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I nternational J ournal of Advanced Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering (I J ARECE)


Volume 2, Issue 3, March 2013
314
All Rights Reserved 2013 IJARECE


Compression Of Hyperspectral Image Using
Discrete Wavelet Transform And Walsh Hadamard
Transform
D.S.Sujithra
1
T.Manickam
2
D.S.Sudheer
3

Abstract- Hyperspectral images are composed of hundreds of
narrow and contiguous bands of data covering a large
spectrum of reflected light. Conventional cameras are designed
to record data in coarse of red, green and blue, while
Hyperspectral images record much finer wavelengths and with
a range far into the ultraviolet and infrared. These images are
gathered by satellite. The proposed algorithm, based on
Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) and Walsh Hadamard
Transform (WHT), exploits both the spectral and spatial
information in the images and reduce time for processing.
Apply DWT to the Hyperspectral images which split into sub-
band images, then Walsh Hadamard Transform on each block
of the low-frequency sub-band and it split all DC values from
each transformed block. The goal is used to achieve best
compression ratio and bit per pixel per band and compare the
result with the well-known compression method.
I ndex Terms- Spatial and Spectral, Compression, Wavelet
Transform, Walsh Hadamard Transform, DC values.
I. INTRODUCTION

Hyperspectral image are gathered by satellite, like NASAs
AVIRIS (Airborne Visible Infrared Imaging Spectrometer)
consists of about 540MB or more. It is represented by a data
cubic consisting of hundreds of continuous spectral bands
which is tedious task for processing of computer and
transmitting the data. These continuous spectral bands of the
electromagnetic radiation emitted from the earths surface.
Hyperspectral image provide data containing both spectral
and spatial information and this information can be used to
address. Huge volume is required to storage this data. It is
mainly used in Remote sensing application. Hyperspectral
remote sensing system has four important parts, they are
illuminating source, atmospheric path, the imaged surface
and the sensor.
In the past, the image data have been almost compressed by
means of lossless methods, in order to prevent the full
quality of the Hyperspectral image. Moreover, there are
interests in their lossy compression technique which employ
on-board lossy compression prior to downlinking the data to
ground stations. In lossy compression allows for higher
scene acquisition rates, several lossy algorithms have been
designed for Hyperspectral and Multispectral images.
Many of these techniques are based on decorrelating
transforms, in order to exploit spatial and spectral
correlation, followed by quantization and encoding.
AzamKarami, MehranYazdi and Gregoire Mercier
[1]discuss Discrete Wavelet Transform and Tucker
Decomposition (DWT-TD) technique. This algorithm
achieve high compression ratio and bit per pixel per band
should be less than 0.1 but it does not consider the time
complexity. In this paper, a performance evaluation of the
state-of-the-art H.264/AVC video coding standard [2] is
carried out with the aim of determining its feasibility when
applied to Hyperspectral image compression, here high
compression ratio have been achieved for all explored
situation, but it showing results lower than 0.3 bits per pixel
per band for Hyperspectral images.In [3] on the impact of
lossy compression on Hyperspectral image classification and
unmixing it reveals that different stages of the linear spectral
unmixing chain exhibit different sensitivities to lossy data
compression and it also observes that in light of the spatial
regularization it does not consider the spectral resolution.
Lossless compression is required in most applications of
remote sensing such as spectral mixture analysis, and object
identification and classification. Lossless compression of
Hyperspectral Image [4], it proposes a compression
algorithm by constructing a searching model of four-ary tree
structure and it simplifies the prediction scheme by
decomposing multiband prediction into several couple-group
manner predictions but it needs little more computational
complexity. In [6] and [12]Look Up Table (LUT)
algorithmby using bandwise selection of the quantization
factor for the index to the LUT, a 3% increase in
compression efficiency. The concept of using the value of
one of the previous pixel in the current band as a predictor
for the current pixel is very useful but it needs more volume
for processing. In [7] context-based conditional average has
approach switchesbetween interband and intraband modes
based on the correlation coefficient, it has low complexity
I SSN:2278 909X
I nternational J ournal of Advanced Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering (I J ARECE)
Volume 2, Issue 3, March 2013
315
All Rights Reserved 2013 IJARECE

and computational cost but never consider the resolution of
HSIs.
In [5], [10] and [11], HSIs dimensionality can be reduced
based upon Tensor, here principal component analysis,
independent component analysis and projection-pursuit
approaches have been investigated. An extension of this
decomposition generalizes the lower rank matrix
approximation to tensor.In [8] crisp and fuzzy adaptive
spectral predictions algorithm is used, the average increment
in bit rate isabout three hundredths of a bit, when one scene
of the same image is coded with predictors calculated and
trained on another scene. In [9], [13] ,[14] and [20] KLT
(Karhunen-Loeve transform), 3D wavelet transform are 3D-
SPIHT (Set partitioned in hierarchical trees) and SPECK
(Set Partitioned Embedded block) an adaptive algorithm to
continuously adjust eigenvalues and eigenvectors when
input image data are received sequentially. In [15]- [19]
linear prediction, vector component analysis algorithm are
used. A tedious task of Hyperspectral Imagery applications
is then decomposing a mixed pixel into a collection of
reflectance spectra, called endmember signatures, and the
corresponding abundance fractions. [21] describes the
arithmetic coding for data compression for removing
redundancy in the encoding data.
II. NOTATIONAND PRELIMINARIES

A. Hyperspectral Image

Hyperspectral images (Fig. 1) provide both spatial and
spectral representations of scenes, materials, and sources of
illumination. They differ from images obtained with a
conventional RGB color camera, which divides the light
spectrum into broad overlapping red, green, and blue image
slices that when combined seem realistic to the eye. By
contrast, a Hyperspectral camera effectively divides the
spectrum into very many thin image slices, the actual
number depending on the camera. This fine-grained slicing
reveals spectral structure that may not be evident to the eye
or to an RGB camera but which does become apparent in a
range ofvisual and optical phenomena, including
metamerism.



Fig. 1. Hyperspectral Image

A Hyperspectral image may be represented as a cube
containing two spatial dimensions (pixels) and one spectral
dimension (wavelength), as illustrated in Fig. 1. In this
example, the spectrum has been sampled at 10-nm intervals
over 400-720 nm. At each sample wavelength, there is a
complete intensity (grey-level) representation of the
reflectance or radiance in the scene.

B. Discrete Wavelet Transform

Wavelet Transformation is widely used nowadays in
image compression. Image pixels are transformed into
coefficients which are real values. Most energy of the image
is compacted into a few coefficients. The image is first
divided into four regions where the upper left one is the low
resolution sub-band in which the energy of the image is
concentrated. Then it is used with the other detail sub-bands
to reconstruct the original image. Wavelets transform
decompose the signal into set of basic function, these
function are called wavelet. It is given by,


,
=
1

) .(1)

Where a is the scaling parameter and b is the shifting
parameter.
The proposed work depends on transforming the
Hyperspectral Image into discrete wavelet transform and
decomposes the tensor within the coefficient resulted from
the transform, and then taking inverse transform to get the
image. The main advantage of wavelet is that they allow
both spatial and frequency resolution and it is a part of
upcoming compression standards. In addition to all, human
perception research indicates that the retina of the eye splits
an image into several components which circulate from the
eye to the cortex in different channels or frequency bands.
The 2D-DWT divides the information contained in the
image into an approximation sub image and three detail sub
images, each with half the resolution of the original image in
each direction. The transform can be iteratively performed
by decomposing the approximation sub image. The 2D-
DWT of function f(x,y) is given by,

0
, , =
1

(, )

0,,
(, )
1
=0
1
=0
(2)

, , =
1

,
,,

,
1
=0
1
=0
(3)

= {, , } (4)

The inverse 2D-DWT is given by,

, =
1

(
0
, )
0,,
(, )

+
1

, ,
,,

=0

=,,
(5)

wavelength,nm
I SSN:2278 909X
I nternational J ournal of Advanced Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering (I J ARECE)
Volume 2, Issue 3, March 2013
316
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Fig. 2. Discrete Wavelet Transform

Wavelet transform allows the decomposition of the
signal in narrow frequency bands while keeping the basis
signals space limited. Fig. 2 shows DWT decomposition
using low pass and high pass analysis filters. If the level of
decomposition is increased, the approximate image will be
more stable but the complexity increases. As a
compromised way, the original image isdecomposed into
two levels. In wavelet analysis, an originalimage can be
decomposed into an approximate image LL and three detail
images LH, HL and HH as shown in Fig. 2. Using wavelet
analysis on the approximate image LL again, four lower-
resolution sub-band images LL2 and threedetail images
LH2, HL2 and HH2 will be obtained and theapproximate
image holds the most information of the originalimage and
others contain some high-frequency informationsuch as the
edge details.

C. Walsh Hadamard Transform

Walsh Hadamard Transform is far from being optimal in
an energy packing sense for most imagery (as compared to
DCT), its modest decorrelating capability along with its
simple implementation has made it popular, especially for
hardware implementation. The WHT basis functions
contain values that are either +1 or -1, and can be found
from the rows of orthonormal Hadamard matrices. The
smallest orthonormal Hadamard matrix is of size 2 X 2


2
=
1
2

1 1
1 1
(6)
To construct large Hadamard matrices, a recursive
relationship is used.


2
=
1
2

(7)
The 2D-WHT is expressed by,

,
, =
1


,
, , (, )
1

(8)

The inverse 2D-WHT is given by,

,
, =
1


,
, , (, )
1

(9)

The Discrete Walsh-Hadamard Transform is the
simplest transform to be implemented. The amount of
energy compaction efficiency of WHT is good so it is
mainly used for tensor decomposition.

III PROPOSEDALGORITHM

In order to achieve high compression ratio a hybrid
technology called Walsh Wavelet Transform. This
proposed algorithm depends upon Discrete Wavelet and
Walsh Hadamard Transform, and then using Arithmetic
Coding for compress Hyperspectral image. It consists of
four steps. In the first step, two level Discrete Wavelet
Transform is applied to each spectral band of the
Hyperspectral image, which split each band into sub-bands
namely LL, LH, HL and HH. At each level, the high pass
filter produces detailed information and the low pass filter
associated with scaling function produces the approximate
information. In the second step, apply 2D- WHT on each
block of the low frequency band.


Fig. 3. Apply Walsh Hadamard Transform.

Apply Walsh Hadamard Transform on low resolution LL2
and quantize each block after quantize it has two important
parameter such as DC values and Multi-array matrix. In
third step spilt the DC values from each transformed sub
images of each band. Each DC-value for each block are
stored in new array called DC-values. Then all DC-values
are stored in new array and saved in header-compressed
file. Other values from each block are stored as one
dimensional array in new matrix which is represented by
Multi-array matrix. Then these are all compressed by
Arithmetic coding which is the fourth step. The
fundamental problem of lossless compression is to
decompose the HSIs into sequence of events, then to
encode the event using as few bits as possible. The idea is
to assign short codewords to more probable events and
longer codewords to less probable events. Statistical coding
techniques use estimates of the probabilities of the events to
assign the codewords. By comparing to the Huffmann
coding Arithmetic coding yield high compression ratio.

Compression ratio is calculated by comparing size of
original Hyperspectral image and size of compressed image
size. In Hyperspectral image, the bit rate can be measured
from the number of bits per pixel per band (bpppb), which
gives the average number of bits in HSIs.These compressed
HSIs are easy to transmit from one end to another. Finally
I SSN:2278 909X
I nternational J ournal of Advanced Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering (I J ARECE)
Volume 2, Issue 3, March 2013
317
All Rights Reserved 2013 IJARECE

the transmitted data are decoded and apply inverse Walsh
Wavelet Transform to reconstruct the original image.


IVRESULTS AND DISCUSION

A. Computational Result

The simulated result is obtained for 30 band Hyperspectral
image. In first step DWT technique is applied for each
band. Fig. 4 is the signal band of Hyperspectral image.



LL HL



LH HH

Fig. 4. DWT of first band of Hyperspectral image

In this band Discrete Wavelet Transform is applied and
split into four sub images namely LL, LH, HL, LH and HH.
These operations are performed by two type of filter
namely High pass Filter and Low pass filter. 2D-WHT
algorithm is applied to these four tensors. The LL tensor
has the lowest frequency component containing most of the
wavelet coefficient energy. HL consists of diagonal
information, LH consist of Horizontal information and HH
consists of vertical information. Same procedure applies for
all bands finally quantize and encode the Hyperspectral
image. Arithmetic coding compression technique is used to
achieve best compression ratio and less time for processing.

B. Compression Result

Hyperspectral image consists of n number of bands. Each
band can be compressed individually and the compression
information about of all bands were stored in a compressed
file format named as Header. This Header file holds the
data which is used to reconstruct the image.



Fig. 5. Individual band compression ratio

Fig. 5 shows the compression ratio and bit per pixel per
band ratio value is write in Microsoft Excel sheets. After
getting individual ratio of each band take the overall values
for all bands. Thus the Hyperspectral compression and bit
per pixel per band ratio is obtained.

Table 1 Experimental Result

Parameter Numeric Value
Size of HSIs image 74292.55 KB
Compressed image size 1085.67 KB
Compression ratio 0.88
Bit per pixel per band 0.07
Reconstructed image size 73453.21 KB

Table 1 shows the obtained results of Hyperspectral image
compression by using Walsh wavelet
algorithm.Compression ratio is obtained by comparing
compressed image and uncompressed image. The ratio of
bit per pixel per band should be less than 0.1.

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I nternational J ournal of Advanced Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering (I J ARECE)
Volume 2, Issue 3, March 2013
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Fig 6. Compression percentage for individual band

Fig 6. Shows that how much percentage of each band is
compressed by using hybrid technology called Walsh
Wavelet Transform.


Fig 7. BppVs No. of bands
Fig 7.shows the graph is formed for bit per pixel per band
ratio vs number of bands presents in Hyperspectral image.
The value of bpp is should be less than 0.1. The above
graph shows bit per pixel ratio for each band which are
present in Hyperspectral Image.



Fig 8. Computation Time
Fig 8. Graph shows computational time for both
compression and decompression. As comparing these two
graph decompression computation is high as compared to
compression computation time.

V CONCLUSION

Combination of Discrete Wavelet Transform and Walsh
Hadamard Transform achieves bet compression ratio and
bit per pixel per band should be less than 0.1. The spatial
and spectral resolution was retained after reconstructing the
image. It requires less memory to store the compressed
image data and it needs less time for processing.

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1. D.S.Sujithra Completed B.E(ECE) in CSI Institute Of Technology,
Pursuing M.E(Applied Electronics) in Nandha Engineering , Erode,
Tamilnadu.
2. Mr.T.Manickam Associate Professor, ECE Dept, Nandha
Engineering College, Erode, Tamilnadu.
3. Mr.D.S.SudheerCompleted M.Tech (Remote Sensing) in Anna
Univerity Chennai, Tamilnadu