
Gating Ratios
1. Non pressurized Sprue : Runner : Ingate = 1:4:4 ; 1:2:2
2. Pressurised 1:2:1 and


Ingate Design
= 1.6



in mm
Where Q = metal fow rate in mm
b = gate width in mm
V = metal velocity in runner, in mm/sec
g = acceleration due to gravity in mm/sec
Pouring time
The time for complete filling of mould termed as pouring time, it is a very
important criteria for design
pouring time t =

For every cast iron mass less than 450 kg
= 1.41 +

in sec
Where =

T = average section thickness in mm
w = mass of the casting in kg
If mass more than or greater than 450 kg
= 1.236 +

in sec
Gating System design
The liquid metal that runs through the various channels in the mould obey the Bernoulli's
theorem. Which states that the total energy head remains constant at any section
i.e +

= Constant
Where h = potential head in m
p = pressure in pa
V = liquid velocity in m/sec
w = specific weight og liquid in N/m
g = gravitational constant on earth, 9.8004 in m/sec


Choke Area
This can be calculated using Bernoulli's equation

Where A = choke are in mm
w = casting mass in kg
t = pouring time in sec
d = mass density of the molten metal in kg/mm
g = acceleration due to gravity in mm/sec
H = effective metal head ( sprue height) mm
C = efficiency factor which is the function of the gating system
The effective sprue height H, of a mould depends on the casting
dimensions and the type of gating used
The effective sprue heads can calculated as
Top gate H = h
Bottom gate H = h -

Parting gate H = h -

Where h = height of sprue
P = height of mould cavity in cope
C = total height of mould cavity
Top gating System


It should not used for the lose sand casting

But time take for filling is minimum in this system

= 2

= = min(

Bottom Gating System

Cavity filling the height will be reduces, which leads to reduction in the


= 2 ;

= 2 or 2(


In this pouring time is lower
It can be used for lose sand mouldings
Step Gate

; where n = no. of ingates

Sprue should be tapered down to take into account the gain in
velocity of the metal as it flows down reducing the air aspiration
Exact tapering can be obtained by

since the velocities are proportional to

the square of the potential heads hence

Whre H = actual sprue height

= h + H ; h =


Straight tapered gate pressure is equal to zero gauge pressure, but in

between the pressure is greater than the zero gauge.
For avoiding the aspiration effect we to prefer the straight tapered
And also straight cylindrical tapered shape of sprue is preferable and
it is also easy to manufacture
Accessories of Gating system
a. Strainer
b. Splash core
c. Skim bob
Solidification Time



Where m = mass of casting =

K = thermal conductivity of mold material

; take =

Skin Thickness calculations
This will takes place in slush casting.
This will used for producing the all decorative parts like hallow parts
and bulbs etc.




t = skin thickness form


Fettling Operation
Removing the casting from the mould by breaking the mould is called
fettling, vibratory mess is used for breaking the mould
1. Dimensional inspection
2. Defective inspection
a. Coin testing
b. Ultrasonic inspection
c. X-ray radiography
Ultrasonic inspection:
Through transmission exact location can not be identified
Pulse echo technique could not able to decide the exact size and it
gives the exact location
Riser Design
Riser is used for compensation the liquid shrinkage
At the thickest portion of the component has to provide the riser
The shape of the riser in cylindrical
Solidification tome of riser must be greater than or equal to the
solidification time of the casting


; 1 : 0.71 : 0.439
Cube = a * a * a ; Sphere = D ; Cylinder = D * H
Cylindrical shape will gives he highest modulus value
Top Riser
Volume =



; =

Surface Area

= +





if , ,


; =

Side Riser

; D = H

--- necessary condition

Coines Method

= K

; where

= solidifaction time
V = volume of the casting
SA = surface area
K = mould constant
Freezing Ratio
The freezing ration of a mould is defined as the ration of the cooling
characteristics of casting to the riser

Freezing ratio based on Chvorinovs rule






Modulus Method

; =

; =

The modulus of such a cylindrical riser,

= 0.2 D


= 1.2

D = 7.2

In case of cylindrical shape factor =



for sphere shape factor =

= D ;
for hollow cylindrical one shape factor =

; w=


; t =


Noval Research Method
Shape factor =

; where x = correction factor

= 2

; y =

; this value of y can be obtained from the table or

Length of castings
With out end wall effect L = 4t
With end wall effect L = 9t
With chills effect L = 9t + 100 mm
With out end wall effect L = 8t
With end wall effect L = 13t
With end chills effect L = 18t + 200 mm
With end chill effect L = 13t +100 mm
it is preferable to use through risers during large castings using
polysterene as pattern material
The molten metal is directly poured on the pattern during producing
of large casting with out removal of pattern
For single riser
For Double riser
Special Casting Processes
Slush Casting : in this molten metal will not allow to completely
solidification. This can be used for producing the decorative parts
Shell moulding casting:
mould is made by phenolic resin.
Phenolic resin withstand up to 3300 deg. Centigrade.
In this ceramic slurry is also used as a moulding material.
With this only circular and symmetrical parts can be produced.
Cylinder heads of IC engines, cylinders, automobile transmission
parts, tooth paset, bevel gears, gear blanks, crank shaft etc. and can
be produced upto 200 kg components only produced.
Highly complicated parts can not be produced.
Precision Investment casting
Intricate and complex shapes can be produced easily
Wax can be used as a pattern material
Mould is made by concrete and dry sand
Surface of casting is harder and interior will be softer
Turbine blades, nozzle, gold ornaments, handy craft will produces.
Good surface finish and dimensionally accurate parts can be
Up to 5kg components only be produced
More expensive because more larger manual labor involved in
preparation of pattern and the mould
Permanent Mould casting
Produces a fine grained casting with superior mechanical properties
Very good surface finish order 4 microns
Economical for large scale production
Inserts can be readily cast in place
Maximum size of casting is limited
Complicated shaped can not produce
Cost of die is very high
Automobile pistons, stator, gear blanks, connecting rods, air craft
fittings, cylinder blocks etc.
Die Casting
Moulds are made by low carbon steels
Gravity die casting --- aluminiumalloy pistons, cylinder heads
Pressure die casting --- carburetor body
To avoid shrinkage problem on the surface die oil based carbon silica
mixture is sprinkled
Centrifugal casting
Without usage of cores large hollow cylindrical castings can be
Because of the segregation of the casted component have the very
poor machinability
Drinage pipes and water pipes are produced with this
Defects in casting
1. Blow holes or blows
2. Scar
3. Blister
4. Porasity
5. Inclusion or sand inclusion
6. Dross
7. Miss run
8. Shrinkage cavity
9. Rat tail
10. Hot tears
11. Cols tear
12. shift
4. Pouring metal defects
a. Miss runs and cold shuts
b. Slag inclusions
5. Metallurgical defects
a. Hot tears
b. Hot spots
1. Gas Defects
a. Blow holes and open blows
b. Air inclusions
c. Pin hole porosity
2. Shrinkage cavity
3. Moulding material defect
a. Cuts and washes
b. Metal penetration
c. Fusion
d. Run out
e. Rat tails and bickles
f. Swell
g. drop