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Volume 2, Issue 3, March 2013

314

All Rights Reserved 2013 IJARECE

Compression Of Hyperspectral Image Using

Discrete Wavelet Transform And Walsh Hadamard

Transform

D.S.Sujithra

1

T.Manickam

2

D.S.Sudheer

3

Abstract- Hyperspectral images are composed of hundreds of

narrow and contiguous bands of data covering a large

spectrum of reflected light. Conventional cameras are designed

to record data in coarse of red, green and blue, while

Hyperspectral images record much finer wavelengths and with

a range far into the ultraviolet and infrared. These images are

gathered by satellite. The proposed algorithm, based on

Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) and Walsh Hadamard

Transform (WHT), exploits both the spectral and spatial

information in the images and reduce time for processing.

Apply DWT to the Hyperspectral images which split into sub-

band images, then Walsh Hadamard Transform on each block

of the low-frequency sub-band and it split all DC values from

each transformed block. The goal is used to achieve best

compression ratio and bit per pixel per band and compare the

result with the well-known compression method.

I ndex Terms- Spatial and Spectral, Compression, Wavelet

Transform, Walsh Hadamard Transform, DC values.

I. INTRODUCTION

Hyperspectral image are gathered by satellite, like NASAs

AVIRIS (Airborne Visible Infrared Imaging Spectrometer)

consists of about 540MB or more. It is represented by a data

cubic consisting of hundreds of continuous spectral bands

which is tedious task for processing of computer and

transmitting the data. These continuous spectral bands of the

electromagnetic radiation emitted from the earths surface.

Hyperspectral image provide data containing both spectral

and spatial information and this information can be used to

address. Huge volume is required to storage this data. It is

mainly used in Remote sensing application. Hyperspectral

remote sensing system has four important parts, they are

illuminating source, atmospheric path, the imaged surface

and the sensor.

In the past, the image data have been almost compressed by

means of lossless methods, in order to prevent the full

quality of the Hyperspectral image. Moreover, there are

interests in their lossy compression technique which employ

on-board lossy compression prior to downlinking the data to

ground stations. In lossy compression allows for higher

scene acquisition rates, several lossy algorithms have been

designed for Hyperspectral and Multispectral images.

Many of these techniques are based on decorrelating

transforms, in order to exploit spatial and spectral

correlation, followed by quantization and encoding.

AzamKarami, MehranYazdi and Gregoire Mercier

[1]discuss Discrete Wavelet Transform and Tucker

Decomposition (DWT-TD) technique. This algorithm

achieve high compression ratio and bit per pixel per band

should be less than 0.1 but it does not consider the time

complexity. In this paper, a performance evaluation of the

state-of-the-art H.264/AVC video coding standard [2] is

carried out with the aim of determining its feasibility when

applied to Hyperspectral image compression, here high

compression ratio have been achieved for all explored

situation, but it showing results lower than 0.3 bits per pixel

per band for Hyperspectral images.In [3] on the impact of

lossy compression on Hyperspectral image classification and

unmixing it reveals that different stages of the linear spectral

unmixing chain exhibit different sensitivities to lossy data

compression and it also observes that in light of the spatial

regularization it does not consider the spectral resolution.

Lossless compression is required in most applications of

remote sensing such as spectral mixture analysis, and object

identification and classification. Lossless compression of

Hyperspectral Image [4], it proposes a compression

algorithm by constructing a searching model of four-ary tree

structure and it simplifies the prediction scheme by

decomposing multiband prediction into several couple-group

manner predictions but it needs little more computational

complexity. In [6] and [12]Look Up Table (LUT)

algorithmby using bandwise selection of the quantization

factor for the index to the LUT, a 3% increase in

compression efficiency. The concept of using the value of

one of the previous pixel in the current band as a predictor

for the current pixel is very useful but it needs more volume

for processing. In [7] context-based conditional average has

approach switchesbetween interband and intraband modes

based on the correlation coefficient, it has low complexity

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and computational cost but never consider the resolution of

HSIs.

In [5], [10] and [11], HSIs dimensionality can be reduced

based upon Tensor, here principal component analysis,

independent component analysis and projection-pursuit

approaches have been investigated. An extension of this

decomposition generalizes the lower rank matrix

approximation to tensor.In [8] crisp and fuzzy adaptive

spectral predictions algorithm is used, the average increment

in bit rate isabout three hundredths of a bit, when one scene

of the same image is coded with predictors calculated and

trained on another scene. In [9], [13] ,[14] and [20] KLT

(Karhunen-Loeve transform), 3D wavelet transform are 3D-

SPIHT (Set partitioned in hierarchical trees) and SPECK

(Set Partitioned Embedded block) an adaptive algorithm to

continuously adjust eigenvalues and eigenvectors when

input image data are received sequentially. In [15]- [19]

linear prediction, vector component analysis algorithm are

used. A tedious task of Hyperspectral Imagery applications

is then decomposing a mixed pixel into a collection of

reflectance spectra, called endmember signatures, and the

corresponding abundance fractions. [21] describes the

arithmetic coding for data compression for removing

redundancy in the encoding data.

II. NOTATIONAND PRELIMINARIES

A. Hyperspectral Image

Hyperspectral images (Fig. 1) provide both spatial and

spectral representations of scenes, materials, and sources of

illumination. They differ from images obtained with a

conventional RGB color camera, which divides the light

spectrum into broad overlapping red, green, and blue image

slices that when combined seem realistic to the eye. By

contrast, a Hyperspectral camera effectively divides the

spectrum into very many thin image slices, the actual

number depending on the camera. This fine-grained slicing

reveals spectral structure that may not be evident to the eye

or to an RGB camera but which does become apparent in a

range ofvisual and optical phenomena, including

metamerism.

Fig. 1. Hyperspectral Image

A Hyperspectral image may be represented as a cube

containing two spatial dimensions (pixels) and one spectral

dimension (wavelength), as illustrated in Fig. 1. In this

example, the spectrum has been sampled at 10-nm intervals

over 400-720 nm. At each sample wavelength, there is a

complete intensity (grey-level) representation of the

reflectance or radiance in the scene.

B. Discrete Wavelet Transform

Wavelet Transformation is widely used nowadays in

image compression. Image pixels are transformed into

coefficients which are real values. Most energy of the image

is compacted into a few coefficients. The image is first

divided into four regions where the upper left one is the low

resolution sub-band in which the energy of the image is

concentrated. Then it is used with the other detail sub-bands

to reconstruct the original image. Wavelets transform

decompose the signal into set of basic function, these

function are called wavelet. It is given by,

,

=

1

) .(1)

Where a is the scaling parameter and b is the shifting

parameter.

The proposed work depends on transforming the

Hyperspectral Image into discrete wavelet transform and

decomposes the tensor within the coefficient resulted from

the transform, and then taking inverse transform to get the

image. The main advantage of wavelet is that they allow

both spatial and frequency resolution and it is a part of

upcoming compression standards. In addition to all, human

perception research indicates that the retina of the eye splits

an image into several components which circulate from the

eye to the cortex in different channels or frequency bands.

The 2D-DWT divides the information contained in the

image into an approximation sub image and three detail sub

images, each with half the resolution of the original image in

each direction. The transform can be iteratively performed

by decomposing the approximation sub image. The 2D-

DWT of function f(x,y) is given by,

0

, , =

1

(, )

0,,

(, )

1

=0

1

=0

(2)

, , =

1

,

,,

,

1

=0

1

=0

(3)

= {, , } (4)

The inverse 2D-DWT is given by,

, =

1

(

0

, )

0,,

(, )

+

1

, ,

,,

=0

=,,

(5)

wavelength,nm

I SSN:2278 909X

I nternational J ournal of Advanced Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering (I J ARECE)

Volume 2, Issue 3, March 2013

316

All Rights Reserved 2013 IJARECE

Fig. 2. Discrete Wavelet Transform

Wavelet transform allows the decomposition of the

signal in narrow frequency bands while keeping the basis

signals space limited. Fig. 2 shows DWT decomposition

using low pass and high pass analysis filters. If the level of

decomposition is increased, the approximate image will be

more stable but the complexity increases. As a

compromised way, the original image isdecomposed into

two levels. In wavelet analysis, an originalimage can be

decomposed into an approximate image LL and three detail

images LH, HL and HH as shown in Fig. 2. Using wavelet

analysis on the approximate image LL again, four lower-

resolution sub-band images LL2 and threedetail images

LH2, HL2 and HH2 will be obtained and theapproximate

image holds the most information of the originalimage and

others contain some high-frequency informationsuch as the

edge details.

C. Walsh Hadamard Transform

Walsh Hadamard Transform is far from being optimal in

an energy packing sense for most imagery (as compared to

DCT), its modest decorrelating capability along with its

simple implementation has made it popular, especially for

hardware implementation. The WHT basis functions

contain values that are either +1 or -1, and can be found

from the rows of orthonormal Hadamard matrices. The

smallest orthonormal Hadamard matrix is of size 2 X 2

2

=

1

2

1 1

1 1

(6)

To construct large Hadamard matrices, a recursive

relationship is used.

2

=

1

2

(7)

The 2D-WHT is expressed by,

,

, =

1

,

, , (, )

1

(8)

The inverse 2D-WHT is given by,

,

, =

1

,

, , (, )

1

(9)

The Discrete Walsh-Hadamard Transform is the

simplest transform to be implemented. The amount of

energy compaction efficiency of WHT is good so it is

mainly used for tensor decomposition.

III PROPOSEDALGORITHM

In order to achieve high compression ratio a hybrid

technology called Walsh Wavelet Transform. This

proposed algorithm depends upon Discrete Wavelet and

Walsh Hadamard Transform, and then using Arithmetic

Coding for compress Hyperspectral image. It consists of

four steps. In the first step, two level Discrete Wavelet

Transform is applied to each spectral band of the

Hyperspectral image, which split each band into sub-bands

namely LL, LH, HL and HH. At each level, the high pass

filter produces detailed information and the low pass filter

associated with scaling function produces the approximate

information. In the second step, apply 2D- WHT on each

block of the low frequency band.

Fig. 3. Apply Walsh Hadamard Transform.

Apply Walsh Hadamard Transform on low resolution LL2

and quantize each block after quantize it has two important

parameter such as DC values and Multi-array matrix. In

third step spilt the DC values from each transformed sub

images of each band. Each DC-value for each block are

stored in new array called DC-values. Then all DC-values

are stored in new array and saved in header-compressed

file. Other values from each block are stored as one

dimensional array in new matrix which is represented by

Multi-array matrix. Then these are all compressed by

Arithmetic coding which is the fourth step. The

fundamental problem of lossless compression is to

decompose the HSIs into sequence of events, then to

encode the event using as few bits as possible. The idea is

to assign short codewords to more probable events and

longer codewords to less probable events. Statistical coding

techniques use estimates of the probabilities of the events to

assign the codewords. By comparing to the Huffmann

coding Arithmetic coding yield high compression ratio.

Compression ratio is calculated by comparing size of

original Hyperspectral image and size of compressed image

size. In Hyperspectral image, the bit rate can be measured

from the number of bits per pixel per band (bpppb), which

gives the average number of bits in HSIs.These compressed

HSIs are easy to transmit from one end to another. Finally

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the transmitted data are decoded and apply inverse Walsh

Wavelet Transform to reconstruct the original image.

IVRESULTS AND DISCUSION

A. Computational Result

The simulated result is obtained for 30 band Hyperspectral

image. In first step DWT technique is applied for each

band. Fig. 4 is the signal band of Hyperspectral image.

LL HL

LH HH

Fig. 4. DWT of first band of Hyperspectral image

In this band Discrete Wavelet Transform is applied and

split into four sub images namely LL, LH, HL, LH and HH.

These operations are performed by two type of filter

namely High pass Filter and Low pass filter. 2D-WHT

algorithm is applied to these four tensors. The LL tensor

has the lowest frequency component containing most of the

wavelet coefficient energy. HL consists of diagonal

information, LH consist of Horizontal information and HH

consists of vertical information. Same procedure applies for

all bands finally quantize and encode the Hyperspectral

image. Arithmetic coding compression technique is used to

achieve best compression ratio and less time for processing.

B. Compression Result

Hyperspectral image consists of n number of bands. Each

band can be compressed individually and the compression

information about of all bands were stored in a compressed

file format named as Header. This Header file holds the

data which is used to reconstruct the image.

Fig. 5. Individual band compression ratio

Fig. 5 shows the compression ratio and bit per pixel per

band ratio value is write in Microsoft Excel sheets. After

getting individual ratio of each band take the overall values

for all bands. Thus the Hyperspectral compression and bit

per pixel per band ratio is obtained.

Table 1 Experimental Result

Parameter Numeric Value

Size of HSIs image 74292.55 KB

Compressed image size 1085.67 KB

Compression ratio 0.88

Bit per pixel per band 0.07

Reconstructed image size 73453.21 KB

Table 1 shows the obtained results of Hyperspectral image

compression by using Walsh wavelet

algorithm.Compression ratio is obtained by comparing

compressed image and uncompressed image. The ratio of

bit per pixel per band should be less than 0.1.

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Fig 6. Compression percentage for individual band

Fig 6. Shows that how much percentage of each band is

compressed by using hybrid technology called Walsh

Wavelet Transform.

Fig 7. BppVs No. of bands

Fig 7.shows the graph is formed for bit per pixel per band

ratio vs number of bands presents in Hyperspectral image.

The value of bpp is should be less than 0.1. The above

graph shows bit per pixel ratio for each band which are

present in Hyperspectral Image.

Fig 8. Computation Time

Fig 8. Graph shows computational time for both

compression and decompression. As comparing these two

graph decompression computation is high as compared to

compression computation time.

V CONCLUSION

Combination of Discrete Wavelet Transform and Walsh

Hadamard Transform achieves bet compression ratio and

bit per pixel per band should be less than 0.1. The spatial

and spectral resolution was retained after reconstructing the

image. It requires less memory to store the compressed

image data and it needs less time for processing.

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1. D.S.Sujithra Completed B.E(ECE) in CSI Institute Of Technology,

Pursuing M.E(Applied Electronics) in Nandha Engineering , Erode,

Tamilnadu.

2. Mr.T.Manickam Associate Professor, ECE Dept, Nandha

Engineering College, Erode, Tamilnadu.

3. Mr.D.S.SudheerCompleted M.Tech (Remote Sensing) in Anna

Univerity Chennai, Tamilnadu

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