b
daN/m
3
b
+ A
daN/m
3
Loads
Pa Pb Pc Pe Pv Pv
1
Slab
Filled
0,12 2500 2650 25 345
250
120
740
370 2 ESO 150 640
3 ESV 100 590
4
Girders
Filled
0,5 2500 2650 25 1193
250
120
1588
1218 5 ESO 150 1488
6 ESV 100 1438
B. Horizontal loads acting on the side of the formwork
Diploma Project Personal project plan
Student : NOVAC DANIEL PETRICA

f
P loading from concrete casting:
2
1 2 3 4
[ / ]
f b
P H daN m =

1
coefficient depending on the speed of casting

2
concrete workability coefficient

3
coefficient that takes into account the maximum size of the item section of casted
concrete

4
coefficient that takes into account the temperature of the casted concrete

g
P dynamic horizontal loading of the shocks produced in the discharge of concrete :
2
600[ / ]
g
P daN m =

o
P total horizontal load;
o f g
P P P = +

' o
P permanent horizontal load;
' o f
P P =
No.
Element
H
[m]
b
[daN/m
3
]
v
[m/h
]
1
2
3
4
Loads [daN/m
2
]
P
f
P
g
P
o
P
o
1 girders 0.5 2500 10 1 1 0,95 0,95 1015.3 600 1615.3
101
5.3
Diploma Project Personal project plan
Student : NOVAC DANIEL PETRICA
max
1 1615.3 / q P m daN m = =
8mm o =
10 M cm =
9.20 H M cm o = =
4.4 c =
Elements:
 A, simply framed surface, boarding made of pine boards of 2,4 x 15 x
400 cm;
 B, primary supports, braces made of pine boards 8 x 9,8 x 400 cm; 
B', primary supports, braces made of pine boards 9,8 x15 x 400 cm;
 C, secondary supports of simple posts, circular pine 
D, ties made of pine boards 2,4x15x400 cm.
Diploma Project Personal project plan
Student : NOVAC DANIEL PETRICA
C. Provided resistance
The rib is a continous beam (with d
ge
opening) subjected to bending.
q
W
l
W M
l q M
M M
pl apl
pl apl
cap
c
c
cap
c c
=
=
=
s
o
o
8
8
1
2
max
max
l max distance, [cm];
pl
permissible resistance to moisture of the plywood :
apl
= 120 daN/cm2
q uniformly distributed load for a strip width of 1 m;
n number of fields;
A
i
width of the plywood, [cm];
n
c
number of ribs;
2 2 2
3
100 100 9.20
1410
6 6 6
pl
b h H
W cm
= = = =
8 150 1410
32.36
1615.3
l cm
s =
32.36
' 30.82
1.05 1.05
l
l cm = = =
2
max
1
1615.3 32.36 211436
8
c
M daNcm = =
120 1410 169200
c
cap apl pl
M W daNcm o = = =
c l
c A
n
i
+
>
'
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Student : NOVAC DANIEL PETRICA
1
2
3
4
30 4.4
30 0.72 1; 2
30.82 4.4
40 4.4
40 1.01 1; 2
30.82 4.4
50 4.4
50 1.29 1; 2
30.82 4.4
100 4.4
100 2.71 3; 4
30.82 4.4
c
c
c
c
A cm n n n
A cm n n n
A cm n n n
A cm n n n
= = = = =
+
= = = = =
+
= = = = =
+
= = = = =
+
46 . 27
3
4 . 4 4 100
2 . 41
1
4 . 4 2 50
2 . 31
1
4 . 4 2 40
2 . 21
1
4 . 4 2 30
'
'
'
'
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
ef
ef
ef
ef
l
l
l
l
C.1 Checking
300 >
f
l
,
'
1.05 l l =
I E
l q
f
=
4
'
385
5
, where:
 l max distance [cm]
 E elasticity modulus;
2
150000 / E daN cm =
 I moment of inertia ;
3
4
12
b h
I cm
=
 q permanent load, [daN/cm]
pl
adm
pl
f f s
max
300
5
384
384
5
3 '
max
4 '
max
>
= s
=
l q
I E
f
l
I E
l q
f
pl pl
pl pl
pl
E
pl
= 150000daN/cm
2
Diploma Project Personal project plan
Student : NOVAC DANIEL PETRICA
4
3 3
26 . 4
12
8 . 0 100
12
cm
h b
I
pl
=
=
'
1 1015.3 / 10.153 /
o
q P m daN m daN cm = = =
'
1.05 41.2 1.05 43.26
ef
l l m m cm = = =
3
max
384 150000 4.26
59.70 300
5 10.153 43.26
l
f
= = <
The condition is not fulfilled and we insert an additional rib to the current panel of 50 cm
and resume the calculation of stiffness for the panel of 40 cm with l
ef
= 31,2 cm.
'
1.05 31.2 1.05 32.76
ef
l l m m cm = = =
3
max
384 150000 4.26
137.47 300
5 10.153 32.76
l
f
= = <
The condition is not fulfilled so we insert an additional rib to the current panel of 40 cm and
repeat the calculation of the stiffness for the panel of 100 cm with l
ef
=27,46cm.
'
1.05 27.46 1.05 28.83
ef
l l m m cm = = =
3
max
384 150000 4.26
201.71 300
5 10.153 28.83
l
f
= = <
The condition is not fulfilled sowe insert an additional rib to the current panel of 100
cm and resume the calculation of stiffness for the panel of 30 cm with l
ef
=21.20 cm.
'
1.05 21.20 1.05 22.26
ef
l l m m cm = = =
3
max
384 150000 4.26
438.22 300
5 10.153 22.26
l
f
= = >
The rigidity checking is satisfied
Diploma Project Personal project plan
Student : NOVAC DANIEL PETRICA
Slab formwork
a. Strength of the panel
max
c c
cap
M M s
8 8
2
2
ge
c
mac
d q
l q
M
=
=
c c
cap a c
M W o =
, where:
q uniformly distributed load for a strip of width 1m;
d
ge
distance between extensible girders;
a
c
= 120daN/cm
2
W
c
strength modulus
c
c
a
ge
W
d q
s
o
8
2
2 2 2
3
( ) 4.4 (10 0.8)
62.06
6 6 6
c
b h c M
W cm
o
= = = =
( ) ( )
'
max max max
740 0.312 0.044 263 /
c
af ef
q P l P l c daN m = = + = + =
cm
W
d
c c
a
ge
148
72 . 2
06 . 62 120 8
72 . 2
8
=
=
=
o
2
2
2.63 148
7200.9 / 120 62.06 7447.2 /
8 8
ge c
a c
q d
daN cm W daN cm o
= = < = =
b.
max
c c
adm
f f s
4
4 4
max
'
5 ' 5 5 1.317 188.14
0.63
384 384 384 120000 285.5
ge c
c c c c
q d
q l
f cm
E I E I
= = = =
300
ge
c
adm
d
f =
300
'
384
5
4
ge
c c
ge
d
I E
d q
=
Diploma Project Personal project plan
Student : NOVAC DANIEL PETRICA
3
' 300 5
384
q
I E
d
c c
ge
=
d
ge
distance between extensible girders;
E
c
elasticity modulus, E
c
= 120000daN/cm
2
I
c
moment of inertia
3 3 3
4
( ) 4.4 9.2
285.5
12 12 12
c
b h c M
I cm
o
= = = =
( ) ( )
' '
max max max
370 0.312 0.044 131.7 /
c
af ef
q P l P l c daN m = = + = + =
3
120000 285.5 384
188.14
5 300 1.317
ge
d cm
= =
4
max
5 1.317 188.14 188.14
0.63 0.62
384 120000 285.5 300
c c
adm
f cm f cm
= = > = =
c. The bearing capacity of the extensible girders
max
ge ge
cap
M M s
8 8
2
max
2
max
L d p
L q
M
ge
ge
=
=
ge
cap
ge
M
L d p
s
8
2
max
2
max
8
L P
M
d
ge
cap
ge
s
2
8 1500
0.57
640 5.75
ge
d m
s =
, se adopt 0.50
ge
d m =
2
max
640 0.50 5.75
1322.5
8
ge
M daNm
= =
Diploma Project Personal project plan
Student : NOVAC DANIEL PETRICA
We will use extensible girders GE with 6 9 L m = and bending moment
1500
c
cap
M daNm =
d. Positioning the props
max
pop pop
cap
N N s
max
2
pop pop
v af v ge
L
N p S p d = =
max
5.75
590 0.50 848.12
2
pop
N daN = =
H
pop
=2.8m
PE 3100R with 1.70 3.10 H m = i 2 4.5
cap
N tf = .
2
2 2000
1.18
590 5.75
cap
ge
v
N
d cm
p L
s = =
The concrete mix
The preliminary mix is obtained by taking into consideration the theoretical
information given by standards and the material characteristics (the cement type). The
assumption is that the aggregates are dry and that the water/cement ratio remains constant.
Computing steps:
a) Concrete class : C20/25;
 Workability : L3
 Maximum dimension of the aggregates : D=31mm.
b) Water quantity
C20/25
3
185 / A l m beton =
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Student : NOVAC DANIEL PETRICA
c) Cement quantity
K
A
C = (Kg/m
3
beton ), where
C
A
K =
=
c b
R R o ) 5 . 0 (
A
C
c b
c
R R
R
C
A
K
+
= =
o
o
5 . 0
5 . 0 = o  for river aggregates
max
0.5 35
0.52 0.57
25 0.5 0.5 35
K K
= = s =
+
K
max
the maximum value allowed for W/C ;
K
A
C =
3
/ 356
52 . 0
185
m Kg C = = beton>C
min
=240Kg/m
3
beton
d) Overall aggregate quantity
(1000 10 )
g ag
c
c
A q A
q
c =
3
356
2.7 (1000 185 10 2) 1826 /
3
g
A kg m beton = =
2% c =  airvolum in the concrete
4 types of aggregate (0/3; 3/7; 7/16; 16/31), in proportion of :
3 3
0/ 3
32
1826 584 /
100 100
g
P
N A kg m beton = = =
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Student : NOVAC DANIEL PETRICA
3 7 3
3/ 7
50 32
1826 329 /
100 100
g
P P
N A kg m beton
= = =
3 16 7
7/16
72 50
1826 402 /
100 100
g
P P
N A kg m beton
= = =
3 31 16
16/ 31
100 72
1826 511 /
100 100
g
P P
N A kg m beton
= = =
TOTAL:
3
1826 /
g
A kg m beton =
The laboratory mix:
Check and adjust if it is necessary. This means checking the concrete for workability,
cohesion and surface finish and testing cubes or cylinders for determining the compressive
strength.
After the mix proportions are determined, in the preliminary mix, a trial mix is made.
That means to check the assumptions and establish the effect of the variation on water
requirements.
The laboratory mix is meant to provide 12 specimens (cubes and cylinders) for testing
concrete in strength at 7 days and at 28 days. It is prepared an informative mix of minimum
30 dm with the proportions of cement and aggregate found in the preliminary mix. The water
will be inserted step by step, until is obtained the desired workability. It will appear a new
quantity of water and a new specific weigh.
3
185 (7 6) 2 187 / A l m beton = + =
3
187
359 /
0.52
C kg m beton = =
3
356
2.7 (1000 187 10 2) 1818 /
3
g
A kg m beton = =
' 3
187 359 1818 2364 /
b
kg m beton = + + =
3
'
'
2367
1800 1800 1802 /
2364
ef
g
b
A kg m beton
= = =
Diploma Project Personal project plan
Student : NOVAC DANIEL PETRICA
On sorts:
3
0/ 3
1802
584 576 /
1826
N kg m beton = =
3
3/ 7
1802
329 325 /
1826
N kg m beton = =
3
7/16
1802
402 397 /
1826
N kg m beton = =
3
16/ 31
1802
511 504 /
1826
N kg m beton = =
TOTAL:
3
1802 /
g
A kg m beton =
The working mix
The working mix comes from the laboratory mix by correcting it with the real aggregate
humidity. The real aggregate humidity is usually known for each size fraction and is denoted:
ij
u .
0/ 3 3/ 7 7/16 16/ 31
2.5%; 2%; 1%; 1%;
N N N N
U U U U = = = =
100
i
g g gi
U
A A A A = A =
0/ 3
2.5
576 14
100
N l A = =
3/ 7
2
325 6.5
100
N l A = =
7/16
1
397 4
100
N l A = =
16/ 31
1
504 5
100
N l A = =
Diploma Project Personal project plan
Student : NOVAC DANIEL PETRICA
TOTAL: 29.5
g
A l A =
Water mixture:
' 3
187 29.5 157.5 /
g
A A A l m beton = A = =
Wet aggregate:
' 3
1802 29.5 1831.5 /
g g g
A A A l m beton = +A = + = , of which:
' 3
0/ 3
576 14 590 / N kg m beton = + =
' 3
3/ 7
325 6.5 331.5 / N kg m beton = + =
' 3
7/16
397 4 401 / N kg m beton = + =
' 3
16/ 31
504 5 509 / N kg m beton = + =
Technological sheet for concrete mix
Component
Composition for 1 m
3
beton Obs.
U
i
% Preliminary mix Laboratory mix Working mix
Water (l) 185 187 157.5 
W/C 0.52 0.52 0.52 
Cement 356 359 359 
A
g
r
e
g
a
t
e
(
k
g
)
N
0/3
584 576 590 2.5
N
3/7
329 325 331.5 2.0
N
7/16
402 397 401 1.0
N
16/31
511 504 509 1.0
A
g
2367 2345 2356 
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Working mix in a mortar mixer with a capacity q = 500L
'
1000
r
q
G g = , where:
g quantity for mixture
G quantity for 1 m
3
concrete
q capacity of the mortar mixer
' '
500
157.5 0.8 63
1000 1000
b
q
A A r l = = =
'
500
359 0.8 144
1000 1000
b
q
C C r kg = = =
' '
0/ 3 0/ 3
590 0.40 236
1000
b
q
N N r kg = = =
' '
3/ 7 3/ 7
331.5 0.40 133
1000
b
q
N N r kg = = =
' '
7/16 7/16
401 0.40 161
1000
b
q
N N r kg = = =
, ,
16/ 31 16/ 31
500
509 0.8 204
1000 1000
b
q
N N r kg = = =
' '
16/ 31 16/ 31
510 0.35 179
1000
b
q
N N r kg = = =
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Pouring the concrete
The placing methods and the vibration methods depend on the type of construction
element to be done (columns, wall, slab and beams) and also depend on the concrete
workability and on the consolidation equipment that is available. Concrete consolidation is
meant to remove the entrapped air voids. The bigger the water contents of the concrete (the
consistency) the smaller the consolidation effort required. Consolidation is normally achieved
through the use of mechanical vibrators.
The simple act of vibrating concrete does not confer on it any properties differing
from those it possesses when compacted to the same extent by other means.
min b exm
Q P s , where:
min b
Q minimum flow of concrete work being assessed the relationship:
ef
strat
b
t t
V
Q
1 2
min
= , where:
V
strat
concrete volume in a layer (strip);
t
2
minimum age at;
t
1ef
age of the concrete at the end of the pouring
P
exm
crane productivity in the concrete work, assessed the relationship:
b
c
exm
v
t
P =
1
,
t
c
duration of a transport cycle.
Concreting the columns
 Dimensions of the columns: 5050 cm;
 Height of the formwork: 2.75 m;
 Age of the concrete at the end of the pouring : 1.21h;
 Number of columns :15 on each floor;
Necessary concrete for the column on a floor is:
0.5x0.5x2.75x15=10.35 mc
On each column the concrete pouring is made with a concrete pump. For a beter vibration the
concrete will be placed on layer of 60 cm at a time folowed by a vibration time. The vibrator
should penetrate the layer of concrete vertically and into the underlying layer previously
vibrated when possible. The vibrator should then be slowly withdrawn to ensure closing the
whole resulting from its insertion. Satisfactory mixes, properly placed require more than 5 to
15 seconds of vibration.
Diploma Project Personal project plan
Student : NOVAC DANIEL PETRICA
Materials transportation with tower cranes. Lifting devices
Choose the tower crane necessary to lift different loads. Establish the lifting device type.
1.1. Calculation steps.
1. Establish the loads characteristics.
2. Determine the working fronts of the lifting device
3. Evaluate the necessary technological parameters for the lifting device.
4. Chose the lifting device.
1.2. The assignment content
a). Computation notes in order to choose the tower crane necessary for a particular
job, evaluation of the necessary technological parameters for the lifting device.
b). Technological sheet for materials transportation with tower cranes:
 working front.
lifting device
1.3. Solving steps
Choose the tower crane necessary to lift a certain number of bricks and a given
quantity of concrete to the upper floor of a block of flats (ground floor and two floors).
1. Estimate the loads characteristics
Gr the load that is lifted [kN];
hr the height of the load that is lifted [m];
br the width of the load that is lifted [m];
lr the length of the load that is lifted and of the lifting device [m];
ho the height of the lifting device measures from the upper part of the lifted load and
the clamping point to the crane's hook.
The bricks are lifted to the top of the building by using a special device named box 
pallet having the dimensions given in the technological sheet.
With this device there can be lifted a number of 80 (POROTHERM 25/30 LIGHT)
bricks with the weight of a single one equal with 11.5 daN. So:
G1 = 80 pieces x 11.5 g = 920 daN = 9.20 kN
Diploma Project Personal project plan
Student : NOVAC DANIEL PETRICA
hr = 0.8 m (the box pallet height) in order to lift the load is necessary to use a device
made of four inclined cables. The weight of the lifting device is given by the weight of the
box pallet (90 daN) and the weight of the inclined cables
gd = 90 + (2*45) = 180 daN = 1.80 kN;
hl = 1.65 m (the height of the device; 0.8 m the boxpallet and 0.85 m length of the
cables)
2. Determine the working fronts of the lifting device.
The dimensions of the structure are:
H = 13.30 m  the height;
B = 14.10m the width;
L = 9.80 m the length.
It will be used a tower crane that is placed on a rolling way situated along the block of
flats at 5 meters (d). The rolling way of the crane is arranged to H = + 0.50 m with respect
to the zero quota of the building.
3. Determine the necessary technological parameters needed to choose the lifting
device.
The crane's working parameters:
Qcnec. = Gl + gd
Where:
Qcnec. the necessary load [kN];
Gl  the load that is lifted [kN];
gd  the weight of the lifting device [kN].
Qcnec. = 9.20 kN + 1.80 kN = 11.00 [kN] = 1.1 tones
Hcnec = H H + hl + hd + hs
Where:
Hcnec = the necessary height [m];
H = the difference between the crane's circulation level and the ground level [m];
hl = the height of the load that is lifted [m];
hs = the safety height (2.00 meters).
Hcnec = 13.30 m 0.5 m + 1.65 m + 2.00 m = 16.45 m
Rcnec = B + d
Where:
Diploma Project Personal project plan
Student : NOVAC DANIEL PETRICA
Rcnec = the necessary range for the lifting device so that the crane's hook vertical to
overtake the farthest point where the load has to be placed [m];
B = the structures width [m];
d = the distance between the rolling way and the structure [m].
Rcnec = 14.10 + 5.00 = 19.60 m
4. Choose the lifting device
The following conditions have to be simultaneously complied:
Qc nec< Qc ef
Hcnec<Hcef
Rcnec< R ef
We choose the following lifting device: URW506
Qc ef = 3.0 tf> Qc nec = 1.1 tf
Rcef =15.71m>Rcnec = 10.5 m
Hcef =16m>Hcnec = 12.95 m
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Student : NOVAC DANIEL PETRICA