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Diploma Project Personal project plan

Student : NOVAC DANIEL PETRICA









3. PERSONAL PROJECT PLAN
TECHNOLOGY ELEMENTS

Diploma Project Personal project plan

Student : NOVAC DANIEL PETRICA


3.1 Personal part description
Technological design
1. General conditions for construction execution:
The works are executed taking into account medium work conditions, considering that
the materials will be provided at the construction site, in the range of the mechanized
equipment from the location. With new construction materials which have the optimum
mechanical and physical property with respect to the actual standards.
The building phases must take place at day light or using artificial light. The temperature
must be higher than +5C, in order to provide optimum work condition and an open
construction front.
2. Materials
The material names are those used in the actual standards. The measurement units for
materials and for other works are according to the international system for units (I.S).
They must be tested either visually or using other methods (Laboratory) in order to provide
the required strength, stiffness and property.
They must be kept in safe conditions before using them in order to avoid their deterioration or
other unfortunate factor which may affect their structural integrity. All materials must be
included in the specific consumption norms.
3. Technological stages
3.1.Choosing of the building location
Through building location it must be understood the place on which the future construction
will be placed. Building location must respect the technical-economic, the exploatation, the
transport, the hygiene and the functional aspects.
Choosing the construction site must respect a series of factors as: surface and shape of the
terrain, connections with the communication networks, the status of the terrain, relief and
subsoil, natural clime. The social-cultural buildings must not be placed in the industrial area.
Links with the existent networks have an important role in order to provide the building an
easy access. The water and electricity must be permanently available on the field and on the
need of a neighborhood network is utterly necessary. The opinion of creating an internal
water installation is taken into account.
Diploma Project Personal project plan

Student : NOVAC DANIEL PETRICA

3.2. Setting of the axes and establishing the 0 cote.
In order to draw the axes of the building the following pieces are required:
- General situation plan;
- Drawing of the main axis of the construction plan;
- Foundation plan
The main axis situated on the field is the base of the wall execution. The exterior perimeter is
delimited; afterwards the foundation axis will be established and the columns contour will be
drawn. After finishing the upward works, a set of auxiliary axis are drawn in order to provide
a support for the future works.
Drawing of the elements on the vertical axis will be realized by setting up the
beginning of the works some initial exterior landmarks (a minimum number of 3 such
landmarks is needed) from which the future distances will be measured.
3.3. Mechanical excavation
General principles that must be respected when executing the excavation works:
- The natural equilibrium of the terrain surrounding the foundation hole must not be
affected;
- The natural mechanical characteristics of the soil near foundation are maintained or
improved;
- The work security must be assured;
The mechanical excavation offers a faster and more accurate work. The devices used for
these kind of works are excavators with hydraulic commands. The excavators with twisted
hoe will be used for these kind of works because it is used for silty soils.
3.4. Transport for the excavation works
The transport of the soil which had been excavated is an important part of the technological
process which influences in a decisive manner the productivity of these works. The soil
resulted from the excavation is transported using trucks. A flux of trucks must be assured in
order not to cause the stopping of the excavators. The standard dump truck is a full truck
chassis with the dump body mounted onto the frame. The dump body is raised by a hydraulic
ram lift that is mounted forward of the front bulkhead, normally between the truck cab and
the dump body.

Diploma Project Personal project plan

Student : NOVAC DANIEL PETRICA

3.5. Drawing of the pad and column axis
Depending on the drawing of the axis with respect to the project and determining the 0 cote,
the next step is to draw the foundation toe (block) and the pad. The excavation works for
foundation take place.
3.6. Execution of the foundation works for spread and continuous foundation
After digging the trench, a layer of minimum 5 cm is poured beneath the foundation
toe. After that the concrete is poured into the foundation. The pouring operations will be
realized using concrete pumps and transit mixers. When pouring the foundation block, a
continuous flux must be achieved in order not to stop the complex process of concrete
pouring.
The next step is to set up the wood formwork for the pad and to prepare the
reinforcements for the works. The formwork will be realized of pine wood using kneels and
steel wire for joints. The reinforcements must be put into place respecting the imposed
distances from the project. In this stage the reinforcement for the column must be also
positioned in the foundation pad, leaving only a distance of 80 cm of reinforcement over the
ground(whiskers). Pouring the concrete for the foundation and removing the formworks will
be the last step for these processes. The work point must be equipped with vibrators.
The filling soil is set up in order to achieve the required height where the 0 cote was
established. A layer of gravel having 5 cm is used in order to break the capillarity. A layer of
Kraft paper is set up over the foundation in order to avoid the water infiltrations.
The pouring of the leveling concrete at the pads and mounting of the reinforcement
for all foundations and columns take place. The pouring operations will not take place until
the state inspection, projection and the owner will be there and verify. A verbal process is
done which confers the quality of the works. Depending on the concrete class, concrete is
required from the supply deposits.
3.7. Elevation execution
After pouring the concrete into the foundation pads and leaving outside the proper
whiskers for joining the reinforcements between the columns from the ground floor with the
ones from the foundation, it is proceeding to the mounting of the formwork. At the execution
of the formwork for the building elevations, between the columns of the ground floor with a
pre check by the state inspection it is preceding to the concrete pouring. After concrete
Diploma Project Personal project plan

Student : NOVAC DANIEL PETRICA

hardening (28 days) the formwork removal is done for the elevations and the execution of the
filling operations between the empty spaces which will be properly compacted with vibrators.
3.8. Column reinforcement
The reinforcements are realized in special workshops on marks and pieces.
The columns reinforcement is placed with respecting the dimensions between bars
and between stirrups. The reinforcements which are to be set up are cut-up in centralized
workshops or in the construction site, being executed with respect to the project and
execution plans. The bars are positioned longitudinally, a minimum necessary of 4 bars being
required from constructive reasons (which have to be positioned in each corner of the
column). The minimum covering of the bars is done in order to provide protections from the
external factors. The longitudinal bars are solidified all across their length with stirrups
having the minimum diameter of 6 mm.
3.9. Concrete pouring
The concrete is brought in concrete mixers, being accompanied by certificates which attest
the class and physical properties of them. After that it is poured using concrete pumps. A
continuous flux must be assured.
3.10. Plate reinforcement, formwork and pouring
The next stage is positioning the formworks for plate. The formworks are realized is special
workshops. They are set up with respect to project prescriptions. After setting up the
formwork, a recheck of the axis is necessary. Special columns are provided made of wood
having 15-25 cm diameter to take the loads from concrete pouring. At each square meter one
such strut will be disposed.
After that, the reinforcement is positioned respecting the distances and project indications.
Some special devices are positioned in order to keep the bars in position when pouring the
concrete.
Before pouring the concrete, the concrete is necessary, in order that the hardening of the
concrete to take place in normal conditions. In 12 hours from pouring, the wetting of the plate
and formwork is done (at each 2 hours). In summer time, when there are high temperatures,
the covering of the plate is necessary using bags, sand and wood chips. On rainy weather, the
concrete is protected using panels so that the cement would not be washed from the surface.

Diploma Project Personal project plan

Student : NOVAC DANIEL PETRICA

3.11. Girder reinforcement, formworks and pouring
The formworks for girders are realized from short sawn wood and whitewood or beech. They
are supported with single struts with crosses and braces. They can also be supported with
metallic struts. The addings for the panels are necessary and they are done in length, at the
ends of them (for accomplishment of the project prescriptions). The lateral panels including
the adding parts have the length equal with the height of the girder plus the formwork end.
The lateral panels are kept together with the end panels with kneels which have assembly
role. First, the bottom formwork is set in position, after that the fixing of the lateral panels
being realized.
The reinforcement positioning respecting the technical rues is done, after the reinforcements
were prepared in workshops: manufactured and bent where necessary. The distances between
bars are respected placing first the longitudinal bars, then the repartition bars. The stirrups are
set up in position before pouring the concrete.
4. Formwork design
The formwork are auxiliary constructions, mostly there are used as temporary structures
and have the role of shaping the concrete, dimensions and surface aspect until the concrete
reaches its desired mechanical properties which assures the safe formwork removal.
A correct formwork realizing can highly influence the complex technological process, as
the technological process influences the formwork setting.
The formwork cost, also they are temporary constructions can vary from 20% to 60% of
the total cost of the concrete works.
The parts of a formwork are:
- Solid part;
- Primary sustaining elements;
- Secondary sustaining elements;
- Bracing elements;
The main purpose when elaborating a formwork is to obtain the best technological and
economical solution;
The labour consumption is an important factor, the entire labour consumption
representing 40% to 60% of the labour used for a concrete work.

Diploma Project Personal project plan

Student : NOVAC DANIEL PETRICA

5. Materials transportation with tower cranes. Lifting devices
Choose the tower crane necessary to lift different loads. Establish the lifting device
type.
5.1. Short history of cranes
There are several types of cranes, each of them with specific features in order to fulfill
the demands for particular jobs:
a). Truck -mounted crane:
A crane mounted on truck carrier which provides the mobility for the crane.
Outriggers that extend horizontally and vertically are used to level and stabilize crane for
hoisting.
b). Loader crane:
A loader crane offloads aerated concrete bricks at a building site. This is a
hydraulically -powered articulated arm fitted to a trailer, used to move goods onto or off of
the trailer. Unlike most cranes the operator must move around to be able to view his load;
hence he will have a portable cabled or radio linked control system.
c).Rough terrain crane
A crane mounted on an undercarriage with four rubber tires that is designed for pick -
and -carry operations and for off -road and rough terrain applications. Outriggers that extend
horizontally and vertically are used to level and stabilize the crane for hoisting. These
telescopic cranes are single-engine machines where the same engine is used for powering the
undercarriage as is used for powering the crane, similar to a crawler crane. However, in a
rough terrain crane, the engine is usually mounted in the undercarriage rather than in the
upper, like the crawler crane.
d).Crawler crane
A crawler is a crane mounted on an undercarriage with a set of tracks that provide for
the stability and mobility of the crane. Crawler cranes have both advantages and
disadvantages depending on their intended use. The main advantage of a crawler is that they
can move on site and perform lifts with very little set -up, as the crane is stable on its tracks
with no outriggers. In addition, a crawler crane is capable of moving with a load. The main
disadvantage of a crawler crane is that they are very heavy, and cannot easily be moved from
one job site to the next without significant expense. Typically, a large crawler must be
disassembled or moved by barge in order to be transported.

Diploma Project Personal project plan

Student : NOVAC DANIEL PETRICA

e).Gantry crane
A Gantry crane has a hoist in a trolley which runs horizontally along gantry rails,
usually fitted underneath a beam spanning between uprights which themselves have wheels
so that the whole crane can move at right angles to the direction of the gantry rails. These
cranes come in all sizes, and some which are extremely large for use in shipyards or
industrial installations can move very heavy loads.
f).Tower crane
The tower crane is a modern form of balance crane. Fixed to the ground, tower cranes
often give the best combination of height and lifting capacity and are used in the construction
of tall buildings. To save space and to provide stability the vertical part of the crane is often
braced onto the completed structure which is normally the concrete lift shaft in the center of
the building. A horizontal boom is balanced asymmetrically across the top of the tower. Its
short arm carries a counterweight of concrete blocks, and its long arm carries the lifting gear.
The crane operator either sits in a cabin at the top of the tower or controls the crane by radio
remote control from the ground, usually standing near the load. In the first case the operator's
cabin is located at the top of the tower just below the horizontal boom. The boom is mounted
on a slewing bearing and is rotated by means of a slewing motor. The lifting hook is operated
by a system of sheaves. A jack up mast supports a tower crane. The inner element is moved
upward with jacks and a new outer section is assembled around the exposed portion. A tower
crane is usually assembled by a telescopic crane of smaller lifting capacity but greater height
and in the case of tower cranes that have risen while constructing very tall skyscrapers, a
smaller crane will sometimes be lifted to the roof of the completed tower to dismantle the
tower crane afterward. A self-assembling tower crane has been demonstrated, which lifts
itself off the ground using jacks, allowing the next section of the tower to be inserted at
ground level.
5.2. Mechanical principles
There are two major considerations that are taken into account in the design of cranes.
The first is that the crane must be able to lift a load of a specified weight and the second is
that the crane must remain stable and not topple over when the load is lifted and moved to
another location.


Diploma Project Personal project plan

Student : NOVAC DANIEL PETRICA

5.3. Lifting capacity
Cranes illustrate the use of one or more simple machines to create mechanical
advantage: The lever: a balance crane contains a horizontal beam pivoted about a point.
The principle of the lever allows a heavy load attached to the shorter end of the beam to be
lifted by a smaller force applied in the opposite direction to the longer end of the beam. The
ratio of the load's weight to the applied force is equal to the ratio of the lengths of the longer
arm and the shorter arm, and is called the mechanical advantage.
The pulley: a jib crane contains a tilted strut that supports a fixed pulley block. Cables
are wrapped multiple times round the fixed block and round another block attached to the
load. When the free end of the cable is pulled by hand or by a winding machine, the pulley
system delivers a force to the load that is equal to the applied force multiplied by the number
of lengths of cable passing between the two blocks. This number is the mechanical
advantage.
The hydraulic cylinder: this can be used directly to lift the load, or indirectly to move
the jib or beam that carries another lifting device.
Cranes, like all machines, obey the principle of conservation of energy. This means
that the energy delivered to the load cannot exceed the energy put in to the machine. For
example, if a pulley system multiplies the applied force by ten, then the load moves only one
tenth as far as the applied force. Since energy is proportional to force multiplied by distance,
the output energy is kept roughly equal to the input energy (in practice slightly less, because
some energy is lost to friction and other inefficiencies).
5.4. Stability of crane
In order for a crane to be stable the sum of all moments about any point such as the
base of the crane must equate to zero. In practice the magnitude and combination of
anticipated loads is increased so that a crane should have a factor of safety against toppling of
about ten times.


Diploma Project Personal project plan

Student : NOVAC DANIEL PETRICA

3.2 Personal part content
Technological design
Concrete is an artificial material consisting of ingredients, which are coarse and fine
aggregates forming inert materials and cement, which acts as the binding material. It is
usually made in a plastic state and gets hardened thereby achieving strength. The properties
of aggregates, cement and mixing water should be suitably checked and must be of approved
specifications. Plain, reinforced and prestressed concrete is being usually used in the
construction of buildings. The quickness and ease of construction in the case of concrete
work is a great advantage. The improved appearance and the types of different finishes,
which can be given to concrete surfaces, are added advantages in adopting these types of
construction buildings.
Good concrete, for economical results, can be made with materials a bulk of which is
generally obtainable near the site. Clean sand, strong coarse aggregates and good Portland
cement are necessary for making good concrete. These materials are to be mixed in the
proportions that all produce concrete having necessary strength and other properties
combined with the greatest economy.
The design of the concrete mix should be based on the following factors:
- the grade of designation;
- the type of cement;
- the minimum water-cement ratio;
- the workability;
- the durability.
The grade designation gives the characteristic compression strength
requirements of the concrete. The characteristic compression strength is defined as the value
below which not more than 5% of the test results are expected to fall. It is the major factor
influencing the mix design.
The type of cement is important mainly through its influence on the rate of
development of compressive strength of the concrete.
The maximum size of the aggregate is determined by the sieve analysis. It may be
as large as possible, within specified limits because larger the size of aggregates smaller is the
cement quantity for a particular cement-water ratio. The workability also increases with the
increase in maximum size.
Diploma Project Personal project plan

Student : NOVAC DANIEL PETRICA

The water-cement ratio gives at a specific age and under normal temperatures the
compressive strength. The lower the water-cement ratio is the greater the compression
strength is
The workability of the concrete for satisfactory placing and compaction is controlled
by the size and shape of the section to be concreted, the quantity and spacing the
reinforcements and the methods to be employed for transportation, placing and compaction
the concrete.
A. Load evaluation
a) self weight of the formwork p
a
= 25 daN/m
2

b) weight of the reinforced concrete :
3
( ) /
b b
P H A daN m = +
c)technological loading uniformely distributed (circulation paths and people agglomeration) :
- for the formwork fullness p
c
= 250 daN/m
2

- for horizontal sustains p
c
= 150 daN/m
2

- for vertical sustains p
c
= 100 daN/m
2

d) loading due to consolidation through vibration of the concrete
p
c
= 120 daN/m
2
.
Loadings :
- for the resistance calculus :
2
v a b c
P (p p p )daN/ m = + +
- for the rigidity calculus :
v
' 2
a b
P (p p )daN/ m = +

No.

Construct
ion
element
Formw
ork type
H
(m)

b
daN/m
3

b
+ A
daN/m
3

Loads
Pa Pb Pc Pe Pv Pv
1
Slab
Filled
0,12 2500 2650 25 345
250
120
740
370 2 ESO 150 640
3 ESV 100 590
4
Girders
Filled
0,5 2500 2650 25 1193
250
120
1588
1218 5 ESO 150 1488
6 ESV 100 1438
B. Horizontal loads acting on the side of the formwork
Diploma Project Personal project plan

Student : NOVAC DANIEL PETRICA


-
f
P loading from concrete casting:
2
1 2 3 4
[ / ]
f b
P H daN m =
-
1
coefficient depending on the speed of casting
-
2
concrete workability coefficient
-
3
coefficient that takes into account the maximum size of the item section of casted
concrete
-
4
coefficient that takes into account the temperature of the casted concrete
-
g
P dynamic horizontal loading of the shocks produced in the discharge of concrete :
2
600[ / ]
g
P daN m =
-
o
P total horizontal load;
o f g
P P P = +
-
' o
P permanent horizontal load;
' o f
P P =

No.

Element

H
[m]

b
[daN/m
3
]
v
[m/h
]

1

2

3

4

Loads [daN/m
2
]
P
f
P
g
P
o
P
o

1 girders 0.5 2500 10 1 1 0,95 0,95 1015.3 600 1615.3
101
5.3

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Student : NOVAC DANIEL PETRICA

max
1 1615.3 / q P m daN m = =
8mm o =
10 M cm =
9.20 H M cm o = =
4.4 c =

Elements:
- A, simply framed surface, boarding made of pine boards of 2,4 x 15 x
400 cm;
- B, primary supports, braces made of pine boards 8 x 9,8 x 400 cm; -
B', primary supports, braces made of pine boards 9,8 x15 x 400 cm;
- C, secondary supports of simple posts, circular pine -
D, ties made of pine boards 2,4x15x400 cm.


Diploma Project Personal project plan

Student : NOVAC DANIEL PETRICA


C. Provided resistance
The rib is a continous beam (with d
ge
opening) subjected to bending.

q
W
l
W M
l q M
M M
pl apl
pl apl
cap
c
c
cap
c c

=

=
=
s
o
o
8
8
1
2
max
max

l max distance, [cm];


pl
permissible resistance to moisture of the plywood :
apl
= 120 daN/cm2

q uniformly distributed load for a strip width of 1 m;
n number of fields;
A
i
width of the plywood, [cm];
n
c
number of ribs;

2 2 2
3
100 100 9.20
1410
6 6 6
pl
b h H
W cm

= = = =

8 150 1410
32.36
1615.3
l cm

s =

32.36
' 30.82
1.05 1.05
l
l cm = = =

2
max
1
1615.3 32.36 211436
8
c
M daNcm = =
120 1410 169200
c
cap apl pl
M W daNcm o = = =

c l
c A
n
i
+

>
'

Diploma Project Personal project plan

Student : NOVAC DANIEL PETRICA

1
2
3
4
30 4.4
30 0.72 1; 2
30.82 4.4
40 4.4
40 1.01 1; 2
30.82 4.4
50 4.4
50 1.29 1; 2
30.82 4.4
100 4.4
100 2.71 3; 4
30.82 4.4
c
c
c
c
A cm n n n
A cm n n n
A cm n n n
A cm n n n

= = = = =
+

= = = = =
+

= = = = =
+

= = = = =
+

46 . 27
3
4 . 4 4 100
2 . 41
1
4 . 4 2 50
2 . 31
1
4 . 4 2 40
2 . 21
1
4 . 4 2 30
'
'
'
'
=

=
=

=
=

=
=

=
ef
ef
ef
ef
l
l
l
l


C.1 Checking
300 >
f
l
,
'
1.05 l l =
I E
l q
f

=
4
'
385
5
, where:

- l max distance [cm]
- E elasticity modulus;
2
150000 / E daN cm =
- I moment of inertia ;
3
4
12
b h
I cm

=
- q permanent load, [daN/cm]
pl
adm
pl
f f s
max

300
5
384
384
5
3 '
max
4 '
max
>


= s


=
l q
I E
f
l
I E
l q
f
pl pl
pl pl
pl

E
pl
= 150000daN/cm
2
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Student : NOVAC DANIEL PETRICA

4
3 3
26 . 4
12
8 . 0 100
12
cm
h b
I
pl
=

=
'
1 1015.3 / 10.153 /
o
q P m daN m daN cm = = =
'
1.05 41.2 1.05 43.26
ef
l l m m cm = = =

3
max
384 150000 4.26
59.70 300
5 10.153 43.26
l
f

= = <


The condition is not fulfilled and we insert an additional rib to the current panel of 50 cm
and resume the calculation of stiffness for the panel of 40 cm with l
ef
= 31,2 cm.
'
1.05 31.2 1.05 32.76
ef
l l m m cm = = =
3
max
384 150000 4.26
137.47 300
5 10.153 32.76
l
f

= = <


The condition is not fulfilled so we insert an additional rib to the current panel of 40 cm and
repeat the calculation of the stiffness for the panel of 100 cm with l
ef
=27,46cm.

'
1.05 27.46 1.05 28.83
ef
l l m m cm = = =
3
max
384 150000 4.26
201.71 300
5 10.153 28.83
l
f

= = <



The condition is not fulfilled sowe insert an additional rib to the current panel of 100
cm and resume the calculation of stiffness for the panel of 30 cm with l
ef
=21.20 cm.

'
1.05 21.20 1.05 22.26
ef
l l m m cm = = =
3
max
384 150000 4.26
438.22 300
5 10.153 22.26
l
f

= = >

The rigidity checking is satisfied


Diploma Project Personal project plan

Student : NOVAC DANIEL PETRICA

Slab formwork
a. Strength of the panel
max
c c
cap
M M s

8 8
2
2
ge
c
mac
d q
l q
M

=

=
c c
cap a c
M W o =
, where:

q uniformly distributed load for a strip of width 1m;
d
ge
distance between extensible girders;

a
c
= 120daN/cm
2
W
c
strength modulus
c
c
a
ge
W
d q
s

o
8
2

2 2 2
3
( ) 4.4 (10 0.8)
62.06
6 6 6
c
b h c M
W cm
o
= = = =
( ) ( )
'
max max max
740 0.312 0.044 263 /
c
af ef
q P l P l c daN m = = + = + =
cm
W
d
c c
a
ge
148
72 . 2
06 . 62 120 8
72 . 2
8
=

=

=
o

2
2
2.63 148
7200.9 / 120 62.06 7447.2 /
8 8
ge c
a c
q d
daN cm W daN cm o


= = < = =

b.
max
c c
adm
f f s
4
4 4
max
'
5 ' 5 5 1.317 188.14
0.63
384 384 384 120000 285.5
ge c
c c c c
q d
q l
f cm
E I E I


= = = =


300
ge
c
adm
d
f =
300
'
384
5
4
ge
c c
ge
d
I E
d q
=


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Student : NOVAC DANIEL PETRICA

3
' 300 5
384
q
I E
d
c c
ge


=
d
ge
distance between extensible girders;
E
c
elasticity modulus, E
c
= 120000daN/cm
2
I
c
moment of inertia
3 3 3
4
( ) 4.4 9.2
285.5
12 12 12
c
b h c M
I cm
o
= = = =
( ) ( )
' '
max max max
370 0.312 0.044 131.7 /
c
af ef
q P l P l c daN m = = + = + =
3
120000 285.5 384
188.14
5 300 1.317
ge
d cm

= =


4
max
5 1.317 188.14 188.14
0.63 0.62
384 120000 285.5 300
c c
adm
f cm f cm

= = > = =



c. The bearing capacity of the extensible girders
max
ge ge
cap
M M s

8 8
2
max
2
max
L d p
L q
M
ge
ge

=

=
ge
cap
ge
M
L d p
s

8
2
max

2
max
8
L P
M
d
ge
cap
ge

s
2
8 1500
0.57
640 5.75
ge
d m

s =

, se adopt 0.50
ge
d m =
2
max
640 0.50 5.75
1322.5
8
ge
M daNm

= =
Diploma Project Personal project plan

Student : NOVAC DANIEL PETRICA

We will use extensible girders GE with 6 9 L m = and bending moment
1500
c
cap
M daNm =


d. Positioning the props
max
pop pop
cap
N N s
max
2
pop pop
v af v ge
L
N p S p d = =
max
5.75
590 0.50 848.12
2
pop
N daN = =
H
pop
=2.8m
PE 3100R with 1.70 3.10 H m = i 2 4.5
cap
N tf = .
2
2 2000
1.18
590 5.75
cap
ge
v
N
d cm
p L


s = =


The concrete mix
The preliminary mix is obtained by taking into consideration the theoretical
information given by standards and the material characteristics (the cement type). The
assumption is that the aggregates are dry and that the water/cement ratio remains constant.
Computing steps:
a) Concrete class : C20/25;
- Workability : L3
- Maximum dimension of the aggregates : D=31mm.
b) Water quantity
-C20/25
3
185 / A l m beton =


Diploma Project Personal project plan

Student : NOVAC DANIEL PETRICA

c) Cement quantity
K
A
C = (Kg/m
3
beton ), where
C
A
K =
=
c b
R R o ) 5 . 0 (
A
C

c b
c
R R
R
C
A
K
+

= =
o
o
5 . 0

5 . 0 = o - for river aggregates
max
0.5 35
0.52 0.57
25 0.5 0.5 35
K K

= = s =
+

K
max
the maximum value allowed for W/C ;
K
A
C =
3
/ 356
52 . 0
185
m Kg C = = beton>C
min
=240Kg/m
3
beton

d) Overall aggregate quantity
(1000 10 )
g ag
c
c
A q A
q
c =
3
356
2.7 (1000 185 10 2) 1826 /
3
g
A kg m beton = =
2% c = - airvolum in the concrete

4 types of aggregate (0/3; 3/7; 7/16; 16/31), in proportion of :
3 3
0/ 3
32
1826 584 /
100 100
g
P
N A kg m beton = = =
Diploma Project Personal project plan

Student : NOVAC DANIEL PETRICA

3 7 3
3/ 7
50 32
1826 329 /
100 100
g
P P
N A kg m beton

= = =
3 16 7
7/16
72 50
1826 402 /
100 100
g
P P
N A kg m beton

= = =
3 31 16
16/ 31
100 72
1826 511 /
100 100
g
P P
N A kg m beton

= = =
TOTAL:
3
1826 /
g
A kg m beton =
The laboratory mix:
Check and adjust if it is necessary. This means checking the concrete for workability,
cohesion and surface finish and testing cubes or cylinders for determining the compressive
strength.
After the mix proportions are determined, in the preliminary mix, a trial mix is made.
That means to check the assumptions and establish the effect of the variation on water
requirements.
The laboratory mix is meant to provide 12 specimens (cubes and cylinders) for testing
concrete in strength at 7 days and at 28 days. It is prepared an informative mix of minimum
30 dm with the proportions of cement and aggregate found in the preliminary mix. The water
will be inserted step by step, until is obtained the desired workability. It will appear a new
quantity of water and a new specific weigh.
3
185 (7 6) 2 187 / A l m beton = + =
3
187
359 /
0.52
C kg m beton = =
3
356
2.7 (1000 187 10 2) 1818 /
3
g
A kg m beton = =
' 3
187 359 1818 2364 /
b
kg m beton = + + =
3
'
'
2367
1800 1800 1802 /
2364
ef
g
b
A kg m beton

= = =

Diploma Project Personal project plan

Student : NOVAC DANIEL PETRICA

On sorts:
3
0/ 3
1802
584 576 /
1826
N kg m beton = =
3
3/ 7
1802
329 325 /
1826
N kg m beton = =
3
7/16
1802
402 397 /
1826
N kg m beton = =
3
16/ 31
1802
511 504 /
1826
N kg m beton = =
TOTAL:
3
1802 /
g
A kg m beton =

The working mix
The working mix comes from the laboratory mix by correcting it with the real aggregate
humidity. The real aggregate humidity is usually known for each size fraction and is denoted:
ij
u .
0/ 3 3/ 7 7/16 16/ 31
2.5%; 2%; 1%; 1%;
N N N N
U U U U = = = =
100
i
g g gi
U
A A A A = A =


0/ 3
2.5
576 14
100
N l A = =

3/ 7
2
325 6.5
100
N l A = =
7/16
1
397 4
100
N l A = =
16/ 31
1
504 5
100
N l A = =
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Student : NOVAC DANIEL PETRICA

TOTAL: 29.5
g
A l A =
Water mixture:
' 3
187 29.5 157.5 /
g
A A A l m beton = A = =
Wet aggregate:
' 3
1802 29.5 1831.5 /
g g g
A A A l m beton = +A = + = , of which:
' 3
0/ 3
576 14 590 / N kg m beton = + =
' 3
3/ 7
325 6.5 331.5 / N kg m beton = + =
' 3
7/16
397 4 401 / N kg m beton = + =
' 3
16/ 31
504 5 509 / N kg m beton = + =

Technological sheet for concrete mix
Component
Composition for 1 m
3
beton Obs.
U
i
% Preliminary mix Laboratory mix Working mix
Water (l) 185 187 157.5 -
W/C 0.52 0.52 0.52 -
Cement 356 359 359 -
A
g
r
e
g
a
t
e

(
k
g
)

N
0/3
584 576 590 2.5
N
3/7
329 325 331.5 2.0
N
7/16
402 397 401 1.0
N
16/31
511 504 509 1.0
A
g
2367 2345 2356 -


Diploma Project Personal project plan

Student : NOVAC DANIEL PETRICA


Working mix in a mortar mixer with a capacity q = 500L
'
1000
r
q
G g = , where:
g quantity for mixture
G quantity for 1 m
3
concrete
q capacity of the mortar mixer
' '
500
157.5 0.8 63
1000 1000
b
q
A A r l = = =
'
500
359 0.8 144
1000 1000
b
q
C C r kg = = =
' '
0/ 3 0/ 3
590 0.40 236
1000
b
q
N N r kg = = =
' '
3/ 7 3/ 7
331.5 0.40 133
1000
b
q
N N r kg = = =
' '
7/16 7/16
401 0.40 161
1000
b
q
N N r kg = = =
, ,
16/ 31 16/ 31
500
509 0.8 204
1000 1000
b
q
N N r kg = = =
' '
16/ 31 16/ 31
510 0.35 179
1000
b
q
N N r kg = = =



Diploma Project Personal project plan

Student : NOVAC DANIEL PETRICA

Pouring the concrete
The placing methods and the vibration methods depend on the type of construction
element to be done (columns, wall, slab and beams) and also depend on the concrete
workability and on the consolidation equipment that is available. Concrete consolidation is
meant to remove the entrapped air voids. The bigger the water contents of the concrete (the
consistency) the smaller the consolidation effort required. Consolidation is normally achieved
through the use of mechanical vibrators.
The simple act of vibrating concrete does not confer on it any properties differing
from those it possesses when compacted to the same extent by other means.
min b exm
Q P s , where:
min b
Q minimum flow of concrete work being assessed the relationship:
ef
strat
b
t t
V
Q
1 2
min

= , where:
V
strat
concrete volume in a layer (strip);
t
2
minimum age at;
t
1ef
age of the concrete at the end of the pouring
P
exm
crane productivity in the concrete work, assessed the relationship:
b
c
exm
v
t
P =
1
,
t
c
duration of a transport cycle.
Concreting the columns
- Dimensions of the columns: 5050 cm;
- Height of the formwork: 2.75 m;
- Age of the concrete at the end of the pouring : 1.21h;
- Number of columns :15 on each floor;
Necessary concrete for the column on a floor is:
0.5x0.5x2.75x15=10.35 mc
On each column the concrete pouring is made with a concrete pump. For a beter vibration the
concrete will be placed on layer of 60 cm at a time folowed by a vibration time. The vibrator
should penetrate the layer of concrete vertically and into the underlying layer previously
vibrated when possible. The vibrator should then be slowly withdrawn to ensure closing the
whole resulting from its insertion. Satisfactory mixes, properly placed require more than 5 to
15 seconds of vibration.
Diploma Project Personal project plan

Student : NOVAC DANIEL PETRICA


Materials transportation with tower cranes. Lifting devices
Choose the tower crane necessary to lift different loads. Establish the lifting device type.
1.1. Calculation steps.
1. Establish the loads characteristics.
2. Determine the working fronts of the lifting device
3. Evaluate the necessary technological parameters for the lifting device.
4. Chose the lifting device.

1.2. The assignment content
a). Computation notes in order to choose the tower crane necessary for a particular
job, evaluation of the necessary technological parameters for the lifting device.
b). Technological sheet for materials transportation with tower cranes:
- working front.
-lifting device

1.3. Solving steps
Choose the tower crane necessary to lift a certain number of bricks and a given
quantity of concrete to the upper floor of a block of flats (ground floor and two floors).
1. Estimate the loads characteristics
Gr -the load that is lifted [kN];
hr -the height of the load that is lifted [m];
br -the width of the load that is lifted [m];
lr -the length of the load that is lifted and of the lifting device [m];
ho -the height of the lifting device measures from the upper part of the lifted load and
the clamping point to the crane's hook.
The bricks are lifted to the top of the building by using a special device named box -
pallet having the dimensions given in the technological sheet.
With this device there can be lifted a number of 80 (POROTHERM 25/30 LIGHT)
bricks with the weight of a single one equal with 11.5 daN. So:
G1 = 80 pieces x 11.5 g = 920 daN = 9.20 kN
Diploma Project Personal project plan

Student : NOVAC DANIEL PETRICA

hr = 0.8 m (the box -pallet height) in order to lift the load is necessary to use a device
made of four inclined cables. The weight of the lifting device is given by the weight of the
box -pallet (90 daN) and the weight of the inclined cables
gd = 90 + (2*45) = 180 daN = 1.80 kN;
hl = 1.65 m (the height of the device; 0.8 m the box-pallet and 0.85 m length of the
cables)

2. Determine the working fronts of the lifting device.
The dimensions of the structure are:
H = 13.30 m - the height;
B = 14.10m- the width;
L = 9.80 m- the length.
It will be used a tower crane that is placed on a rolling way situated along the block of
flats at 5 meters (d). The rolling way of the crane is arranged to H = + 0.50 m with respect
to the zero quota of the building.
3. Determine the necessary technological parameters needed to choose the lifting
device.
The crane's working parameters:
Qcnec. = Gl + gd
Where:
Qcnec. -the necessary load [kN];
Gl - the load that is lifted [kN];
gd - the weight of the lifting device [kN].
Qcnec. = 9.20 kN + 1.80 kN = 11.00 [kN] = 1.1 tones
Hcnec = H H + hl + hd + hs
Where:
Hcnec = the necessary height [m];
H = the difference between the crane's circulation level and the ground level [m];
hl = the height of the load that is lifted [m];
hs = the safety height (2.00 meters).
Hcnec = 13.30 m 0.5 m + 1.65 m + 2.00 m = 16.45 m
Rcnec = B + d
Where:
Diploma Project Personal project plan

Student : NOVAC DANIEL PETRICA

Rcnec = the necessary range for the lifting device so that the crane's hook vertical to
overtake the farthest point where the load has to be placed [m];
B = the structures width [m];
d = the distance between the rolling way and the structure [m].
Rcnec = 14.10 + 5.00 = 19.60 m
4. Choose the lifting device
The following conditions have to be simultaneously complied:
-Qc nec< Qc ef
-Hcnec<Hcef
-Rcnec< R ef
We choose the following lifting device: URW-506
Qc ef = 3.0 tf> Qc nec = 1.1 tf
Rcef =15.71m>Rcnec = 10.5 m
Hcef =16m>Hcnec = 12.95 m
Diploma Project Personal project plan

Student : NOVAC DANIEL PETRICA