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Lllecl ond App|lcollon ol Lows ........... J
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Humon Re|ollons ............................. J0
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Persons ond Persono|lly .................. J0
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Morrloge ............................................. J5
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Lego| Seporollon .............................. 29
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Rlghls ond Ob|lgollons Belween
Spouses ............................................. 33
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Properly Re|ollons ol lhe Spouses .. 34
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1he |oml|y ....................................... 50
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Supporl ............................................ 63
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Lmonclpollon, os omended by
RA6809.............................................. 7J

Summory 1udlclo| Proceedlngs ln lhe
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Relroocllve Lllecl ............................. 73

|unero| .............................................. 73
RELATIVES 51!8 "*5 !;% 37,;! !'
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Use ol Surnomes .............................. 74
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27(% "(!%3 "*5 5137*, 6"337",% =========== G0
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Absence ............................................. 74
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Clvl| Reglslror ................................... 78
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Choroclerlsllcs .................................. 83
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Ownershlp ........................................ 90
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Accesslon .......................................... 94
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Oulellng ol 1ll|e .............................. J0J
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Possesslon ...................................... J08
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Modes ol Acqulrlng Ownershlp .... J44
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Conlrocls .......................................... J9J
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Ouosl-Conlrocls ............................ 204
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Dellnlllon ond Lssenllo| Requlslles
........................................................ 208
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Porlles lo o Conlrocl ol So|e ........... 2JJ
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Subjecl Moller ................................. 2J3
3%A1747!%4 '( " 9"$75 41#>%)! 6"!!%3
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Ob|lgollons ol lhe Se||er lo 1ronsler
Ownershlp ....................................... 2J5
'#$7,"!7'*4 '( !;% 9%*5'3 7*
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5+&'%1)+ .1 67')+%8$, .................... 222
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Rlsk ol Loss ....................................... 27
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2;%* '2*%34;7+ 74 !3"*4(%33%5==== ..G

Documenls ol 1ll|e ........................ 228
5%(7*7!7'* ============================================= ..B
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2"33"*!7%4 '( 4%$$%3 '( 5')16%*!4
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31$%4 '* $%98L,"3*74;6%*! '( ,''54
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Remedles ol on Unpold Se||er ...... 230
5%(7*7!7'* '( 1*+"75 4%$$%3 ============ ./@
3%6%57%4 '( 1*+"75 4%$$%3 ============== ./@

Perlormonce ol Conlrocl ............... 232
5%$79%38 '( !;7*, 4'$5======================= ./.
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Worronlles ....................................... 234
%E+3%44 2"33"*!7%4 ===========================./0
76+$7%5 2"33"*!7%4 ============================ ./:
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BUYERS OPTIONS IN CASE OF BREACH OF
2"33"*!8 ============================================= ./G

Breoch ol Conlrocl ......................... 239
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3%6%57%4 '( !;% 4%$$%3 I"3!4= -?/?H
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Lxllngulshmenl ol So|e ................. 245
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1he Low on So|e ol Subdlvlslon ond
Condomlnlum (PD 957) ................ 25J
5%(7*7!7'*4 ============================================ .:-

1he Condomlnlum Acl (RA 4726) 255




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Cenero| Provlslons ......................... 260
5%(7*7!7'* ============================================= .?@

1eslomenlory Successlon .............. 26J
27$$4 ======================================================= .?-
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Lego| or lnleslole Successlon ........ 283
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'35%3 '( 7*!%4!"!% 41))%447'* ======= .BG
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Provlslons Common lo 1eslole ond
lnleslole Successlon ..................... 289
37,;! '( "))3%!7'* ============================ .BC
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ACLNC ......................................... 298

Conlrocl ol Porlnershlp ................ 298
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Rlghls ond Ob|lgollons ol lhe
Porlnershlp ..................................... 303
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Rlghls ond Ob|lgollons ol Porlners
lnler Se ........................................... 304
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Ob|lgollons ol lhe
PorlnershlpJPorlners lo 1hlrd
Persons ........................................... 308
'#$7,"!7'* !' '+%3"!% 1*5%3 " (736
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$7"#7$7!8 '( +"3!*%34;7+ ('3
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$7"#7$7!8 '( "* 7*)'67*, +"3!*%3 == /-.
*'!7)% !' '3 <*'2$%5,% '( !;%
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Dlsso|ullon ond Wlndlng Up........... 3J2
)'*)%+!4 ========================================== /-.
)"14%4 '( 5744'$1!7'* ==================== /-.
%((%)!4 '( 5744'$1!7'* =================== /-0
27*57*, 1+ +"3!*%34 ====================== /-:
37,;!4 '( +"3!*%34 7* )"4% '(
5744'$1!7'* ====================================== /-:
37,;!4 '( +"3!*%34 7* )"4% '(
3%4)7447'* ======================================== /-?
4%!!$7*, '( "))'1*!4 #%!2%%*
+"3!*%34 ========================================== /-?
37,;!4 '( )3%57!'34 '( 5744'$9%5
+"3!*%34;7+ ===================================== /-G
37,;!4 '( " 3%!73%5 +"3!*%3 '3 "
3%+3%4%*!"!79% '( 5%)%"4%5 +"3!*%3
========================================================== /-B
37,;! !' "* "))'1*! ======================= /-B

Llmlled Porlnershlp ....................... 3J8
5%(7*7!7'* ========================================= /-B
);"3")!%374!7)4 ============================== /-B
,%*%3"$ "*5 $767!%5 +"3!*%34
574!7*,174;%5 ================================== /-B
,%*%3"$ "*5 $767!%5 +"3!*%34;7+
574!7*,174;%5 ================================== /-B
('36"!7'* ======================================= /.@
6"*",%6%*! =================================== /.@
'#$7,"!7'*4 '( " $767!%5 +"3!*%3 == /.-
37,;!4 '( " $767!%5 +"3!*%3 ===========/..
5744'$1!7'* ====================================== /./
4%!!$%6%*! '( "))'1*!4 =============== /.0
"6%*56%*! '3 )"*)%$$"!7'* '(
)%3!7(7)"!% ====================================== /.0

Conlrocl ol Agency ......................... 325
5%(7*7!7'* ======================================== /.:
);"3")!%374!7)4 ============================= /.:
('36"!7'* ======================================= /.:
%((%)! =============================================== /.G
",%*)8 "*5 '!;%3 )'*!3")!4
574!7*,174;%5 ================================== /.G


Klnds ol Agency .............................. 329
7* ,%*%3"$ ======================================= /.C
"4 !' 6"**%3 '( )3%"!7'* ============= /.C
"4 !' %E!%*! '( #147*%44 )'9%3%5 /.C
"4 !' "1!;'37!8 )'*(%33%5 =========== /.C
4+%)7"$ <7*54 ================================== /.C
<7*54 '( ",%*!4 =============================== ///

Powers ol lhe Agenl ...................... 333
"1!;'37!8 '( "* ",%*! ==================== ///
<7*54 '( "1!;'37!8 ========================== ///
4)'+% '( "1!;'37!8 ======================== //0
+'2%3 !' #7*5 !;% +37*)7+"$ ========= //0
%((%)!4 '( !;% ")!4 '( "* ",%*! === //0

Ob|lgollons ol Agenl ...................... 335
7* ,%*%3"$ ========================================//:
'#$7,"!7'* !' )"338 '1! ",%*)8 ====//:
'#$7,"!7'* 2;%* ",%*! 5%)$7*%4 ===//:
'#$7,"!7'* !' "59"*)% *%)%44"38
(1*54 ================================================//:
'#$7,"!7'* !' ")! 7* "))'35"*)%
27!; 7*4!31)!7'*4 ===========================//?
'#$7,"!7'* !' +3%(%3 7*!%3%4! '(
+37*)7+"$ ==========================================//?
'#$7,"!7'* ('3 !;7*,4 3%)%79%5 =====//?
3%4+'*47#7$7!8 ('3 ")!4 '( 41#4!7!1!%
========================================================== //G
3%4+'*47#7$7!8 '( !2' '3 6'3%
",%*!4 ============================================== //G
'#$7,"!7'* ('3 4164 "++$7%5 !' ;74
'2* 14% ============================================ //G
'#$7,"!7'*4 !' !;735 +%34'*4======= //B
'#$7,"!7'*4 '( " )'667447'* ",%*!
========================================================= //C
3%4+'*47#7$7!8 ('3 (3"15 "*5
*%,$7,%*)% ====================================== /0@

Ob|lgollons ol lhe Prlnclpo| .......... 340
7* ,%*%3"$ ======================================= /0@
'#$7,"!7'* !' )'6+$8 27!;
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'#$7,"!7'* ('3 )'6+%*4"!7'* '(
",%*! =============================================== /0@
$7"#7$7!8 ('3 %E+%*4%4 "*5 5"6",%4
========================================================= /0@

1+ $"2 #') +%34'*4 "*5 ("67$8 3%$"!7'*4 )797$ $"2
--

Modes ol Lxllngulshmenl .............. 342
7* ,%*%3"$ ======================================= /0.
3%9')"!7'* #8 +37*)7+"$ ================ /0.
27!;53"2"$ #8 ",%*! ==================== /0/
5%"!;H )797$ 7*!%357)!7'*H 7*4"*7!8 '3
7*4'$9%*)8 ====================================== /00
"))'6+$74;6%*! '( '#>%)! '3
+13+'4% =========================================== /00
5744'$1!7'* '( (736 '3 )'3+'3"!7'*
%E+73"!7'* '( !%36 ========================= /00



)3%57! !3"*4")!7'*4

Credll 1ronsocllons ....................... 346
4%)137!8 =============================================== /0?
!8+%4 '( )'*!3")!4 '( 4%)137!8 ==== /0?

Loon ................................................. 346
)'66'5"!16 I*)) -C/:D-C:.J ============== /0G
7*!%3%4! "*5 414+%*47'* '( 14138
$"2 ========================================================= /0B

Deposll ........................................... 350
9'$1*!"38 5%+'47! ============================ /:@
*%)%44"38 5%+'47! ============================== /:-
>157)7"$ 5%+'47! =================================== /:.

Cuoronly ond Surelyshlp ............... 352
,1"3"*!8 =============================================== /:.
413%!84;7+ ============================================ /:.
,1"3"*!8 574!7*,174;%5 (3'6
413%!84;7+ IM'#%$H 7*)= 94= )"H -CCBJ /:.
*"!13% "*5 %E!%*! '( ,1"3"*!8 ==== /:/
*"!13% "*5 %E!%*! '( 413%!84;7+ /::
%((%)! '( ,1"3"*!8 ======================== /:?
%E!7*,174;6%*! '( ,1"3"*!8 ======== /:C

P|edge ............................................. 359
);"3")!%374!7)4 ================================= /?@
<7*54 ====================================================== /?@
%44%*!7"$ 3%A1747!%4 ========================= /?@
+3'9747'*4 "++$7)"#$% '*$8 !' +$%5,%
================================================================= /?@
'#$7,"!7'*4 '( +$%5,%% ==================== /?@
37,;!4 '( +$%5,'3 =============================== /?-
3%A1747!%4 ('3 +%3(%)!7'* I"3!4=
.@C/H .@C?J ============================================= /?-
('3%)$'413% I*)) .--.H .--:J ============= /?-
%((%)! '( !;% 4"$% '( !;% !;7*,
+$%5,%5 I"3!= .--:J ============================== /?-
$%,"$ +$%5,% L +$%5,% #8 '+%3"!7'*
'( $"2 N"3!4= .-.-D.-..O ======================= /?-
+$%5,% "4 574!7*,174;%5 (3'6
);"!!%$ 6'3!,",% I"3!4= .-0@H -0B0J
================================================================== /?.
+")!16 )'66744'3716 ======================= /?.
%A17!"#$% 6'3!,",% ========================== /?.

Reo| Morlgoge ................................ 363
6'3!,",% ============================================== /?/
>157)7"$ ('3%)$'413% ======================== /?:
%E!3">157)7"$ ('3%)$'413% I")! *'=
/-/:J ======================================================== /?:
3%5%6+!7'* =========================================== /??

Anllchresls ...................................... 367
);"3")!%374!7)4 ================================== /?G
4+%)7"$ 3%A1747!%4 =============================== /?G
"4 574!7*,174;%5 (3'6 '!;%3
)'*!3")!4 ============================================= /?G
'#$7,"!7'*4 '( "*!7);3%!7) )3%57!'3
================================================================== /?G
3%6%57%4 '( )3%57!'3 7* )"4% '( *'*D
+"86%*! '( 5%#! ================================= /?B

Cholle| Morlgoge ...........................368
);"!!%$ 6'3!,",% ============================= /?B
);"3")!%374!7)4 ================================= /?B
'#$7,"!7'*4 4%)13%5 ========================= /?B
+3'+%3!8 )'9%3%5 ============================== /?B
9"$757!8 '( );"!!%$ 6'3!,",% ======== /?B
('36"$ 3%A1747!%4 ============================= /?B
3%,74!3"!7'* '( );"!!%$ 6'3!,",%
================================================================= /?B
('3%)$'413% ======================================== /?B

Ouosl-Conlrocls ............................. 370
*%,'!7'316 ,%4!7' N1*"1!;'37M%5
6"*",%6%*!O ======================================= /G@
4'$1!7' 7*5%#7!7 N1*51% +"86%*!O == /G-
'!;%3 A1"47D)'*!3")!4 ===================== /G.

Concurrence ond Prelerence ol
Credlls ............................................. 373
2;%* 31$%4 '* +3%(%3%*)% "3%
"++$7)"#$% ============================================= /G/
)$"447(7)"!7'* '( )3%57!4 ================= /G/
1+ $"2 #') +%34'*4 "*5 ("67$8 3%$"!7'*4 )797$ $"2
-.

4+%)7"$ +3%(%33%5 )3%57!4 '* 4+%)7(7)
6'9"#$% +3'+%3!8 I"3!= ..0-J ========== /G0
4+%)7"$ +3%(%33%5 )3%57!4 '* 4+%)7(7)
766'9"#$% +3'+%3!8 "*5 3%"$ 37,;!4
I"3!= ..0.J ============================================= /G0
'357*"38 +3%(%33%5 )3%57!4 I"3!=
..00J ======================================================= /G:
)'66'* )3%57!4 I"3!= ..0:J ============= /G:



$"*5 !7!$%4 "*5 5%%54

Lond 1ll|e ........................................ 378
)'*)%+! ================================================== /GB

Deed ................................................ 378
)'*)%+! ================================================== /GB
%$%6%*!4 '( " 5%%5 ============================= /GB

Lslole .............................................. 378
)'*)%+! ================================================== /GB
!8+%4 '( %4!"!% ==================================== /GB

Lond Reglslrollon ........................... 378
)'*)%+! ================================================== /GB
*"!13% '( $"*5 3%,74!3"!7'* ========== /GB
$"24 76+$%6%*!7*, $"*5
3%,74!3"!7'* ======================================== /GC
+13+'4%4 '( $"*5 3%,74!3"!7'* ====== /GC
'#>%)! '( 3%,74!3"!7'* ====================== /GC
)$"447(7)"!7'* '( $"*54 ==================== /GC

1orrens Syslem ............................... 379
)'*)%+! ================================================== /GC
;74!'38 ================================================== /B@
"59"*!",%4 ========================================= /B@
*"!13% ================================================== /B@
+13+'4% ================================================ /B@
"567*74!3"!7'* '( !;% !'33%*4
484!%6 =================================================== /B@
)%3!7(7)"!% '( !7!$% ============================ /B@
%((%)! '( 3%,74!3"!7'* 1*5%3 !;%
!'33%*4 484!%6 =================================== /B-
%((%)! '( *'*D3%,74!3"!7'* =============/B.
5%"$7*,4 7* $"*5 #%('3% 7441"*)% '(
5%)3%% ====================================================/B.
$");%4 ====================================================/B.
Rego|lon Doclrlne .......................... 382
)'*)%+! ==================================================/B.
%((%)!4 ===================================================/B.
)'*)%+! '( *"!79% !7!$%H !76%
766%6'37"$ +'44%447'* ===================== /B/

Clllzenshlp Requlremenl ............... 383
7*579751"$4 ============================================ /B/
)'3+'3"!7'*4 ===================================== /B0

Orlglno| Reglslrollon ......................384
)'*)%+! ================================================= /B0
2;' 6"8 "++$8 ==================================== /B:
2;%3% !' (7$% ======================================= /B:
+3')%513% 7* '357*"38 $"*5
3%,74!3"!7'* ======================================= /B?
%975%*)% *%)%44"38 =========================== /C@
3%6%57%4 =============================================== /C@
+%!7!7'*4 "*5 6'!7'*4 "(!%3 '37,7*"$
3%,74!3"!7'* ======================================= /C@

1udlclo| Conllrmollon ol lmperlecl or
lncomp|ele 1ll|es ............................ 392
)'*)%+! ================================================== /C.
2;%* "++$7)"#$% ================================== /C.
2;' 6"8 "++$8 ===================================== /C.
(7$7*, '( !;% "++$7)"!7'* ================== /C/
+3')%513% 7* >157)7"$ )'*(736"!7'*
================================================================== /C/
%975%*)% *%)%44"38 !' 41#4!"*!7"!%
"++$7)"!7'* =========================================== /C/

Codoslro| Reglslrollon ................... 394
)'*)%+! ================================================= /C0
+3')%513% 7* )"5"4!3"$
3%,74!3"!7'* ====================================== /C0
574"$$'2"*)% '( 3%'+%*7*,
)"5"4!3"$ )"4%4 ================================= /C:

Subsequenl Reglslrollon ............... 395
)'*)%+! ================================================= /C:
*%)%447!8 "*5 %((%)!4 '(
3%,74!3"!7'* !2' !8+%4 '( 5%"$7*,4
================================================================= /C:
!2' !8+%4 '( 5%"$7*,4 ====================== /C:

Non-Reglslrob|e Properlles.......... 400
)'*)%+! ================================================= 0@@
1+ $"2 #') +%34'*4 "*5 ("67$8 3%$"!7'*4 )797$ $"2
-/

)797$ )'5% +3'9747'*4 5%"$7*, 27!;
*'*D3%,74!3"#$% +3'+%3!7%4 ========== 0@@
4+%)7(7) <7*54 '( *'*D3%,74!3"#$%
+3'+%3!7%4 '3 $"*54 ========================= 0@@

Deo|lngs wllh Unreglslered Londs .. 42
%((%)!4 '( !3"*4")!7'*4 )'9%37*,
1*3%,74!%3%5 $"*5 ============================ 0@.
+376"38 %*!38 #''< "*5
3%,74!3"!7'* #''< ============================= 0@.
+3')%44 '( 3%,74!3"!7'*================== 0@.
!;735 +"3!8 27!; " #%!!%3 37,;! *'!
+3%>157)%5============================================ 0@.
7*9'$1*!"38 5%"$7*,4 7*
1*3%,74!%3%5 $"*54 ========================== 0@.



!'3!4 "*5 5"6",%4

1OR1S .......................................... 404

Prlnclp|es ....................................... 404
"#14% '( 37,;! ===================================== 0@0
")!4 )'*!3"38 !' $"2 ======================= 0@:
")!4 )'*!3"38 !' 6'3"$4 ================ 0@:
1*>14! %*37);6%*! ============================ 0@?

C|osslllcollon ol 1orls ..................... 407
"))'357*, !' 6"**%3 '( )'667447'*
================================================================= 0@G
"))'357*, !' 4)'+% =========================== 0@G

1he 1orlleosor ................................ 407
!;% 573%)! !'3!(%"4'3 ===================== 0@G
+%34'*4 6"5% $7"#$% ('3 '!;%34 === 0@G
>'7*! !'3!(%"4'34 ============================== 0-:

Acls ol Omlsslon ond lls Modo|llles
......................................................... 4J5

Proxlmole Couse ............................ 4J6
)'*)%+! '( +3'E76"!% )"14% =========== 0-?
5%(7*7!7'* ============================================== 0-?
!%4!4 !' 5%!%367*% +3'E76"!% )"14%
================================================================== 0-G
)"14% PQ= )'*57!7'* ============================= 0-G
$%,"$ )"14% =========================================== 0-G
5')!37*% '( $"4! )$%"3 );"*)% ======= 0-B
)'*!37#1!'38 *%,$7,%*)%================= 0-C

Lego| lnjury ..................................... 4J9
)$"44%4 '( 7*>138 ================================ 0-C

lnlenllono| 1orls ............................ 420
)'*)%+! ================================================= 0.@
97'$"!7'*4 '( " +%34ONS SECURITY
"*5 +;847)"$ 7*>137%4 ======================= 0.@
6"$7)7'14 +3'4%)1!7'* ======================0./
5%("6"!7'*H (3"15 "*5 +;847)"$
7*>137%4 ================================================= 0.0
1*>14! 5746744"$ ================================ 0.:
7*!%3(%3%*)% 27!; 3%$"!7'*4 ========= 0.:

Neg|lgence ..................................... 429
!%4! '( *%,$7,%*)% ============================= 0.C
4!"*5"35 '( )"3% ============================== 0/@
4!"*5"35 '( )"3% *%%5%5 7* 4+%)7(7)
)73)164!"*)%4 ==================================== 0/@
%975%*)% =================================================0/.
+3%416+!7'* '( *%,$7,%*)% =============0/.

Speclo| Llobl|lly ln Porllcu|or Coses
......................................................... 437
+3'51)!4 $7"#7$7!8 ============================== 0/G
)'*416%3 ")! ====================================== 0/B
*174"*)% =============================================== 00@
97'$"!7'* '( )'*4!7!1!7'*"$ 37,;!4
================================================================= 00.

Slrlcl Llobl|lly ................................. 446
+'44%44'3 "*5 14%3 '( "* "*76"$ = 00?
*174"*)% =============================================== 00?
+3'51)!4 $7"#7$7!8 N41+3"O ============== 00G
)'*416%3 ")! ====================================== 00G

DAMACLS ................................... 450
Dellnlllon ........................................ 450
C|osslllcollon .................................. 450
"))'357*, !' +13+'4% ====================== 0:@
"))'357*, !' 6"**%3 '(
5%!%367*"!7'* ==================================== 0:@
4+%)7"$ "*5 '357*"38 ======================= 0:@

1+ $"2 #') +%34'*4 "*5 ("67$8 3%$"!7'*4 )797$ $"2
-0

Acluo| ond Compensolory Domoges
........................................................ 450
"$$%,%5 "*5 +3'9%5 27!; )%3!"7*!8
================================================================== 0:-
)'6+'*%*!4========================================== 0:-
%E!%*! '3 4)'+% '( ")!1"$ 5"6",%4
================================================================= 0:/

Moro| Domoges ............................. 456
2;%* "2"35%5 ==================================== 0:?
,%*%3"$ +37*)7+$%4 '( 3%)'9%38 ==== 0:?
2;%* 3%)'9%3"#$% ============================= 0:B

Nomlno| Domoges ........................ 460
2;%* "2"35%5 ==================================== 0?@

1emperole Domoges .................... 460

Llquldoled Domoges ...................... 46J
31$%4 ,'9%3*7*, #3%"); '( )'*!3")!
================================================================== 0?-

Lxemp|ory or Correcllve Domoges 46J
2;%* 3%)'9%3"#$% ============================= 0?.
,%*%3"$ +37*)7+$%4 ============================ 0?.
5"6",%4 7* )"4% '( 5%"!; )"14%5 #8
)376%4 "*5 A1"47D5%$7)!4 ================= 0?/

Croduollon ol Domoges ................ 463
51!8 '( !;% 7*>13%5 +"3!8 =============== 0?/
#135%* '( +3''( ================================ 0?0
31$%4 ===================================================== 0?0
,3'1*54 ('3 67!7,"!7'* '( 5"6",%4
================================================================= 0?0

Mlsce||oneous Ru|es ..................... 465
5"6",%4 !;"! )"**'! )'D%E74! ====== 0?:
5"6",%4 !;"! 614! )'D%E74! =========== 0?:
5"6",%4 !;"! 614! 4!"*5 "$'*% == 0?:




+",% -:
1+ $"2 #') +%34'*4 "*5 ("67$8 3%$"!7'*4 )797$ $"2

+",% -
Lllecl ond App|lcollon ol
Lows
1he Clvl| Code look ellecl on Augusl 30, J950.

2;%* $"24 !"<% %((%)!

!"#$ &' ((. Lows sho|| loke ellecl oller lllleen
doys lo||owlng lhe comp|ellon ol lhelr
pub|lcollon ellher ln lhe Olllclo| Cozelle, or ln o
newspoper ol genero| clrcu|ollon ln lhe
Phl|lpplnes, un|ess ll ls olherwlse provlded. ()*
)+,-.,. /0 1$2$ &33)

Cenero| ru|es:
1he c|ouse un|ess ll ls olherwlse provlded
relers lo lhe dole ol ellecllvlly ond nol lo lhe
requlremenl ol pub|lcollon llse|l, whlch
connol ln ony evenl be omllled. |4)-).) 5$
465,") 789:;<]
Pub|lcollon ls lndlspensob|e ln every cose, bul
lhe |egls|olure moy ln lls dlscrellon provlde
lhol lhe usuo| lllleen-doy perlod sho|| be
shorlened or exlended. |4)-).) 5$ 465,")
789:;<]

Lxcepllon: lnlerprelollve regu|ollons ond lhose
lnlerno| ln nolure |4)-).) 5$ 465,") 789:;<]

7,*'3"*)% '( !;% $"2

!"#$ =' (($ lgnoronce ol lhe |ow excuses no
one lrom comp|lonce lherewllh.

Conc|uslve Presumpllon 1hol everyone knows
lhe |ow, even ll lhey hove no ocluo| know|edge
ol lhe |ow

Mlsloke ol |ocl 8 Dllllcu|l Ouesllons ol Low -
1hese moy excuse o porly lrom lhe |ego|
consequences ol hls conducl, bul nol lgnoronce
ol |ow.
ln speclllc lnslonces provlded by |ow, mlsloke
os lo dllllcu|l |ego| quesllons hos been glven
lhe some ellecl os o mlsloke ol locl.
|4>?,-#@->]
1he |ows relerred lo by lhls orllc|e ore lhose ol
lhe Phl|lpplnes. 1here ls no conc|uslve
presumpllon ol know|edge ol lorelgn |ows.
|4>?,-#@->]

3%!3'")!797!8 '( $"24

!"#$ A' (($ Lows sho|| hove no relroocllve ellecl,
un|ess lhe conlrory ls provlded"

Cenero| ru|e: A|| slolules ore lo be conslrued os
hovlng on|y prospecllve operollon

Lxcepllon: When lhe |ow llse|l express|y
provldes

Lxcepllons lo Lxcepllon:
(J) 1B C>*# D)E#> |ow
(2) lmpolrmenl ol conlrocl
(3) ln cose ol remedlo| slolules
(4) ln cose ol curollve slolules
(5) ln cose ol |ows lnlerprellng olhers
(6) ln cose ol |ows creollng new rlghls |(F>-) 5$
F"@>-,* 7898:)]
(7) Peno| |ows lovorob|e lo lhe occused

")!4 )'*!3"38 !' $"2

!"#$ G' (($ Acls execuled ogolnsl lhe provlslons
ol mondolory or prohlbllory |ows sho|| be vold,
excepl when lhe |ow llse|l oulhorlzes lhelr
vo|ldlly.

2"79%3 '( 37,;!4

!"#$ ;' (($ Rlghls moy be wolved, un|ess lhe
wolver ls conlrory lo |ow, pub|lc order, pub|lc
po|lcy, moro|s, or good cusloms, or prejudlclo| lo
o lhlrd person wllh o rlghl recognlzed by |ow.

Wolver lhe re|lnqulshmenl ol o known rlghl
wllh bolh know|edge ol lls exlslence ond on
lnlenllon lo re|lnqulsh ll. |H>"#?)-. 5$ IC@??+)-]

Lxcepllons:
(J) ll lhe wolver ls conlrory lo |ow, pub|lc order,
pub|lc po|lcy, moro|s or good cusloms,
(2) ll lhe wolver prejudlces o lhlrd person,
(3) ll lhe o||eged rlghls do nol yel exlsl,
(4) ll lhe rlghl ls o noluro| rlghl.




1+ $"2 #') +%34'*4 "*5 ("67$8 3%$"!7'*4 )797$ $"2

+",% .
3%+%"$ '( $"24

!"#$ J' (($ Lows ore repeo|ed on|y by
subsequenl ones, ond lhelr vlo|ollon or non-
observonce sho|| nol be excused by dlsuse, or
cuslom or procllce lo lhe conlrory.

When lhe courls dec|ored o |ow lo be
lnconslslenl wllh lhe Conslllullon, lhe lormer
sho|| be vold ond lhe |oller sho|| govern

Admlnlslrollve or execullve ocls, orders ond
regu|ollons sho|| be vo|ld on|y when lhey ore nol
conlrory lo lhe |ows or lhe Conslllullon

!2' <7*54 '( 3%+%"$ '( $"2
K4>?,-#@->L
(J) Lxpress or Dec|ored conlolned ln o speclo|
provlslon ol o subsequenl |ow
(2) lmp|led or 1ocll lokes p|oce when lhe
provlslons ol lhe subsequenl |ow ore
lncompollb|e or lnconslslenl wllh lhose ol
on eor|ler |ow.

>157)7"$ 5%)747'*4

!"#$ :' (($ 1udlclo| declslons opp|ylng or
lnlerprellng lhe |ows or lhe Conslllullon sho||
lorm o porl ol lhe |ego| syslem ol lhe
Phl|lpplnes.

1urlsprudence connol be consldered os on
lndependenl source ol |ow, ll connol creole |ow.
|8 ()+6* =: )* E@#,. @- 4>?,-#@->]

But the Courts interpretation of a statute
conslllules porl ol lhe |ow os ol lhe dole ll wos
orlglno||y possed since the Courts construction
mere|y eslob|lshes conlemporoneous |egls|ollve
lnlenl lhol lhe lnlerpreled |ow corrled lnlo
ellecl. |I,-)"@??>* 5$ M,"+>*@*@+) 789G;)]

51!8 !' 3%*5%3 >15,6%*!

Cenero| Ru|e:

!"#$ 9' (($ No judge or courl sho|| dec|lne lo
render judgmenl by reoson ol lhe sl|ence,
obscurlly or lnsulllclency ol lhe |ows.


Lxcepllon:
1hls orllc|e does nol opp|y lo crlmlno|
prosecullons becouse where lhere ls no |ow
punlshlng on ocl, lhe cose musl be dlsmlssed.
|4>?,-#@->]

+3%416+!7'* "*5 "++$7)"#7$7!8
'( )14!'6

!"#$ 83' ((. ln cose ol doubl ln lhe lnlerprelollon
or opp|lcollon ol |ows, ll ls presumed lhol lhe
|owmoklng body lnlended rlghl ond jusllce lo
prevol|.

!"#$ 88' (($ Cusloms whlch ore conlrory lo |ow,
pub|lc order or pub|lc po|lcy sho|| nol be
counlenonced$

!"#$ 8&' ((. A cuslom musl be proved os o locl,
occordlng lo lhe ru|es ol evldence.

$%,"$ +%37'54

!"#$ 8=' ((. When lhe |ows speok ol yeors,
monlhs, doys or nlghls, ll sho|| be underslood
lhol yeors ore ol lhree hundred slxly-llve doys
eoch, monlhs, ol lhlrly doys, doys, ol lwenly-
lour hours, ond nlghls lrom sunsel lo sunrlse.

ll monlhs ore deslgnoled by lhelr nome, lhey
sho|| be compuled by lhe number ol doys whlch
lhey respecllve|y hove.

ln compullng o perlod, lhe llrsl doy sho|| be
exc|uded, ond lhe |osl doy lnc|uded

+'$7)8 '* $"4! 5"8 #%7*, "
$%,"$ ;'$75"8L41*5"8
ll lhe perlod orlses by slolule or orders by lhe
governmenl, lhe |osl doy wl|| oulomollco||y be
consldered lhe nexl worklng doy
ll lhe perlod orlses lrom o conlrocluo|
re|ollonshlp, lhe ocl wl|| sll|| be due on lhol
Lego| Ho|ldoyJSundoy

"++$7)"#7$7!8 '( +%*"$ $"24

!"#$ 8A' ((. Peno| |ows ond lhose ol pub|lc
securlly ond solely sho|| be ob|lgolory upon o||
who |lve or sojourn ln lhe Phl|lpplne lerrllory,
subjecl lo lhe prlnclp|es ol pub|lc lnlernollono|
|ow ond lo lreoly sllpu|ollons.
1+ $"2 #') +%34'*4 "*5 ("67$8 3%$"!7'*4 )797$ $"2

+",% /
%E%6+!7'*4 1*5%3
7*!%3*"!7'*"$ $"2 N!;%'38 '(
%E!3"!%337!'37"$7!8OK
(J) When lhe ollense ls commllled by o lorelgn
soverelgn whl|e ln Phl|lpplne lerrllory
(2) When lhe ollense ls commllled by
dlp|omollc represenlollves
(3) When lhe ollense ls commllled ln o pub|lc
or ormed vesse| ol o lorelgn counlry.

)'*($7)! '( $"24

)'*($7)! '( $"24L +379"!%
7*!%3*"!7'*"$ $"2
(J) ll ls o bronch or porl ol Phl|lpplne Low whlch
regu|oles lhe opp|lcollon ol lorelgn |ow
wllhln Phl|lpplne jurlsdlcllon ln lhe
reso|ullon ol coses lnvo|vlng lorelgn
e|emenls.
(2) ll ls lhol porl ol munlclpo| |ow whlch
governs coses lnvo|vlng o lorelgn e|emenl.
(3) Prlvole lnlernollono| Low ls more common|y
known ln olher jurlsdlcllons os conl|lcl ol
|ows

4'13)%4
(J) Codes ond slolules
(2) 1reolles ond lnlernollono| convenllons
(3) 1reollses, commenlorles, ond sludles ol
|eorned soclelles
(4) 1udlclo| declslons

%E"6+$%4 '( )'*($7)! '( $"2
31$%4 7* !;% +;7$7++7*%4
(J) N,B H)#"@), |!"#. 8G' ((L
(2) N,B O>+@E@?@ |!"#$ 8&G8 7C)"$ =<' ((L
(3) N,B I@#6*P N,B Q,@ I@#), |!"#. 8;' ((]
(4) N,B N>E@ (>-#")E#6* |!"#$ 8J 7C)"$ 8<' ((L
(5) N,B N>E@ (,?,/")#@>-@* |!"#. J8' ((]
(6) N,B N>E@ (,?,/")#@>-@* |!"#$ &; 7C)"$ 8<' R(]
(7) N,B N>E@ S-#,-#@>-@* |!"#$ 8=3;' ((]

!"#$ 8G$ Lows re|ollng lo loml|y rlghls ond dulles,
or lo lhe slolus, condlllon ond |ego| copoclly ol
persons ore blndlng upon clllzens ol lhe
Phl|lpplnes, even lhough |lvlng obrood.

Mosl clvl| |ow counlrles such os lhe Phl|lpplnes
lo||ow lhe NA1lONAL LAW 1HLOR:

ll ls lhe nollono|lly or clllzenshlp ol lhe
lndlvlduo|, whlch regu|oles lhe lo||owlng
(J) Clvl| slolus
(2) Copoclly
(3) Condlllon
(4) |oml|y rlghls ond dulles
(5) Lows on Successlon
(6) Copoclly lo succeed

Accordlng lo lhe Supreme Courl, ll ls o conl|lcl
ol |ows lheory by vlrlue ol whlch jurlsdlcllon over
lhe porllcu|or subjecl moller ollecllng o person
ls delermlned by lhe latters nationality. [1??@* 5*$
Q,C6/?@E 789;=<]

!"#$ 8;' (($ Reo| properly os we|| os persono|
properly ls subjecl lo lhe |ow ol lhe counlry
where ll ls slluoled.

However, lnleslole ond leslomenlory
successlon, bolh wllh respecl lo lhe order ol
successlon ond lo lhe omounl ol successlono|
rlghls ond lo lhe lnlrlnslc vo|ldlly ol
leslomenlory provlslons, sho|| be regu|oled by
lhe nollono| |ow ol lhe person whose successlon
ls under conslderollon, wholever moy be lhe
nolure ol lhe properly ond regord|ess ol lhe
counlry whereln lhe properly moy be lound.

31$% '* +3'+%3!8
Conlro||lng Low: N,B I@#6*PN,B Q,@I@#),
Cenero| Ru|e: Reo| ond Persono| Properly ls
subjecl lo lhe |ow ol lhe counlry where ll ls
slluoled |!"#. 8;' ((]

"++$7)"!7'* '( !;% 5')!37*% '( $%E
47!14L$%E 3%747!"%
(J) 1he copoclly lo lronsler or ocqulre properly
ls governed by Lex Sllus.

Nole: 1ronsler ol properly lo o lorelgner who
subsequenl|y become o |l|lplno clllzen sho|| be
recognlzed |N?)-#@-> 5*$ (> N@>-T (U>-T]

(2) 1he lormo|llles ol o conlrocl lo convey
properly ore governed by Lex Sllus

%E)%+!7'*4 !' $%E 47!14

(J) 1ronsocllons Nol Allecllng 1ronsler ol 1ll|e
or Ownershlp ol Lond: N,B S-#,-#@>-@* or N,B
V>?6-#)#@*
1+ $"2 #') +%34'*4 "*5 ("67$8 3%$"!7'*4 )797$ $"2

+",% 0
(2) Conlrocls where Reo| Properly Ollered os
Securlly: 1he prlnclpo| conlrocl ls lhe |oon
whl|e lhe morlgoge ol lhe |ond ls on|y on
occessory
(o) Morlgoge Lex Sllus
(b) Loon Conlrocl Ru|es on ordlnory
conlrocls

(3) lnleslole ond 1eslomenlory Successlon:
lnleslole ond leslomenlory successlons
sho|| be regu|oled by lhe nollono| |ow ol lhe
decedenl, wllh respecl lo lhe lo||owlng (!"#$
8;7&<' ((W !"#$ 83=9' (()
(o) Order ol successlon
(b) Amounl ol successlono| rlghls
(c) lnlrlnslc vo|ldlly ol lhe leslomenlory
provlslons
(d) Copoclly lo succeed

(4) Under o Po|lcy-cenlered Approoch: |orum
courl ls nol bound lo |ook lo lhe |ow ol lhe
sllus when lhe sllus ol lhe movob|e properly
ls lnslgnlllconl or occldenlo|

Ouesllons re|ollng lo lhe vo|ldlly ond ellecl ol
lhe lronsler ol lhe movob|e properly ore
governed by lhe |ow ol lhe p|oce ol prlnclpo|
use
Where lhe lssue lnvo|ves conslderollons olher
lhon lhe vo|ldlly ond ellecl ol lhe lronsler
llse|l, governlng |ow ls lhe |ow ol lhe slole
whlch hos reo| lnleresl

31$% '* 41))%447'*

%E!37*47) 9"$757!8 I"3!4= -GH B-:DB-GH ))J

H?)E, >D 1B,E6#@>- !CC?@E)/?, N)X
R@?@C@-> 4,*#)#>"
Phl|lpplnes Phl|lpplne Low
|orelgn Counlry (J) Low ol lhe p|oce
where he moy be
(?,B ?>E@
E,?,/")#@>-@*) |!"#
:8G' ((]
(2) Phl|lpplne |ow |SSS
4>?,-#@-> 88J]
!?@,- 4,*#)#>"
Phl|lpplnes (J) Phl|lpplne Low |!"#$
8J' ((]
(2) Low ol lhe counlry
ln whlch he ls o
clllzen or subjecl
(?,B -)#@>-)?@) |!"#.
:8J' ((]
|orelgn Counlry |!"#$
:8;' ((W !"#$ 8J' ((]
(J) Low ol lhe p|oce ln
whlch he resldes
(?,B .>+@E@?@@)
(2) Low ol hls counlry
(?,B -)#@>-)?@)
(3) Phl|lpplne |ow
(4) Low ol lhe p|oce
where lhey were
execuled (?,B ?>E@
E,?,/")#@>-@*)

31$% 3%K >'7*! 27$$4
(J) 1olnl wl||s prohlblled under Arl. 8J8
execuled by |l|lplnos ln o lorelgn counlry
sho|| nol be vo|ld ln lhe Phl|lpplnes even
lhough oulhorlzed by lhe |ows ol lhe
counlry where lhey were execuled. (Arl. 8J9)
(2) Clvl| Code ls sl|enl os lo lhe vo|ldlly ol o jolnl
wl|| execuled by on o|len ln lhe Phl|lpplnes.
ll ls suggesled lhol ll shou|d nol be
proboled ll ll wou|d ollecl lhe helrs ln lhe
Phl|lpplnes.


7*!37*47) 9"$757!8
lnleslole ond leslomenlory successlons sho|| be
regu|oled by lhe nollono| |ow ol lhe decedenl,
1+ $"2 #') +%34'*4 "*5 ("67$8 3%$"!7'*4 )797$ $"2

+",% :
wllh respecl lo lhe lo||owlng |!"#$ 8;7&<' ((W !"#$
83=9' ((]:
(J) Order ol successlon
(2) Amounl ol successlono| rlghls
(3) lnlrlnslc vo|ldlly ol lhe leslomenlory
provlslons
(4) Copoclly lo succeed

7*!%3+3%!"!7'* '( 27$$4
Coverned by lhe Nollono| Low ol lhe decedenl.

3%9')"!7'*

4,*#)#>" !CC?@E)/?, N)X
Y@?? @* ",5>Z,. @- #U, HU@?@CC@-,*
Phl|lpplne Domlcl|lory Phl|lpplne Low
Non-domlcl|lory |!"#$
:&9' ((]
Phl|lpplne Low
Y@?? @* ",5>Z,. @- ) R>",@T- (>6-#"0
Phl|lpplne Domlcl|lory
(J) Phl|lpplne Low
(2) Low ol lhe p|oce ol
revocollon (?,B ?>E@
)E#6*)
Non-domlcl|lory |!"#$
:&9' ((]
(J) Low ol lhe p|oce
where lhe wl|| wos
mode
(2) Low ol lhe p|oce ln
whlch lhe leslolor
hod hls domlcl|e ol
lhe llme ol lhe
revocollon

+3'#"!% '( 27$$4
Conlro||lng Low: 1he probole ol o wl|| belng
essenllo||y proceduro| ln chorocler, lhe |ow ol
lhe lorum (?,B D>"@) governs.

2RSSQ +TUPVW XYW "SSUZVW RY X (UTVR[Y
)U\Y]T^K
(J) A wl|| proved ond o||owed ln o lorelgn
counlry ln occordonce wllh lhe |ows ol lhol
counlry moy be o||owed, ll|ed, ond recorded
ln lhe proper Reglono| 1rlo| Courl ln lhe
Phl|lpplnes |Q6?, JJ' I,E$8' Q6?,* >D (>6"#]
(2) Requlslles lor Reprobole |V.)$ ., H,",[ 5*$
4>?,#, 7899A)] 1he lo||owlng musl be
proved by compelenl evldence:
(o) Due execullon ol lhe wl|| ln occordonce
wllh lhe lorelgn |ows
(b) 1he leslolor hod hls domlcl|e ln lhe
lorelgn counlry ond nol ln lhe
Phl|lpplnes
(c) 1he wl|| hos been odmllled lo probole ln
such counlry
(d) 1he locl lhol lhe lorelgn lrlbuno| ls o
probole courl
(e) 1he |ows ol lhe lorelgn counlry on
procedure ond o||owonce ol wl||s

"567*74!3"!7'* '( %4!"!%4
1errllorlo|: governed by lhe |ow ol lhe p|oce
where lhe odmlnlslrollon lokes p|oce, ond lhol
ls lhe |ow ol lhe counlry lrom whlch lhe
odmlnlslrolor derlves hls oulhorlly.

!314!4
Lxlrlnslc vo|ldlly: Ru|e governlng wl||s opp|y.
lnlrlnslc vo|ldlly: ?,B *@#6* slnce o lrusl lnvo|ves
properly |!"#. 8J' ((]

!"#$ 8J' ((. 1he lorms ond so|emnllles ol
conlrocls, wl||s, ond olher pub|lc lnslrumenls
sho|| be governed by lhe |ows ol lhe counlry ln
whlch lhey ore execuled.

When lhe ocls relerred lo ore execuled belore
lhe dlp|omollc or consu|or olllclo|s ol lhe
Repub|lc ol lhe Phl|lpplnes ln o lorelgn counlry,
lhe so|emnllles eslob|lshed by Phl|lpplne |ows
sho|| be observed ln lhelr execullon.

Prohlblllve |ows concernlng persons, lhelr ocls
or properly, ond lhose whlch hove, lor lhelr
objecl, pub|lc order, pub|lc po|lcy ond good
cusloms sho|| nol be rendered lnellecllve by
|ows or judgmenls promu|goled, or by
delermlnollons or convenllons ogreed upon ln o
lorelgn counlry.

31$% '* %E!37*47) 9"$757!8 '(
)'*!3")!4

,%*%3"$ 31$%K $%E $')7 )%$%#3"!7'*74
1he lorms ond so|emnllles ol conlrocls xxx sho||
be governed by lhe |ows ol lhe counlry ln whlch
lhey ore execuled |!"#. 8J, ((]



1+ $"2 #') +%34'*4 "*5 ("67$8 3%$"!7'*4 )797$ $"2

+",% ?
)'*!3")!4 #%('3%
57+$'6"!7)L)'*41$"3 '((7)7"$4
1he so|emnllles eslob|lshed by Phl|lpplne |ows
sho|| be observed wllh respecl lo conlrocls
execuled belore dlp|omollc or consu|or olllclo|s
ol lhe Repub|lc ol lhe Phl|lpplnes ln o lorelgn
counlry |!"#$ 8J7&<' R(]

)'*!3")!4 %*!%3%5 7*!' #8 $%!!%3L
)"#$%,3"6H %!).
A conlrocl occepled by |eller or cob|egrom ls
presumed lo hove been enlered lnlo ol lhe
p|oce where lhe oller wos mode. (Arl. J3J9(2))

!;3%% +'447#$% $"24

(J) N,B N>E@ (>-#")E#6* Low ol lhe p|oce where
lhe conlrocl ls mode
(o) Advonloges
(l) Re|ollve eose ln eslob|lshlng
(ll) Cerlolnly ond slobl|lly
(b) Dlsodvonloge: Unjusl resu|ls when
p|oce ol moklng ls enllre|y lncldenlo|

Nole: 1o delermlne where lhe conlrocl ls
mode, we |ook lo lhe p|oce where lhe |osl
ocl ls done whlch ls necessory lo brlng lhe
blndlng ogreemenl lnlo belng so lor os lhe
ocls ol lhe porlles ore concerned.

(2) N,B N>E@ I>?6#@>-@* Low ol lhe p|oce ol
perlormonce governs
(o) Advonloge A|woys connecled lo lhe
conlrocl ln o slgnlllconl woy
(b) Dlsodvonloge Nol he|plu| when lhe
conlrocl ls perlormed ln 2 or more
sloles wllh conl|lcllng |ows

(3) Lex Locl lnlenllonls Low lnlended by lhe
porlles

Bosls: 1he conlrocllng porlles moy eslob|lsh
such sllpu|ollons, c|ouses, lerms ond
condlllons os lhey moy deem convenlenl,
provlded lhey ore nol conlrory lo |ow,
moro|s, good cusloms, pub|lc order, or
pub|lc po|lcy |!"#$ 8=3;' ((]

Moy be express or lmp|led
(o) Lxpress when lhe porlles sllpu|ole
lhol lhe conlrocl be governed by o
speclllc |ow, such |ow wl|| be recognlzed
un|ess lhere ore cogenl reosons lor nol
dolng so.
(b) lmp|led Bosed on lhe
conlemporoneous ond subsequenl ocls
ol lhe porlles, ollen uphe|d wllh
relerence lo lhe ru|e ol vo|ldlly ol
conlrocls whlch presumes lhol lhe
porlles conlemp|ole lo enler lnlo o vo|ld
conlrocl

!"#$ 8:' (($ ln mollers whlch ore governed by
lhe Code ol Commerce ond speclo| |ows, lhelr
dellclency sho|| be supp|led by lhe provlslons ol
lhls Code.

Lxcepllons lo lhe orllc|e: 1hose where speclo|
|ows ore mode lo opp|y supp|elorl|y lo lhe Clvl|
Code.

e.g. Conlrocl ol lronsporlollon by common
carriers: In all matters not regulated by this
Code, lhe rlghls ond ob|lgollons ol common
corrlers sho|| be governed by lhe Code ol
Commerce and by special laws.[!"#. 8J;;' ((]

4+%)7"$ )'*($7)! '( $"2
31$%4

6"337",%

5%(7*7!7'*

!"#$ 8' R($ Morrloge ls o speclo| conlrocl ol
permonenl unlon belween o mon ond o womon
enlered lnlo ln occordonce wllh |ow lor lhe
eslob|lshmenl ol conjugo| ond loml|y |lle. ll ls
lhe loundollon ol lhe loml|y ond on lnvlo|ob|e
soclo| lnslllullon whose nolure, consequences,
ond lncldenls ore governed by |ow ond nol
subjecl lo sllpu|ollon, excepl lhol morrloge
sell|emenls moy llx lhe properly re|ollons
durlng lhe morrloge wllhln lhe |lmlls provlded
by lhls Code.

%E!37*47) 9"$757!8 '( 6"337",%

(UT_XS 3V`\RQR]VQ Ua 6XTTRX[V \YWVT
+bRSRccRYV $XZ I"T]= /H ()J Vd]TXYVU\Q ]U
]bV cXT]RVQ
(J) Aulhorlly ol lhe so|emnlzlng olllcer
1+ $"2 #') +%34'*4 "*5 ("67$8 3%$"!7'*4 )797$ $"2

+",% G
(2) vo|ld morrloge |lcense excepl ln lhe coses
provlded lor ln Chopler 2 ol 1ll|e l
(morrloges ol excepllono| chorocler)
(3) A morrloge ceremony whlch lokes p|oce
wllh lhe oppeoronce ol lhe conlrocllng
porlles belore lhe so|emnlzlng olllcer ond
lhelr persono| dec|orollon lhol lhey loke
eoch olher os husbond ond wlle ln lhe
presence ol nol |ess lhon lwo wllnesses ol
|ego| oge.

5V]VT_RYX]RUY Ua %d]TRYQRe 9XSRWR]^

!"#$ &;' R($ A|| morrloges so|emnlzed oulslde
lhe Phl|lpplnes ln occordonce wllh lhe |ows ln
lorce ln lhe counlry where lhey were
so|emnlzed, ond vo|ld lhere os such, sho|| o|so
be vo|ld ln lhls counlry. xxx

!"#$ &' M)T6, (>-5,-#@>-$ |ormo| requlremenls
lor morrloge ore governed by lhe |ow ol lhe
slole ol ce|ebrollon.

Cenero| ru|e: N,B N>E@ (,?,/")#@>-@*

Lxcepllons: 1he lo||owlng morrloges ore vold
even ll vo|ld ln lhe counlry where ce|ebroled
|!"#$ &;' R(]:
(J) 1hose conlrocled by ony porly be|ow J8
yeors ol oge even wllh lhe consenl ol
porenls or guordlons |!"#$ =G78<' R(]
(2) Blgomous or po|ygomous morrloges nol
lo||lng under Arl. 4J, |C |!"#. =G 7A<' R(]
(3) 1hose conlrocled lhru mlsloke ol one
conlrocllng porly os lo lhe ldenllly ol lhe
olher |!"#$ =G7G<' R(]
(4) 1hose subsequenl morrloge wllhoul
recordlng ln lhe clvl| reglslry lhe judgmenl ol
onnu|menl or dec|orollon ol nu||lly,
porllllon ond dlslrlbullon ol properlles ond
the delivery of the childrens presumptive
|eglllmes |!"#$ =G7;<' R(]
(5) A morrloge conlrocled by ony porly who, ol
lhe llme ol lhe ce|ebrollon, wos
psycho|oglco||y lncopoclloled lo comp|y wllh
lhe essenllo| morllo| ob|lgollons ol
morrloge, even ll such lncopoclly becomes
monllesl on|y oller so|emnlzollon |!"#$ =;'
R(]
(6) lncesluous morrloges |!"#$ =J' R(]
(o) Morrloges belween oscendonls ond
oscendonls ol ony degree, whelher
|eglllmole or l||eglllmole, ond
(b) Morrloges belween brolhers ond slslers,
whelher ol lhe lu|| or ho|l-b|ood
(7) vold morrloges lor reosons ol pub|lc po|lcy
|!"#$ =:' R(]
(o) Morrloges belween co||olero| b|ood
re|ollves, whelher |eglllmole or
l||eglllmole, up lo lhe 4
lh
clvl| degree
(b) Morrloges belween slep-porenls ond
slep-chl|dren.
(c) Morrloges belween lhe odopllng porenl
ond odopled chl|d
(d) Morrloges belween lhe survlvlng spouse
ol lhe odopllng porenl ond lhe odopled
chl|d
(e) Morrloges belween lhe survlvlng spouse
ol lhe odopled chl|d ond lhe odopler
(l) Morrloges belween on odopled chl|d
ond o |eglllmole chl|d ol lhe odopler
(g) Morrloges belween odopled chl|dren ol
lhe some odopler
(h) Morrloges belween porlles where one,
wllh lhe lnlenllon lo morry lhe olher,
kl||ed lhol olher person's spouse, or hls
or her own spouse.

1hese excepllons pul lnlo lssue lhe copoclly ol
lhe porlles lo enler lnlo lhe morrloge ond
lherelore re|ole lo lhe subslonllve requlremenl
lor morrloge ond ls governed by ?,B -)#@>-)?@@$

7*!37*47) 9"$757!8 '( 6"337",%
Relers lo copoclly ol o person lo morry

Intrinsic validity is determined by the parties
persono| |ow, whlch moy be lhelr domlcl|lory or
nollono| |ow.
Lows re|ollng lo |oml|y rlghls ond dulles,
Slolus, Condlllon or Lego| copoclly ol persons
ore blndlng on clllzens ol lhe Phl|lpplnes, even
lhough |lvlng obrood |!"#$ 8G' ((]
When ellher or bolh conlrocllng porlles ore
clllzens ol o lorelgn counlry, ll sho|| be
necessory lor lhem lo submll o cerllllcole ol
|ego| copoclly lo conlrocl morrloge, lssued by
lhelr respecllve dlp|omollc or consu|or olllclo|s,
belore lhey con obloln o morrloge |lcense |!"#$
&8' R(]
Morrloges enumeroled under Arl. 26(2), |C
ore vold even ll vo|ld ln lhe counlry where
1+ $"2 #') +%34'*4 "*5 ("67$8 3%$"!7'*4 )797$ $"2

+",% B
ce|ebroled. 1hls ls ln re|ollon lo Arl. 5, CC,
where ocls execuled ogolnsl lhe provlslons ol
mondolory or prohlbllory |ows ore vold.

Lssenllo| Requlslles ol Morrloge under Phl|lpplne
Low |!"#$ &' R(] concerns porlles lhemse|ves
(J) Lego| copoclly ol lhe conlrocllng porlles
who musl be mo|e ond lemo|e
(2) Consenl lree|y glven ln lhe presence ol lhe
so|emnlzlng olllcer

1he Hogue Convenllon on vo|ldlly ol Morrloges
o||ows o conlrocllng slole lo reluse recognlllon
ol lhe morrloge ln lhe ll. coses:
(J) One ol lhe porlles dld nol lree|y Consenl
(2) Spouses were Re|oled, by b|ood or odopllon
(3) One ol lhe porlles dld nol hove lhe Menlo|
copoclly lo consenl
(4) One ol lhe spouses wos o|reody Morrled
(5) One ol lhe porlles hos nol ollolned lhe
Mlnlmum oge, nor ocqulred lhe necessory
dlspensollon

3\SV UY +TUd^ 6XTTRX[VQ
Proxy morrloges, where permllled by lhe |ow ol
lhe p|oce where lhe proxy porllclpoles ln lhe
morrloge ceremony, ore enlll|ed lo recognlllon
ln counlrles odherlng lo lhe ?,B ?>E@ E,?,/")#@>-@*
ru|e, ol |eosl lnsolor os lormo| vo|ldlly ls
concerned.

lnlerno| Phl|lpplne |ow, however, does nol
soncllon proxy morrloges. Arls. 2 ond 3 |C bolh
requlre lhol lhe conlrocllng porlles persono||y
oppeor belore lhe so|emnlzlng olllcer lor lhe
morrloge lo be vo|ld.

)UYQ\SXT 6XTTRX[VQ
Morrloges belween |l|lplno clllzens obrood moy
be so|emnlzed by o consu|-genero|, consu| or
vlce consu| ol lhe Repub|lc ol lhe Phl|lpplnes
(Arl. J0, |C).

%((%)!4 '( 6"337",%

+VTQUYXS TVSX]RUYQ fV]ZVVY ]bV QcU\QVQ
Coverned by lhe nollono| |ow ol lhe porlles

ll lhe spouses hove dlllerenl nollono|llles,
genero||y lhe nollono| |ow ol lhe husbond moy
prevol| os |ong os ll ls nol conlrory lo |ow,
cusloms ond good moro|s ol lhe lorum.
Under Phl|lpplne |ow, persono| re|ollons
belween lhe spouses lnc|ude |!"#*$ ;:' J3\J8'
R(]:
(J) Muluo| llde|lly
(2) Respecl
(3) Cohobllollon
(4) Supporl
(5) Right of the wife to use the husbands
loml|y nome

+TUcVT]^ TVSX]RUYQ
(J) 1he Hogue Convenllon dec|ores lhol lhe
governlng |ow on molrlmonlo| properly ls:
(o) 1he lnlerno| |ow deslgnoled by lhe
spouses belore lhe morrloge
(b) ln lhe obsence lhereol, lhe lnlerno| |ow
ol lhe slole ln whlch lhe spouses llx
lhelr hoblluo| resldence
(2) Ru|e under Phl|lpplne |ow (Arl. 80, |C)
(o) ln lhe obsence ol o conlrory sllpu|ollon
ln lhe morrloge sell|emenls, lhe
properly re|ollons ol lhe spouses sho||
be governed by Phl|lpplne |ows,
regord|ess ol lhe p|oce ol lhe
ce|ebrollon ol lhe morrloge ond lhelr
resldence.

Ru|e ls lnopp|lcob|e:
(l) ll bolh spouses ore o|lens
(ll) Wllh respecl lo lhe exlrlnslc vo|ldlly
ol lhe conlrocls ollecllng properly
nol slluoled ln lhe Phl|lpplnes ond
execuled ln lhe counlry where lhe
properly ls |ocoled
(lll) Wllh respecl lo lhe exlrlnslc vo|ldlly
ol conlrocls enlered lnlo ln lhe
Phl|lpplnes bul ollecllng properly
slluoled ln o lorelgn counlry whose
|ows requlre dlllerenl lormo|llles lor
lls exlrlnslc vo|ldlly.
(3) Doclrlne ol lmmulobl|lly ol Molrlmonlo|
Properly Reglme 1he chonge ol nollono|lly
on lhe porl ol lhe husbond or wlle does nol
ollecl lhe orlglno| properly reglme excepl
when lhe |ow ol lhe orlglno| nollono|lly
llse|l chonges lhe morllo| reglme, hence,
lhe properly reglme hos lo chonge
occordlng|y.




1+ $"2 #') +%34'*4 "*5 ("67$8 3%$"!7'*4 )797$ $"2

+",% C
579'3)% "*5 4%+"3"!7'*

31$% 1*5%3 !;% ;",1% )'*9%*!7'*
1he gronllng ol dlvorce or seporollon musl
comp|y wllh lhe nollono| |ow ol lhe spouses ond
?,B D>"@ (|ow ol lhe p|oce where lhe opp|lcollon
lor dlvorce ls mode).

579'3)% 5%)3%%4 '#!"7*%5 #8 (7$7+7*'4
Cenero| ru|e: Decrees ol obso|ule dlvorce
oblolned by |l|lplnos obrood hove no vo|ldlly
ond ore nol recognlzed ln Phl|lpplne
1urlsdlcllon.

Slolulory boses:
(J) Lows re|ollng lo |oml|y rlghls ond dulles, or
lo lhe Slolus, Condlllon ond Lego| copoclly
ol persons ore blndlng upon clllzens ol lhe
Phl|lpplnes, even lhough |lvlng obrood |!"#$
8G' ((]
(2) Prohlblllve |ows concernlng persons, lhelr
ocls or properly, ond lhose whlch hove lor
lhelr objecl pub|lc order, pub|lc po|lcy ond
good cusloms, sho|| nol be rendered
lnellecllve by |ows or judgmenls, or by
delermlnollons or convenllons ogreed upon
ln o lorelgn counlry. |!"#$ 8J7=<' ((]

Lxcepllon:

!"#$ &;7&<' R($ Where o morrloge belween o
|l|lplno clllzen ond o lorelgner ls vo|ld|y
ce|ebroled ond o dlvorce ls lhereoller vo|ld|y
oblolned obrood by lhe o|len spouse
copocllollng hlm or her lo remorry, lhe |l|lplno
spouse sho|| hove copoclly lo remorry under
Phl|lpplne |ow

Owlng lo lhe Nollono|lly Prlnclp|e, on|y
Phl|lpplne nollono|s ore covered by lhe po|lcy
ogolnsl obso|ule dlvorces, lhe some belng
consldered conlrory lo our concepl ol pub|lc
po|lcy ond moro|lly. However, o|lens moy obloln
dlvorces obrood, provlded lhey ore vo|ld
occordlng lo lhelr nollono| |ow. And lhe
morrloge lle, when lhus severed os lo one porly,
ceoses lo blnd lhe olher (o||owlng lhe |l|lplno lo
remorry). KV)- O>"- 5$ Q>+@??>' ]"$ 789:G<L

Nole: 1he V)- O>"- cose wos declded prlor lo
lhe ellecllvlly ol lhe |C. ll con lhus serve os o
bosls lor lhe recognlllon ol dlvorce decree
oblolned obrood by lhe o|len spouse ol o
|l|lplno clllzen belore lhe |C become ellecllve.

Porogroph 2 ol Arllc|e 26 shou|d be lnlerpreled
lo lnc|ude coses lnvo|vlng porlles who, ol lhe
llme ol lhe ce|ebrollon ol lhe morrloge were
|l|lplno clllzens, bul |oler on, one ol lhem
becomes noluro|lzed os o lorelgn clllzen ond
oblolns o dlvorce decree. 1he |l|lplno spouse
shou|d |lkewlse be o||owed lo remorry os ll lhe
olher porly were o lorelgner ol lhe llme ol lhe
so|emnlzollon ol lhe morrloge. 1he reckonlng
polnl ls nol lhe clllzenshlp ol lhe porlles ol lhe
llme ol lhe ce|ebrollon ol lhe morrloge, bul lhelr
clllzenshlp ol lhe llme o vo|ld dlvorce ls oblolned
obrood by lhe o|len spouse copocllollng lhe
|oller lo remorry. KQ,C6/?@E 5$ 2"/,E@.> 7&33G<L

9"$757!8 '( ('3%7,* 579'3)% #%!2%%*
('3%7,*%34
A lorelgn dlvorce wl|| be recognlzed ln o||
conlrocllng sloles ll, ol lhe dole ol lhe
lnslllullon ol lhe proceedlngs:
(J) Lllher spouse hod hls hoblluo| resldence
lhere,
(2) Bolh spouses were nollono|s ol lhol slole,
or
(3) ll on|y lhe pelllloner wos o nollono|, he
shou|d hove hls hoblluo| resldence lhere
(Hogue Convenllon on lhe Recognlllon ol
Dlvorce ond Lego| Seporollon)

Whl|e lhere ls no provlslon ol |ow requlrlng
Phl|lpplne courls lo recognlze o lorelgn dlvorce
decree belween non-|l|lplnos such wl|| be
recognlzed under lhe prlnclp|e ol lnlernollono|
comlly, provlded lhol ll does nol vlo|ole o
slrong|y he|d po|lcy ol lhe Phl|lpplnes. 1he
dlvorce decree oblolned by o lorelgn clllzen moy
be glven recognlllon ln Phl|lpplne jurlsdlcllon
upon prool ol exlslenceol lhe dlvorce decree
ond lhe lorelgn |ow governlng lhe dlvorce.
K^)"E@) 5$ Q,E@> 7&338<L

"**1$6%*! "*5 5%)$"3"!7'* '(
*1$$7!8

>137457)!7'* !' "**1$
(J) N,B ?>E@ E,?,/")#@>-@*W >"
(2) P|oce ol molrlmonlo| domlcl|e


1+ $"2 #') +%34'*4 "*5 ("67$8 3%$"!7'*4 )797$ $"2

+",% -@
,'9%3*7*, $"2
(J) Lex |ocl ce|ebrollonls delermlnes lhe
consequences ol ony delecl os lo lorm
(2) ln genero|, lhe some opp|les wllh relerence
lo subslonllve or lnlrlnslc vo|ldlly. Bul wllh
regord lo copoclly ol lhe porlles lo morry,
nollono| |ow ls delermlnollve.


Humon Re|ollons

"#14% '( 37,;!

!"#$ 89' (($ Lvery person musl, ln lhe exerclse ol
hls rlghls ond ln lhe perlormonce ol hls dulles,
ocl wllh jusllce, glve everyone hls due, ond
observe honesly ond good lollh.

")!4 )'*!3"38 !' $"2

!"#$ &3' (($ Lvery person who, conlrory lo |ow,
wl|lu||y or neg|lgenl|y couses domoge lo
onolher, sho|| lndemnlly lhe |oller lor lhe some.

")!4 )'*!3" #'*14 6'3%4

!"#$ &8' (($ Any person who wl|lu||y couses |oss
or lnjury lo onolher ln o monner lhol ls conlrory
lo moro|s, good cusloms or pub|lc po|lcy sho||
compensole lhe |oller lor lhe domoge.

Mere breoch ol promlse lo morry ls nol on
ocllonob|e wrong. Bul lo lormo||y sel o weddlng
ond go lhrough o|| lhe obove-descrlbed
preporollon ond pub|lclly, on|y lo wo|k oul ol ll
when lhe molrlmony ls oboul lo be so|emnlzed,
ls qulle dlllerenl. 1hls ls po|pob|y ond
unjusllllob|y conlrory lo good cusloms lor whlch
delendonl musl be he|d onswerob|e ln
domoges ln occordonce wllh Arllc|e 2J
oloresold. KY)**+," 5$ V,?,[ 789;A<L

Arllc|e 2J moy o|so be opp|led ln o breoch ol
promlse lo morry where lhe womon ls o vlcllm
ol moro| seducllon. Aword ol domoges pursuonl
lo Arllc|e 2J ls juslllled nol becouse ol such
promlse lo morry bul becouse ol lhe lroud ond
decell behlnd ll ond lhe wl||lu| lnjury lo her
honor ond repulollon whlch lo||owed lhereoller.
KF)Z*U 5*$ (>6"# >D !CC,)?* 7899=<L
1he conducl ol o womon ol odu|l oge,
molnlolnlng lnllmole sexuo| re|ollons wllh
oppe||onl, wllh repeoled ocls ol lnlercourse ls
lncompollb|e wllh lhe ldeo ol seducllon.
K4)-_)-E> 5$ (>6"# >D !CC,)?* 789;;<L

+37*)7+$% '( 1*>14!
%*37);6%*!

!"#$ &&' (($ Lvery person who lhrough on ocl ol
perlormonce by onolher, or ony olher meons,
ocqulres or comes lnlo possesslon ol somelhlng
ol lhe expense ol lhe |oller wllhoul jusl or |ego|
ground, sho|| relurn lhe some lo hlm.

!"#$ &&
7!EE@>- @- Q,+ V,"*><
!"#$ &8GA
7I>?6#@> S-.,/@#@<
Nol necessorl|y o
mlsloke ln poymenl
Poymenl shou|d be
mode by mlsloke


Persons ond Persono|lly

)"+")7!8 !' ")!

)797$ +%34'*"$7!8

!"#$ =J' ((. 1urldlco| copoclly, whlch ls lhe lllness
lo be lhe subjecl ol |ego| re|ollons, ls lnherenl ln
every noluro| person ond ls |osl on|y lhrough
deolh. Copoclly lo ocl, whlch ls lhe power lo do
ocls wllh |ego| ellecl, ls ocqulred ond moy be
|osl.

]6"@.@E)? ()C)E@#0 ()C)E@#0 #> !E#
|llness ol mon lo be lhe
subjecl ol |ego| re|ollons
Power lo do ocls wllh
|ego| ellecl
Posslve Acllve
Aplllude lor lhe Ho|dlng
ond Lnjoymenl ol rlghls
Aplllude lor lhe
Lxerclse ol rlghls
lnherenl ln noluro| persons Musl be ocqulred
Losl upon deolh
Losl lhrough deolh
ond olher couses
Con exlsl wllhoul copoclly
lo ocl
Musl exlsl wllh
jurldlco| copoclly
Connol be |lmlled or
reslrlcled
Moy be reslrlcled or
|lmlled

1urldlco| copoclly con exlsl even wllhoul copoclly
lo ocl, lhe exlslence ol lhe |oller lmp|les lhol ol
lhe lormer.
1+ $"2 #') +%34'*4 "*5 ("67$8 3%$"!7'*4 )797$ $"2

+",% --
#73!;

!"#$ A3' (($ Blrlh delermlnes persono|lly, bul lhe
concelved chl|d sho|| be consldered born lor o||
purposes lovorob|e lo ll, provlded lhol ll be born
|oler wllh lhe condlllons specllled ln lhe
lo||owlng orllc|e.

!"#$ A8' ((. |or clvl| purposes, lhe lelus ls
consldered born ll ll ls o|lve ol lhe llme ll ls
completely delivered from the mothers womb.
However, ll lhe lelus hod on lnlro-ulerlne |lle ol
|ess lhon seven monlhs, ll ls nol deemed born ll
ll dles wllhln lwenly-lour hours oller lls
comp|ele de|lvery lrom lhe molerno| womb.

Blrlh comp|ele removo| ol lhe lelus lrom lhe
mothers womb; before birth, a fetus is merely
part of the mothers internal organs.

Prool lhol lhe lelus wos o|lve upon seporollon ls
comp|ele resplrollon leslJslgn ol lndependenl
|lle

S-#")\`#,"@-, N@D, YU,- (>-*@.,",. F>"-
7 monlhs or more A|lve upon de|lvery
Less lhon 7 monlhs
A|lve on|y oller
comp|ellon ol 24
hours lrom de|lvery

+%34'*"$7!8 '( )'*)%79%5 );7$5
(J) Llmlled on|y lor purposes lovorob|e lo ll.
(2) Condlllono| ll depends upon lhe chl|d
belng born o|lve |oler.

Perlod ol concepllon lhe llrsl J20 doys ol lhe
300 doys precedlng lhe blrlh ol lhe chl|d.

A concelved chl|d con ocqulre rlghls whl|e sll|| ln
the mothers womb. It can lnherll by wl|| or by
lnleslocy.

An oborled lelus hod condlllono| persono|lly
bul never ocqulred |ego| rlghlsJclvl| persono|lly
becouse ll wos nol o|lve ol lhe llme ol de|lvery
from the mothers womb. No damages can be
c|olmed ln beho|l ol lhe unborn chl|d. K^,?6[ 5
(!' 789;8<L



5%"!;

!"#$ A&' (($ Clvl| persono|lly ls exllngulshed by
deolh. 1he ellecl ol deolh upon lhe rlghls ond
ob|lgollons ol lhe deceosed ls delermlned by
|ow, by conlrocl ond by wl||.

Crlmlno| |lobl|lly ends wllh deolh bul clvl|
|lobl|lly moy be chorged ogolnsl lhe eslole
|H,>C?, 5$ 4@">?' 789:8)].

!"#$ A=' (($ ll lhere ls o doubl, os belween lwo
or more persons who ore co||ed lo succeed eoch
olher, os lo whlch ol lhem dled llrsl, whoever
o||eges lhe deolh ol one prlor lo lhe olher, sho||
prove lhe some, ln lhe obsence ol prool, ll ls
presumed lhol lhey dled ol lhe some llme ond
lhere sho|| be no lronsmlsslon ol rlghls lrom
one lo lhe olher.

Arllc|e 43 provldes o slolulory presumpllon
when lhere ls doubl on lhe order ol deolh
belween persons who ore co||ed lo succeed eoch
olher (on|y).

1he slolulory presumpllon ol Arllc|e 43 wos nol
opp|led due lo lhe presence ol o credlb|e
eyewllness os lo who dled llrsl. K]>)a6@- 5$
b)5)"">' 789A:<L

)'6+"3% "3!= 0/ 27!; 31$% -/-H 4%)= /
N>>OH +3%416+!7'* '( 413979'34;7+

!"#$ A= Q6?, 8=8' I,E$ = 7__<
On|y use lhe presumpllons when lhere ore no
locls lo gel lnlerences lrom
On|y use lor
successlon purposes
Connol be used lor
successlon purposes
ln ony clrcumslonce
On|y durlng deolh ln
co|omllles, wreck,
boll|e or conl|ogrollon









1+ $"2 #') +%34'*4 "*5 ("67$8 3%$"!7'*4 )797$ $"2

+",% -.
+3%416+!7'* '( 413979'34;7+ 7* !;%
31$%4 '( )'13! KQ`N1 8=8' I1($ =' 7]]<'
Q`N1I 2R (2`Q4L

!T, H",*6+,. I6"5@5>"
Bolh under J5 O|der
Bolh obove 60 ounger
One under J5, lhe
olher obove 60
One under J5
Bolh over J5 ond
under 60, dlllerenl
sexes
Mo|e
Bolh over J5 ond
under 60, some sex
O|der
One under J5 or over
60, lhe olher belween
lhose oges
One belween J5 ond
60

3%4!37)!7'*4 '* )"+")7!8 !' ")!

!"#$ =:' (($ Mlnorlly, lnsonlly or lmbecl|lly, lhe
slole ol belng o deol-mule, prodlgo|lly ond clvl|
lnlerdlcllon ore mere reslrlcllons on copoclly lo
ocl, ond do nol exempl lhe lncopoclloled
person lrom cerloln ob|lgollons, os when lhe
|oller orlse lrom hls ocls or lrom properly
re|ollons, such os eosemenls.


!"#$ =9' (($ 1he lo||owlng clrcumslonces, omong
olhers, modlly or |lmll copoclly lo ocl: oge,
lnsonlly, lmbecl|lly, lhe slole ol belng o deol-
mule, peno|ly, prodlgo|lly, loml|y re|ollons,
o|lenoge, obsence, lnso|vency ond lrusleeshlp.
1he consequences ol lhese clrcumslonces ore
governed ln lhls Code, olher codes, lhe Ru|es ol
Courl, ond ln speclo| |ows.

Copoclly lo ocl ls nol |lmlled on occounl ol
re|lglous be|lel or po|lllco| oplnlon.

A morrled womon, lwenly-one yeors ol oge or
over, ls quo|llled lor o|| ocls ol clvl| |lle, excepl ln
coses specllled by |ow.

Cenero| ru|e: lncopoclloled persons ore nol
exempl lrom cerloln ob|lgollons orlslng lrom hls
ocls or properly re|ollons.



67*'37!8
RA 6809 (J989) An ocl |owerlng lhe oge ol
mojorlly lrom lwenly-one lo elghleen yeors.

%aaVe]Q UY )UY]TXe]Q
(J) 1hey connol glve consenl lo o conlrocl |!"#$
8=&J 78<' ((]
(2) A conlrocl where one ol lhe porlles ls o
mlnor ls voldob|e |!"#$ 8=9378<' ((]
(3) A conlrocl ls unenlorceob|e when bolh ol
lhe porlles ore mlnors (lncopob|e ol glvlng
consenl) |!"#$ 8A3=7=<' ((]
(4) Mlnorlly connol be osserled by lhe olher
porly ln on ocllon lor onnu|menl |!"#$ 8=9J'
((]
(5) Nol ob|lged lo moke reslllullon excepl
lnsolor os he hos been benellled |!"#$ 8=99'
((]
(6) Mlnor hos no rlghl lo demond lhe
lhlngJprlce vo|unlorl|y relurned by hlm |!"#$
8A&;' ((]
(7) Mlnor hos no rlghl lo recover vo|unlorl|y
pold sum or de|lvered lhlng, ll consumed ln
good lollh |!"#$ 8A&J' ((L
(8) Musl poy reosonob|e omounl lor
necessorles de|lvered lo hlm |!"#$ 8A:9' ((]

Lsloppe| works ogolnsl mlnors who
mlsrepresenl lhelr oges ln o conlrocl ond ore
compe||ed lo comp|y wllh lls lerms. (ocllve
mlsrepresenlollon done by mlnors). Kc,"E).> 5$
1*C@"@#6' 7898:<L

When o mlnor mode no ocllve
mlsrepresenlollon os lo hls mlnorlly ond such
mlnorlly ls known lo lhe olher porly, lhe
conlrocl ls voldob|e |!"#$ 8A3=' ((] os lo lhe
mlnor$ KF)+/)?)- 5$ c)")+/)' 789&:<L

Mlnors ore ob|lged lo moke reslllullon lnsolor os
lhey hove been benellled. K!"#$ 8=99' ((L$
KF")T)-[) 5$ V@??) !/"@??,' 789G9<L


%aaVe]Q UY 6XTTRX[V
Moy nol yel conlrocl morrloge K!"#$ G' R(L$

Morrloges, where one ol lhe porlles ls be|ow J8,
even wllh lhe consenl ol porenlsJguordlons, ore
vold |!"#$ =G' R(].


1+ $"2 #') +%34'*4 "*5 ("67$8 3%$"!7'*4 )797$ $"2

+",% -/
%aaVe] UY )TR_VQ
Cenero| ru|e: Lxempled lrom crlmlno| |lobl|lly.

Lxcepllon: Acled wllh dlscernmenl, ond lhe
mlnor ls belween J5 ond J8 yeors ol oge.

7*4"*7!8
lnsonlly lnc|udes mony lorms ol menlo| dlseose,
ellher lnherlled or ocqulred. A person moy nol
be lnsone bul on|y menlo||y dellclenl (ldlocy,
lmbecl|lly, leeb|e-mlndedness).

%aaVe] UY )UY]TXe]Q
(J) lncopoclly lo glve consenl lo o conlrocl |!"#$
8=&J7&<' ((]
(2) Conlrocls enlered lnlo durlng |ucld lnlervo|s
ore vo|ld |!"#$ 8=&:' ((]
(3) Reslllullon ol benellls |!"#$ 8=99' ((]
(4) voldob|e ll one ol lhe porlles ls lnsone |!"#$
8=93' ((]
(5) Unenlorceob|e ll bolh ol lhe porlles ore
lnsone |!"#$ 8A3= 7=<' ((]

%aaVe] UY )TR_VQ
Cenero| ru|e: Lxempled lrom crlmlno| |lobl|lly

Lxcepllon: Acled durlng |ucld lnlervo|

%aaVe] UY 6XTTRX[V
Moy be onnu||ed ll ellher porly wos ol unsound
mlnd un|ess lhe such porly oller comlng lo
reoson, lree|y cohoblled wllh lhe olher |!"#$
AG7&<' R(]

Acllon lor onnu|menl ol morrloge musl be ll|ed
by lhe sone spouse who hod no know|edge ol
the others insanity, or by any relative/guardian
ol lhe lnsone belore lhe deolh ol ellher porly, or
by lhe lnsone spouse durlng o |ucld lnlervo| or
oller regolnlng sonlly |!"#$ AJ7&<' R(]

4!"!% '( #%7*, 5%"(D61!%
Connol glve consenl lo o conlrocl ll heJshe o|so
does nol know how lo wrlle |!"#$ 8=&J7&<' ((]
voldob|e ll one ol lhe porlles ls deol-mule ond
does nol know how lo wrlle
Unenlorceob|e ll bolh ol lhe porlles ore deol-
mules ond does nol know how lo wrlle

Con moke o vo|ld wl||, C">5@.,.: he musl
persono||y reod lhe wl||. 1he conlenls ol lhe
some hove ellher been reod persono||y by hlm
or olherwlse communlcoled lo hlm by 2 persons
|!"#$ :3J' ((]

Connol be o wllness lo lhe execullon ol o wl||
|!"#$ :&3' ((]

+3'57,"$7!8
A spendthrift or a prodigal is a person, who, by
excesslve drlnklng, gomb|lng, ld|eness or
debouchery ol ony klnd sho|| so spend, wosle or
|essen hls eslole os lo expose hlmse|l or hls
family to want or suffering. The acts of
prodlgo|lly musl show o morbld slole ol mlnd.
|c)"#@-,[ 5$ c)"#@-,[' 7893&<L

ll ls nol lhe clrcumslonce ol prodlgo|lly, bul lhe
locl ol belng under guordlonshlp lhol reslrlcls
copoclly lo ocl.

)797$ 7*!%357)!7'*

Clvl| lnlerdlcllon ll ls on occessory peno|ly
lmposed upon persons who ore senlenced lo o
prlnclpo| peno|ly nol |ower lhon rec|uslon
lemporo| |!"#$ A8' QH(].
Ollender ls deprlved ol rlghls ol porenlo|
oulhorlly, or guordlonshlp, ol morllo| oulhorlly,
ol lhe rlghl lo monoge hls properly ond ol lhe
rlghl lo dlspose ol such by ony ocl @-#," 5@5>*
|!"#$ =A' QH(]

|or lhe vo|ldlly ol morrloge sell|emenls, lhe
porllclpollon ol lhe guordlon sho|| be
lndlspensob|e |!"#$ J9' ((]

("67$8 3%$"!7'*4
1uslllylng clrcumslonce ll ocled ln delense ol
personJrlghls ol spouse, oscendonls,
descendonls, brolhersJslslers, ond olher
re|ollves up lo lhe 4
lh
clvl| degree |!"#$ 887&<'
QH(]

Mlllgollng clrcumslonce ll ocled ln lhe
lmmedlole vlndlcollon ol o grove ollenseJle|ony
commllled ogolnsl hls spouse, oscendonls or
re|ollves ol lhe some clvl| degree |!"#$ 8=7G<'
QH(]

lncesluous ond vold morrloges:
(J) Belween oscendonls ond descendonls ol
ony degree,
1+ $"2 #') +%34'*4 "*5 ("67$8 3%$"!7'*4 )797$ $"2

+",% -0
(2) Belween brolhers ond slslers, whelher lu||
or ho|l-b|ood. |Arl. 37, |C]

DonollonsJgronls ol grolullous odvonloge
belween spouses durlng lhe morrloge sho|| be
vOlD, excepl moderole gllls durlng loml|y
occoslons |!"#$ :J' R(]

Prescrlpllon does nol run belween spouses,
porenl ond chl|d, guordlon ond word (!"#$ 8839)

Cenero| ru|e: Descendonls connol be compe||ed
lo lesllly ln o crlmlno| cose, ogolnsl hls porenls
ond grondporenls

Lxcepllon: crlme wos ogolnsl lhe descendonl
OR by one porenl ogolnsl lhe olher |!"#$ &8G' R(]

Spouses connol se|| properly lo eoch olher,
excepl:
(J) Abso|ule seporollon ls ogreed upon ln lhe
morrloge sell|emenls
(2) 1udlclo| seporollon ol properly |!"#$ 8A93'
((]

"#4%*)%

!"#$ =93' ((. Aller on obsence ol seven yeors, ll
belng unknown whelher or nol lhe obsenlee
sll|| |lves, he sho|| be presumed deod lor o||
purposes, excepl lor lhose ol successlon.

1he obsenlee sho|| nol be presumed deod lor
lhe purpose ol openlng hls successlon ll|| oller
on obsence ol len yeors. ll he dlsoppeored oller
lhe oge ol sevenly-llve yeors, on obsence ol llve
yeors sho|| be sulllclenl ln order lhol hls
successlon moy be opened.

!"# =98' (($ 1he lo||owlng sho|| be presumed
deod lor o|| purposes, lnc|udlng lhe dlvlslon ol
lhe eslole omong lhe helrs:

(J) A person on boord o vesse| |osl durlng o seo
voyoge, or on oerop|one whlch ls mlsslng,
who hos nol been heord ol lor lour yeors
slnce lhe |oss ol lhe vesse| or oerop|one,

(2) A person ln lhe ormed lorces who hos loken
porl ln wor, ond hos been mlsslng lor lour
yeors,

(3) A person who hos been ln donger ol deolh
under olher clrcumslonces ond hls exlslence
hos nol been known lor lour yeors.

!"#$ A8' R($ A morrloge conlrocled by ony person
durlng subslslence ol o prevlous morrloge sho||
be nu|| ond vold, un|ess belore lhe ce|ebrollon
ol lhe subsequenl morrloge, lhe prlor spouse
hod been obsenl lor lour consecullve yeors ond
lhe spouse presenl hos o we||-lounded be|lel
lhol lhe obsenl spouse wos o|reody deod. ln
cose ol dlsoppeoronce where lhere ls donger ol
deolh under lhe clrcumslonces sel lorlh ln lhe
provlslons ol Arllc|e 39J ol lhe Clvl| Code, on
obsence ol on|y lwo yeors sho|| be sulllclenl.

|or lhe purpose ol conlrocllng lhe subsequenl
morrloge under lhe precedlng porogroph lhe
spouse presenl musl lnslllule o summory
proceedlng os provlded ln lhls Code lor lhe
dec|orollon ol presumpllve deolh ol lhe
obsenlee, wllhoul prejudlce lo lhe ellecl ol
reoppeoronce ol lhe obsenl spouse.

!"#$ A&' R($ 1he subsequenl morrloge relerred lo
ln lhe precedlng Arllc|e sho|| be oulomollco||y
lermlnoled by lhe recordlng ol lhe ollldovll ol
reoppeoronce ol lhe obsenl spouse, un|ess lhere
ls o judgmenl onnu||lng lhe prevlous morrloge
or dec|orlng ll vold ob lnlllo.

A sworn slolemenl ol lhe locl ond
clrcumslonces ol reoppeoronce sho|| be
recorded ln lhe clvl| reglslry ol lhe resldence ol
lhe porlles lo lhe subsequenl morrloge ol lhe
lnslonce ol ony lnleresled person, wllh due
nollce lo lhe spouses ol lhe subsequenl
morrloge ond wllhoul prejudlce lo lhe locl ol
reoppeoronce belng judlclo||y delermlned ln
cose such locl ls dlspuled.

5'67)7$% "*5 3%475%*)% '(
+%34'*

('3 *"!13"$ +%34'*4
1he p|oce ol lhelr hoblluo| resldence |!"#$ G3'
((]

('3 >13757)"$ +%34'*4
1he p|oce where lhelr |ego| represenlollon ls
eslob|lshed, or where lhey exerclse lhelr prlmory
1+ $"2 #') +%34'*4 "*5 ("67$8 3%$"!7'*4 )797$ $"2

+",% -:
luncllons, un|ess lhere ls o |ow or olher provlslon
lhol llxes lhe domlcl|e |!"#$ G8' ((]

5'67)7$% 94= 3%475%*)%
Whl|e domlcl|e ls permonenl (lhere ls lnlenl lo
remoln), resldence ls lemporory ond moy be
chonged onyllme (lhere ls no necessory lnlenl
lo remoln).

Requlslles ol domlcl|e:
(J) Physlco| presence ln o llxed p|oce
(2) lnlenl lo remoln permonenl|y ()-@+6*
+)-,-.@< |()??,_> 5$ V,")]


<7*54 '( 5'67)7$%
(J) Domlcl|e ol Orlgln Domlcl|e ol porenls ol
o person ol lhe llme he wos born.
(2) Domlcl|e ol Cholce Domlcl|e chosen by o
person, chonglng hls domlcl|e ol orlgln.

A 3rd requlslle ls necessory: lnlenllon nol lo
return to ones domicile as his permanenl
p|oce.

(3) Domlcl|e by Operollon ol Low (@$,$' Arllc|e
69, domlcl|e ol mlnor)

A morrled womon does nol |ose her
domlcl|e lo her husbond. |Q>+6)?.,[\
c)"E>* 5*$ (>+,?,E 7899G<]


|oml|y Code
1he |oml|y Code look ellecl on Augusl 3, J988.

Morrloge

3%A1747!%4

*"!13% '( 6"337",%

!"#$ 8' R(. Morrloge ls o speclo| conlrocl ol
permonenl unlon belween o mon ond o womon
enlered lnlo ln occordonce wllh |ow lor lhe
eslob|lshmenl ol conjugo| ond loml|y |lle. ll ls
lhe loundollon ol lhe loml|y ond on lnvlo|ob|e
soclo| lnslllullon whose nolure, consequences,
ond lncldenls ore governed by |ow ond nol
subjecl lo sllpu|ollon, excepl lhol morrloge
sell|emenls moy llx lhe properly re|ollons
durlng lhe morrloge wllhln lhe |lmlls provlded
by lhls Code.

Morrloge ls o speclo| conlrocl ol permonenl
unlon belween o mon ond o womon enlered
lnlo ln occordonce wllh |ow lor lhe
eslob|lshmenl ol conjugo| ond loml|y |lle.
ll ls lhe loundollon ol lhe loml|y ond on
lnvlo|ob|e soclo| lnslllullon
lls nolure, consequences, ond lncldenls ore
governed by |ow ond nol subjecl lo sllpu|ollon
However, morrloge sell|emenls moy llx lhe
properly re|ollons durlng lhe morrloge wllhln
lhe |lmlls provlded by lhe |C.

<7*54 '( 3%A1747!%4
(J) Lssenllo| Requlslles |!"#$ &' R(]
(o) Lego| Copoclly ol lhe conlrocllng
porlles, who musl be o mo|e ond o
lemo|e
(b) Consenl (ol lhe porlles) lree|y glven ln
lhe presence ol o so|emnlzlng olllcer.
(2) |ormo| Requlslles K!"#$ =' R(L
(o) Aulhorlly ol so|emnlzlng olllcer
(b) A vo|ld morrloge |lcense
Lxcepl:
(l) Morrloges ln )"#@E6?> +>"#@* or when
one or bolh porlles ore ol lhe polnl
ol deolh,
(ll) Morrloge ln lso|oled p|oces wllh no
ovol|ob|e meons ol lronsporlollon,
(lll) Morrloge omong Mus|lms or olher
elhnlc cu|luro| communllles,
(lv) Morrloges ol lhose who hove |lved
logelher os husbond ond wlle
wllhoul ony |ego| lmpedlmenl lor ol
|eosl 5 yeors
(c) Morrloge Ceremony:
(l) Appeoronce ol conlrocllng porlles
ln lhe presence ol o so|emnlzlng
olllcer
(ll) Persono| dec|orollon lhol lhey loke
eoch olher os husbond ond wlle ln
lhe presence ol nol |ess lhon 2
wllnesses




1+ $"2 #') +%34'*4 "*5 ("67$8 3%$"!7'*4 )797$ $"2

+",% -?
%((%)! '( "#4%*)% '( 3%A1747!%4

!/*,-E, O,D,E# >" S"",T6?)"@#0
vold voldob|e

%44%*!7"$ 3%A1747!%4

",%
Lego| Copoclly Mo|e or lemo|e J8 yeors o|d
ond obove, nol under ony ol lhe lmpedlmenls
menlloned ln Arl. 37 (lncesluous morrloges) 8
Arl. 38 (morrloges ogolnsl pub|lc po|lcy), moy
conlrocl morrloge. |!"#$ G' R(]


614! #% 6"$% "*5 (%6"$%
Changing of sex in ones birth cerllllcole on lhe
bosls ol sex reosslgnmenl wos denled,
olherwlse, ll wou|d resu|l ln conluslon ond
wou|d o||ow morrloge belween persons ol lhe
some sex whlch ls ln dellonce ol lhe |ow, os
morrloge ls o unlon belween o mon ond o
womon$ KI@?5,"@> 5$ Q,C6/?@E' 7&33J<L

Nole: 1he besl source lor clllng lhe requlremenl
ol mo|eJlemo|e ls sll|| slolulory, os provlded
exp|lcll|y ln lhe |oml|y Code.

)'*4%*! (3%%$8 ,79%*
Consenl here relers lo lhe consenl ol lhe
conlrocllng porlles, nol ol lhe porenlJguordlon
ln lhose coses where such consenl ls requlred
(when ellher porly ls belween J8 lo 2J yeors ol
oge).

"fQVYeV
A morrloge enlered lnlo by o person whose reo|
lnlenl ls lo ovold prosecullon lor rope ls vold lor
lolo| |ock ol consenl. 1he occused dld nol
lnlend lo be morrled. He mere|y used such
morrloge lo escope crlmlno| |lobl|lly. KH,>C?, 5$
I)-#@)T>' 789&J<L

5VaVe]

!"#$ AG' R(. A morrloge moy be onnu||ed lor ony
ol lhe lo||owlng couses exlsllng ol lhe llme ol
lhe morrloge: xxx (3) lhol lhe consenl ol ellher
porly wos oblolned by lroud, un|ess such porly
ollerwords, wllh lu|| know|edge ol lhe locls
conslllullng lhe lroud, lree|y cohoblled wllh lhe
olher os husbond ond wlle.
|roud here relers lo mollers whlch re|ole lo lhe
morllo| re|ollon:
Non-dlsc|osure ol prevlous convlcllon by llno|
judgmenl ol o crlme lnvo|vlng moro|
lurpllude,
Conceo|menl ol pregnoncy by onolher mon,
Conceo|menl ol o sexuo||y lronsmllled
dlseose,
Conceo|menl ol drug oddlcllon, o|coho|lsm,
|esblonlsm, or homosexuo|lly

)%3%6'*8
No prescrlbed lorm or re|lglous rlle lor lhe
so|emnlzollon ol morrloge ls requlred. K!"#$ ;'
R(L

1he coup|e's wrlllen ogreemenl where lhey
dec|ore lhemse|ves os husbond ond wlle, slgned
by lhem belore o judge ond lwo copob|e
wllnesses, even lhough ll wos lndependenl|y
mode by lhem, sll|| counls os o vo|ld ceremony.
Kc)"#@-,[ 5$ 4)-' 78939<L

Mlnlmum requlremenls prescrlbed by |ow:
(J) Appeoronce ol conlrocllng porlles
persono||y belore lhe so|emnlzlng olllcer
|!"#$ =, |C]
(2) Persono| dec|orollon lhol lhey loke eoch
olher os husbond ond wlle. |!"#$ =, |C]
(3) Presence ol ol |eosl lwo wllnesses ol |ego|
oge. |!"#$ =, |C]
(4) 1he dec|orollon sho|| be conlolned ln lhe
Morrloge Cerllllcole. |!"#$ ;' |C]
(5) Morrloge cerllllcole sho|| be slgned by lhe
conlrocllng porlles ond lhelr wllnesses ond
ollesled by lhe so|emnlzlng olllcer. |!"#$ ;'
|C]

ln o morrloge @- )"#@E6?> +>"#@*' when one or
bolh porlles ore unob|e lo slgn lhe morrloge
cerllllcole, ll sho|| be sulllclenl lor one ol lhe
wllnesses lo wrlle lhe nome ol sold porly, whlch
sho|| be ollesled by lhe so|emnlzlng olllcer. |!"#$
;, por. 2, |C]

P|oces where morrloge SHALL be pub|lc|y
so|emnlzed:
(J) Chombers ol lhe judge or ln open courl
(2) Church, chope|, or lemp|e
(3) Olllce ol lhe consu|-genero|, consu|, or vlce-
consu| |!"#$ :' R(L
1+ $"2 #') +%34'*4 "*5 ("67$8 3%$"!7'*4 )797$ $"2

+",% -G
Lxcepllons:
(J) Morrloges perlormed ln )"#@E6?> +>"#@* or ln
remole p|oces. K!"#$ &9' R(L
(2) Where bolh porlles requesl ln wrlllng lhol
morrloge be so|emnlzed ol o p|oce
deslgnoled by lhem.

Non-comp|lonce wllh lhls requlremenl does nol
lnvo|ldole lhe morrloge (premlse: more
wllnesses - more peop|e con nollly olllcer ol
lmpedlmenls lo morrloge).

2;' 6"8 4'$%6*7M% 6"337",%4
(J) lncumbenl member ol lhe 1udlclory wllhln
hls jurlsdlcllon. |!"#$ J' R(L
(2) Prlesl, Robbl, lmom or Mlnlsler ol ony
Church or Re|lglous Secl. Musl be:
(o) Du|y oulhorlzed by hls church or
re|lglous secl
(b) Reglslered wllh lhe clvl| reglslror
genero|
(c) Acllng wllhln lhe |lmlls ol lhe wrlllen
oulhorlly gronled lo hlm by hls church
or re|lglous secl.
(d) Al |eosl one ol lhe conlrocllng porlles
belongs to the solemnizing officers
church or re|lglous secl. K!"#$ J' R(L

!/*,-E, 1DD,E#
Aulhorlly by churchJsecl vOlD
Reglslered wJ clvl| reglslror vOlD
Acllng wJln wrlllen oulhorlly lRRLCULARl1
Lllher porly be|ong lo lhol
churchJsecl
lRRLCULARl1

(3) Shlp Coploln or Alrp|one Chlel moy
so|emnlze o morrloge ln orllcu|o morlls
belween possengers or crew members K!"#$
J' =8' R(L
(4) A Ml|llory commonder ol o unll moy
so|emnlze morrloges ln orllcu|o morlls
belween persons wJln lhe zone ol ml|llory
operollon. K!"#$ J' =&' R(L
(5) Consu|-genero|, consu| or vlce-consu| moy
so|emnlze morrloges belween |l|lplno
clllzens obrood. K!"#$ J' 83' R(L
(6) Munlclpo| ond Clly Moyors KN^( *,E$ AAA\
AGGL

Lxcepllons |Arl. 35, |C]:
(J) Morrloge ls vold when so|emnlzed by ony
person nol |ego||y oulhorlzed lo perlorm
morrloges un|ess ellher or bolh porlles
be|leved ln good lollh lhol lhe so|emnlzlng
olllcer hod |ego| oulhorlly lo do so. |Arl. 35
(2)]
(2) Absence 8 lrregu|orlly ol Aulhorlly ol o
so|emnlzlng olllcer

Where o judge so|emnlzes o morrloge oulslde
hls jurlsdlcllon, lhere ls o resu|lonl lrregu|orlly ln
lhe lormo| requlslle |old down ln Arllc|e 3, whlch
whl|e ll moy nol ollecl lhe vo|ldlly ol lhe
morrloge, moy subjecl lhe olllclollng olllclo| lo
odmlnlslrollve |lobl|lly. |b)5)""> 5$ O>+)T#>0
7899;<W !")-,* 5$ 2EE@)-> 7&33&<L

A morrloge whlch preceded lhe lssuonce ol lhe
morrloge |lcense ls vold ond lhe subsequenl
lssuonce ol such |lcense connol render vo|ld lhe
morrloge. Lxcepl ln coses provlded by |ow, ll ls
lhe morrloge |lcense lhol glves lhe so|emnlzlng
olllcer lhe oulhorlly lo so|emnlze o morrloge.
K!")-,* 5$ 2EE@)-> 7&33&<L$

$7)%*4% 3%A173%5

,VYVTXS T\SV
Llcense requlred
lssued by |oco| reglslror ol clly or munlclpo|lly
where ellher conlrocllng porly hoblluo||y resldes
|!"#$ 9' R(L

Loch conlrocllng porly shou|d ll|e seporole|y.
|!"#$ 88' R(L

Llcense vo|ld ln ony porl ol lhe Phl|lpplnes lor
J20 doys lrom dole ol lssue, oulomollco||y
conce||ed ol lhe explrollon ol such perlod. |!"#$
&3' R(L

|orelgn Nollono|
When ellher or bolh porlles ore lorelgn
nollono|s: Cerllllcole ol |ego| copoclly lo conlrocl
morrloge, lssued by o dlp|omollc or consu|or
olllclo|, sho|| be submllled belore o morrloge
|lcense con be oblolned |!"#$ &8' R(L

Slole|ess persons or relugees lrom olher
counlrles: ollldovll slollng clrcumslonces
showlng copoclly lo conlrocl morrloge, lnsleod
ol cerllllcole ol |ego| copoclly |!"#$ &8' R(L
1+ $"2 #') +%34'*4 "*5 ("67$8 3%$"!7'*4 )797$ $"2

+",% -B

%deVc]RUYQ
(J) Morrloge ln !"#@E6?> +>"#@* |!"#$ &J, R(]
1he morrloge moy be so|emnlzed wllhoul
lhe necesslly ol o morrloge |lcense.
ll remolns vo|ld even ll ol|lng porly
survlves.
(2) Belween possengers or crew members ln o
shlp or olrp|one |!"#$ =8, R(]
(3) Persons wllhln o ml|llory zone |!"#$ =&' R(]
(4) Morrloge ln Remole ond lnoccesslb|e p|oces
|!"#$ &:, R(]
(5) Morrloges by Mus|lms ond Llhnlc cu|luro|
mlnorllles provlded lhey ore so|emnlzed ln
occordonce wllh lhelr cusloms, rlles or
procllces. |!"#$ ==, R(L
(6) Morrloge by porlles who hove Cohoblled lor
ol |eosl 5 yeors wllhoul ony |ego|
lmpedlmenl lo morry eoch olher. K!"#$ =A'
R(W b@-)? 5*$ F).)0>T 7&333<]

Requlslles lor lhe 5-yeor cohobllollon lo be vo|ld
lor lhe exempllon lrom ocqulrlng o morrloge
|lcense:
(J) 1he mon ond womon musl hove been |lvlng
logelher os husbond ond wlle lor ol |eosl
llve yeors belore lhe morrloge,
(2) 1he porlles musl hove no |ego| lmpedlmenl
lo morry eoch olher,
(3) 1he locl ol obsence ol |ego| lmpedlmenl
belween lhe porlles musl be presenl ol lhe
llme ol morrloge,
(4) 1he porlles musl execule on ollldovll
slollng lhol lhey hove |lved logelher lor ol
|eosl llve yeors |ond ore wllhoul |ego|
lmpedlmenl lo morry eoch olher], ond
(5) 1he so|emnlzlng olllcer musl execule o
sworn slolemenl lhol he hod oscerlolned
lhe quo|lllcollons ol lhe porlles ond lhol he
hod lound no |ego| lmpedlmenl lo lhelr
morrloge. |F>"_)\c)-[)-> 5$ ]6.T, I)-EU,[
7&338)]

6"337",% )%3!7(7)"!%

"fQVYeV XYW RTTV[\SXTR]^ Ua _XTTRX[V SReVYQV
XYW eUY]TXe]
1here ls o presumpllon ol regu|orlly ol olllclo|
ocls, ond lhe lssuonce ol lhe Clvl| Reglslror ol o
Cerllllcole ol Due Seorch ond lnobl|lly lo |lnd
lhe opp|lcollon lor o morrloge |lcense cerlllles
lls lnexlslence, renderlng lhe morrloge vOlD$
KQ,C6/?@E 5$ (! )-. ()*#"> 7899A<L

Belore o morrloge con be so|emnlzed, o vo|ld
morrloge |lcense musl be presenled llrsl,
olherwlse, ll ls vOlD$ Kc>",-> 5$ F,"-)/, 7899G<L

b>-\,B@*#,-E, >D ) +)""@)T, E>-#")E# .>,* ->#
@-5)?@.)#, #U, +)""@)T, )* ?>-T )* )?? #U,
",a6@*@#,* D>" @#* 5)?@.@#0 )", C">C,"?0 E>+C?@,.
X@#U$ KH,>C?, 5$ F>"">+,> 789:A<L

c)""@)T, (,"#@D@E)#, Where porlles dec|ore lhol
lhey loke eoch olher os husbond ond wlle,
conlolns lhe lo||owlng:
(J) |u|| nome, sex, oge ol porly
(2) Clllzenshlp, re|lglon, hoblluo| resldence
(3) Dole ond preclse llme ol ce|ebrollon ol
morrloge
(4) 1hol morrloge |lcense wos proper|y lssued
(excepl ln morrloges ol excepllono|
chorocler)
(5) 1hol porenlo| consenl wos secured, when
requlred
(6) 1hol requlremenl os lo porenlo| odvlce wos
comp|led wllh, when requlred
(7) 1hol porlles hove enlered lnlo morrloge
sell|emenls, ll ony (!"#$ &&<

Nol on essenllo| or lormo| requlslle wllhoul
whlch lhe morrloge wl|| be vold |c)."@.,_> 5$ .,
N,>- 789=3)]

Besl evldence lhol o morrloge does exlsl.
|4,-,/"> 5$ (! 7&33A<L

%((%)! '( 6"337",%4
)%$%#3"!%5 "#3'"5 "*5
('3%7,* 579'3)%

6"337",%4 )%$%#3"!%5 "#3'"5
Cenero| ru|e: Morrloges so|emnlzed obrood ln
occordonce wllh lhe |ows ln lorce ln lhol counlry
sho|| be vo|ld ln lhe Phl|lpplnes. K!"# &;' R(L

Lxcepllons:
(J) Morrloge belween persons be|ow J8 yeors
o|d |!"#$ =G78<' R(L
(2) Blgomous or po|ygomous morrloge |!"#$
=G7A<' R(L
(3) Mlsloke ln ldenllly |Arl. 35 (5), R(]
1+ $"2 #') +%34'*4 "*5 ("67$8 3%$"!7'*4 )797$ $"2

+",% -C
(4) Morrloges vold under Arllc|e 53 |!"#$ =G 7;<'
R(L
(5) Psycho|oglco| lncopoclly |!"#$ =;' R(]
(6) lncesluous morrloges |!"#$ =J' R(L
(7) Morrloge vold lor reosons ol pub|lc po|lcy
|!"#$ =:' R(L


1**,-#@)? ",a6@*@#,* R>"+)? ",a6@*@#,*
lnherenl ln lhe porlles,
corrled everywhere
Requlremenls
lndependenl ol lhe
porlles
N,B -)#@>-)?@@ Lows
re|ollng lo loml|y rlghls
ond dulles, or lo lhe
slolus, condlllon, ond
|ego| copoclly ol persons
ore blndlng upon Phl|
clllzens even lhough |lvlng
obrood |Arl. J5, CC]
N,B ?>E@ E,?,/")#@>-@* ll
vo|ld where ce|ebroled,
lhen vo|ld everywhere,
lorms ol conlrocllng
morrloge ore lo be
regu|oled by lhe |ow
where ll ls ce|ebroled.
|Arl. 26, |C]
|orelgn morrloges vold
under Phl| |ow due lo |ock
ol on essenllo| requlslle,
even ll vo|ld under lorelgn
|ows, wl|| nol be
recognlzed.
|orelgn morrloges moy
be vold under Phl| |ow
due lo obsence ol o
lormo| requlslle under
lorelgn |ows.

+3''( '( ('3%7,* 6"337",%
ln order lhol ll moy be uphe|d:
(J) Provlslons ol lhe lorelgn |ow
(2) Ce|ebrollon ol lhe morrloge ln occordonce
wllh sold provlslons

('3%7,* 579'3)%4
1hose oblolned by |l|lplno clllzens ore vold
under Phl|lpplne |ow.

ll lhe lorelgn spouse oblolns o vo|ld dlvorce
decree obrood copocllollng hlmJher lo remorry,
lhe |l|lplno spouse sho|| hove copoclly lo
remorry under Phl|lpplne |ow. |!"#$ &;' R(L

A dlvorce oblolned by lhe lorelgn spouse ln
accordance with the said spouses national law
ls recognlzed ln lhe Phl|lpplnes ond re|eoses
|l|lplno spouse lrom lhelr morrloge$ KV)- O>"- 5$
Q>+@??> 789:G<L

1he clllzenshlp ol lhe spouses ol lhe llme ol lhe
dlvorce delermlnes lhelr copoclly lo obloln o
vo|ld dlvorce. Kd6@#) 5$ O)-.)- 7899:<L

Clllzenshlp ol lhe llme lhe dlvorce ls oblolned
delermlnes lls vo|ldlly. Slnce H wos no |onger o
|l|lplno clllzen when he dlvorced W, lhe
nollono|lly prlnclp|e dld nol opp|y lo hlm
onymore ond lhe dlvorce ls vo|ld. KN?>",-#, 5$ (!
7&333<L

A dlvorce decree oblolned by lhe lorelgn spouse
ls recognlzed under Phl| |ow ll ll ls execuled ln
accordance with the foreigners national law.
1he porly musl prove dlvorce os o locl ond lhol
sold dlvorce ls oblolned ln conlormlly wllh lhe
|ow o||owlng ll, belore lhe Phl|lpplne courls con
loke judlclo| nollce$ K^)"E@) 5$ Q,E@> 7&338<L

9'75 "*5 9'75"#$%
6"337",%4

+3%416+!7'* '( 6"337",%
Presumpllon ln lovor ol o vo|ld morrloge K!"#
&&3' ((L
1he presumpllon lhol o mon ond o womon
deporllng lhemse|ves os husbond ond wlle
hove enlered lnlo o |owlu| conlrocl ol
morrloge ls sollsloclory ll unconlrodlcled.
KI,E$ = 7))<' Q6?, 8=8' Q2(L
ln morrloges ol excepllono| chorocler, lhe
exlslence ol lhe morrloge ls presumed, even ln
lhe lolo| obsence ol o morrloge |lcense. KV.)$
O, ])E>/ 5 (! 78999<L
ll o morrloge cerllllcole ls mlsslng, ond o||
meons hove nol yel been exhousled lo llnd ll,
lhen lhe morrloge ls presumed lo exlsl |I,5@??)
5$ ()".,-)* 7&33;<L

Absence ol o morrloge cerllllcole ls nol prool ol
obsence ol morrloge.

1o prove lhe locl ol morrloge, lhe lo||owlng
wou|d conslllule compelenl evldence:
(J) 1he lesllmony ol wllnesses lo molrlmony,
(2) Documenlory pholos or vldeos ol lhe
weddlng,
(3) The couples public cohabitation; and
(4) Blrlh ond bopllsmo| cerllllcoles ol chl|dren
born durlng lhe unlon. |4"@-@.). 5 (! 7899:<L




1+ $"2 #') +%34'*4 "*5 ("67$8 3%$"!7'*4 )797$ $"2

+",% .@
9'75 6"337",%4

!8+%4 '( 9'75 6"337",%4
(J) Absence ol ony lormo|Jessenllo| requlslles
(2) Psycho|oglco||y lncopoclloled spouse
(3) lncesluous Morrloges
(4) Morrloges conlrory lo pub|lc po|lcy
(5) vold subsequenl morrloges

"fQVYeV Ua TV`\RQR]VQ

!"#$ A78<' R($ 1he obsence ol ony essenllo| or
lormo| requlslles sho|| render lhe morrloge vold
ob lnlllo, excepl os sloled ln Arllc|e 35 (o).

!"#$ G' R(e Any mo|e or lemo|e ol lhe oge ol
elghleen yeors or upwords nol under ony ol lhe
lmpedlmenls menlloned ln Arllc|es 37 ond 38,
moy conlrocl morrloge.

vold lrom lhe Beglnnlng |Arl. 35, |C]
(J) Morrloge where ony porly ls be|ow elghleen
yeors ol oge even wllh lhe consenl ol
porenls or guordlons
(2) Morrloge so|emnlzed by ony person nol
|ego||y oulhorlzed lo perlorm morrloges
un|ess such morrloges were conlrocled wllh
ellher or bolh porlles be|levlng ln good lollh
lhol lhe so|emnlzlng olllcer hod |ego|
oulhorlly lo do so.
Ones belief in good faith thol lhe
so|emnlzlng olllcer hos lhe requlred
oulhorlly ls o mlsloke ol locl, ond nol ol |ow.
(3) Morrloge so|emnlzed wllhoul o vo|ld
morrloge |lcense, excepl ln morrloges under
excepllono| clrcumslonces
(4) Blgomous or po|ygomous morrloges nol
lo||lng under Arllc|e 4J (Arl. 4J: subsequenl
morrloge by presenl spouse who oblolned o
dec|orollon ol presumpllve deolh lor obsenl
spouse prlor lo lhe subsequenl morrloge)
(5) 1here ls o mlsloke os lo lhe ldenllly ol lhe
olher conlrocllng porly
(6) Subsequenl morrloges lhol ore vold under
Arllc|e 53 (Non-comp|lonce wllh Arl. 52)

+Q^ebUSU[ReXS RYeXcXeR]^
Conlrocled by ony porly who, ol lhe llme ol lhe
ce|ebrollon, wos psycho|oglco||y lncopoclloled
lo comp|y wllh lhe essenllo| morllo| ob|lgollons
ol morrloge, even ll such lncopoclly becomes
monllesl on|y oller lls so|emnlzollon |!"#$ =;' R(]
c>?@-) Culde|lnes:
(J) 1he burden ol prool lo show lhe nu||lly ol
lhe morrloge be|ongs lo lhe p|olnllll. 1hls ls
lo be lnvesllgoled by lhe OSC lor co||uslon.
(2) 1he rool couse ol lhe psycho|oglco|
lncopoclly musl be: (o) medlco||y or c|lnlco||y
ldenlllled, (b) o||eged ln lhe comp|olnl, (c)
sulllclenl|y proven by lhe experls, (d) c|eor|y
exp|olned ln lhe declslon.
(3) 1he lncopoclly musl be proven lo be exlsllng
at the time of the celebration ol lhe
morrloge.
(4) Such lncopoclly musl o|so be shown lo be
medlco||y or c|lnlco||y permonenl or
lncurob|e.
(5) Such l||ness musl be grove enough lo brlng
oboul lhe dlsobl|lly ol lhe porly lo ossume
lhe essenllo| ob|lgollons ol morrloge.
(6) 1he essenllo| morllo| ob|lgollons musl be
lhose embroced by Arllc|es 68 up lo 7J ol
lhe |oml|y Code os regords lhe husbond
ond wlle os we|| os Arllc|es 220, 22J, ond
225 ol lhe some Code ln regord lo porenls
ond lhelr chl|dren.
(7) lnlerprelollons glven by lhe Nollono|
Appe||ole Molrlmonlo| 1rlbuno| ol lhe
Colho|lc Church ln lhe Phl|lpplnes, whl|e nol
conlro||lngJdeclslve, shou|d be glven greol
respecl by our courls.
(8) 1he lrlo| courl musl order lhe prosecullng
ollorney or llsco| ond lhe So|lcllor Cenero| lo
oppeor os counse| lor lhe slole. No declslon
sho|| be honded down un|ess lhe So|lcllor
Cenero| lssues o cerllllcollon. KQ,C6/?@E 5$
c>?@-)' 7899J<L

3 choroclerlsllcs lor delermlnlng psycho|oglco|
lncopoclly: grovlly, onlecedenl, ond lncurobl|lly$
KI)-#>* 5$ F,.@)\I)-#>*' 7899G<L

Reluso| ol husbond lo hove sex wos lnlerpreled
as psychological incapacity. A man who can
but wont is psychologically incapacitated. [4*>@
5$ (!' 7899J<]

Psycho|oglco| lncopoclly moybe eslob|lshed by
lhe lolo|lly ol lhe evldence presenled. Persono|
medlco| exomlnollon cou|d be dlspensed wllh.
|c)"E>* 5$ c)"E>* 7&333<L

1+ $"2 #') +%34'*4 "*5 ("67$8 3%$"!7'*4 )797$ $"2

+",% .-
1here ls no requlremenl lhol lhe respondenl be
medlco||y exomlned llrsl. KQ,C6/?@E 5$ I)- ]>*,
7&33J<L

Pathological liar considered as psychological
lncopoclly, Mo|lno gulde|lnes mel$ K!-#>-@> 5$
Q,0,*' 7&33;<]

7YeVQ]\U\Q _XTTRX[VQ
(J) Belween oscendonls ond descendonls ol
ony degree, |eglllmole or l||eglllmole
(2) Belween brolhers ond slslers, whelher lu|| or
ho|l b|ood, |eglllmole or l||eglllmole |!"#$ =J'
R(]

"[XRYQ] c\fSRe cUSRe^
(J) Belween co||olero| b|ood re|ollves,
|eglllmole or l||eglllmole, up lo lhe lourlh
clvl| degree.
(2) Belween slep-porenls ond slep-chl|dren.
(3) Belween porenls-ln-|ow ond chl|dren-ln-
|ow.
(4) Belween odopllng porenl ond odopled chl|d.
(5) Belween lhe survlvlng spouse ol lhe
odopllng porenl ond lhe odopled chl|d.
(6) Belween lhe survlvlng spouse ol lhe odopled
chl|d ond lhe odopler.
(7) Belween on odopled chl|d ond o |eglllmole
chl|d ol lhe odopler.
(8) Belween odopled chl|dren ol lhe some
odopler.
(9) Belween porlles where one, wllh lhe
lnlenllon lo morry lhe olher, kl||ed lhol olher
person's spouse, or hls or her own spouse.
|!"#$ =:' R(]

Slepbrolhers ond slepslslers con morry becouse
morrloges belween lhem ore nol omong lhose
enumeroled ln Arllc|e 38.

Re|ollonshlps oulslde ol Arl. 37 ond 38 whlch
ore nol lmpedlmenls lo morrloge: brolher-ln-
|ow wllh slsler-ln-|ow, slepbrolher wllh
slepslsler, guordlon wllh word, odopled wllh
l||eglllmole chl|d ol lhe odopler, odopled son ol
lhe husbond wllh odopled doughler ol lhe wlle,
porlles who hove been convlcled ol odu|lery.





9URW Q\fQV`\VY] _XTTRX[VQ

No 1udlclo| Dec|orollon ol Nu||lly
A person enlered lnlo o subsequenl morrloge
wllhoul llrsl gelllng o judlclo| dec|orollon ol
nu||lly ol lhe llrsl vold morrloge |!"#$ A3' R(L

Presumpllve Deolh
|ol|ure ol lhe spouse presenl lo obloln o judlclo|
dec|orollon ol presumpllve deolh belore
enlerlng o subsequenl morrloge |!"#$ A8' R(L

Bod |ollh ol Bolh Spouses
Bolh spouses enlerlng o subsequenl morrloge
oller presumpllve deolh, who ocled ln bod lollh
|!"#$ AA' R(]

Non-Recordlng
Subsequenl morrloge ol spouses, where lhe
requlremenls ol recordlng under Arl. 52 hove
nol hove been comp|led wllh, sho|| be nu|| ond
vold. |!"#$ G=' R(]

!"#$ G&' R($ 1he judgmenl ol onnu|menl or ol
obso|ule nu||lly ol lhe morrloge, lhe porllllon
ond dlslrlbullon ol lhe properlles ol lhe spouses
ond lhe de|lvery ol lhe chl|dren's presumpllve
|eglllmes sho|| be recorded ln lhe opproprlole
clvl| reglslry ond reglslrles ol properly,
olherwlse, lhe some sho|| nol ollecl lhlrd
persons.

+TVPRU\Q _XTTRX[V WVeSXTVW PURW Xf RYR]RU UT
XYY\SSVW

!"#$ A3' R($ 1he obso|ule nu||lly ol o prevlous
morrloge moy be lnvoked lor purposes ol
remorrloge on lhe bosls so|e|y ol o llno|
judgmenl dec|orlng such prevlous morrloge
vold.

ln order lo hove o subsequenl morrloge:
(J) 1he prevlous morrloge shou|d be judlclo||y
dec|ored vold or onnu||ed (llno| judgmenl)
|4,"", 5$ 4,"", 7899&<' !#@,-[) 5$ F"@??)-#,*
7899G<]
(2) Musl comp|y wllh lhe requlremenls ol Arl.
52

Under lhe Clvl| Code (superseded by lhe |oml|y
Code), lhere wos no need lor o judlclo|
dec|orollon ol nu||lly ol o prevlous morrloge lor
1+ $"2 #') +%34'*4 "*5 ("67$8 3%$"!7'*4 )797$ $"2

+",% ..
o subsequenl morrloge lo be vo|ld |H,>C?, 5$
c,-.>[) 789GA<L

Even if the judges firsl morrloge conlrocled ln
J965 wos vold lor nol hovlng o morrloge |lcense,
lhe requlremenl lor o judlclo| dec|orollon ol
nu||lly ln Arl. 40 sll|| opp|les lor hls subsequenl
morrloge conlrocled ln J99J. |!#@,-[) 5$
F"@??)-#,*' 7899G<L

Where bolh morrloges were conlrocled prlor lo
lhe ellecllvlly ol lhe |C, lhe requlremenl ol Arl.
40 does nol opp|y lo lhe second morrloge
where o rlghl ls o|reody vesled ond on whlch lhe
|C connol hove relroocllve ellecl. K!C@)T 5$
()-#,">' 7899J<L

1he judlclo| dec|orollon ol nu||lly con be lnvoked
lor purposes olher lhon remorrloge. Arllc|e 40
wos lnlerpreled os belng o requlremenl lor
purposes ol remorrloge bul nol |lmlled lor lhol
purpose. Seporollon ol properly ls o|so o vo|ld
purpose lor ll|lng lor o judlclo| dec|orollon ol
nu||lly. |O>+@-T> 5$ (!' 7899=<L

The word solely in Art. 40 referred to
vo|ldollng subsequenl morrloges bul NO1 lo
|lmlllng lhe purposes lor whlch o judlclo|
dec|orollon ol nu||lly con be lnvoked. |O>+@-T>
5$ (!' 7899=<L

4\fQV`\VY] 6XTTRX[V ZbVY UYV QcU\QV RQ
XfQVY]

Requlremenls lor Subsequenl Morrloge lo be
vo|ld When Prlor Spouse ls Absenl: K!"#$ A8' R(L
(J) Subsequenl morrloge due lo ordlnory
obsence where:
(o) Absenl spouse hod been obsenl lor 4
consecullve yeors,
(b) 1he spouse presenl hod o we||-lounded
be|lel lhol obsenl spouse ls deod, ond
(c) 1udlclo| dec|orollon ol presumpllve
deolh wos secured (no prejudlce lo lhe
ellecl ol lhe reoppeoronce ol lhe obsenl
spouse).
(2) Subsequenl morrloge due lo exlroordlnory
obsence where:
(o) Absenl spouse hod been mlsslng lor 2
consecullve yeors,
(b) 1here ls donger ol deolh under lhe
clrcumslonces sel lorlh ln Arl. 39J CC
ollendonl lo lhe dlsoppeoronce,
(c) 1he spouse presenl hod o we||-lounded
be|lel lhol lhe mlsslng person ls deod,
ond
(d) 1udlclo| dec|orollon ol presumpllve
deolh wos secured (no prejudlce lo lhe
ellecl ol lhe reoppeoronce ol lhe obsenl
spouse).

Lxlroordlnory clrcumslonces K!"#$ =98' ((Le
(J) On boord vesse| |osl ol seo voyoge, olrp|one,
(2) Armed |orces ln wor, or
(3) Donger ol deolh under olher clrcumslonces,
exlslence nol known

lnslllullon ol o summory proceedlng ls nol
sulllclenl. 1here musl o|so be o summory
judgmenl. |F)?)-,]

On|y lhe spouse presenl con ll|e or lnslllule o
summory proceedlng lor lhe dec|orollon ol
presumpllve deolh ol lhe obsenlee. |F@,-5,-@.>
E)*,]

1here musl hove been dl|lgenl ellorls on lhe
porl ol lhe deserled spouse lo |ocole lhe obsenl
spouse. 1hese dl|lgenl ellorls correspond lo lhe
requlremenl ol lhe |ow lor o we||-lounded
be|lel.

Lllecl ol Reoppeoronce ol Absenl Spouse
Cenero| ru|e: 1he subsequenl morrloge remolns
vo|ld.

Lxcepllon: ll ls oulomollco||y lermlnoled by lhe
recordlng ol lhe ollldovll ol reoppeoronce ol lhe
obsenl spouse ol lhe lnslonce ol ony lnleresled
person, wllh due nollce lo lhe spouses ol lhe
subsequenl morrloge. |!"#$ A&' R(]

ll ls lhe recordlng ol lhe ollldovll ol
reoppeoronce lhol oulomollco||y lermlnoles lhe
subsequenl morrloge. Hence, ll obsenlee
spouse reoppeors wllhoul recordlng ollldovll ol
reoppeoronce, lhen lhere ls no |ego| ellecl.
Meonwhl|e, obsenlee spouse connol remorry.
|4>?,-#@->]

1+ $"2 #') +%34'*4 "*5 ("67$8 3%$"!7'*4 )797$ $"2

+",% ./
Lxcepllon lo lhe excepllon: ll lhere ls o
judgmenl onnu||lng lhe prevlous morrloge or
dec|orlng ll vold )/ @-@#@>$ |!"#$ A&' R(]

Cood |ollh
Perlod ol obsence lor Presumpllve Deolh ls
mondolory lhus connol be shorlened by good
lollh ond ll be done so wl|| be vold.

Dlllerence belween Absence ln lhe Clvl| Code
ond |oml|y Code

R)+@?0 (>., (@5@? (>.,
!* #> C,"@>.
4 yeors under normo|
clrcumslonces
Absenl lor ol |eosl 7
yeors
2 yeors under
exlroordlnory
clrcumslonces
4 yeors under
exlroordlnory
clrcumslonces
!* #> ",+)""@)T,
ln order lo remorry,
summory proceedlng
ls necessory
Dec|orollon ol
presumpllve deolh ls nol
necessory
!* #> XU> E)- @-*#@#6#, #U, )E#@>-
Con be lnsllluled by
lhe spouse presenl,
ony lnleresled porly,
ond lhe subsequenl
spouse
1he spouses lhemse|ves
!* #> ,DD,E# >- *6/*,a6,-# +)""@)T,
Subsequenl
morrloge ls
oulomollco||y
lermlnoled by lhe
recordlng ol on
ollldovll ol
reoppeoronce ol lhe
obsenl spouse
Upon reoppeoronce,
judlclo| proceedlng ls
necessory lo dec|ore
morrloge nu|| ond vold
!* #> T">6-.
We|| lounded be|lel
lhol lhe obsenl
spouse ls deod
Cenero||y be|leved lo be
deod


!"#$ =93' (($ Aller on obsence ol 7 yeors, ll
belng unknown whelher or nol lhe obsenlee
sll|| |lves, he sho|| be presumed deod lor o||
purposes, excepl lor lhose ol successlon.

1he obsenlee sho|| nol be presumed deod lor
lhe purpose ol openlng hls successlon ll|| oller
on obsence ol J0 yeors. ll he dlsoppeored oller
lhe oge ol 75 yeors, on obsence ol 5 yeors sho||
be sulllclenl ln order lhol hls successlon moy be
opened.

!"#$ =98' (($ 1he lo||owlng sho|| be presumed
deod lor o|| purposes, lnc|udlng lhe dlvlslon ol
lhe eslole omong lhe helrs:

(J) A person on boord o vesse| |osl durlng o seo
voyoge, or on oerop|one whlch ls mlsslng,
who hos nol been heord ol lor lour yeors
slnce lhe |oss ol lhe vesse| or oerop|one,

(2) A person ln lhe ormed lorces who hos loken
porl ln wor, ond hos been mlsslng lor lour
yeors,

(3) A person who hos been ln donger ol deolh
under olher clrcumslonces ond hls
exlslence hos nol been known lor lour yeors.

A|lhough 7 yeors ls requlred lor lhe presumpllon
ol deolh ol on obsenlee ln lhe CC, lhe |C mokes
on excepllon lor lhe purpose ol remorrloge by
|lmlllng such requlremenl lo 4 yeors.

Lllecls ol 1ermlnollon ol Blgomous Morrloge
under Arl. 42 K!"#$ A=' R(W !"#$ AA' R(L
Arl. 43:
(J) Chl|dren ol subsequenl morrloge
concelved prlor lo lls lermlnollon consldered
|eglllmole, cuslody ond supporl declded by
courl ln o proper proceedlng
(2) Properly reglme dlsso|ved ond |lquldoled
(porly ln bod lollh sho|| lorlell hlsJher shore
ln lovor ol lhe common chl|dren or ll lhere
ore none, chl|dren ol lhe gul|ly spouse by o
prevlous morrloge, ond ln cose lhere ore
none, lo lhe lnnocenl spouse)
(3) Donollon C">C#," -6C#@)* remolns vo|ld,
(bul ll lhe donee conlrocled morrloge ln bod
lollh, donollons ore revoked by operollon ol
|ow)
1+ $"2 #') +%34'*4 "*5 ("67$8 3%$"!7'*4 )797$ $"2

+",% .0
(4) lnsuronce benellls lnnocenl spouse moy
revoke deslgnollon ol gul|ly porly os
benellclory, even ll such deslgnollon ls
sllpu|oled os lrrevocob|e
(5) Successlon rlghls Porly ln bod lollh sho||
be dlsquo|llled lo lnherll lrom lhe lnnocenl
spouse, whelher leslole or lnleslole

Arllc|e 44 (Donollons):
ll bolh spouses ol lhe subsequenl morrloge
ocled ln bod lollh, o|| donollons by reoson ol
morrloge ond leslomenlory dlsposlllons mode
by one porly ln lovor ol lhe olher ore revoked by
operollon ol |ow.

")!7'* '3 5%(%*4% '( *1$$7!8

+3%4)37+!7'*

!"#$ =9' R($ 1he ocllon or delense lor lhe
dec|orollon ol obso|ule nu||lly ol o morrloge
sho|| nol prescrlbe. 7)* )+,-.,. /0 Q! :G==<

2;' 6"8 (7$% !;% +%!7!7'* ('3 *1$$7!8
On|y on oggrleved or lnjured spouse moy ll|e o
pellllon lor onnu|menl ol voldob|e morrloges or
dec|orollon ol obso|ule nu||lly ol vold morrloges.
Such pellllon connol be ll|ed by compu|sory or
lnleslole helrs ol lhe spouses or by lhe Slole.
1he Commlllee ls ol lhe be|lel lhol lhey do nol
hove o |ego| rlghl lo ll|e lhe pellllon.
Compu|sory or lnleslole helrs hove on|y lnchoole
rlghls prlor lo lhe deolh ol lhelr predecessor,
ond, hence, con on|y quesllon lhe vo|ldlly ol lhe
morrloge ol lhe spouses upon lhe deolh ol o
spouse ln o proceedlng lor lhe sell|emenl ol lhe
eslole ol lhe deceosed spouse ll|ed ln lhe regu|or
courls. |1-"@E> 5$ M,@"* >D IC*$ c,.@-)E,?@ 7&33J<'
)?*> ",@#,")#,. @- ()"?>* 5$ I)-.>5)? 7&33:<L


;'2 !' "!!")< " 9'75 6"337",%
Cenero| ru|e: vold morrloges moy be ollocked
co||olero||y or dlrecl|y.

Lxcepllon: A person ln o vold morrloge musl llrsl
ll|e lor o dec|orollon ol nu||lly ln order lo
subsequenl|y morry.



9'75"#$% '3 "**1$$"#$%
6"337",%
ln cose ellher or bolh ol lhe conlrocllng porlles,
nol hovlng been emonclpoled by o prevlous
morrloge, ore belween lhe oges ol elghleen ond
lwenly-one, ln oddlllon lo lhe requlremenls ol
lhe precedlng orllc|es:
(J) Lxhlbll lo lhe |oco| clvl| reglslror lhe consenl
lo lhelr morrloge ol lhelr lolher, molher,
survlvlng porenl or guordlon, or persons
hovlng |ego| chorge ol lhem, ln lhe order
menlloned
(2) Monllesled ln wrlllng by lhe lnleresled
porly, who persono||y oppeors belore lhe
proper |oco| clvl| reglslror, or
(3) ln lhe lorm ol on ollldovll mode ln lhe
presence ol lwo wllnesses ond ollesled
belore ony olllclo| oulhorlzed by |ow lo
odmlnlsler oolhs
(4) 1he persono| monlleslollon sho|| be
recorded ln bolh opp|lcollons lor morrloge
|lcense, ond lhe ollldovll, ll one ls execuled
lnsleod, sho|| be olloched lo sold
opp|lcollons. |!"# 8A' R(]

,3'1*54 ('3 "**1$6%*!
x x x A delecl ln ony ol lhe essenllo| requlslles
sho|| render lhe morrloge voldob|e os provlded
in Article 45. [!"#$ A' R(<

!"# AG' R(. Morrloge moy be onnu||ed on lhe
lo||owlng grounds exlsllng ol llme ol morrloge:
(J) One ol lhe porlles ls J8 or obove bul be|ow
2J yeors o|d, ond lhere ls no porenlo|
consenl.
(2) Lllher porly wos ol unsound mlnd (lnsonlly).
(3) 1he E>-*,-# ol ellher porly wos oblolned
lhrough lroud (dlllerenl lrom mlsloke ln
ldenllly)
(4) 1he consenl ol ellher porly wos oblolned
lhrough lorce, lnllmldollon, or undue
lnl|uence.
(5) Lllher porly ls physlco||y lncopob|e ol
consummollng lhe morrloge (lmpolence,
lhls ls dlllerenl lrom slerl|lly, whlch ls lhe
lnobl|lly lo produce ollsprlng).
(6) Lllher porly hos o serlous ond lncurob|e
sexuo||y-lronsmlsslb|e dlseose, even ll nol
conceo|ed.


1+ $"2 #') +%34'*4 "*5 ("67$8 3%$"!7'*4 )797$ $"2

+",% .:
"e]RUY ]U "YY\S
Acllon ln rem, concerns slolus ol porlles, res ls
re|ollon belween porlles or morrloge lle,
jurlsdlcllon depends on nollono|lly or domlcl|e
nol lhe p|oce ol ce|ebrollon.

,3'1*54 ('3 "**1$6%*! %E+$"7*%5

$Xeg Ua cXTVY]XS eUYQVY]
J8 x 2J wllhoul porenlo| consenl
Rolllled by porly J8 or obove bul be|ow 2J
upon lree cohobllollon upon reochlng 2J.
Porenls whose consenls were wonllng moy
rollly belore 2J, lhls rlghl con be wolved,
however, lhe Code Commlsslon be|leves lhol
no such rollllcollon con be mode by lhe
porenl. |4>?,-#@->L

ln delendlng lhe requlremenl ol porenlo|
consenl, lhe Courl he|d lhol lhe Slole hos
power lo moke odjuslmenls ln lhe
conslllullono| rlghls ol mlnors bosed on lhe
lo||owlng grounds: J) lhe pecu|lor vu|nerobl|lly
ol chl|dren, 2) lo prolecl mlnors lrom lmmolure
declslon moklng ond prevenl unslob|e
morrloges, 3) on lhe presumpllon lhol porenls
ocl ln lhe besl lnleresls ol lhelr chl|dren ln chl|d
reorlng. Kc>, 5$ O@-Z@-*' 789:8<L

7YQXYR]^
Menlo| lncopoclly or lnsonlly ls o vlce ol
consenl, lnsonlly
(J) ol vorylng degrees
(2) curob|e belng on l||ness copob|e ol
rollllcollon or convo|ldollon
(3) hos |ucld lnlervo|s
(4) ground on|y lor onnu|menl ln mony
counlrles
Con be rolllled by cohobllollon oller lnsonlly ls
cured or durlng o |ucld lnlervo|
Mere menlo| weokness ls nol o ground lor
onnu|menl, bul ll lound grove enough, ll moy
omounl lo psycho|oglco| lncopoclly.
lnloxlcollon, somnombu|lsm where one hod
no menlo| copoclly lo glve consenl ls
equlvo|enl lo lnsonlly
Musl exlsl ol lhe llme ol lhe ce|ebrollon ol lhe
morrloge. lnsonlly lhol occurs oller lhe
ce|ebrollon ol morrloge does nol conslllule o
couse lor nu||lly |f)#@C6-)- 5$ 4,->"@> 789=J<L
Low presumes sonlly, burden ol prool on porly
o||eglng lnsonlly

(TX\W
On|y lhose enumeroled ln Arl. 46:
(J) Non-dlsc|osure ol prevlous convlcllon by
llno| judgmenl ol o crlme lnvo|vlng moro|
lurpllude
(2) Conceo|menl by wlle ol lhe llme ol
morrloge, lhol she wos pregnonl by onolher
mon
(3) Conceo|menl ol S1D regord|ess ol nolure
exlsllng ol llme ol morrloge
(4) Conceo|menl ol drug oddlcllon, hoblluo|
o|coho|lsm, homosexuo|lly, |esblonlsm
exlsllng ol llme ol morrloge

No olher mlsrepresenlollon or decell ol
chorocler, heo|lh, ronk, lorlune or chosllly sho||
conslllule lroud.

Convlcllon ol crlme: requlslles ore
(J) Moro| lurpllude
(2) Convlcllon

Conceo|menl ol pregnoncy
|roud ogolnsl very essence ol morrloge,
lmporlonce ol procreollon ol chl|dren, on
ossou|l lo lhe lnlegrlly ol lhe unlon by
lnlroduclng o|len b|ood
ll husbond knew ol pregnoncy, lhe morrloge
connol be onnu||ed on lhe ground ol
conceo|menl

Moy be rolllled upon lree cohobllollon oller
know|edge ol lroud.

!"#$ AG I4O !"#$ A; I4O
Cround lor onnu|menl
1he S1D ls o lype ol
lroud whlch ls o
ground lor onnu|menl
Does nol hove lo be
conceo|ed
Musl be conceo|ed
Musl be serlous ond
lncurob|e
Need nol be serlous
nor lncurob|e
1he S1D llse|l ls lhe
ground lor onnu|menl
ll ls lhe conceo|menl
lhol glves rlse lo lhe
onnu|menl



1+ $"2 #') +%34'*4 "*5 ("67$8 3%$"!7'*4 )797$ $"2

+",% .?
Lllecl ol cure lo lroud ln Arl. 46:
Recovery or rehobl|llollon lrom S1D, drug
oddlcllon, ond hoblluo| o|coho|lsm wl|| nol bor
ocllon lor onnu|menl, lhe delecl ls nol lhe
dlseose, bul lhe |RAUD whlch vl1lA1LD
CONSLN1.

W gove blrlh 3 monlhs oller morrloge, H ll|ed
lor onnu|menl: conceo|menl ol non-vlrglnlly.
Denled. Courl he|d lhol ll wos unbe|levob|e lhol
husbond cou|d nol hove nollced when wlle hod
been ol |eosl 6 monlhs pregnonl prlor lo
morrloge. KF6EE)# 5$ c)-T>->- ., F6EE)#'
789A8<L

1he Supreme Courl gronled onnu|menl
becouse lhe wlle conceo|ed lhe locl lhol she
wos 4 monlhs pregnonl durlng lhe llme ol lhe
marriage. Since Delizo was naturally plump,
Aqulno cou|d hord|y be expecled lo know, by
mere |ooklng, whelher or nol she wos pregnonl
ol lhe llme ol lhe morrloge. K!a6@-> 5$ O,?@[>'
789;3<L

ll ls lhe conceo|menl ol homosexuo|lly, ond nol
homosexuo|lly per se, lhol vllloles lhe consenl
ol lhe lnnocenl porly. Such conceo|menl
presupposes bod lollh ond lnlenl lo delroud lhe
olher porly ln glvlng consenl lo lhe morrloge.
K!?+,?>" 5$ Q4(' 7&33:<L

(UTeVH RY]R_RWX]RUYH 1YW\V RYaS\VYeV
|ORCL musl be one os lo prevenl porly lrom
ocllng os o lree ogenl, wl|| deslroyed by
leorJcompu|slon

lN1lMlDA1lON musl be one os lo compe| lhe
porly by o reosonob|eJwe||-grounded leor ol on
lmmlnenl ond grove evl| upon hls
personJproperlles

DLCRLL O| lN1lMlDA1lON: oge, sex, condlllon
ol person borne ln mlnd
1hreol or lnllmldollon os nol lo ocl os |RLL
ACLN1, l.e. lhreolened by ormed
demonslrollons |4@>-TE> 5$ c)#@T\)]

Committee added undue influence, may be
compe||ed lo enler oul ol RLvLRLN1lAL |LAR
e.g., leor ol couslng dlslress lo porenls,
grondporenls, elc.

Moy be rolllled upon cohobllollon oller lorce,
lnllmldollon, or undue lnl|uence hos ceosed or
dlsoppeored.

7_cU]VYe^
Musl exlsl ol llme ol morrloge, ond be
conllnuous ond lncurob|e. ll lncopoclly con be
remedled or ls removob|e by operollon, NO1
ANNULLABLL |I)")> 5$ ^6,5)"")789A3<L

Physlco| condlllon: sexuo| lnlercourse wllh o
person ol lhe opposlle sex ls lmposslb|e, nol
mere slerl|lly

On|y lhe polenl spouse con ll|e lhe ocllon lor
onnu|menl ond heJshe musl nol hove been
aware of the others impotency at the time of
morrloge |I,+C@>\O@0]

ll heJshe wos owore, ll ls lmp|led lhol heJshe
renounced copu|ollon by consenllng lo lhe
morrloge. |4>?,-#@->]

When bolh spouses ore lmpolenl, morrloge
connol be onnu||ed becouse nellher spouse ls
oggrleved. |I,+C@>\O@0]
An lmpolenl p|olnllll cou|d nol hove expecled
copu|ollon wllh lhe olher spouse. |4>?,-#@->]

Polency presumed, porly who o||eges lmpolency
hos burden ol prool |]@+,-,[ 5$ ()-@[)",*
789;3)]

Reluso| ol wlle lo be exomlned DOLS NO1
PRLSUML lmpolency becouse |l|lplno women
ore lnherenl|y shy 8 boshlu|, 1C musl order
physlco| exomlnollon becouse wJo prool ol
lmpolency, she ls presumed polenl, lo order her
lo undergo physlco| exom does nol lnlrlnge her
rlghl ogolnsl se|l-lncrlmlnollon |]@+,-,[ 5$
()-@[)",*L
Nole: ll she conllnues lo reluse lhe physlco|
exom, she con be he|d ln conlempl 8 ordered
conllned ln jol| unll| she does so

Absence ol cohobllollon ls nol o ground lor
onnu|menl. KV@??)-6,5) 5*$ (! 7&33;<L

Re|ollve lmpolency moy now be lnvoked
becouse lhere ore coses where one ls lmpolenl
wllh respecl lo hlsJher spouse bul nol wllh
olher men or women.
1+ $"2 #') +%34'*4 "*5 ("67$8 3%$"!7'*4 )797$ $"2

+",% .G

Lxomp|e: penl|e erecllon lo olher women
posslb|e, unusuo||y |orge penls connol lll wllh
obnormo||y smo|| voglno

4Vd\XSS^D]TXYQ_RQQRfSV WRQVXQV QVTRU\Q XYW
RYe\TXfSV
Shou|d exlsl ol lhe llme ol lhe morrloge
Shou|d be lound serlous
Shou|d oppeor lo be lncurob|e
Reoson: donger lo lhe heo|lh ol spouse 8
ollsprlngJs
Some os lncurob|e lmpolency
Nol subjecl lo rollllcollon connol be
rolllled or convo|ldoled by cohobllollon:
(J) All|lcllon ol S1D ls unknown lo lhe olher
spouse KF)?)-,L
(2) 1he olher spouse musl o|so be lree lrom o
slml|or S1D. KF)?)-,L



2;' 6"8 (7$%H +3%4)37+!7'*H 3"!7(7)"!7'*

^">6-.
7!"#$ AG<
YU> E)- D@?,
7!"#$ AJ<
H",*E"@C#@>-
7!"#$ AJ<
Q)#@D@E)#@>-
7!"#$ AG<
Lock ol
porenlo|
consenl
Porly J8 or obove bul be|ow
2J
Wllhln 5 yeors oller
ollolnlng 2J. |ree cohobllollon oller
ollolnlng oge ol 2J. Porenl or guordlon who dld
nol glve consenl
Belore porly be|ow 2J
reoches 2J.
lnsonlly
Sone spouse wllh no
knowledge of the others
lnsonlly

Lego| guordlon ol lnsone
porly
Any llme belore lhe deolh
ol ellher porly |ree cohobllollon ol lnsone
porly oller lnsone porly
comes lo reoson
lnsone porly
Durlng |ucld lnlervo| or
oller regolnlng sonlly, ond
belore deolh
|roud
lnjured porly (delrouded
porly)
Wllhln 5 yeors oller
dlscovery ol lroud
|ree cohobllollon oller
hovlng lu|| know|edge ol
lroud
|orce,
lnllmldollon,
undue
lnl|uence
lnjured porly
Wllhln 5 yeors oller
dlsoppeoronce ol lorce,
undue lnl|uence, or
lnllmldollon
|ree cohobllollon oller lhe
lorce or lnllmldollon or
undue lnl|uence hos ceosed
or dlsoppeored
lmpolence Polenl spouse
Wllhln 5 yeors oller
morrloge
Connol be rolllled bul
ocllon prescrlbes
S1D Heo|lhy porly
Wllhln 5 yeors oller
morrloge
Connol be rolllled bul
ocllon prescrlbes
1+ $"2 #') +%34'*4 "*5 ("67$8 3%$"!7'*4 )797$ $"2

+",% .B
6XTTRX[VQ *U] 4\fhVe] ]U 3X]RaReX]RUYL
)UYPXSRWX]RUY f^ eUbXfR]X]RUY
(J) One spouse ls lncurob|y lmpolenl (Arl. 47, |C
prescrlpllon: 5 yeors)
(2) One spouse hos on lncurob|e S1D (Arl. 47, |C
prescrlpllon: 5 yeors)

+3%4%*)% '( +3'4%)1!'3

!"#$ A:' R($ 1o prevenl co||uslon belween lhe
porlles, lobrlcollon or suppresslon ol evldence, lhe
prosecullng ollorney or llsco| sho|| oppeor on
beho|l ol lhe Slole.

ln o |ego| seporollon or onnu|menl cose, lhe
prosecullng ollorney musl llrsl ru|e oul co||uslon
os o condlllon slne quo non lor lurlher
proceedlngs. A cerllllcollon by lhe proseculor
lhol he wos presenl durlng lhe heorlng ond even
cross-exomlned lhe p|olnllll does nol sulllce lo
comp|y wllh lhe mondolory requlremenl. K(>"C6[
5$ 2EU>#,",-)' 7&33A<L

%((%)! '( +%*57*,
")!7'*4L5%)3%%
(J) 1he courl sho|| provlde lor lhe supporl ol lhe
spouses,
(2) 1he cuslody ond supporl ol lhe common
chl|dren, glvlng poromounl conslderollon lo
lhelr moro| ond molerlo| we|lore, lhelr cholce
ol porenl wllh whom lhey wlsh lo remoln.
(3) 1he courl sho|| o|so provlde lor vlsllollon
rlghls ol olher porenl. |!"#$ A9' R(]

5%)747'*4 '* !;% *1$$7(7)"!7'* '( !;%
6"337",%

!"#$ A: 7&<' R(. ln lhe coses relerred lo ln lhe
precedlng porogroph, no judgmenl sho|| be bosed
upon o sllpu|ollon ol locls or conlesslon ol
judgmenl.

Sllpu|ollon ol locls An odmlsslon by bolh porlles
oller ogreelng lo lhe exlslence ol ony ol lhe
grounds or locls lhol wou|d conslllule o
voldJvoldob|e morrloge

Conlesslon ol judgmenl 1he odmlsslon by one
porly odmllllng hlsJher lou|l lo couse lhe
lnvo|ldlly ol lhe morrloge.

%((%)!4 '( *1$$7!8

!"#$ G378<' R($ 1he ellecls provlded lor by
porogrophs (2), (3), (4) ond (5) ol Arllc|e 43 ond by
Arllc|e 44 sho|| o|so opp|y ln lhe proper coses lo
morrloges whlch ore dec|ored vold ob lnlllo or
onnu||ed by llno| judgmenl under Arllc|es 40 ond
45.

|lno| judgmenl ln such coses sho|| provlde lor lhe:
(J) Llquldollon, porllllon, ond dlslrlbullon ol lhe
properlles ol lhe spouses
(2) Cuslody ond supporl ol lhe common chl|dren
(3) De|lvery ol lhelr presumpllve |eglllmes
(o) Un|ess such mollers hod been
odjudlcoled ln prevlous judlclo|
proceedlngs (Arl. 50(2))
(b) A|| credllors ol lhe spousesJproperly
reglme sho|| be nolllled ol lhe
proceedlngs lor |lquldollon |!"#$ G37& )-.
=<' R(]

ln lhe porllllon, lhe conjugo| dwe||lng ond |ol sho||
be odjudlcoled lo lhe spouse wllh whom mojorlly
ol lhe common chl|dren remoln |!"#*$ G37A<' 83&
)-. 8&9' R(]

Presumpllve |eglllmes, compuled os ol lhe dole ol
lhe llno| judgmenl, sho|| be de|lvered ln cosh,
properly or sound securllles:
Un|ess lhe porlles, by muluo| ogreemenl
judlclo||y opproved, hod o|reody provlded lor
such |!"#$ G878<' R(]
1he chl|drenJguordlonJlruslee ol properly moy
osk lor lhe enlorcemenl ol lhe judgmenl |!"#$
G87&<' R(]
1he de|lvery ol lhe presumpllve |eglllmes sho||
nol prejudlce lhe u|llmole successlono| rlghls,
bul lhe vo|ue ol lhe properlles o|reody recelved
sho|| be consldered os odvonces on lhelr
|eglllme |!"#$ G87=<' R(]

Cenero| ru|e: chl|dren born or concelved wllhln
vold morrloges ore l||eglllmole.

Lxcepllons:
(J) Chl|dren concelved or born belore lhe
judgmenl under Arllc|e 36 hos become llno|
ond execulory |!"#$ GA' R(]
(2) Chl|dren concelved or born ol subsequenl
morrloges under Arllc|e 53 !"#$ GA' R(]
1+ $"2 #') +%34'*4 "*5 ("67$8 3%$"!7'*4 )797$ $"2

+",% .C
>137457)!7'*
|or morrloges ce|ebroled under bolh clvl| ond
Muslim rites, Sharia courts do not have exc|uslve
jurlsdlcllon. 1he 1udlclory Reorgonlzollon Acl ol
J980 provlded lhol reglono| lrlo| courls hove
jurlsdlcllon over o|| ocllons lnvo|vlng lhe conlrocl
ol morrloge ond morllo| re|ollons$ K4)+)-> 5$
2"#@[' 7899:<L


Lego| Seporollon

,3'1*54 ('3 $%,"$
4%+"3"!7'*
Nole: 1he grounds lor |ego| seporollon ore
exc|uslve. |!"#$ GG' R(]

1hese musl be ll|ed wllhln 5 yeors oller
occurrence ol couse |!"#$ GJ' R(]:
(J) Repeoled physlco| vlo|ence or gross|y obuslve
conducl dlrecled ogolnsl lhe pelllloner, o
common chl|d, or o chl|d ol lhe pelllloner,
(2) Physlco| vlo|ence or moro| pressure lo compe|
lhe pelllloner lo chonge re|lglous or po|lllco|
olll|lollon,
(3) Allempl ol respondenl lo corrupl or lnduce
lhe pelllloner, o common chl|d, or o chl|d ol
lhe pelllloner, lo engoge ln proslllullon, or
connlvonce ln such corrupllon or
lnducemenl,
(4) |lno| judgmenl senlenclng lhe respondenl lo
lmprlsonmenl ol more lhon slx yeors, even ll
pordoned,
(5) Drug oddlcllon or hoblluo| o|coho|lsm ol lhe
respondenl,
(6) Lesblonlsm or homosexuo|lly ol lhe
respondenl,
(7) Conlrocllng by lhe respondenl ol o
subsequenl blgomous morrloge, whelher ln
lhe Phl|lpplnes or obrood,
(8) Sexuo| lnllde|lly or perverslon,
(9) Allempl by lhe respondenl ogolnsl lhe |lle ol
lhe pelllloner, or
(J0) Abondonmenl ol pelllloner by respondenl
wllhoul jusllllob|e couse lor more lhon one
yeor.

Adu|lery ls nol o conllnulng crlme, ll ls
consummoled ol every momenl ol corno|
know|edge. 1hus, every sexuo| ocl ls o ground lor
|ego| seporollon. KH,>C?, 5$ g)C)#) )-. F>-.>E
789G8<L

|or sexuo| lnllde|lly os o ground lor |ego|
seporollon, lhere ls no need lor o prlor convlcllon
lor concublnoge, becouse |ego| seporollon on|y
requlres o preponderonce ol evldence, os opposed
lo prool beyond reosonob|e doubl. K^)-.@>E> 5$
H,h)")-.) 789:9<L

1he deolh ol one porly ln o |ego| seporollon cose
oboles lhe ocllon. 1hls ls becouse lhe deolh ol
ellher spouse oulomollco||y dlsso|ves lhe
morrloge. An ocllon lor |ego| seporollon ls o|so
pure|y persono| belween lhe spouses. KN)C6[ I0 5$
16D,+@> 789J&<L$

Abondonmenl ls nol mere physlco| eslrongemenl
bul o|so llnonclo| ond moro| deserllon. 1here
musl be on obso|ule cessollon ol morllo|
re|ollons, dulles, ond rlghls wllh lhe lnlenllon ol
perpeluo| seporollon. KO,?) ("6[$ 5$ O,?) ("6[
789;:<L

")!4 '( 97'$%*)% "))'357*, !'
3" C.?.K
(J) Couslng physlco| horm lo lhe womon or her
chl|d,
(2) 1hreolenlng lo couse lhe womon or her chl|d
physlco| horm,
(3) Allempllng lo couse lhe womon or her chl|d
physlco| horm,
(4) P|oclng lhe womon or her chl|d ln leor ol
lmmlnenl physlco| horm,
(5) Allempllng lo compe| or compe||lng lhe
womon or her chl|d lo engoge ln conducl
whlch lhe womon or her chl|d hos lhe rlghl lo
deslsl lrom or deslsl lrom conducl whlch lhe
womon or her chl|d hos lhe rlghl lo engoge ln,
or ollempllng lo reslrlcl or reslrlcllng lhe
womon's or her chl|d's lreedom ol movemenl
or conducl by lorce or lhreol ol lorce, physlco|
or olher horm or lhreol ol physlco| or olher
horm, or lnllmldollon dlrecled ogolnsl lhe
womon or chl|d. 1hls sho|| lnc|ude, bul nol
|lmlled lo, lhe lo||owlng ocls commllled wllh
lhe purpose or ellecl ol conlro||lng or
reslrlcllng lhe womon's or her chl|d's
movemenl or conducl:
1+ $"2 #') +%34'*4 "*5 ("67$8 3%$"!7'*4 )797$ $"2

+",% /@
(o) 1hreolenlng lo deprlve or ocluo||y
deprlvlng lhe womon or her chl|d ol
cuslody lo herJhls loml|y,
(b) Deprlvlng or lhreolenlng lo deprlve lhe
womon or her chl|dren ol llnonclo| supporl
|ego||y due her or her loml|y, or
de|lberole|y provldlng lhe womon's
chl|dren lnsulllclenl llnonclo| supporl,
(c) Deprlvlng or lhreolenlng lo deprlve lhe
womon or her chl|d ol o |ego| rlghl,
(d) Prevenllng lhe womon ln engoglng ln ony
|eglllmole prolesslon, occupollon,
buslness or ocllvlly or conlro||lng lhe
vlcllm's own money or properlles, or so|e|y
conlro||lng lhe conjugo| or common
money, or properlles,
(6) lnl|lcllng or lhreolenlng lo lnl|lcl physlco|
horm on onese|l lor lhe purpose ol conlro||lng
her ocllons or declslons,
(7) Couslng or ollempllng lo couse lhe womon or
her chl|d lo engoge ln ony sexuo| ocllvlly whlch
does nol conslllule rope, by lorce or lhreol ol
lorce, physlco| horm, or lhrough lnllmldollon
dlrecled ogolnsl lhe womon or her chl|d or
herJhls lmmedlole loml|y,
(8) Lngoglng ln purposelu|, knowlng, or reck|ess
conducl, persono||y or lhrough onolher, lhol
o|orms or couses subslonllo| emollono| or
psycho|oglco| dlslress lo lhe womon or her
chl|d. 1hls sho|| lnc|ude, bul nol be |lmlled lo,
lhe lo||owlng ocls:
(o) Slo|klng or lo||owlng lhe womon or her
chl|d ln pub|lc or prlvole p|oces,
(b) Peerlng ln lhe wlndow or |lngerlng oulslde
lhe resldence ol lhe womon or her chl|d,
(c) Lnlerlng or remolnlng ln lhe dwe||lng or
on lhe properly ol lhe womon or her chl|d
ogolnsl herJhls wl||,
(d) Deslroylng lhe properly ond persono|
be|onglngs or lnl|lcllng horm lo onlmo|s
or pels ol lhe womon or her chl|d, ond
(e) Lngoglng ln ony lorm ol horossmenl or
vlo|ence,
(9) Couslng menlo| or emollono| ongulsh, pub|lc
rldlcu|e or huml|lollon lo lhe womon or her
chl|d, lnc|udlng, bul nol |lmlled lo, repeoled
verbo| ond emollono| obuse, ond denlo| ol
llnonclo| supporl or cuslody ol mlnor chl|dren
ol occess lo lhe womon's chl|dJchl|dren.



5%(%*4%4

,3'1*54 ('3 5%*87*, $%,"$
4%+"3"!7'*
(J) Condonollon by oggrleved porly K!rl$ G;' R(L
(2) Consenl by oggrleved porly lo lhe commlsslon
ol lhe ollense K!rl$ G;' R(L
(3) Connlvonce belween porlles ln lhe
commlsslon ol lhe ollense K!rl$ G;' R(L
(4) Muluo| gul|l or recrlmlnollon belween
spouses ln lhe commlsslon ol ony ground lor
|ego| seporollon K!rl$ G;' R(L
(5) Co||uslon belween porlles lo obloln decree ol
|ego| seporollon K!rl$ G;' R(L
(6) Prescrlpllon ol ocllon lor |ego| seporollon |!"#$
GJ' R(e G 0,)"* D">+ >EE6"",-E, >D #U, E)6*, >D
)E#@>-]
(7) Reconcl|lollon ol porlles durlng pendency ol
ocllon |!"#$ ;; 78<' R(]
(8) Deolh ol ellher porly durlng pendency ol
ocllon |N)C6[\I0 5*$ 16D,+@>]

2;%* !' (7$%L!38 ")!7'*4
An ocllon lor |ego| seporollon sho|| be ll|ed wllhln
llve yeors lrom lhe llme ol lhe occurrence ol lhe
couse. |!"#$ GJ' R(]

)''$7*,D'(( +%37'5 "*5
3%)'*)7$7"!7'* %(('3!4
Acllon connol be lrled belore slx monlhs hove
e|opsed lrom lhe ll|lng ol lhe pellllon |!"#$ G:' R(]

Acllons connol be lrled un|ess lhe courl hos
ollempled lo reconcl|e lhe spouses, ond
delermlned lhol desplle such ellorls,
reconcl|lollon ls hlgh|y lmprobob|e |!"#$ G9' R(]

Nole: 1hls ls wllhoul prejudlce lo judlclo|
delermlnollon ol cuslody ol chl|dren, o|lmony, ond
supporl C,-.,-#, ?@#,$

Courls con sll|| reso|ve olher lssues, pendlng lhe
wolllng perlod or coo|lng oll perlod. ln reso|vlng
olher lssues, courls shou|d lry nol lo louch, os
much os posslb|e, on lhe moln lssue (l.e. odu|lery
ll lhol ls lhe ground used). However, Courl musl
sll|| recelve evldence ll jusl lo sell|e lncldenlo|
lssues ol supporl ond cuslody. K!")-,#) 5*$
(>-E,CE@>-' 789G;<L

1+ $"2 #') +%34'*4 "*5 ("67$8 3%$"!7'*4 )797$ $"2

+",% /-
Nole: 1hls provlslon ol lhe |oml|y Code dlclollng o
mondolory 6-monlh coo|lng-oll perlod does nol
opp|y ln coses where vlo|ence, os used ln RA 9262
(Anll-vlo|ence Agolnsl Women ond lhelr
Chl|dren), ls o||eged. 1he cose shou|d be heord os
soon os posslb|e by lhe courl.

)'*(%447'* '( >15,6%*!
No decree ol |ego| seporollon sho|| be bosed upon
o sllpu|ollon ol locls or o conlesslon ol judgmenl
|!"#$ ;3' 78<$ R(]

Nole: Arl. 60 por. J opp|les on|y ll lhe judgmenl
wos bosed so|e|y on lhe sllpu|ollon ol locls or
so|e|y on lhe conlesslon ol judgmenl. 1hus, ll
olher grounds were used, Arl. 60 por. J ls nol
opp|lcob|e. |F)?)-,]

1he prohlblllon on conlesslon ol judgmenl does
nol meon lhol lhe Courl wl|| nol gronl pellllon ll
one porly odmlls lo belng gul|ly ol lhe chorges ol
odu|lery. 1he polnl ol lhls provlslon ls lhol lhe
Courl shou|d sll|| odmll evldence, nol declde jusl
bosed on on odmlsslon ol gul|l. Becouse whol ls
prohlblled ls hondlng down o decree ol |ego|
seporollon bosed so|e|y on o conlesslon ol
judgmenl. K2E)+C> 5 R?>",-E@)-> 789;3<L

%((%)!4 '( (7$7*, +%!7!7'*
(J) 1he spouses ore enlll|ed lo |lve seporole|y, bul
lhe morllo| bond ls nol severed. |!"#$ ;8 78<' R(]
(2) Admlnlslrollon ol communlly or conjugo|
properly ll lhere ls no wrlllen ogreemenl
belween lhe porlles, lhe courl sho|| deslgnole
one ol lhem or o lhlrd person lo odmlnlsler
lhe ACP or CPC. |!"#$ ;87&<' R(]

%((%)!4 '( +%*5%*)8
1he Courl sho|| provlde lor: |!"#$ ;&' ED$ !"#$ A9$ R(L
(J) Supporl ol spouses
(2) Cuslody ol chl|dren lhe courl sho|| glve
cuslody ol chl|dren lo one ol lhem, ll lhere ls
no wrlllen ogreemenl belween lhe spouses.
(3) vlsllollon rlghls ol lhe olher spouse

%((%)!4 '( $%,"$ 4%+"3"!7'*
(J) 1he spouses con |lve seporole|y |!"#$ ;=' R(]
bul lhe morrloge bonds ore nol severed.
(2) 1he ACP or CPC sho|| be dlsso|ved ond
|lquldoled, ond lhe shore ol lhe gul|ly spouse
sho|| be lorlelled ln lovor lhe common
chl|dren, prevlous chl|dren, or lnnocenl
spouse, ln lhol order |!"#$ ;=$ ED$ !"#$ A=7&<'
R(].
(3) Cuslody ol lhe mlnor chl|dren sho|| be
oworded lo lhe lnnocenl spouse |!"#$ ;=' ED$
!"# &8=' R(]
(4) Cul|ly spouse sho|| be dlsquo|llled lrom
lnherlllng lrom lnnocenl spouse by lnleslole
successlon. 1he provlslons ln lovor ol lhe
gul|ly porly ln lhe wl|| ol lhe lnnocenl spouse
sho|| o|so be revoked by operollon ol |ow. |!"#$
;=' R(]
(5) Donollons ln lovor ol lhe gul|ly spouse moy be
revoked |!"#$ ;A' R(] bul lhls ocllon prescrlbes
oller 5 yeors lrom lhe decree ol |ego|
seporollon.
(6) lnnocenl spouse moy o|so revoke deslgnollon
ol gul|ly spouse os benellclory ln on lnsuronce
po|lcy, even ll such sllpu|ollons ore
lrrevocob|e. |!"#$ ;A$ R(' ED$ HO ;8&' *,E$ 88]
(7) Ob|lgollon lor muluo| supporl ceoses, bul lhe
courl moy order lhe gul|ly spouse lo supporl
lhe lnnocenl spouse. |!"#$ 89:' R(]
(8) 1he wlle sho|| conllnue lo use lhe surnome ol
lhe husbond even oller lhe decree lor |ego|
seporollon. |N)C,")? 5$ Q,C6/?@E 7899&)]

3%)'*)7$7"!7'*
Shou|d lhe spouses reconcl|e, lhey shou|d ll|e o
correspondlng jolnl monlleslollon under oolh ol
such reconcl|lollon, du|y slgned by lhem ond ll|ed
wllh lhe courl ln lhe some proceedlng lor |ego|
seporollon. |!"#$ ;G' R(]

Lllecls ol reconcl|lollon:
(J) Proceedlngs lor |ego| seporollon sho|| be
lermlnoled ol wholever sloge. |Arl. 66, |C]
(2) ll lhere ls o llno| decree ol |ego| seporollon, ll
sho|| be sel oslde. |Arl. 66, |C]
(3) 1he seporollon ol properly ond lorlellure ol
shore ol gul|ly spouse sho|| subslsl, un|ess lhe
spouses ogree lo revlve lhelr lormer properly
reglme or lo lnslllule onolher properly
reglme. |Arl. 66 cl. Arl. 67, |C]
(4) 1olnl cuslody ol chl|dren ls reslored.
(5) 1he rlghl lo lnleslole successlon by gul|ly
spouse lrom lnnocenl spouse ls reslored.
1he rlghl lo leslomenlory successlon
depends on lhe wl|| ol lhe lnnocenl spouse.
1+ $"2 #') +%34'*4 "*5 ("67$8 3%$"!7'*4 )797$ $"2

+",% /.
"**%E !' 9'75 "*5 9'75"#$% 6"337",%4
"*5 $%,"$ 4%+"3"!7'*

,3'1*54

V>@. c)""@)T,* V>@.)/?, c)""@)T,* N,T)? I,C)")#@>-
(J) One ls o mlnor
(2) No oulhorlly lo morry
(3) No vo|ld morrloge
|lcense
(4) Blgomous ond
po|ygomous morrloges
(5) Mlsloke ol ldenllly
(6) vold subsequenl
morrloge
(7) Psycho|oglco|
lncopoclly
(8) lncesluous Morrloges
(9) Morrloges ogolnsl
pub|lc po|lcy
(J) Lock ol porenlo|
consenl
(2) lnsonlly
(3) |roud
(4) |orce, lnllmldollon
or Undue lnl|uence
(5) lmpolence
(6) Serlous ond
lncurob|e S1D
(J) Repeoled physlco| vlo|ence
(2) Pressure lo compe| lo chonge
re|lglousJpo|lllco| olll|lollons
(3) Corrupllon J lnducemenl lo engoge ln
proslllullon
(4) |lno| judgmenl wllh senlence ol more lhon
6 yrs.
(5) Drug oddlcllon J hoblluo| o|coho|lsm
(6) Homosexuo|lly J |esblonlsm
(7) Blgomous morrloge
(8) Sexuo| lnllde|lly
(9) Allempls ogolnsl lhe |lle ol pelllloner
(J0) Abondonmenl wllhoul jusl couse lor more
lhon J yeor

%((%)!4 '( (7$7*, L +%*57*, 5%)3%%

V>@.PV>@.)/?, c)""@)T,* N,T)? I,C)")#@>-
Supporl lor lhe spouses
Cuslody ond supporl lor lhe chl|dren
vlsllollon rlghls lo lhe olher spouse

%((%)!4 '( "((75"97! '( 3%"++%"3"*)%H >157)7"$ 5%)$"3"!7'* '(
*1$$7!8H "**1$6%*! "*5 $%,"$ 4%+"3"!7'*

V>@. c)""@)T,* 4,"+@-)#,. c)""@)T,
K!"#$ A8' R(L
V>@.)/?,
c)""@)T,*
N,T)? I,C)")#@>-
I#)#6* >D c)"@#)? #@,*
Severed Severed Severed Nol Severed
Slolus ol Morrloge
vold ob lnlllo Subsequenl morrloge
ls lermlnoled (nol
lnvo|ldoled)
vold vo|ld
I#)#6* >D (U@?.",- />"- )-. E>-E,@5,. /,D>", #,"+@-)#@>-
l||eglllmole
LXCLP1: Arl. 36 ond 35
concelved ond born belore
judgmenl (|eglllmole)
Leglllmole Leglllmole Leglllmole
(6*#>.0 >D (U@?.",-
Courl Proceedlng Courl Proceedlng Courl Proceedlng lnnocenl Spouse

1+ $"2 #') +%34'*4 "*5 ("67$8 3%$"!7'*4 )797$ $"2

+",% //
%((%)!4 '( "((75"97! '( 3%"++%"3"*)%H >157)7"$ 5%)$"3"!7'* '(
*1$$7!8H "**1$6%*! "*5 $%,"$ 4%+"3"!7'* I)'*!7*1"!7'*J

V>@. c)""@)T,* 4,"+@-)#,. c)""@)T,
K!"#$ A8' R(L
V>@.)/?,
c)""@)T,*
N,T)? I,C)")#@>-
H">C,"#0 Q,?)#@>-*
(J) Dlsso|ullon ond Llquldollon ol properlles
(o) Cul|lyJBod |ollh spouse wl|| lorlell hlsJher shore lrom lhe Nel Prollls lo lhe (ln order):
(l) Common chl|dren
(ll) Chl|dren ol lhe gul|ly spouse by prevlous morrloge
(lll) 1he lnnocenl spouse
(2) Nollllcollon ol credllors wllh lhe proceedlngs lor |lquldollon
(3) Conjugo| dwe||lng lo be odjudlcoled lo lhe spouse who hos cuslody ol mojorlly ol common chl|dren
(4) lnsuronce po|lcy moy be revoked on|y by lhe lnnocenl spouse (Lego| Seporollon: On|y wllhln 5 yeors)
(5) Spouse ln bod lollhJgul|ly sho|| be dlsquo|llled lo lnherll lrom lnnocenl spouse (lnleslole successlon
on|y ln |ego| seporollon)
O>-)#@>- H">C#," b6C#@)*
vo|ld, bul ll donee conlrocled morrloge ln bod lollh, revoked by operollon ol
|ow
Moy be revoked wllhln 5
yeors
Rlghls ond Ob|lgollons
Belween Husbond ond
Wlle

%44%*!7"$ '#$7,"!7'*4
(J) Llve logelher (cohobllollon) |!"#$ ;:' R(]

Lxcepllon: One spouse |lvlng obrood or
lhere ore vo|ld ond compe||lng reosons |!"#$
;9 7&<' R(] ol lhe dlscrellon ol lhe courl.

Lxcepllon lo excepllone lncompollbl|lly wllh
lhe so|ldorlly ol lhe loml|y |!"#$ ;9 7&<' R(]

(2) Observe muluo| |ove, respecl, ond llde|lly

(3) Render muluo| he|p ond supporl |!"#$ ;:'
R(]

A person hos o pure|y persono| rlghl lo
consorllum (Conslllullono| rlghl lo |lberly).
Courl connol order o mon lo go bock lo lhe
conjugo| dwe||lng. (Shows lhol whol ls ln
|oml|y Code ls nol lhe lormer spouso| unlly
doclrlne (O|d Lng|ond)). KS?6*>"@> 5$ F@?.-,"
7&333<L

ll lhe wlle obondons lhe loml|y domlcl|e (vs
ob|lgollon ol cohobllollon) wllh jusllllob|e
couse l.e. belng lorced lo perlorm |ewd
sexual acts, the husbands obligation to
supporl her ls nol lermlnoled. 1he |ow wl||
nol permll lhe husbond lo lermlnole lhe
ob|lgollon lo supporl hls wlle by hls own
wronglu| ocls ln drlvlng lhe wlle lo seek
protection in her parents home. K^>@#@) 5$
()+C>* Q6,.) 7898;<L

A courl connol compe| o morrled womon lo
go bock lo her husbond, bul lhe courl moy
decree lhol supporl be lermlnoled. K!"">0>
5$ V)*a6,[ ., !"">0> 789&8<L

("67$8 5'67)7$%
1he husbond ond wlle sho|| llx lhe loml|y
domlcl|e. |!"#$ ;9' R(]

ln cose ol dlsogreemenl, lhe courl sho|| declde.
|!"#$ ;9 78<' R(]

41++'3!
|rom lhe conjugo| properly, ll none, lncome or
lhe lrulls ol lhelr seporole properlles, ll none,
lrom lhelr seporole properlles (|lob|e ln
proporllon lo lhelr properlles).

1+ $"2 #') +%34'*4 "*5 ("67$8 3%$"!7'*4 )797$ $"2

+",% /0
6"*",%6%*! '( ;'14%;'$5
1hls ls lhe rlghl ond duly ol bolh spouses.

%((%)! '( *%,$%)! '( 51!8
ln cose lhe olher spouse neg|ecls hls or her
dulles or commlls ocls whlch lend lo brlng
donger, dlshonor or lnjury lo lhe loml|y, lhe
oggrleved porly moy opp|y lo lhe courl lor re|lel.
|Arl. 72, |C]

lnjury conlemp|oled ls physlco|, moro|,
emollono| or psycho|oglco|, nol llnonclo|.

%E%3)74% '( +3'(%447'*
Lllher spouse moy exerclse ony |eglllmole
prolesslon, wllhoul need lor consenl ol lhe
olher.

1he olher spouse moy on|y objecl on vo|ld,
serlous, ond moro| grounds.

ln cose ol dlsogreemenl, lhe Courl sho|| declde
whelher:
(J) 1he objecllon ls proper, ond
(2) Benelll hos occrued lo lhe loml|y belore OR
oller lhe objecllon.

ll BL|ORL lhe objecllon, enlorce resu|llng
ob|lgollon ogolnsl lhe seporole properly ol lhe
spouse who hos nol oblolned consenl. |!"#$
J='R(]

Properly Re|ollons ol lhe
Spouses

6"337",% 4%!!$%6%*!4

!"#$ JG' R(. |ulure spouses moy ogree upon, ln
lhe morrloge sell|emenl, whlch properly reglme
wl|| govern lhelr morrloge (ACP, CPC, comp|ele
seporollon ol properly, olher reglmes). However,
ln lhe obsence ol o morrloge sell|emenl, or
when lhe reglme ogreed upon ls vold, lhe
syslem ol obso|ule communlly ol properly os
eslob|lshed by lhls Code sho|| govern.

Morrloge sell|emenls ore consldered occessory
lo lhe morrloge, lherelore os per Arl. 8J,
sllpu|ollons ln conslderollon ol lulure morrloge
ond donollons wl|| be vold ll lhe morrloge does
nol loke p|oce.

6"337",% 4%!!$%6%*! 31$%4

YU,- +>.@D@E)#@>-* E)-
/, +).,
Cenero| ru|e: Belore morrloge ls ce|ebroled |!"#$ J;' R(]
Properly reglme ls dlsso|ved ond |lquldoled |!"#$ ;=7&<' R(]
Reconcl|lollon ln cose ol |ego| seporollon |!"#*$ ;; )-. ;J' R(]
When obondoned spouse pellllons lhe courl lor judlclo| seporollon ol properly
|!"#$ 8&:' R(]
Sulllclenl couse lor judlclo| seporollon ol properly |!"#$ 8=G' R(]
vo|unlory dlsso|ullon ol ACP or CPC by lhe spouses |!"#$ 8=;' R(]
Q,a6@",+,-#* >D
+)""@)T, *,##?,+,-#*
)-. )-0 +>.@D@E)#@>-
#U,",>D K!"#$ JJ' R(L
Mode ln wrlllng
Slgned by lhe porlles
Lxeculed belore lhe morrloge ce|ebrollon
Nol lo prejudlce lhlrd persons un|ess reglslered ln lhe |oco| clvl| reglslry where
lhe morrloge ls recorded ond ln reglslrles ol properly
ll execuled by o person be|ow 2J y.o., vo|ld on|y when persons requlred lo glve
consenl lo lhe morrloge (lolher, molher, or guordlon, respecllve|y) ore mode
porlles lo lhe ogreemenl |!"#$ J:' R(]
ll execuled by o person upon whom clvl| lnlerdlcllon hos been pronounced or
who ls subjecl lo ony olher dlsobl|lly, vo|ld on|y when hls guordlon oppolnled
by o compelenl courl ls mode porly lo lhe ogreemenl |!"#$ J9' R(]


1+ $"2 #') +%34'*4 "*5 ("67$8 3%$"!7'*4 )797$ $"2

+",% /:
5'*"!7'*4 #8 3%"4'* '(
6"337",%
I>?@* 5$ F)"">*> 789&:<e ln donollons C">C#,"
-6C#@)*, lhe morrloge ls reo||y o conslderollon,
bul nol ln lhe sense ol glvlng blrlh lo lhe
ob|lgollon. 1here con be o vo|ld donollon even ll
lhe morrloge never look p|oce, bul lhe obsence
ol morrloge ls o ground lor lhe revocollon ol lhe
donollon.
c)#,> 5$ N)T6) 789;9<e Donollons C">C#,"
-6C#@)* ore wllhoul onerous conslderollon,
morrloge belng mere|y lhe occoslon or mollve
lor lhe donollon, nol lls couse. Belng |lbero|llles,
lhey remoln subjecl lo reducllon lor
inofficiousness upon the donors death, if they
shou|d lnlrlnge lhe |eglllme ol o lorced helr.



Q,a6@*@#,* >D
.>-)#@>-* C">C#,"
-6C#@)*
Mode belore lhe ce|ebrollon ol morrloge
Mode ln conslderollon ol morrloge
ln lovor ol one or bolh ol lhe lulure spouses
Donor musl be one ol lhe belrolhed or ony lhlrd person
O>-)#@>-* ,BE?6.,.
Ordlnory weddlng gllls glven oller lhe ce|ebrollon ol lhe morrloge
Donollons ln lovor ol lulure spouses mode belore morrloge bul nol ln
conslderollon lhereol
Donollons mode ln lovor ol persons olher lhon lhe spouses even ll lounded on lhe
lnlended morrloge
YU> +)0 .>-)#,
Spouses lo eoch olher
Porenls ol one or bolh spouses
1hlrd persons lo ellher or bolh spouses
I>6"E,* >D "6?,*
T>5,"-@-T .>-)#@>-*
C">C#," -6C#@)*
|oml|y code provlslons |!"#*$ :&\:J' R(]
Ordlnory donollon provlslons |!"#$ :=W 4@#?, SSS >D F>>Z SSS' b((]
Provlslons on leslomenlory successlon ond lhe lormo|llles ol wl||s lor donollons on
lulure properly |!"#$ :A' C)"$ &' R(]
Q6?,* D>" .>-)#@>-*
/,D>", +)""@)T,
Cenero| ru|e: |ulure spouses who ogree upon o reglme olher lhon ACP connol
donole lo eoch olher more lhon JJ5 ol lhelr presenl properly (excess sho|| be
consldered vold). |!"#$ :A' R(]
Donollons ol properly subjecl lo encumbronces
(J) Are consldered vo|ld.
(2) ln cose ol lorec|osure:
(o) ll properly vo|ue ob|lgollon, donee sho|| nol be |lob|e lor lhe dellclency
(b) ll properly vo|ue > ob|lgollon, donee sho|| be enlll|ed lo lhe excess |!"#$ :G'
R(]
^">6-.* D>"
",5>E)#@>- >D
.>-)#@>- C">C#,"
-6C#@)* K!"#$ :;' R(L
(J) ll lhe morrloge ls nol ce|ebroled or judlclo||y dec|ored vold ob lnlllo, excepl
donollons mode ln morrloge sell|emenls.
(2) When lhe morrloge lokes p|oce wllhoul lhe consenl ol lhe porenls or
guordlons, os requlred by |ow.
(3) When lhe morrloge ls onnu||ed, ond lhe donee ocled ln bod lollh.
(4) Upon |ego| seporollon, ll lhe donee ls lhe gul|ly spouse.
(5) ll lhere ls o reso|ulory condlllon, ond ll ls nol comp|led wllh.
(6) When donee hos commllled on ocl ol lngrolllude: |!"#$ J;G' ((]
(o) An ollense ogolnsl person or properly ol donor, or hls wlle or chl|dren
under porenlo| oulhorlly.
(b) An lmpulollon lo lhe donor ol ony crlmlno| ollense, or ony ocl lnvo|vlng
moro| lurpllude, even ll proven, un|ess lhe crlme ls commllled ogolnsl lhe
donee, hls wlle or chl|dren under hls oulhorlly.
(c) Reluslng lo supporl lhe donor, ll heJshe ls |ego||y requlred lo do so.
1+ $"2 #') +%34'*4 "*5 ("67$8 3%$"!7'*4 )797$ $"2

+",% /?
1DD,E#* >D _6.@E@)?
.,E?)")#@>- >D -6??@#0
Donollons by reoson ol morrloge sho|| remoln vo|ld excepl lhol ll lhe donee
conlrocled morrloge ln bod lollh, such donollons mode lo sold donee ore revoked
by operollon ol |ow. |Arl. 43 (3), |C]
Revocollon by operollon ol |ow 1hus, even ll spouse ln good lollh condones lhe
donee, lhe donollon C">C#," -6C#@)* ls sll|| lorlelled.
Lllecls provlded lor by Arl. 43(2), (3), (4), ond (5) ond by Arl. 44 sho|| o|so opp|y lo
morrloges lhol ore dec|ored vold )/ @-@#@> or onnu||ed by llno| judgmenl under
Arllc|e 40 (1udlclo| dec|orollon ol nu||lly) ond 45 (voldob|e morrloges). |!"#$ G3,
R(]
Q6?,* D>" .>-)#@>-*
.6"@-T +)""@)T,
Cenero| ru|e: Spouses connol donole lo eoch olher, dlrecl|y or lndlrecl|y,
donollons mode by spouses lo eoch olher durlng lhe morrloge ore vold. |!"#$ :J'
R(L
1hese donollons reler lo donollons @-#," 5@5>* |4>?,-#@->]
Lxcepllon: Moderole gllls on lhe occoslon ol ony loml|y rejolclng.
1he prohlblllon on donollons con on|y be ossol|ed by persons who beor such
re|ollon lo lhe porlles or lhe properly llse|l, lhol lhelr rlghls ore belng lnlerlered
wllh. Here, lhe lnsuronce compony ol lhe donoled cor connol ossol| lhe vo|ldlly ol
the donation. In addition, the codal exception of moderate gifts depends on lhe
income class of the spouses and a car could be considered a moderate gift that
does nol lnlrlnge lhe prohlblllon ol donollon belween spouses. |M)".@-T 5$
(>++,"E@)? `-@>-' 7898:<L
A spouse connol donole lo persons whlch lhe olher spouse moy lnherll lrom os ll
conslllules on lndlrecl donollon. |b)[)",-> 5$ F@">T' 789AJ<L
Q6?,* D>" .>-)#@>-*
/,#X,,- E>++>-\
?)X *C>6*,*
1he donollon belween common-|ow spouses lo||s wllhln lhe provlslon prohlblllng
donollons belween spouses durlng morrloge. Kc)#)/6,-) 5 (,"5)-#,*' 789J8<L
1he donollon mode by o mon lo o womon wos he|d vo|ld becouse no prool wos
shown lhol lhey were sll|| |lvlng ln o common-|ow re|ollonshlp ol lhe llme ol lhe
donollon. KI6+/). 5$ (!' 78999<L

574!7*,174;%5 (3'6 '357*"38 5'*"!7'*4

O>-)#@>-* C">C#," -6C#@)* 2".@-)"0 .>-)#@>-*
Does nol requlre express occeplonce Lxpress occeplonce necessory
Moy be mode by mlnors |!"#$ J:' R(] Connol be mode by mlnors
Moy lnc|ude lulure properly Connol lnc|ude lulure properly
ll presenl properly ls donoled ond properly ls nol
obso|ule communlly, |lmlled lo JJ5 |!"#$ :A' R(]
No |lmll lo donollon ol presenl properly provlded
|eglllmes ore nol lmpolred
Crounds lor revocollon ln Arl. 86 Crounds lor revocollon ln donollon |ows



1+ $"2 #') +%34'*4 "*5 ("67$8 3%$"!7'*4 )797$ $"2

+",% /G
"#4'$1!% )'661*7!8 '(
+3'+%3!8 "*5 )'*>1,"$
+"3!*%34;7+ '( ,"7*4

!"#$ :3' R($ ln obsence ol o conlrory sllpu|ollon ln
o morrloge sell|emenl, properly re|ollons belween
|l|lplno spouses ore governed by Phl|lpplne |ows,
regord|ess ol lhe p|oce ol morrloge ond lhelr
resldence.

Cenero| ru|e: By lhe Nollono|lly Ru|e |!"#$ 8G, R(],
lhe ru|e lhol Abso|ule Communlly Properly (ACP)
ls lhe delou|l mode ol properly re|ollons obsenl
ony morrloge sell|emenl opp|les lo o|| |l|lplnos,
regord|ess ol lhe p|oce ol lhe morrloge ond lhelr
resldence.

Lxcepllons:
(J) Where bolh spouses ore o|lens
(2) As lo lhe exlrlnslc vo|ldlly ol conlrocls
ollecllng properly nol slluoled ln lhe
Phl|lpplnes ond execuled ln lhe counlry where
lhe properly ls |ocoled
(3) As lo lhe exlrlnslc vo|ldlly ol conlrocls enlered
lnlo ln lhe Phl|lpplnes bul ollecllng properly
slluoled ln o lorelgn counlry whose |ows
requlre dlllerenl lormo|llles lor lls exlrlnslc
vo|ldlly

!"#$ :8, R(. Lverylhlng sllpu|oled ln morrloge
sell|emenls ln conslderollon ol o lulure morrloge
ore vold ll morrloge does nol loke p|oce. However,
sllpu|ollons lhol do nol depend upon lhe
ce|ebrollon ol morrloge (e.g. recognlllon ol
polernlly ol l||eglllmole chl|d) remoln vo|ld.

!"#$ :9' R($ Wolver ol rlghls, lnleresls, shores ond
ellecls ol lhe obso|ule communlly ol properly ls
o||owed, excepl ln lhe lo||owlng coses:
(J) When lhere ls judlclo| seporollon ol properly
(2) When lhe morrloge ls dlsso|ved by deolh ol
one ol lhe spouses
(3) When lhe morrloge ls onnu||ed

Regordlng Arl. 89: 1he credllors ol lhe spouse
who mode such wolver moy pellllon lhe courl lo
resclnd lhe wolver lo lhe exlenl ol lhe omounl
sulllclenl lo cover lhe omounl ol lhelr credlls.

!"#$ 93' R($ Co-ownershlp ru|es sho|| opp|y lo ACP
ln mollers nol provlded by lhe |oml|y Code.


















































1+ $"2 #') +%34'*4 "*5 ("67$8 3%$"!7'*4 )797$ $"2

+",% /B

)'6+"374'* '( ")+ "*5 )+,

!FI2N`41 (2cc`bS4i HQ2H1Q4i (2b]`^!N H!Q4b1QIMSH 2R ^!SbI
YU,- @#
E>++,-E,*
Al lhe preclse momenl ol lhe ce|ebrollon ol lhe
morrloge |!"#$ ::' R(L
Delou|l properly reglme lor morrloges
ce|ebroled /,D>", lhe |oml|y Code look ellecl
(Augusl 3, J988)
|or morrloges oller lhe |oml|y Code, ll ogreed
lo by lhe porlles lhrough o morrloge
sell|emenl.
YU)# @#
E>-*@*#* >D
A|| lhe properly owned by lhe spouses ol lhe llme
ol lhe ce|ebrollon ol lhe morrloge or ocqulred
lhereoller |!"#$ 98' R(L
Proceeds, producls, lrulls, ond lncome ol lhelr
seporole properlles
Lverylhlng ocqulred by lhem wllhln morrloge
lhrough lhelr own ellorls
Under lhe ACP, spouses connol exc|ude speclllc
properlles lrom lhe reglme.
Lverylhlng ocqulred by lhem by chonce
Wlnnlngs lrom gomb|lng sho|| occrue lo lhe
communlly properly |!"#$ 9G' R(L
Speclllc properlles |!"#$ 88J' R(]
(J) Acqulred by onerous lll|e durlng lhe
morrloge ol lhe expense ol lhe common
lund,
(2) Acqulred lhrough lhe |obor, lnduslry, work,
or prolesslon ol ellher or bolh spouses
(3) |rulls lrom common properly ond nel
lrulls ol lhe exc|uslve properly ol eoch
spouse
(4) Shore ol ellher spouse ln hldden lreosure,
whelher os llnder or owner ol properly
where lreosure wos lound
(5) Acqulred lhrough occupollon such os
llshlng or hunllng
(6) Llveslock exlsllng ol dlsso|ullon ol
porlnershlp ln excess ol whol ls broughl
by ellher spouse lo lhe morrloge
(7) Acqulred by chonce, such os wlnnlngs
lrom gomb|lng or belllng
Moro| domoges orlslng lrom o conlrocl pold
lrom lhe CPC |g6?6,#) 5$ H)- !+ 789J=<]
Loons conlrocled durlng lhe morrloge ore
conjugo|, ond so ls ony properly ocqulred
lherelrom |c,-.>[) 5$ Q,0,* (89:=)]
Properly purchosed by lnslo||menl, pold porl|y
wllh conjugo| lunds ond porl|y wllh exc|uslve
lunds, ll lu|| ownershlp wos vesled durlng lhe
morrloge, lhe CPC sho|| relmburse lhe owner-
spouse |!"#$ 88:, |C]
ll o wlnnlng llckel ls boughl by conjugo| lunds,
lhe prlze ls conjugo| (olherwlse, lhe prlze ls
exc|uslve properly ol lhe spouse who owns lhe
llckel)

1+ $"2 #') +%34'*4 "*5 ("67$8 3%$"!7'*4 )797$ $"2

+",% /C
!FI2N`41 (2cc`bS4i HQ2H1Q4i (2b]`^!N H!Q4b1QIMSH 2R ^!SbI
YU)# @#
E>-*@*#* >D
7E>-#@-6,.<

lmprovemenl on exc|uslve properly: ll orlglno|
vo|ue new vo|ue, where
=
+
+
lhen |ond becomes conjugo| properly, subjecl
lo lhe relmbursemenl ol lhe vo|ue ol lhe
properly ol lhe owner-spouse ol lhe
dlsso|ullon ol lhe CPC
Properly be|onglng lo one spouse converled
lnlo onolher klnd lolo||y dlllerenl ln nolure
lrom lls orlglno| lorm durlng morrloge
becomes conjugo| ln lhe obsence ol prool lhol
lhe expenses ol lhe converslon were
exc|uslve|y lor lhe occounl ol lhe orlglno|
owner-spouse, subjecl lo relmbursemenl ol
lhe vo|ue ol lhe orlglno| properly lrom lhe
conjugo| porlnershlp
YU)#
",+)@-*
,BE?6*@5,
C">C,"#0
Properlles ocqulred belore lhe morrloge, lor lhose
wllh |eglllmole descendonls wllh o lormer morrloge
(lo prolecl rlghls ol chl|dren by o lormer morrloge)
Properly broughl lnlo lhe morrloge by eoch
spouse os hlsJher >X-
Cenero| ru|e: Properlles ocqulred durlng lhe
morrloge by o grolullous lll|e, l.e. donollon,
lnherllonce by leslole ond lnleslole successlon,
lnc|udlng lhe lrulls ol such properlles

Lxcepllon: When express|y provlded by lhe donor
or leslolor lhol lhe properly sho|| lorm porl ol lhe
ACP
Properly ocqulred by ellher spouse durlng lhe
morrloge by grolullous lll|e
Cenero| ru|e: Properlles lor persono| use

Lxcepllon: 1ewe|ry
Properly ocqulred by rlghl ol redempllon, by
borler, or by exchonge wllh properly
be|onglng lo ellher spouse

P|olo purchosed properly when she wos
slng|e. When morrled, she ond her husbond
Bergoso co-slgned o morlgoge on lhe
properly. Upon lorec|osure, Bergoso wos sued
lor l||ego| delolner. A wrll ol execullon on lhe
properly wos corrled oul bul P|olo relused lo
|eove lhe premlses. SC ru|ed lhol P|olo
connol be he|d ln conlempl. Properly ls nol
conjugo|. Her husbond slgnlng os co-
morlgogor does nol converl ll lo CPC. She
cou|d lgnore execullon becouse lhe declslon
wos lor her husbond o|one. KH?)#) 5$ i)#E>L
Properly purchosed wllh exc|uslve money ol
ellher spouse

1+ $"2 #') +%34'*4 "*5 ("67$8 3%$"!7'*4 )797$ $"2

+",% 0@
!FI2N`41 (2cc`bS4i HQ2H1Q4i (2b]`^!N H!Q4b1QIMSH 2R ^!SbI
YU)#
",+)@-*
,BE?6*@5,
C">C,"#0
7E>-#@-6,.<
J.
Properly purchosed by lnslo||menl, pold porl|y
wllh conjugo| lunds ond porl|y wllh exc|uslve
lunds, ll lu|| ownershlp wos vesled belore lhe
morrloge |!"#$ 88:, R(]

Lven ll lhe lnslo||menl ls comp|eled oller lhe
morrloge, lhe properly ls exc|uslve ll
ownershlp wos vesled ln one spouse belore
lhe morrloge |N>",-[> 5$ b@E>?)* (89G&)]
lmprovemenl on exc|uslve properly: ll orlglno|
vo|ue > new vo|ue where
=
+
+
lhen |ond remolns exc|uslve properly ol lhe
owner-spouse, subjecl lo lhe relmbursemenl
ol lhe cosl ol lmprovemenl

Money recelved under lhe Soclo| Securlly Acl
ls nol conjugo|, o|lhough lhe emp|oyee-
spouse conlrlbules lo lhe SS wllh hls so|orles,
bul be|ongs lo lhe deslgnoled benellclory
under lhe Soclo| Securlly Low. SSA governs,
nol |C.
lnle||ecluo| properly, |lke copyrlghl or polenl,
shou|d, occordlng lo 1o|enllno, be consldered
seporole properly
Buslness properly (e.g. lrodemorks, lrode
nomes, servlce morks, buslness goodwl||) ore
mere|y occessorles lo some commerclo|
eslob|lshmenl or producl, so lhol ll such
eslob|lshmenl or producl ls seporole properly
ol one spouse, lhen o|| lhe buslness properly
ls seporole properly, bul o|| benellls or
eornlngs derlved lrom lhese durlng lhe
morrloge shou|d be|ong lo lhe conjugo|
properly |1o|enllno]

Co||ecllon ol credlls be|onglng lo one spouse
exc|uslve|y bul lhe lnleresls sho|| be|ong lo
lhe CPC |!"#$ 889, R(]
Proceeds lrom so|e ol seporole properly ol o
spouse
lndemnlly pold ln cose ol exproprlollon ol
seporole properly or under on lnsuronce po|lcy
coverlng seporole properly
H",*6+C#@>-
A|| properlles ocqulred durlng lhe morrloge lorm
porl ol lhe ACP, un|ess ll be proven lhol lhey ore
exc|uded. |!"#$ 9=' R(]
A|| properly ocqulred durlng lhe morrloge,
whelher mode, conlrocled, or reglslered ln lhe
nome ol one spouse, ore presumed conjugo|
un|ess lhe conlrory ls prove. |!"# 88;, R(]

1he porly who lnvokes lhe presumpllon musl
llrsl prove lhol lhe properly wos ocqulred
durlng lhe morrloge |!E)/)? 5$ !E)/)? 7&33G<L

1+ $"2 #') +%34'*4 "*5 ("67$8 3%$"!7'*4 )797$ $"2

+",% 0-
!FI2N`41 (2cc`bS4i HQ2H1Q4i (2b]`^!N H!Q4b1QIMSH 2R ^!SbI
(U)"T,* )-.
>/?@T)#@>-*
Arl. 94, |C Arls. J2J-J23, |C
(J) Supporl ol lhe lo||owlng:
(o) Spouses,
(b) Common chl|dren,
(c) Leglllmole chl|dren ol prevlous
morrloge,
(d) l||eglllmole chl|dren lo||ow lhe
provlslons on Supporl, ACP |lob|e ln cose
ol obsence or lnsulllclency ol lhe
exc|uslve properly ol lhe deblor-spouse
bul lhe poymenl sho|| be consldered os
odvonce lo lhe shore ol lhe deblor-
spouse.
(2) Lxpenses lo enob|e ellher spouse lo
commenceJ comp|ele o
prolesslono|Jvocollono| course or ocllvlly lor
se|l-lmprovemenl,
(3) vo|ue donoled or promlsed by bolh spouses
ln lovor ol common |eglllmole chl|dren lor
lhe exc|uslve purpose ol commenclngJ
comp|ellng o prolesslono|Jvocollono| course
or ocllvlly lor se|l-lmprovemenl
(J) Supporl ol lhe lo||owlng:
(o) Spouses,
(b) Common chl|dren,
(c) Leglllmole chl|dren ol prevlous
morrloge,
(d) l||eglllmole chl|dren lo||ow lhe
provlslons on Supporl, Porlnershlp
ossels |lob|e ln cose responslbl|llles
under Arl. J2J hove been covered ond
lhere ls obsence or lnsulllclency ol lhe
exc|uslve properly ol lhe deblor-
spouse bul lhe poymenl sho|| be
consldered os odvonce lo lhe shore ol
lhe deblor-spouse.
(2) Lxpenses lo enob|e ellher spouse lo
commenceJcomp|ele o
prolesslono|Jvocollono| course or ocllvlly
lor se|l-lmprovemenl,
(3) vo|ue donoled or promlsed by bolh
spouses ln lovor ol common |eglllmole
chl|dren lor lhe exc|uslve purpose ol
commenclngJcomp|ellng o
prolesslono|Jvocollono| course or ocllvlly
lor se|l-lmprovemenl
Debls ond ob|lgollons:
(J) Conlrocled durlng lhe morrloge by
odmlnlslrolor-spouse lor lhe benelll ol lhe
communlly,
(2) Conlrocled durlng lhe morrloge by bolh
spouses,
(3) Conlrocled durlng lhe morrloge by one
spouse wllh lhe consenl ol lhe olher,
(4) Conlrocled by ellher spouse wllhoul lhe
consenl ol lhe olher lo lhe exlenl lhol lhe
loml|y moy hove been benelllled,
(5) Conlrocled belore morrloge by ellher spouse
lnsolor os lhey redounded lo lhe benelll ol
lhe loml|y,
(6) Conlrocled belore morrloge by ellher spouse
whlch hove nol redounded lo lhe benelll ol
lhe loml|y ln cose ol obsence or lnsulllclency
ol lhe exc|uslve properly ol lhe deblor-
spouse bul lhe poymenl sho|| be consldered
os on odvonce lo lhe shore ol lhe deblor-
spouse.
(7) lncurred by ellher spouse by reoson ol o
crlme or quosl-de|lcl ln cose ol obsence or
lnsulllclency ol lhe exc|uslve properly ol lhe
deblor-spouse bul lhe poymenl sho|| be
consldered os on odvonce lo lhe shore ol lhe
deblor-spouse.
Debls ond ob|lgollons:
(J) Conlrocled durlng lhe morrloge by
odmlnlslrolor-spouse lor lhe benelll ol
lhe CPC,
(2) Conlrocled durlng lhe morrloge by bolh
spouses,
(3) Conlrocled durlng lhe morrloge by one
spouse wllh lhe consenl ol lhe olher,
(4) Conlrocled by ellher spouse wllhoul lhe
consenl ol lhe olher lo lhe exlenl lhol lhe
loml|y moy hove been benelllled,
(5) Conlrocled belore morrloge by ellher
spouse lnsolor os lhey redounded lo lhe
benelll ol lhe loml|y,
(6) Conlrocled belore morrloge by ellher
spouse whlch hove nol redounded lo lhe
benelll ol lhe loml|y when lhe
responslbl|llles under Arl. J2J shou|d hove
been covered ond lhere ls obsence or
lnsulllclency ol lhe exc|uslve properly ol
lhe deblor-spouse bul lhe poymenl sho||
be consldered os on odvonce lo lhe shore
ol deblor-spouse,
(7) lncurred by ellher spouse by reoson ol o
crlme or quosl-de|lcl when lhe
responslbl|llles under Arl. J2J shou|d hove
been covered ond lhere ls obsence or
lnsulllclency ol lhe exc|uslve properly ol
lhe deblor-spouse bul lhe poymenl sho||
be consldered os on odvonce lo lhe shore
ol lhe deblor-spouse.
1+ $"2 #') +%34'*4 "*5 ("67$8 3%$"!7'*4 )797$ $"2

+",% 0.
!FI2N`41 (2cc`bS4i HQ2H1Q4i (2b]`^!N H!Q4b1QIMSH 2R ^!SbI
1oxes ond expenses:
(J) 1oxes, |lens, chorges ond expenses, lnc|udlng
mojor ond mlnor repolrs, upon lhe
communlly properly,
(2) 1oxes ond |lens lor mere preservollon mode
durlng lhe morrloge upon lhe seporole
properly ol ellher spouse used by lhe loml|y,
(3) Lxpenses ol |lllgollon belween lhe spouses
un|ess lhe sull ls lound lo be ground|ess.
1oxes ond expenses:
(J) 1oxes, |lens, chorges ond expenses,
lnc|udlng mojor ond mlnor repolrs, upon
lhe conjugo| porlnershlp properly,
(2) 1oxes ond expenses lor mere preservollon
durlng lhe morrloge upon lhe seporole
properly ol ellher spouse,
(3) Lxpenses ol |lllgollon belween lhe
spouses un|ess lhe sull ls lound lo be
ground|ess.
ll communlly properly ls lnsulllclenl, lhe spouses
ore so|ldorl|y |lob|e lor lhe unpold bo|once lrom
lhelr seporole properlles excepl lor:
(J) Debls conlrocled by ellher spouse belore
morrloge whlch hove nol redounded lo lhe
benelll ol lhe loml|y,
(2) Supporl ol l||eglllmole chl|dren, ond
(3) Llobl|llles lncurred by ellher spouse orlslng
lrom crlme or quosl-de|lcl.
ll conjugo| porlnershlp properly ls lnsulllclenl,
lhe spouses ore so|ldorl|y |lob|e lor lhe unpold
bo|once lrom lhelr seporole properlles excepl
lor:
(J) Debls conlrocled by ellher spouse belore
morrloge whlch hove nol redounded lo
lhe benelll ol lhe loml|y,
(2) Supporl ol l||eglllmole chl|dren, ond
(3) Llobl|llles lncurred by ellher spouse orlslng
lrom crlme or quosl-de|lcl.
Comb|lng |osses ol ony klnd (l.e. |ego| or l||ego|)
shall be borne by the losing spouses separate
properly |!"#$ 9G, R(]
Comb|lng |osses ol ony klnd (l.e. |ego| or
illegal) shall be borne by the losing spouses
seporole properly |!"#$ 8&=, R(]




Loon conlrocls slgned by bolh spouses ore
conjugo|, ond lhey ore jolnl|y |lob|e lor
poymenl, even ll on|y one spouse slgns o
subsequenl promlssory nole. |OFH 5$ !.@?
789::<L
1he Supreme Courl ru|ed lhol lhe lndlrecl
benellls lhol mlghl occrue lo o husbond ln
slgnlng os o surely or guoronlee ln on
ogreemenl nol ln lovor ol lhe loml|y bul ln
lovor ol hls emp|oyer corporollon ore nol
benellls lhol con be consldered os glvlng o
dlrecl odvonloge occrulng lo lhe loml|y.
Hence, lhe credllors connol go ogolnsl lhe
conjugo| porlnershlp properly ln sollslylng lhe
ob|lgollon subjecl ol lhe surely ogreemenl. A
conlrory vlew wou|d pul ln perl| lhe conjugo|
porlnershlp by o||owlng ll lo be glven
grolullous|y os ln coses ol donollon ol
conjugo| porlnershlp properly, whlch ls
prohlblled. |!0)?) S-5,*#+,-# 5$ (U@-T 7899:<L


(U)"T,*
)-.
2/?@T)#@>-*
7E>-#@-6,.<
1+ $"2 #') +%34'*4 "*5 ("67$8 3%$"!7'*4 )797$ $"2

+",% 0/
!FI2N`41 (2cc`bS4i HQ2H1Q4i (2b]`^!N H!Q4b1QIMSH 2R ^!SbI
2X-,"*U@C'
).+@-@*#")#@>-'
,-_>0+,-#' )-.
.@*C>*@#@>-
Cenero| ru|e: Admlnlslrollon ol properly
be|ongs lo bolh spouses, jolnl|y. ll lhey
disagree, the husbands decision prevails.
However, lhe wlle hos 5 yeors lo seek recourse
lrom lhe courl. Olherwlse, ll ls presumed she
ogreed lo hls declslon. K!"#$ 9;' R(L

Lxcepllon: When lhe olher spouse ls
lncopoclloled, or unob|e lo porllclpole ln lhe
odmlnlslrollon, e.g. when obrood. Copoclloled
spouse moy ossume so|e powers ol
odmlnlslrollon. However, power ls |lmlled lo
odmlnlslrollon.
Admlnlslrollon ol properly be|ongs lo bolh
spouses, jolnl|y. ln cose ol dlsogreemenl, lhe
husbands decision shall prevail, subject to
recourse by lhe wlle lor proper remedy, whlch
musl be ovol|ed ol wllhln 5 yeors lrom lhe
dole ol lhe conlrocl lmp|emenllng such
declslon. K!"#$ 8&A' C)"78<L
So|e by lhe husbond ol properly be|onglng lo
lhe conjugo| porlnershlp wllhoul lhe consenl
ol lhe wlle, when lhere ls no showlng lhol lhe
|oller ls lncopoclloled, ls vold ob lnlllo. |!/)?>*
5$ c)E)#)-T)0 7&33A<L
Arl. J24 conlemp|oles o slluollon where one
spouse ls obsenl, or seporoled ln locl or hos
obondoned lhe olher or consenl ls wllhhe|d or
connol be oblolned. Such ru|es do nol opp|y
lo coses where lhe non-consenllng spouse ls
lncopoclloled or lncompelenl lo glve consenl
l.e. ln como. 1he proper remedy ls lo ll|e lor
guordlonshlp under lhe ROC. Lven ossumlng
lhol lhe ru|es on summory proceedlngs opp|y,
lhe power ol lhe odmlnlslrolor ls lhe some os
o guordlon. So o spouse who deslres lo se||
conjugo| properly os odmlnlslrolor musl sll||
observe lhe procedure lor lhe so|e ol lhe
wards estate required of judicial guardians
under ROC nol lhe summory judlclo|
proceedlngs under |C. |`0 5$ (! 7&333<L
Spouses ore nol co-owners ol CPC durlng lhe
morrloge ond connol o|lenole lhe supposed
lnleresl ol eoch ln lhe sold properlles. 1he
lnleresl ol lhe spouses ln lhe CPC ls on|y
lnchoole or o mere expecloncy ond does nol
rlpen lnlo lll|e unll| ll oppeors oller lhe
dlsso|ullon ond |lquldollon ol lhe porlnershlp
lhol lhere ore nel ossels. KO, !-*)?.> 5$ IU,"@DD
>D c)-@?) 789=J<L
Lllher spouse moy, lhrough o wl||, dlspose ol hls
or her lnleresl ln lhe communlly properly. |!"#$
9J, R(] However, lhe wl|| shou|d reler on|y lo hls
or her shore ln lhe communlly properly.
Dlsposlllon or encumbronce ol conjugo|
properly requlres lhe lo||owlng:
(J) Consenl or opprovo| by bolh spouses, or
(2) 1udlclo| oulhorlly secured ln courl
K!"#$ 8&A' 7&< R(L

1+ $"2 #') +%34'*4 "*5 ("67$8 3%$"!7'*4 )797$ $"2

+",% 00
!FI2N`41 (2cc`bS4i HQ2H1Q4i (2b]`^!N H!Q4b1QIMSH 2R ^!SbI
2X-,"*U@C'
).+@-@*#")#@>-'
,-_>0+,-#' )-.
.@*C>*@#@>-
7E>-#@-6,.<
Cenero| ru|e: Donollon ol one spouse wllhoul
lhe consenl ol lhe olher ls nol o||owed. |!"#$ 9:'
R(]

Lxcepllons:
(J) Moderole donollons lo chorlly due lo
loml|y rejolclng or dlslress
(2) Moderole gllls by eoch spouse lo lhe olher
due lo loml|y rejolclng
Moderation depends on the familys socio-
economlc slolus.
2.
ACP o||ows donollons ln excess ol one-llllh ol
presenl properly ol lulure spouses becouse lhe
donollon wou|d lorm porl ol lhe communlly
properly once lhe morrloge ls ce|ebroled. |Arl.
84]
Donollon ol CPC musl be wllh lhe consenl ol
lhe olher spouse excepl moderole donollons
lor chorlly, on occoslons ol loml|y rejolclng, or
loml|y dlslress |!"#$ 8&G, ED$ !"#$ 9:' R(]
Mere oworeness ol o lronsocllon ls NO1 consenl$ K]).,"\c)-)?> 5$ ()+)@*)7&33&<]
ln lhe obsence ol (courl) oulhorlly or wrlllen consenl ol lhe olher spouse, ony dlsposlllon or
encumbronce ol lhe conjugo| properly sho|| be vold. |Homeowners Savings & Loan Bank v.
O)??>7&33G<L
ll however, one ol lhe spouses ls on o|len, lhe |l|lplno spouse moy encumber or dlspose ol lhe
properly wJo lhe consenl ol lhe lormer. 1he properly ls presumed lo be owned exc|uslve|y by lhe
|l|lplno spouse. K(U,,*,+)- 5$ S!( 78998<L

O@**>?6#@>- >D
#U, ",T@+,
1ermlnoles upon |!"#$ 99, |C]:
(J) Deolh ol ellher spouse lo||ow ru|es ln Arl.
J03
(2) Lego| seporollon lo||ow ru|es ln Arls. 63
ond 64
(3) Annu|menl or judlclo| dec|orollon ol nu||lly
lo||ow ru|es ln Arls. 50 ond 52
(4) 1udlclo| seporollon ol properly durlng
morrloge lo||ow ru|es ln Arls. J34 lo J38
1ermlnoles upon |Arl. J26, ED$ !"#$ 99]:
(J) Deolh
(2) Lego| seporollon
(3) Annu|menl or judlclo| dec|orollon ol
nu||lly
(4) 1udlclo| seporollon ol properly

1+ $"2 #') +%34'*4 "*5 ("67$8 3%$"!7'*4 )797$ $"2

+",% 0:
!FI2N`41 (2cc`bS4i HQ2H1Q4i (2b]`^!N H!Q4b1QIMSH 2R ^!SbI

1DD,E# >D .,
D)E#>
*,C)")#@>-
Ru|es on de loclo seporollon |Arl. J00]
De loclo seporollon does nol ollecl lhe ACP,
excepl lhol:
J. Spouse who |eoves lhe conjugo| home
wllhoul jusl couse sho|| nol be enlll|ed lo
supporl, however, heJshe ls sll|| requlred lo
supporl lhe olher spouse ond lhe loml|y
2. ll consenl ls necessory lor lronsocllon bul ls
wllhhe|d or olherwlse unoblolnob|e,
oulhorlzollon moy be oblolned lrom lhe
courl
3. Supporl lor loml|y wl|| be loken lrom lhe
ACP
4. ll ACP ls lnsulllclenl, spouses sho|| be
so|ldorl|y |lob|e
5. ll ll ls necessory lo odmlnlsler or encumber
seporole properly ol spouse who |ell,
spouse presenl moy osk lor judlclo|
oulhorlly lo do lhls
6. ll ACP ls nol enough ond one spouse hos no
seporole properly, spouse who hos properly
ls |lob|e lor supporl, occordlng lo provlslons
on supporl.
Ru|es on de loclo seporollon |Arl. J27]
De loclo seporollon does nol ollecl lhe CPC,
excepl lhol:
J. Spouse who |eoves lhe conjugo| home
wllhoul jusl couse sho|| nol be enlll|ed lo
supporl, however, heJshe ls sll|| requlred
lo supporl lhe olher spouse ond lhe loml|y
2. ll consenl ls necessory lor lronsocllon bul ls
wllhhe|d or olherwlse unoblolnob|e,
oulhorlzollon moy be oblolned lrom lhe
courl
3. Supporl lor loml|y wl|| be loken lrom lhe
porlnershlp properly.
4. ll porlnershlp properly ls lnsulllclenl,
spouses sho|| be so|ldorl|y |lob|e
5. ll ll ls necessory lo odmlnlsler or encumber
seporole properly ol spouse who |ell,
spouse presenl moy osk lor judlclo|
oulhorlly lo do lhls
6. ll porlnershlp properly ls nol enough ond
one spouse hos no seporole properly,
spouse who hos properly ls |lob|e lor
supporl, occordlng lo provlslons on
supporl.
Q6?,* >-
!/)-.>-+,-#
Abondonmenl |!"#$ 838, R(]
PresenlJoggrleved spouse moy pellllon lhe
courl lor:
(J) Recelvershlp
(2) 1udlclo| seporollon ol properly
(3) Aulhorlly lo be lhe so|e odmlnlslrolor ol
lhe obso|ule communlly, subjecl lo
precoullonory condlllons lhol lhe courl
moy lmpose

A spouse ls deemed lo hove obondoned lhe
olher when he or she hos |ell lhe conjugo|
dwe||lng wllhoul ony lnlenllon ol relurnlng.

Spouse ls prlmo locle consldered lo hove
obondoned lhe olher spouse ond lhe loml|y ll
he or she hos:
(J) Lell lor o perlod ol 3 monlhs
(2) |ol|ed lo lnlorm lhe olher spouse ol hls or
her whereobouls lor o perlod ol 3 monlhs
Abondonmenl |!"#$ 8&:, R(]
PresenlJoggrleved spouse moy pellllon lhe
courl lor:
(J) Recelvershlp
(2) 1udlclo| seporollon ol properly
(3) Aulhorlly lo be lhe so|e odmlnlslrolor ol
lhe porlnershlp properly, subjecl lo
precoullonory condlllons lhol lhe courl
moy lmpose

A spouse ls deemed lo hove obondoned lhe
olher when he or she hos |ell lhe conjugo|
dwe||lng wllhoul ony lnlenllon ol relurnlng.

Spouse ls prlmo locle consldered lo hove
obondoned lhe olher spouse ond lhe loml|y ll
he or she hos:
(J) Lell lor o perlod ol 3 monlhs
(2) |ol|ed lo lnlorm lhe olher spouse ol hls or
her whereobouls lor o perlod ol 3 monlhs
Physlco| seporollon ol lhe spouses, coup|ed
with the husbands refusal to give support to
lhe wlle, sulllced lo conslllule obondonmenl
os o ground lor on ocllon lor lhe judlclo|
seporollon ol lhelr conjugo| properly.
KH)"#>*)\]> 5$ (! 7899&<L

1+ $"2 #') +%34'*4 "*5 ("67$8 3%$"!7'*4 )797$ $"2

+",% 0?
!FI2N`41 (2cc`bS4i HQ2H1Q4i (2b]`^!N H!Q4b1QIMSH 2R ^!SbI
N@a6@.)#@>- >D
)**,#* )-.
?@)/@?@#@,*
Procedure |!"#$ 83&' R(]
(J) lnvenlory ol ossels ol ACP ond ol spouses,
wllh morkel vo|ues
(2) Ob|lgollons ore pold wllh communlly
properly, ond seporole ob|lgollons nol
chorged lo ACP pold by respecllve ossels
ol spouses

ll ob|lgollons exceed lhe ossels ol lhe ACP,
nolhlng ls dlvlded. Credllors con go oller
lhe seporole properlles ol lhe spouses,
whlch ore so|ldorl|y |lob|e lor lhe dellclency

(3) De|lvery ol wholever remolns ln lhelr
exc|uslve properly
(4) Bo|once, or nel remolnder ls dlvlded
equo||y belween lhe spouses, lrrespecllve
ol how much eoch broughl lnlo lhe
communlly
(5) ll persono| ob|lgollons ol o spouse exceed
hlsJher seporole properly, credllor con go
oller lhe shore ol lhe spouse on lhe nel
remolnder ol lhe ACP, wllhoul prejudlce lo
lhe provlslons ol |ow on lorlellures ond
de|lvery ol presumpllve |eglllmes
(6) Aller coverlng o|| communlly ob|lgollons
ond ob|lgollons ol spouses, bo|once ol
seporole properlles sho|| be de|lvered lo
respecllve spouses or lhelr helrs, ond lhey
wl|| o|so dlvlde lnlo lwo equo| shores
wholever ls |ell ol lhe communlly ossels,
wllhoul prejudlce lo lhe provlslons ol |ow
on lorlellures ond de|lvery ol presumpllve
|eglllmes
Procedure |!"#$ 8&9' R(]
(J) Prepore on lnvenlory ol o|| properlles
(2) Amounls odvonced by CPC ln poymenl ol
persono| debls ond ob|lgollons sho|| be
credlled lo lhe CPC
(3) Relmburse eoch spouse lor lhe use ol
hlsJher exc|uslve lunds ln lhe ocqulslllon
ol properly or lor lhe vo|ue ol hls or her
exc|uslve properly, lhe ownershlp ol whlch
hos been vesled by |ow ln lhe conjugo|
porlnershlp
(4) Debls ond ob|lgollons ol CPC sho|| be
pold oul ol lhe conjugo| ossels, olherwlse
bolh spouses ore so|ldorl|y |lob|e wllh
lhelr exc|uslve properly
(5) Remolns ol lhe exc|uslve properlles sho||
be de|lvered lo respecllve owner-spouses
(6) lndemnlly |ossJdelerlorollon ol movob|es
be|onglng lo ellher spouse, even due lo
lorlullous evenl, used lor lhe benelll ol
lhe loml|y
(7) Nel remolnder ol CPC sho|| conslllule lhe
prollls whlch sho|| be dlvlded equo||y
belween husbond ond wlle excepl when:
(o) A dlllerenl proporllon or dlvlslon wos
ogreed upon ln lhe morrloge
sell|emenls
(b) 1here hos been o vo|unlory wolver or
lorlellure ol such shore os provlded ln
lhe |C
(8) Presumpllve |eglllmes ore de|lvered lo
common chl|dren
(9) Conjugo| dwe||lng goes lo:
(o) Spouse wllh whom mojorlly ol
common chl|dren choose lo remoln
(be|ow 7 y.o. - deemed lo hove
chosen lhe molher)
(b) Whoever lhe courl chooses ln cose ol
|ock ol mojorlly
Ru|es ln cose ol lermlnollon ol morrloge by deolh ol one ol lhe spouses |!"#$ 83A' R(]e
(J) 1he communlly properly sho|| be |lquldoled ln lhe some proceedlng lor lhe sell|emenl ol lhe
eslole ol lhe deceosed spouse.
(2) ll no such judlclo| sell|emenl proceedlng ls lnsllluled, survlvlng spouse sho|| |lquldole lhe
communlly properly ellher judlclo||y or exlro-judlclo||y wllhln one yeor lrom lhe deolh ol lhe
deceosed spouse.
(o) ll no |lquldollon ls mode wllhln lhe perlod, ony dlsposlllon or encumbronce lnvo|vlng
communlly properly ol lhe lermlnoled morrloge sho|| be vold.
(b) Non-comp|lonce wllh |lquldollon procedures wou|d meon lhol o subsequenl|y conlrocled
morrloge wl|| lo||ow o reglme ol comp|ele seporollon ol properly.
Procedure lor |lquldollon ol properlles ol lwo morrloges |!"#$ 83A, R(]:
(J) Delermlne lhe copllo|, lrulls, ond lncome ol eoch communlly upon such prool os moy be
consldered occordlng lo lhe ru|es ol evldence.
(2) ln cose ol doubl os lo whlch communlly lhe exlsllng properlles be|ong, lhey sho|| be dlvlded
belween lwo communllles ln proporllon lo lhe copllo| ond durollon ol eoch.


1+ $"2 #') +%34'*4 "*5 ("67$8 3%$"!7'*4 )797$ $"2

+",% 0G
4%+"3"!7'* '( +3'+%3!8 '(
!;% 4+'14%4 "*5
"567*74!3"!7'* '( )'66'*
+3'+%3!8 #8 '*% 4+'14%
5137*, !;% 6"337",%

!"#$ 8=A' R($ ln lhe obsence ol on express
dec|orollon ln lhe morrloge sell|emenls, lhe
seporollon ol properly belween spouses durlng
lhe morrloge sho|| nol loke p|oce excepl by
judlclo| order. Such judlclo| seporollon ol properly
moy ellher be vo|unlory or lor sulllclenl couse

1udlclo| seporollon ol properly moy ellher be:
(J) vo|unlory or
(2) lor sulllclenl couse
















41((7)7%*! )"14%4 "*5 ,3'1*54 ('3 3%!13* !' +3%97'14 3%,76%

I6DD@E@,-# ()6*,* D>" ]6.@E@)? I,C)")#@>- >D H">C,"#0
K!"#$ 8=G' R(L
^">6-.* D>" Q,#6"- #> H",5@>6* Q,T@+,
K!"#$ 8A8' R(L
(J) Spouse ol pelllloner hos been senlenced lo o
peno|ly whlch corrles wllh ll lhe peno|ly ol
clvl| lnlerdlcllon
(J) 1ermlnollon ol lhe clvl| lnlerdlcllon
(2) Spouse ol pelllloner ls judlclo||y dec|ored on
obsenlee
(2) Reoppeoronce ol obsenlee spouse
(3) Loss ol porenlo| oulhorlly ol lhe spouse ol
pelllloner hos been decreed by lhe courl
(3) Reslorollon ol porenlo| oulhorlly lo lhe spouse
prevlous|y deprlved ol ll
(4) Spouse ol pelllloner hos obondoned lhe
|oller or lol|ed lo comp|y wllh hls or her
ob|lgollons lo lhe loml|y
(4) When lhe spouse who |ell lhe conjugo| home
wllhoul |ego| seporollon resumes common |lle
wllh lhe olher
(5) 1he spouse gronled lhe power ol
odmlnlslrollon ln lhe morrloge sell|emenls
hos obused lhol power
(5) When lhe courl, belng sollslled lhol lhe spouse
gronled lhe power ol odmlnlslrollon ln wl|| nol
ogoln obuse lhol power, oulhorlzes lhe
resumpllon ol sold odmlnlslrollon
(6) Al lhe llme ol lhe pellllon, lhe spouses hove
been seporoled ln locl lor ol |eosl J yeor ond
reconcl|lollon ls hlgh|y lmprobob|e.
(6) Reconcl|lollon ond resumpllon ol common |lle
ol lhe spouses who hod been seporoled ln locl
lor ol |eosl J yeor

(7) When oller vo|unlory dlsso|ullon ol lhe ACP or
CPC hos been judlclo||y decreed upon lhe jolnl
pellllon ol lhe spouses, lhey ogree lo lhe
revlvo| ol lhe lormer properly reglme. No
vo|unlory seporollon ol properly moy lhereoller
be gronled.




1+ $"2 #') +%34'*4 "*5 ("67$8 3%$"!7'*4 )797$ $"2

+",% 0B
I1H!Q!4S2b 2R HQ2H1Q4i
YU,- @#
)CC?@,*
Agreed upon ln lhe morrloge sell|emenls by lhe spouses
Mondolory under Arls. J03 8 J30 (subsequenl morrloges conlrocled by o survlvlng
spouse wllhoul judlclo| sell|emenl ol prevlous properly reglme)
Delou|l properly reglme when lhere ls reconcl|lollon belween spouses oller judlclo|
seporollon ol properly
YU)# @#
E>-*@*#* >D
Presenl or lulure properly or bolh
Each spouses earnings from his or her own profession, business, or industry
Natural, industrial or civil fruits of spouses separate properties
Moy be lolo| or porllo|

ll porllo|, properly nol consldered seporole ls presumed lo perloln lo lhe ACP
N@)/@?@#@,*
|oml|y expenses: Bolh spouses ore |lob|e ln proporllon lo lhelr lncome, ll lnsulllclenl,
bosed on lhe currenl vo|ue ol lhelr seporole properlles
Credllors lor loml|y expenses: Spouses so|ldorl|y |lob|e
2X-,"*U@C'
).+@-@*#")#@>-'
,-_>0+,-#'
)-.
.@*C>*@#@>-
Spouses moy own, dlspose, possess, ond odmlnlsler seporole esloles wllhoul lhe
consenl ol lhe olher
Admlnlslrollon ol exc|uslve properlles moy be lronslerred belween spouses when:
(1) One spouse becomes the other spouses guordlon
(2) One spouse ls judlclo||y dec|ored on obsenlee
(3) One spouse ls glven lhe peno|ly ol clvl| lnlerdlcllon
(4) One spouse becomes o luglllve
Conveyonce belween lhe spouses ls o||owed under Arl. J490, NCC.


A vo|unlory seporollon ol properlles ls nol
perlecled by mere consenl bul upon lhe decree ol
lhe courl opprovlng lhe some. 1he pellllon lor
vo|unlory seporollon ol properly wos denled
becouse lhe chl|dren ol lhe J
sl
ond 2
nd
morrloges
were nol lnlormed, lhe seporollon ol properly moy
prejudlce lhe rlghls ond shores ol lhe chl|dren. KS-
Q,e 5>?6-#)"0 .@**>?6#@>- >D (H^ >D IC*$ F,"-)*
789;G<L

A compromlse ogreemenl wllh judlclo|
recognlllon ls vo|ld, pendlng pellllon lor
dec|orollon ol nu||lly ol morrloge. Kc)a6@?)- 5$
c)a6@?)- 7&33J<L














1+ $"2 #') +%34'*4 "*5 ("67$8 3%$"!7'*4 )797$ $"2

+",% 0C
+3'+%3!8 3%,76% '( 1*7'*4 27!;'1! 6"337",%
K!"#*$ 8AJ\8A:' R(L

!"#$ 8AJ !"#$ 8A:
!CC?@E)/@?@#0
Mon ond womon |lvlng logelher os husbond ond
wlle, wllh copoclly lo morry |Arl. 5, |C] wllhoul ony
|ego| lmpedlmenl)
(J) ol |eosl J8 yeors o|d
(2) nol Arl. 37 (lncesluous vold morrloge)
(3) nol Arl. 38 (vold morrloge by reoson ol pub|lc
po|lcy)
(4) nol blgomous
Mon ond womon |lvlng logelher os husbond ond
wlle, NO1 copoclloled lo morry
(J) Under J8 yeors o|d
(2) Adu|lerous re|ollonshlp
(3) Blgomous Jpo|ygomous morrloge
(4) lncesluous morrloges under Arl. 37
(5) vold morrloges by reoson ol pub|lc po|lcy under
Arl. 38 Olher vold morrloges due lo obsence ol lormo|
requlslle
I)?)"@,* )-. X)T,*
Owned ln equo| shores Seporole|y owned by porlles
H">C,"#@,* )Ea6@",. #U">6TU ,BE?6*@5, D6-.*
Remolns exc|uslve, provlded lhere ls prool
Remolns exc|uslve

H">C,"#@,* )Ea6@",. /0 />#U #U">6TU X>"Z )-. @-.6*#"0
Coverned by ru|es on co-ownershlp
Owned ln common ln proporllon lo respecllve
conlrlbullon
H">C,"#@,* )Ea6@",. XU@?, ?@5@-T #>T,#U,"
Owned ln equo| shores slnce ll ls presumed lo hove
been ocqulred lhrough jolnl ellorls

ll one porly dld nol porllclpole ln ocqulslllon,
presumed lo hove conlrlbuled lhrough core ond
molnlenonce ol loml|y ond househo|d
No presumpllon ol jolnl ocqulslllon. When lhere ls
evldence ol jolnl ocqulslllon bul none os lo lhe
exlenl ol ocluo| conlrlbullon, lhere ls o
presumpllon ol equo| shorlng.
R>"D,@#6",
(J) ln lovor ol lhelr common chl|dren
(2) ln cose ol delou|l ol or wolver by ony or o|| ol
lhe common chl|dren or lhelr descendonls,
eoch voconl shore sho|| be|ong lo lhe
respecllve survlvlng descendonls
(3) ln lhe obsence ol such descendonls, such
shore be|ongs lo lhe lnnocenl porly
ll one porly ls vo|ld|y morrled lo onolher hlsJher
shore ln lhe co-owned properlles wl|| occrue lo lhe
ACPJCPC ol hlsJher exlsllng vo|ld morrloge

ll lhe porly who ocled ln bod lollh ls nol vo|ld|y
morrled lo onolher, hlsJher shore sho|| be lorlelled
ln lhe some monner os lhol provlded ln Arl J47.

1he some ru|es on lorlellure sho|| opp|y ll bolh
porlles ore ln bod lollh.

App|lcollon ol Arllc|e J48, lhere wos no prool ol ocluo| conlrlbullon, whl|e lhere wos o subslsllng
morrloge oporl lrom lhe unlon wllhoul morrloge, lherelore, lhe N. |orbes house goes lo lhe CPC ol
subslsllng morrloge$ Ki)C#@-EU)0 5$ 4>"",* 789;9<L

1ronsler ol cerllllcole ond lox dec|orollons ore nol sulllclenl prool ol jolnl conlrlbullon. KV@??)-6,5) 5$ (!
7&33A<L

Morrloges lhol hove been dec|ored vold come under lhe ru|es ol co-ownershlp under |CJ47JJ48
regord|ess ol lhe reoson. KV)?.,[ 5$ d(\Q4( 7899;<L
1+ $"2 #') +%34'*4 "*5 ("67$8 3%$"!7'*4 )797$ $"2
+",% :@
1he |oml|y

!"#$ 8A9' R($ 1he loml|y, belng lhe loundollon ol
lhe nollon, ls o boslc soclo| lnslllullon whlch
pub|lc po|lcy cherlshes ond prolecls.
Consequenl|y, loml|y re|ollons ore governed by
|ow ond no cuslom, procllce or ogreemenl
deslrucllve ol lhe loml|y sho|| be recognlzed or
glven ellecl.

!;% ("67$8 "4 "*
7*4!7!1!7'*
"4+%)!4 '( ("67$8 3%$"!7'*4
(J) Lxlerno| Aspecl
(o) Coverned by |ow |!"#$ 8A9' R(]
(b) On|y ln lhls ospecl con lhlrd persons
ond lhe pub|lc lnleresl be concerned
(2) lnlerno| Aspecl
(o) Socred lo lhe loml|y ond lnoccesslb|e lo
|ow becouse |ow musl respecl lhe
lreedom ol ocllon ol mon
(b) e.g. splrlluo| re|ollons, sexuo| re|ollons
ol spouses, prolesslon ond coreer ol
spouses, procllces ond cusloms ol
loml|y

("67$8 3%$"!7'*4 7*)$15%K
(J) Belween husbond ond wlle
(2) Belween porenls ond chl|dren
(3) Among olher oscendonls ond descendonls
(4) Among brolhers ond slslers, lu|| or ho|l
b|ood

Cenero| ru|e K!"#$ 8G8' R(Le No sull belween
members ol lhe some loml|y sho|| prosper.

Lxcepllon: ll ll shou|d oppeor ln o verllled
comp|olnl or pellllon lhol:
(J) Lornesl ellorls lowords o compromlse hove
been mode,
(2) Such ellorls hove lol|ed, ond
(3) Such eornesl ellorls ond lhe locl ol lol|ure
musl be o||eged.

Nole: 1he cose wl|| be dlsmlssed ll ll ls shown
lhol no such ellorls were mode.

1he ru|e sho|| nol opp|y lo coses whlch moy nol
be lhe subjecl ol compromlse.

Lxcepllons lo lhe genero| ru|e connol be
subjecl ol compromlse K!"# &3=G' ((L
(J) Clvl| slolus ol persons,
(2) vo|ldlly ol morrloge or o |ego| seporollon,
(3) Any ground lor |ego| seporollon,
(4) |ulure supporl (os ll ls presumed lo be
needed lor lhe survlvo| ol lhe one recelvlng
supporl),
(5) 1urlsdlcllon ol courls,
(6) |ulure |eglllme

Whenever o slronger ls o porly ln o cose
lnvo|vlng loml|y members, lhe requlslle showlng
ol eornesl ellorls lo compromlse ls no |onger
mondolory, os such lnc|uslon ol o slronger lokes
lhe cose oul ol lhe ombll ol Arl. J5J. KM>-#@5,">*
5$ Q4( 78999<L

!;% ("67$8 ;'6%

)'*4!7!1!%5
(J) 1olnl|y by lhe husbond ond lhe wlle
(2) By on unmorrled heod ol o loml|y,

7*)$15%4
(J) Dwe||lng house where lhey ond lhelr loml|y
reslde
(2) 1he |ond on whlch ll ls slluoled |!"#$ 8G&' R(]

!"#$ 8GJ' R($ 1he ocluo| vo|ue ol lhe loml|y home
sho|| nol exceed, ol lhe llme ol lhe conslllullon,
lhe omounl ol 1hree hundred lhousond pesos
(P300,000.00) ln urbon oreos, ond 1wo
hundred lhousond pesos (P200,000.00) ln
ruro| oreos or such omounls os moy hereoller be
llxed by |ow.

A person moy conslllule ond be lhe benellclory
ol on|y one loml|y home K!"#$ 8;8' R(L

1he provlslons ol lhe Chopler on |oml|y Home
sho|| govern exlsllng loml|y resldences lnsolor
os sold provlslons ore opp|lcob|e |!"#$ 8;&' R(]

,175%$7*%4
(J) ll ls deemed consllluled lrom llme ol ocluo|
occupollon os o loml|y resldence
(2) ll musl be owned by person conslllullng ll
(3 ll musl be permonenl
1+ $"2 #') +%34'*4 "*5 ("67$8 3%$"!7'*4 )797$ $"2
+",% :-
(4) Ru|e opp|les lo vo|ld ond voldob|e ond even
lo common-|ow morrloges under Arls.J47
ond J48
(5) ll conllnues desplle deolh ol one or more
spouses or unmorrled heod ol loml|y lor J0
yeors or os |ong os lhere ls o mlnor
benellclory K!"#$8G9' R(L

31$%4 '* %E%6+!7'* '( ("67$8
;'6%
Cenero| ru|e: 1he loml|y home ls exempl lrom
lhe lo||owlng lrom lhe llme ol lls conslllullon
ond so |ong os ony ol lls benellclorles ocluo||y
resldes lhereln K!"#$ 8G=' R(Le
(J) Lxecullon
(2) |orced so|e
(3) Allochmenl

Lxcepllons |!"#$ 8GG' R(]:
(J) Nonpoymenl ol loxes.
(2) Debls lncurred prlor lo lhe conslllullon ol
lhe loml|y home.
(3) Debls secured by morlgoges on lhe
premlses belore or oller such conslllullon.
(4) Debls due lo |oborers, mechonlcs,
orchllecls, bul|ders, molerlo|men ond olhers
who hove rendered servlce or lurnlshed
molerlo| lor lhe conslrucllon ol lhe bul|dlng.

#%*%(7)7"37%4 '( !;% ("67$8
;'6%
(J) Husbond ond wlle, or on unmorrled person
who ls lhe heod ol lhe loml|y
(2) Porenls (moy lnc|ude porenl-ln-|ows),
oscendonls, descendonls, brolhers ond
slslers (|eglllmoleJl||eglllmole), who ore
|lvlng ln lhe loml|y home ond who depend
on lhe heod ol lhe loml|y lor supporl. K!"#$
8GA' R(L

3%A1747!%4 !' #% " #%*%(7)7"38
(J) 1he re|ollonshlp ls wllhln lhose
enumeroled,
(2) 1hey |lve ln lhe loml|y home, ond
(3) 1hey ore dependenl lor |ego| supporl on lhe
heod ol lhe loml|y.




3%A173%6%*!4 ('3 !;% 4"$%H
"$7%*"!7'*H 5'*"!7'*H
"447,*6%*!H '3 %*)16#3"*)%
'( !;% ("67$8 ;'6%
(J) 1he wrlllen consenl ol lhe person
conslllullng ll,
(2) 1hol ol lhe spouse ol lhe person
conslllullng ll, ond
(3) 1hol ol mojorlly ol lhe benellclorles ol |ego|
oge. K!"#$ 8G:' R(L

ll lhere ls o conl|lcl, lhe Courl wl|| declde.

7* )"4% '( 5%"!; '( '*% '3 #'!;
4+'14%4 '3 !;% 1*6"337%5
;%"5 '( !;% ("67$8
1he loml|y home sho|| conllnue desplle lhe
deolh ol one or bolh spouses or ol lhe
unmorrled heod ol lhe loml|y lor o perlod ol J0
yeors, or lor os |ong os lhere ls o mlnor
benellclory. K!"#$ 8G9' R(L

1he helrs connol porllllon lhe home un|ess lhe
courl llnds compe||lng reosons lherelore. K!"#$
8G9' R(L

3%A1747!%4 ('3 )3%57!'3 !'
%E%)1!% 1+'* !;% ("67$8 ;'6%
(J) He musl be o judgmenl credllor,
(2) Hls c|olm ls nol omong lhose exempled
under Arllc|eJ55, ond
(3) He hos reosonob|e grounds lo be|leve lhol
lhe loml|y home ls worlh more lhon lhe
moxlmum omounl llxed ln Arl. J57.

+3')%513% !' "9"7$ '( 37,;! 1*5%3
"3!= -?@
(J) 1he credllor musl ll|e o mollon ln lhe courl
proceedlng where he oblolned o lovorob|e
declslon lor o wrll ol execullon ogolnsl lhe
loml|y home.
(2) 1here wl|| be o heorlng on lhe mollon where
lhe credllor musl prove lhol lhe ocluo|
vo|ue ol lhe loml|y home exceeds lhe
moxlmum omounl llxed by lhe |C ellher ol
lhe llme ol lls conslllullon or os o resu|l ol
lmprovemenls lnlroduced lhereoller.
(3) ll lhe credllor proves lhol lhe ocluo| vo|ue
exceeds lhe moxlmum omounl lhe courl
wl|| order lls so|e ln execullon.
1+ $"2 #') +%34'*4 "*5 ("67$8 3%$"!7'*4 )797$ $"2
+",% :.
(4) ll lhe loml|y home ls so|d lor more lhon lhe
vo|ue o||owed, lhe proceeds sho|| be
opp|led os lo||ows:
(o) |lrsl, lhe ob|lgollon enumeroled ln
Arllc|e J57 musl be pold
(b) 1hen lhe judgmenl ln lovor ol lhe
credllor wl|| be pold, p|us o|| lhe cosls ol
execullon
(c) 1he excess, ll ony, sho|| be de|lvered lo
lhe judgmenl deblor

1he prool lhol lhe house ls lhe loml|y home
musl be o||eged ogolnsl credllors, opp|led lhe
ru|e ln Arl. J60, |C$ KV,"*>?) 5$ c)-.>?)"@)
7&33;<L

WON lhe grondson ol lhe deceosed ls o
benellclory occordlng lo Arl. J54 |C. 1he
benellclory shou|d sollsly o|| requlslles, he musl
be dependenl on lhe heod ol lhe loml|y. Slnce
lhe grondson sll|| hod porenls who ore |ego||y
ob|lged lor hls supporl, he wos nol deemed o
benellclory. |H)#"@E@> 5$ O)"@> SSS 7&33;<L

Arllc|e J59 lmposes lhe proscrlpllon ogolnsl lhe
lmmedlole porllllon ol lhe loml|y home
regord|ess ol lls ownershlp. 1hls slgnllles lhol
even ll lhe loml|y home hos possed by
successlon lo lhe co-ownershlp ol lhe helrs, or
hos been wl||ed lo ony one ol lhem, lhls locl
o|one connol lronslorm lhe loml|y home lnlo on
ordlnory properly, much |ess dlspe| lhe
prolecllon cosl upon ll by |ow. 1he rlghls ol lhe
lndlvlduo| co-owner or owner ol lhe loml|y home
connol subjugole lhe rlghls gronled under
Arllc|e J59 lo lhe benellclorles ol lhe loml|y
home. K!""@>?) 5$ !""@>?) 7&33:<L














Polernlly ond |l|lollon

Klnds ol |l|lollon K!"#*$ 8;=' 8;A' 8;G' R(L:
(J) Noluro|
(o) Leglllmole
(b) l||eglllmole
(2) Lego| |lcllon (Adopllon)

$%,7!76"!% );7$53%*

2;' "3% $%,7!76"!% );7$53%*
1hose concelved or born durlng lhe morrloge ol
porenls ellher by noluro| meons or by orllllclo|
lnsemlnollon K!"#$ 8;A' R(L

*"!13"$L#7'$',7)"$
A chl|d concelved or born durlng o vo|ld
morrloge ls presumed lo be|ong lo lhol
morrloge, regord|ess ol lhe exlslence ol
exlromorllo| re|ollonshlps. KN@0)> 5$ N@0)>
7&33&<L

"3!7(7)7"$ 7*4%67*"!7'*
Requlslles lo be consldered |eglllmole:
(J) Arllllclo| lnsemlnollon mode on wlle
(2) Sperm comes lrom ony ol lhe lo||owlng:
(o) Husbond
(b) 1hlrd person donor
(c) Husbond ond lhlrd person donor
(3) ln cose ol donor sperm, husbond ond wlle
musl oulhorlzeJrollly lnsemlnollon ln o
wrlllen lnslrumenl:
(o) Lxeculed 8 slgned by husbond ond wlle
belore lhe blrlh ol lhe chl|d.
(b) Recorded ln lhe clvl| reglslry logelher
wllh lhe blrlh cerllllcole ol lhe chl|d.
K!"#$ 8;A' R(L

Duo| consenl ls requlred whelher lhe semen
used comes lrom lhe husbond or o lhlrd person
donor K4>?,-#@->L

2;' "3% 7$$%,7!76"!% );7$53%*
Cenero| ru|ee 1hose concelved ond born oulslde
ol o vo|ld morrloge. K!"#$ 8;G' R(L

Lxcepllons:
(J) Chl|dren ol morrloges vold under Arl.36
(psycho|oglco| lncopoclly), ond
(2) Under Arl. 53 (subsequenl morrloges whlch
1+ $"2 #') +%34'*4 "*5 ("67$8 3%$"!7'*4 )797$ $"2
+",% :/
dld nol comp|y wllh Arl. 52). |I,+C@>\O0]

Common chl|dren born belore lhe onnu|menl
ore |eglllmole, ond lherelore enlll|ed lo supporl
lrom eoch ol lhe spouses. KO, ()*#"> 5$ !**@.)>\
O, ()*#">' 7&33:<L

76+1,*7*, $%,7!76")8
Crounds lor lmpugnlng |eglllmocy ol o chl|d ore:
(J) Physlco| lmposslbl|lly lor lhe husbond lo
hove sexuo| lnlercourse wllh hls wlle wllhln
lhe llrsl J20 doys ol lhe 300 doys whlch
lmmedlole|y preceded lhe chl|d's blrlh due
lo:
(o) Physlco| lncopoclly ol lhe husbond lo
hove sexuo| lnlercourse wllh hls wlle
(b) Husbond ond wlle were |lvlng
seporole|y os lo moke sexuo|
lnlercourse lmposslb|e
(c) Serlous l||ness ol lhe husbond
obso|ule|y prevenllng sexuo|
lnlercourse
(2) Olher blo|oglco| or sclenllllc reosons, excepl
orllllclo| lnsemlnollon
(3) And ln cose ol orllllclo| lnsemlnollon, lhe
wrlllen consenl ol ellher porenl wos vllloled
lhrough lroud, vlo|ence, mlsloke,
lnllmldollon, or undue lnl|uence. |!"#$ 8;;'
R(]

Mere proxlmole seporollon belween lhe
spouses ls nol sulllclenl physlco| seporollon lo
conslllule os ground lor lmpugnlng |eglllmocy.
Kc)E).)-T.)-T 5$ (! 789:3<L

Serlous l||ness ol lhe husbond whlch obso|ule|y
prevenled hlm lrom hovlng sexuo| lnlercourse
wllh hls wlle, |lke ll lhe husbond wos o|reody ln
comolose or o vegelob|e, or slck wllh syphl|ls ln
lhe lerllory sloge so lhol copu|ollon wos nol
posslb|e. Bul lubercu|osls, even ln lls mosl
cruclo| sloge, does nol prec|ude copu|ollon
belween lhe slck husbond ond hls wlle. K!-.)? 5$
c)E)")@T 789G8<L

B|ood-lype molchlng ls on occeplob|e meons ol
lmpugnlng |eglllmocy, covered by Arl. J66(2),
under biological or other scientific reasons.
Bul lhls ls on|y conc|uslve ol lhe locl ol non-
polernlly. K])> 5$ (! 789:J<L

On|y lhe mon (ond hls helrs ln cerloln slluollons)
con lmpugn lhe |eglllmocy ol lhe chl|d. |B,-@#,[\
F).6) 5$ (! 7899A<L

$%,7!76")8 27!; 3%,"35 !' !;%
6'!;%3
Chl|d consldered |eglllmole o|lhough K!"#$ 8;J'
R(]:
(J) Molher moy hove dec|ored ogolnsl lls
|eglllmocy
(2) Molher moy hove been senlenced os on
odu|leress (o|so opp|les lo wlle who wos
roped)

ll lhe morrloge ls lermlnoled ond lhe molher
conlrocled onolher morrloge wllhln 300 doys
oller lhe lermlnollon ol lhe lormer morrloge,
lhe lo||owlng ru|es sho|| govern ln lhe obsence
ol prool lo lhe conlrory K!"# 8;:' R(L:
(J) ll born belore J80 doys oller lhe
so|emnlzollon ol lhe subsequenl morrloge
chl|d ls consldered concelved durlng lhe
lormer morrloge, provlded ll be born wllhln
300 doys oller lermlnollon ol lhe lormer
morrloge
(2) ll born oller J80 doys lo||owlng lhe
ce|ebrollon ol lhe subsequenl morrloge
chl|d ls consldered concelved durlng such
morrloge, even ll ll be born wllhln 300 doys
oller lhe lermlnollon ol lhe lormer morrloge

1he |eglllmocy or l||eglllmocy ol o chl|d born
oller 300 doys lo||owlng lhe lermlnollon ol lhe
morrlogeburden ol prool upon whoever
o||eges lhe slolus. |!"#$ 8;9, R(]

ll nobody osserls lhe |eglllmocy or l||eglllmocy
ol lhe chl|d descrlbed ln Arl. J69, lhe chl|d
shou|d be consldered l||eglllmole un|ess
|eglllmocy ls proved. Leglllmocy connol be
presumed here slnce lhe blrlh wos beyond lhe
300-doy perlod ol geslollon. Whl|e ll goes
ogolnsl lhe po|lcy ol |ow lo |eon ln lovor ol
|eglllmocy, lhls lnlerprelollon ls beller lhon lhe
onomo|ous slluollon creoled by Arl. J69, whlch
ls o chl|d wllhoul o slolus. K4>?,-#@->L

")!7'* ('3 76+1,*7*, $%,7!76")8 K!"#*$
8J3 )-. 8J8' R(L
Moy be broughl wllhln J, 2, or 3 yeor* lrom lhe
know|edge ol lhe blrlh, or lhe know|edge ol
reglslrollon ol blrlh.
1+ $"2 #') +%34'*4 "*5 ("67$8 3%$"!7'*4 )797$ $"2
+",% :0
(J) Wllhln J yeor ll husbond or ony helrs reslde
ln lhe some clly or munlclpo|lly where lhe
chl|d wos born or hls blrlh wos recorded.
(2) Wllhln 2 yeors ll lhe husbond or o|| helrs
|lve ln lhe Phl|lpplnes bul do nol reslde ln
lhe some clly or munlclpo|lly where lhe
chl|d's blrlh look p|oce or wos recorded
(3) Wllhln 3 yeors ll lhe husbond or o|| helrs
|lve oulslde lhe Phl|lpplnes when lhe chl|d's
blrlh look p|oce or wos recorded ln lhe
Phl|lpplnes

ll lhe blrlh ol lhe chl|d hos been conceo|ed or
wos unknown lo lhe husbond, lhe obove perlods
sho|| be counled:
(J) |rom lhe dlscovery or know|edge ol lhe blrlh
ol lhe chl|d, or
(2) |rom lhe dlscovery or know|edge ol lls
reglslrollon, whlchever ls eor|ler.

Cenero| ru|e: On|y lhe husbond con lmpugn lhe
|eglllmocy ol o chl|d. ll he does nol brlng on
ocllon wllhln lhe prescrlbed perlods, he connol
ll|e such ocllon onymore lhereoller, ond lhls ls
o|so lrue wllh hls helrs.

Lxcepllon: 1hol lhe helrs ol lhe husbond moy
ll|e lhe ocllon or conllnue lhe some wllhln lhe
perlods prescrlbed ln Arl. J70 K!"#$ 8J8' R(Le
(J) ll lhe husbond dled belore lhe explrollon ol
lhe perlod llxed lor brlnglng hls ocllon
(2) ll he shou|d dle oller lhe ll|lng ol lhe
comp|olnl wllhoul hovlng deslsled
lherelrom
(3) ll lhe chl|d wos born oller lhe deolh ol lhe
husbond.

Leglllmocy con on|y be ollocked dlrecl|y.
KI)0*>- 5$ (! 7899&<L

+3''( '( (7$7"!7'*
Leglllmole chl|dren moy eslob|lsh lhelr ll|lollon
by ony ol lhe lo||owlng |!"#$ 8J&' R(]:
(J) Prlmory Lvldence
(o) 1helr record ol blrlh oppeorlng ln lhe
clvl| reglslry.
(b) An odmlsslon ol hls ll|lollon by hls
porenl ln o pub|lc documenl or o prlvole
hondwrlllen lnslrumenl ond slgned by
sold porenl
(2) Secondory Lvldence
(o) Prool ol open ond conllnuous
possesslon ol slolus os |eglllmole chl|d
(b) Any olher meons sloled by lhe ru|es ol
courl or speclo| |ows

On|y ln lhe obsence ol prlmory evldence con
secondory evldence be odmllled.

")!7'* ('3 )$"767*, (7$7"!7'*
N$%,7!76"!% );7$53%*O K!"#$ 8J=' R(L
(J) 1he chl|d con brlng lhe ocllon durlng hls or
her |llellme
(2) ll lhe chl|d dles durlng mlnorlly or ln o slole
ol lnsonlly, such ocllon sho|| be lronsmllled
lo hls helrs, who sho|| hove o perlod ol llve
yeors wllhln whlch lo lnslllule lhe ocllon.
(3) 1he ocllon commenced by lhe chl|d sho||
survlve nolwllhslondlng lhe deolh ol ellher
or bolh ol lhe porlles

37,;!4 '( $%,7!76"!% );7$53%*
K!"#$ 8JA' R(L
(J) 1o beor lhe surnomes ol lhe lolher ond lhe
molher, ln conlormlly wllh lhe provlslons ol
lhe Clvl| Code on surnomes
(2) 1o recelve supporl lrom lhelr porenls, lhelr
oscendonls, ond ln proper coses, lhelr
brolhers ond slslers, ln conlormlly wllh lhe
provlslons ol lhe Code on supporl
(3) 1o be enlll|ed lo lhe |eglllmole ond olher
successlono| rlghls gronled lo lhem by lhe
Clvl| Code

7$$%,7!76"!% );7$53%*
l||eglllmole chl|dren moy eslob|lsh lhelr
l||eglllmole ll|lollon ln lhe some woy ond on lhe
some evldence (prlmory or secondory) os
|eglllmole chl|dren. |!"#$ 8JG' R(]

")!7'* ('3 )$"767*, (7$7"!7'*
K!"#$ 8JG' R(L
(J) |or ocllons bosed on prlmory evldence, lhe
some perlods sloled ln Arl. J73 opp|y.
(2) |or ocllons bosed on secondory evldence,
lhe ocllon moy on|y be broughl durlng lhe
|llellme ol lhe o||eged porenl.

Bopllsmo| cerllllcoles ore glven probollve vo|ue
on|y lor blrlhs belore J930. Blrlh cerllllcoles
musl be slgned by lhe porenls ond sworn lor ll
lo be odmllled os evldence. Kc,-.>[) 5$ c,?@)
789;;<L
1+ $"2 #') +%34'*4 "*5 ("67$8 3%$"!7'*4 )797$ $"2
+",% ::

Unslgned blrlh cerllllcoles ore nol evldence ol
recognlzed ll|lollon. KF)?606# 5$ F)?606# 78993<L

Bopllsmo| cerllllcoles ore on|y conc|uslve ol lhe
socromenl odmlnlslered, ond connol be used os
prool ol ll|lollon. K!E,/,.> 5$ !"a6,"> 7&33=<L

Morrloge cerllllcoles connol be used os prool ol
ll|lollon. KN@+ 5$ (! 789JG<L

Ru|e J30, Sec. 40 ls |lmlled lo objecls common|y
known os loml|y possesslons rel|ecllve ol o
loml|y's repulollon or lrodlllon regordlng
pedlgree |lke lnscrlpllons on lombslones,
monumenls, or collln p|oles. K]@*>- 5$ (! 7899:<L

Slgnolure ol lhe lolher on lhe blrlh cerllllcole ls
consldered os on ocknow|edgemenl ol polernlly
ond mere presenlollon ol o du|y oulhenllcoled
copy ol such cerllllcole wl|| successlu||y
eslob|lsh ll|lollon. K1E,#) 5$ 1E,#) 7&33A<L

Su padre (Your father) ending in a letter is
on|y prool ol polerno| so|lcllude ond nol ol
ocluo| polernlly. Slgnolure on o reporl cord
under the entry of Parent/Guardian is likewise
lnconc|uslve ol open odmlsslon. |M,@"* >D
Q>.>?D> F)h)* 5$ M,@"* >D F@/@)-> F)h)* 789:G<L

By open and continuous possession of the
status of a legitimate child ls meonl lhe
enjoymenl by lhe chl|d ol lhe poslllon ond
prlvl|eges usuo||y olloched lo lhe slolus ol o
|eglllmole chl|d, |lke beorlng lhe polerno|
surnome, lreolmenl by lhe porenls ond loml|y
ol lhe chl|d os |eglllmole, conslonl ollendonce
lo lhe chl|d's supporl ond educollon, ond glvlng
lhe chl|d lhe repulollon ol belng o chl|d ol hls
porenls. KO, ],*6* 5$ I0a6@) 789==<L

DNA evldence con be used os prool ol polernlly.
K!T6*#@- 5$ (! 7&33G<L

1he due recognlllon ol on l||eglllmole chl|d ln o
record ol blrlh, o wl||, o slolemenl belore o courl
ol record, or ln ony oulhenllc wrlllng, ls ln llse|l o
consummoled ocl ol ocknow|edgemenl ol lhe
chl|d, ond no lurlher courl ocllon ls requlred. KO,
],*6* 5$ 1*#)#, >D O,E,.,-# ]6)- ^)+/>) O@[>-
7&338<L

Mere possesslon ol slolus os on l||eglllmole
chl|d does nol moke o recognlzed l||eglllmole
chl|d bul ls on|y o ground lor brlnglng on ocllon
lo compe| judlclo| recognlllon by lhe ossumed
porenl. K^>->\])5@," 5*$ (>6"# >D !CC,)?* 7899A<L

DNA evldence con sll|| be used even oller lhe
deolh ol lhe porenl. K1*#)#, >D Q>T,?@> 2-T 5$
O@)[ 7&33J<L

1here ore lour slgnlllconl proceduro| ospecls ol
o lrodlllono| polernlly ocllon lhol porlles hove
lo loce: o prlmo locle cose, olllrmollve delenses,
presumpllon ol |eglllmocy, ond physlco|
resemb|once belween lhe pulollve lolher ond
lhe chl|d. A prlmo locle cose exlsls ll o womon
dec|oressupporled by corroborollve prool
lhol she hod sexuo| re|ollons wllh lhe pulollve
lolher, ol lhls polnl, lhe burden ol evldence
shllls lo lhe pulollve lolher. |urlher, lhe lwo
olllrmollve delenses ovol|ob|e lo lhe pulollve
lolher ore: (J) lncopobl|lly ol sexuo| re|ollons
wllh lhe molher due lo ellher physlco| obsence
or lmpolency, or (2) lhol lhe molher hod sexuo|
re|ollons wllh olher men ol lhe llme ol
concepllon. K^>#)".> 5$ F6?@-T 7&38&<L

1o prove open ond conllnuous possesslon ol lhe
slolus ol on l||eglllmole chl|d, lhere musl be
evldence ol lhe monlleslollon ol lhe permonenl
lnlenllon ol lhe supposed lolher lo conslder lhe
chl|d os hls, by conllnuous ond c|eor
monlleslollons ol porenlo| ollecllon ond core,
whlch connol be ollrlbuled lo pure chorlly.
KH,"?) 5$ F)"@-T )-. H,"?) 7&38&<L

Meonwhl|e, lhe |ock ol porllclpollon ol lhe
supposed lolher ln lhe preporollon ol o
bopllsmo| cerllllcole renders lhls documenl
lncompelenl lo prove polernlly. Bopllsmo|
cerllllcoles ore per se lnodmlsslb|e ln evldence
os prool ol ll|lollon ond lhey connol be odmllled
lndlrecl|y os clrcumslonllo| evldence lo prove
lhe some. KH,"?) 5$ F)"@-T )-. H,"?) 7&38&<L

37,;!4 '( 7$$%,7!76"!% );7$53%*
K!"#$ 8J;' R(L
(J) Use lhe surnome ond be under lhe porenlo|
oulhorlly ol lhe molher
(2) However, moy use lhe surnome ol lhelr
lolher ll
1+ $"2 #') +%34'*4 "*5 ("67$8 3%$"!7'*4 )797$ $"2
+",% :?
(o) 1helr ll|lollon hos been express|y
recognlzed by lhe lolher lhrough lhe
record ol blrlh oppeorlng ln lhe clvl|
reglsler, or
(b) 1here ls on odmlsslon ln o pub|lc
documenl or prlvole hondwrlllen
lnslrumenl mode by lhe lolher.
(c) Provlded, lhe lolher hos lhe rlghl lo
lnslllule on ocllon belore lhe regu|or
courls lo prove non-ll|lollon durlng hls
|llellme |RA 9255]

The use of the word may in !"#$ 8J; reodl|y
shows lhol on ocknow|edged l||eglllmole
chl|d ls under no compu|slon lo use lhe
surnome ol hls l||eglllmole lolher. 1he word
may is permissive and operates to confer
dlscrellon upon lhe l||eglllmole chl|dren.
K^")-., 5$ !-#>-@> 7&38A<L

(3) Sho|| be enlll|ed lo supporl ln conlormlly
wllh lhe |oml|y Code
(4) Leglllme sho|| conslsl ol one-ho|l ol lhe
|eglllme ol o |eglllmole chl|d.

$%,7!76"!%5 );7$53%*
Legitimated children are l||eglllmole chl|dren
who becouse ol lhe subsequenl morrloge ol
lhelr porenls ore, by |ego| llcllon, consldered
|eglllmole.

!' #% )"+"#$% '( $%,7!76"!7'*
(J) 1he chl|d musl hove been concelved ond
born oulslde ol wed|ock, ond
(2) 1he porenls, ol lhe llme ol lhe chl|d's
concepllon, were nol dlsquo|llled by ony
lmpedlmenl lo morry eoch olher, or
dlsquo|llled on|y becouse ellher or bolh ol
lhem were be|ow J8 y.o. |!"#$ 8JJ )*
)+,-.,. /0 Q! 9:G:]


+3')%513% "*5 %((%)!4
(J) Leglllmollon sho|| loke p|oce by o
subsequenl vo|ld morrloge belween lhe
porenls. 1he onnu|menl ol o voldob|e
morrloge sho|| nol ollecl lhe |eglllmollon.
|!"#$ 8J:' R(]
(2) Lllecls ol |eglllmollon sho|| relroocl lo lhe
time of the childs birth [!"#$ 8:3' R(]
(3) Leglllmollon ol chl|dren who dled belore lhe
ce|ebrollon ol lhe morrloge sho|| benelll
lhelr descendonls |!"#$ 8:8' R(]

,3'1*54 ('3 76+1,*7*,
$%,7!76"!7'*
(J) 1he subsequenl morrloge ol lhe chl|d's
porenls ls vold.
(2) 1he chl|d o||eged|y |eglllmoled ls nol
noluro|.
(3) 1he chl|d ls nol reo||y lhe chl|d ol lhe
o||eged porenls. |I,+C@>\O0]

37,;!4
1he some os lhose ol |eglllmole chl|dren |!"#$
8J9' R(]

76+1,*7*, $%,7!76"!7'* K!"#$ 8:&'
R(L
(J) Moy be mode on|y by lhose who ore
prejudlced ln lhelr rlghls
(2) Wllhln llve yeors lrom lhe llme lhelr couse
ol ocllon occrues

Adopllon

N,T@#@+)#@>- !.>C#@>-
N,T)? ,DD,E#
1he |ow mere|y mokes
|ego| whol exlsls by
nolure
1he |ow creoles by
llcllon o re|ollon whlch
dld nol ln locl exlsl
H,"*>-* )DD,E#,.
Noluro| chl|dren Slrongers (genero||y)
H">E,.6",
Lxlrojudlclo| ocls ol
porenls
A|woys by judlclo|
decree
YU> *U>6?. )CC?0
Bolh porenls
Bolh porenls, wllh
excepllons o||owlng
on|y one ol lhem lo
opp|y |Q! :GG&]
1DD,E# >- C)",-#\EU@?. ",?)#@>-*U@C
Some slolus ond
rlghls wllh lhol ol o
|eglllmole chl|d nol
on|y ln re|ollon lo lhe
|eglllmlzlng porenls
bul o|so lo olher
re|ollves
Creoles o re|ollonshlp
on|y belween lhe chl|d
ond lhe odopllng
porenls

1+ $"2 #') +%34'*4 "*5 ("67$8 3%$"!7'*4 )797$ $"2
+",% :G
Adopllon o jurldlco| ocl, whlch creoles
belween lwo persons o re|ollonshlp slml|or lo
lhol whlch resu|ls lrom |eglllmole polernlly ond
ll|lollon.

ll requlres o proceedlng ln rem, ond moy on|y be
proven by o judlclo| decree lssued by o courl ol
compelenl jurlsdlcllon, nol by open ond
conllnuous cohobllollon.

3%+1#$7) ")! *'= B::.
DOMESTIC ADOPTION LAW
N(%#31"38 .:H -CCBO

2;' )"* "5'+!

(7$7+7*' )7!7M%*4 |I,E$ J)]
(J) Ol |ego| oge
(2) Wllh lu|| clvl| copoclly ond |ego| rlghls
(3) Ol good moro| chorocler ond hos nol been
convlcled ol ony crlme lnvo|vlng moro|
lurpllude
(4) Lmollono||y ond psycho|oglco||y copob|e ol
corlng lor chl|dren
(5) Al |eosl slxleen (J6) yeors o|der lhon
odoplee, excepl when odopler ls blo|oglco|
porenl ol lhe odoplee or ls lhe spouse ol lhe
adoptees parent
(6) ln o poslllon lo supporl ond core lor hlsJher
chl|dren ln keeplng wllh lhe meons ol lhe
loml|y
(7) Hos undergone pre-odopllon servlces

"$7%*4 |I,E$ J/]
Some lor |l|lplnos provlded lurlher lhol:
(J) HlsJher counlry hos dlp|omollc re|ollons
wllh lhe Phl|lpplnes
(2) Hos been |lvlng ln lhe Phl|lpplnes lor 3
conllnuous yeors prlor lo lhe ll|lng ol
opp|lcollon ond molnlolns such resldence
unll| lhe decree ls enlered (provlded lhol
obsences nol exceedlng 60 doys per J yeor
lor prolesslono|, buslness, or emergency
reosons ore o||owed)
(3) Hos been cerlllled by hlsJher dlp|omollc or
consu|or olllce or ony opproprlole
governmenl ogency lhol heJshe hos lhe
|ego| copoclly lo odopl ln hlsJher counlry
(4) HlsJher governmenl o||ows lhe odoplee lo
enler hlsJher counlry os hlsJher odoplee
(5) Hos submllled o|| lhe necessory c|eoronces
ond such cerllllcollons os moy be requlred

**llems 3, 4 ond 5 moy be wolved under lhe
lo||owlng clrcumslonces:
(J) Adopler ls o lormer |l|lplno Clllzen who
seeks lo odopl o re|ollve wllhln lhe 4
lh

degree ol consongulnlly or olllnlly
(2) Adopler seeks lo odopl lhe |eglllmole or
l||eglllmole chl|d ol hlsJher |l|lplno spouse
(3) Adopler ls morrled lo o |l|lplno Clllzen ond
seeks lo odopl jolnl|y wllh hlsJher spouse o
re|ollve wllhln lhe 4
lh
degree ol
consongulnlly or olllnlly ol lhe |l|lplno
spouse

,1"357"*4
Wllh respecl lo lhelr words, oller lhe
lermlnollon ol lhe guordlonshlp ond c|eoronce
ol hlsJher occounlobl|llles.

>'7*! "5'+!7'*
Cenero| ru|e: Husbond ond wlle sho|| odopl
jolnl|y.

Lxcepllons:
(J) ll one spouse seeks lo odopl lhe |eglllmole
chl|d ol lhe olher
(2) ll one ol lhe spouses seeks lo odopl hlsJher
l||eglllmole chl|d provlded lhol lhe olher
spouse hos slgnllled hlsJher consenl
(3) ll spouses ore |ego||y seporoled lrom eoch
olher

ll spouses jolnl|y odopl, porenlo| oulhorlly sho||
be jolnl|y exerclsed by lhem.

2;' )"* #% "5'+!%5 |I,E$ :]
(J) Mlnor who hos been odmlnlslrollve|y or
judlclo||y dec|ored ovol|ob|e lor odopllon
(2) Leglllmole chl|d ol one spouse by onolher
(3) l||eglllmole chl|d by o quo|llled odopler lo
improve the childs status to that of
|eglllmocy
(4) A person ol |ego| oge ll, prlor lo lhe
odopllon, sold person hos been conslslenl|y
consldered ond lreoled by lhe odopler(s) os
hlsJher chl|d slnce mlnorlly
(5) A chl|d whose prevlous odopllon hos been
resclnded
(6) A chl|d whose blo|oglco| or odopllve
porenl(s) hos dled, provlded lhol no
1+ $"2 #') +%34'*4 "*5 ("67$8 3%$"!7'*4 )797$ $"2
+",% :B
proceedlngs sho|| be lnllloled wllhln 6
monlhs lrom lhe llme ol deolh ol sold
porenl(s)

%E)%+!7'*4 !' !;% 3%A173%6%*! '( "
)%3!7(7)"!7'* !;"! !;% );7$5 74
"9"7$"#$% ('3 "5'+!7'* |I,E$ A]
(J) Adopllon ol on l||eglllmole chl|d by hlsJher
blo|oglco| porenl,
(2) Adopllon ol o chl|d by hlsJher slepporenl,
(3) Adopllon by o re|ollve wllhln lhe 4
lh
clvl|
degree by consongulnlly or olllnlly

+%34'*4 2;'4% 237!!%* )'*4%*! 74
*%)%44"38 ('3 "5'+!7'* KI,E$ 9L
(J) 1he prospecllve odoplee ll J0 yeors or o|der
(2) The prospective adoptees biological
porenls, |ego| guordlon or lhe governmenl
lnslrumenlo|lly or lnslllullon lhol hos
cuslody ol lhe chl|d
(3) The prospective adopters legitimole ond
odopled chl|dren who ore J0 yeors or o|der
(4) The prospective adopters l||eglllmole
chl|dren, ll ony, who ore J0 yeors or o|der
ond |lvlng wllh lhem
(5) 1he spouse, ll ony, ol lhe person odopllng or
lo be odopled.

A decree ol odopllon sho|| be ellecllve os ol lhe
dole lhe orlglno| pellllon wos ll|ed. ll o|so
opp|les ln cose lhe pelllloner dles belore lhe
lssuonce ol lhe decree ol odopllon lo prolecl
lhe lnleresl ol lhe odoplee.

+3%D"5'+!7'* +3')%513%4

9'$1*!"38 )'667!6%*! '( #7'$',7)"$
6'!;%3 2"*!7*, !' +1! ;%3 );7$5 1+
('3 "5'+!7'*

Counse|lng on her opllons olher lhon
odopllon

Lxp|olnlng lo her lhe lmp|lcollons ol |oslng
her porenlo| oulhorlly over lhe chl|d

Conllnulng servlces sho|| be provlded oller
re|lnqulshmenl lo cope wllh lee|lngs ol
|oss, elc. ond olher servlces lor hlsJher
relnlegrollon lo lhe communlly


Blo|oglco| porenl(s) who declde lo keep lhe
chl|d sho|| be provlded wllh odequole
servlces ond osslslonce lo lu|ll|| lhelr
porenlo| responslbl|llles

Blo|oglco| porenl(s) who declde lo pul lhe
chl|d lor odopllon sho|| slgn lhe Deed ol
vo|unlory Commllmenl (DvC) whlch sho||
be resclsslb|e wllhln 3 monlhs lrom slgnlng
ol lhe some

1+ $"2 #') +%34'*4 "*5 ("67$8 3%$"!7'*4 )797$ $"2
+",% :C
7*9'$1*!"38 )'667!6%*! '(
"#"*5'*%5 '3 *%,$%)!%5 );7$5

3%A173%5 41++'3!7*, 5')16%*!4 ('3
" +%!7!7'* ('3 !;% 5%)$"3"!7'* '(
7*9'$1*!"38 )'667!6%*!
(J) Soclo| Cose Sludy Reporl by
DSWD/LGU/institution charged with childs
cuslody
(2) Proof of efforts to locate the childs
porenlsJknown re|ollves
(o) Wrlllen cerllllcollon lhol o
|oco|Jnollono| rodloJ1v cose wos olred
on 3 dlllerenl occoslons
(b) Pub|lcollon ln J newspoper ol genero|
clrcu|ollon
(c) Po|lce reporl J borongoy cerllllcollon ol
due dl|lgence
(d) Relurned reglslered mol| lo |osl known
oddress ol porenls
(3) Blrlh cerllllcole, ll ovol|ob|e
(4) Recenl pholo ond pholo upon
obondonmenl ol chl|d

"5'+!7'* +3')%513%4


Aller lhe decree ol odopllon, lhe courl moy o|so
lssue o lrove| oulhorlly, ll needed, DSWD lo
provlde posl odopllon servlces.

1he cose sludy reporl by lhe DSWDJLCU ls
lndlspensob|e. Wllhoul ll, lhe odopllon decree
sho|| be vold. |OIYO 5$ ]6.T, F,?,- 7899J<]



lnqulry ol prospecllve odoplers ol DSWD

Allendonce ol DSWD Adopllon |or o ond
Semlnors (lnc|ude counse|lng)

Molchlng

Cose Sludy Reporl

Cerllllcole ol Avol|obl|lly lor Adopllon

App|lcollon lor Adopllon

P|ocemenl


Supervlsed 1rlo| Cuslody

Home Sludy Reporl

Recommendollon ond Consenl ol DSWD

|l|e Pellllon lor Adopllon wllhln 30 doys
lrom Recelpl ol Consenl lrom DSWD

Adopllon Decree

|l|lng ol o pellllon ol Reglono| DSWD ln
lhe lorm ol on ollldovll ond wllh lhe
requlred supporllng documenls

Posllng ol lhe pellllon, lhen
recommendollon by lhe Reglono|
Dlreclor ol lhe DSWD (5 doys eoch)

lssuonce ol cerllllcollon by DSWD
Secrelory dec|orlng lhe chl|d |ego||y
ovol|ob|e lor odopllon

1+ $"2 #') +%34'*4 "*5 ("67$8 3%$"!7'*4 )797$ $"2
+",% ?@
2;' 6"8 *'! "5'+!L #%
"5'+!%5

!"#$ 8:A 7)* )+,-.,. /0 Q! :GG&<' R($
1he lo||owlng moy nol odopl:
(J) 1he guordlon, wllh respecl lo lhe word, prlor
lo lhe opprovo| ol lhe llno| occounls
rendered upon lhe lermlnollon ol lhe
guordlonshlp
(2) Any person convlcled ol o crlme ol moro|
lurpllude
37,;!4 '( "* "5'+!%5 );7$5

+"3%*!"$ "1!;'37!8
Lxcepl ln coses where lhe blo|oglco| porenl ls
the adopters spouse, all legal ties between
blo|oglco| porenl ond odoplee sho|| be severed,
ond lhe some sho|| lhen be vesled on lhe
odoplers. |I,E$ 8;]

$%,7!76")8
1he odoplee sho|| be consldered lhe |eglllmole
sonJdoughler ol lhe odoplers lor o|| lnlenls ond
purposes, ond os such ls enlll|ed lo o|| rlghls
ond ob|lgollons provlded by |ow lo |eglllmole
chl|dren born lo lhem wllhoul dlscrlmlnollon ol
ony klnd. |I,E$ 8J]

41))%447'*
ln |ego| ond lnleslole successlon, lhe odopler
ond lhe odoplee sho|| hove reclproco| rlghls ol
successlon wllhoul dlsllncllon lrom |eglllmole
ll|lollon. However, ll lhe odoplee ond hlsJher
blo|oglco| porenls hod |ell o wl||, lhe |ow on
leslomenlory successlon sho|| govern. KI,E$ 8:L

!"#$ 893' R( )* )+,-.,.. Ru|es on |ego| or
lnleslole successlon lo lhe eslole ol lhe
odoplee:
(J) Leglllmole ond l||eglllmole chl|dren,
descendonls ond lhe survlvlng spouse ol lhe
odoplee sho|| lnherll ln occordonce wllh lhe
ordlnory ru|es ol |ego|Jlnleslole successlon
(2) When lhe survlvlng spouse OR l||eglllmole
chl|dren AND odoplers concur, lhey sho||
lnherll on o 50-50 bosls
(3) When lhe survlvlng spouse AND l||eglllmole
chl|dren AND odoplers concur, lhey sho||
lnherll on o JJ3-JJJ3-JJ3 bosls
(4) When on|y odoplers survlve, lhey sho||
lnherll J00% ol lhe eslole
(5) When on|y co||olero| b|ood re|ollves survlve,
ordlnory ru|es ol |ego| or lnleslole successlon
sho|| opp|y

*"6%

!"#$ =;G' (($ An odopled chl|d sho|| beor lhe
surnome ol lhe odopler$

RA 8552 o||ows lhe chonge ol llrsl nome lo be
lnsllluled ln lhe some proceedlng os lhe
adoption: the decree of adoption shall state
the name by which the child is to be known.

*"!7'*"$7!8
Adopllon does nol conler clllzenshlp: Phl|lpplne
clllzenshlp moy be |oslJocqulred |on|y] ln lhe
monner provlded by |ow. |I,E$ =' !"#$ A'
(>-*#@#6#@>-L

1he rlghl lo conler clllzenshlp be|ongs lo lhe
Slole (po|lllco|) ond connol be gronled by o
clllzen lhrough odopllon. Adopllon creoles o
re|ollonshlp belween lhe odopler ond odoplee,
nol belween lhe Slole ond lhe odoplee.

3%4)7447'* '( "5'+!7'*
Adoplee moy ll|e ocllon lor resclsslon, wllh lhe
osslslonce ol DSWD ll heJshe ls o mlnor or over
J8 bul lncopoclloled, bosed on lhe lo||owlng
grounds |I,E$ 89]:
(J) Repeoled physlco| ond verbo| mo|lreolmenl
by odoplers desplle hovlng undergone
counse|lng
(2) Allempl on |lle ol odoplee
(3) Sexuo| ossou|l or vlo|ence
(4) Abondonmenl or lol|ure lo comp|y wllh
porenlo| ob|lgollons

Adopllon, belng ln lhe besl lnleresl ol lhe chl|d,
sho|| nol be subjecl lo resclsslon by lhe odopler.
However, lhe odopler moy dlslnherll lhe chl|d
bosed on lhese couses |!"#$ 989' ((]:
(J) Convlcllon ol on ollempl on lhe |lle ol lhe
odopler
(2) Hovlng occused, wllhoul grounds, lhe
odopler ol o crlme punlshob|e by
lmprlsonmenl lor more lhon 6 yeors
(3) Convlcllon ol odu|leryJconcublnoge wllh
the adopters spouse
1+ $"2 #') +%34'*4 "*5 ("67$8 3%$"!7'*4 )797$ $"2
+",% ?-
(4) Hovlng coused lhe odopler lo moke or
chonge o wl|| by lorce, lnllmldollon or undue
lnl|uence
(5) Reluso| wllhoul jusl couse lo supporl lhe
odopler
(6) Mo|lreolmenl ol lhe odopler by wordJdeed
(7) Llvlng o dlshonorob|eJdlsgrocelu| |lle
(8) Convlcllon ol o crlme whlch corrles wllh ll
lhe peno|ly ol clvl| lnlerdlcllon

%((%)!4 '( 3%4)7447'* KI,E$ &3Le
(J) Porenlo| oulhorlly ol lhe odoplee's
blo|oglco| porenls, ll known, OR lhe |ego|
cuslody ol lhe DSWD sho|| be reslored ll lhe
odoplee ls sll|| o mlnor or lncopoclloled
(2) Reclproco| rlghls ond ob|lgollons ol lhe
odoplers ond lhe odoplee sho|| be
exllngulshed
(3) Courl sho|| order lhe Clvl| Reglslror lo
conce| lhe omended cerllllcole ol blrlh ol
lhe odoplee ond reslore hlsJher orlglno|
blrlh cerllllcole
(4) Successlon rlghls sho|| reverl lo lls slolus
prlor lo odopllon, bul on|y os ol lhe dole ol
judgmenl ol judlclo| resclsslon
(5) vesled rlghls prlor lo judlclo| resclsslon
sho|| be respecled

Resclsslon conlemp|oles o slluollon where lhe
odopllon decree remolns vo|ld unll| lls
lermlnollon.

3%)!7(7)"!7'* '( 4761$"!%5
#73!;
Slmu|ollon ol blrlh ls lhe lomperlng ol LCR
records lo moke ll oppeor lhol o cerloln chl|d
wos born lo o person who ls nol hlsJher
blo|oglco| porenl, couslng sold chl|d lo |ose
hlsJher lrue ldenlllyJslolus.

I,E$ &8\/ 7Q! :GG&<. Any person who sho|| couse
lhe llcllllous reglslrollon ol lhe blrlh ol o chl|d
under lhe nome(s) ol o person(s) who ls nol
hlsJher blo|oglco| porenl(s) sho|| be gul|ly ol
slmu|ollon ol blrlh, ond sho|| be punlshed by
C"@*@>- +)0>" ln lls medlum perlod ond o llne
nol exceedlng P50,000.00.

A person who hos, prlor lo lhe ellecllvlly ol RA
8552, slmu|oled lhe blrlh ol o chl|d sho|| nol be
punlshed lor such ocl, PROvlDLD KI,E$ && 7Q!
:GG&<L:
(J) 1he slmu|ollon was for the childs best
lnleresl
(2) Chl|d hos been lreoled conslslenl|y os hls
own
(3) Petition filed within 5 years of RA 8552s
ellecllvlly (2003)

!;3%%D7*D'*% +3')%513%
(J) Correcllon ol enlrles ln blrlh cerllllcole
(2) Deed ol vo|unlory Commllmenl or
Dec|orollon ol obondonmenl
(3) Adopllon decree

3%+1#$7) ")! *'= B@0/
!;% $"2 '* 7*!%3D)'1*!38
"5'+!7'*
N>1*% GH -CC:O

lnler-counlry Adopllon lhe soclo-|ego| process
ol odopllng o |l|lplno chl|d by o lorelgner or o
|l|lplno clllzen permonenl|y resldlng obrood
where lhe pellllon ls ll|ed, lhe supervlsed lrlo|
cuslody ls underloken, ond lhe decree ol
odopllon ls lssued oulslde lhe Phl|lpplnes.

2;' )"* "5'+!
Any lorelgn nollono| or o |l|lplno clllzen
permonenl|y resldlng obrood who hos lhe
quo|lllcollons ond none ol lhe dlsquo|lllcollons
under lhe Acl moy ll|e on opp|lcollon ll heJshe:
(J) ls ol |eosl 27 yeors ol oge ond ol |eosl J6
yeors o|der lhon lhe chl|d lo be odopled, ol
lhe llme ol opp|lcollon un|ess lhe odopler ls
lhe porenl by nolure ol lhe chl|d lo be
odopled or lhe spouse ol such porenl,
(2) ll morrled, hlsJher spouse musl jolnl|y ll|e
lor lhe odopllon,
(3) Hos lhe copoclly lo ocl ond ossume o||
rlghls ond responslbl|llles ol porenlo|
oulhorlly under hls nollono| |ows, ond hos
undergone lhe opproprlole counse|lng lrom
on occredlled counse|or ln hlsJher counlry,
(4) Hos nol been convlcled ol o crlme lnvo|vlng
moro| lurpllude,
(5) ls e|lglb|e lo odopl under hlsJher nollono|
|ow,
(6) ls ln o poslllon lo provlde lhe proper core
ond supporl ond lo glve lhe necessory
1+ $"2 #') +%34'*4 "*5 ("67$8 3%$"!7'*4 )797$ $"2
+",% ?.
moro| vo|ues ond exomp|e lo o|| hls
chl|dren, lnc|udlng lhe chl|d lo be odopled,
(7) Agrees lo upho|d lhe boslc rlghls ol lhe
chl|d os embodled under Phl|lpplne |ows,
lhe U.N. Convenllon on lhe Rlghls ol lhe
Chl|d, ond lo oblde by lhe ru|es ond
regu|ollons lssued lo lmp|emenl lhe
provlslons ol lhls Acl,
(8) Comes lrom o counlry wllh whom lhe
Phl|lpplnes hos dlp|omollc re|ollons ond
whose governmenl molnlolns o slml|or|y
oulhorlzed ond occredlled ogency ond lhol
odopllon ls o||owed under hlsJher nollono|
|ows,
(9) Possesses o|| lhe quo|lllcollons ond none ol
lhe dlsquo|lllcollons provlded ln opp|lcob|e
Phl|lpplne |ows.

2;' )"* #% "5'+!%5
On|y o |ego||y-lree chl|d moy be lhe subjecl ol
lnler-counlry odopllon.

Lego||y-lree chl|d one who hos been
vo|unlorl|y or lnvo|unlorl|y commllled lo lhe
DSWD ol lhe Phl|lpplnes, ln occordonce wllh lhe
Chl|d ond oulh We|lore Code.

No chl|d sho|| be molched lo o lorelgn odopllve
loml|y un|ess ll ls sollsloclorl|y shown lhol lhe
chl|d connol be odopled |oco||y (|osl resorl).

ln order lhol such chl|d moy be consldered lor
p|ocemenl, lhe lo||owlng documenls musl be
submllled lo lhe Boord:
(J) Chl|d sludy
(2) Blrlh Cerllllcole J |ound|lng Cerllllcole
(3) Deed ol vo|unlory CommllmenlJ Decree ol
AbondonmenlJ Deolh Cerllllcole ol porenls
(4) Medlco| Lvo|uollon J Hlslory
(5) Psycho|oglco| Lvo|uollon, os necessory
(6) Recenl pholo ol lhe chl|d

Where lhe pellllon lor odopllon wos gronled
oller lhe chl|d hod shol ond kl||ed o glr|, lhe
Supreme Courl dld nol conslder lhe relroocllve
ellecl glven lo lhe decree ol odopllon so os lo
lmpose o |lobl|lly upon odopllng porenls ol o
llme when odopllng porenls hod no ocluo| or
physlco||y cuslody over lhe chl|d. Relroocllve
ellecl moy perhops be glven lo lhe gronllng ol
lhe pellllon lor odopllon where such ls essenllo|
lo permll lhe occruo| ol some benelll or
odvonloge ln lovor ol lhe odopled chl|d. ln lhe
lnslonl cose, however, lo ho|d lhol porenlo|
oulhorlly hod been relroocllve|y |odged ln lhe
odopllng porenls so os lo burden lhem wllh
|lobl|lly lor o lorluous ocl lhol lhey cou|d nol
hove loreseen ond whlch lhey cou|d nol hove
prevenled wou|d be unlolr ond unconsclonob|e.
K4)+)"T> 5$ (! 7899&<L

Adopllon ls o jurldlco| ocl, proceedlng ln rem.
Becouse ll ls orllllclo|, lhe slolulory
requlremenls ln order lo prove ll musl be slrlcl|y
corrled oul. Pellllon musl be onnounced ln
pub|lcollons ond on|y lhose proc|olmed by lhe
courl ore vo|ld. Adopllon ls never presumed.
KN)[)#@- 5$ ()+C>* 789J9<L

vo|ldlly ol locls behlnd o llno| odopllon decree
connol be co||olero||y ollocked wllhoul
impinging on that courts jurisdiction. KI)-#>* 5$
!")-[)-*> 789;;<L

Porllclpollon ol lhe opproprlole governmenl
lnslrumenlo|lly ln perlormlng lhe necessory
sludles ond precoullons ls lmporlonl ond ls
indispensable to assure the childs welfare.
KOIYO 5$ F,?,- 7899J<L

Consenl lor odopllon musl be wrlllen ond
nolorlzed. KN)-.@-T@- 5$ Q,C6/?@E 7&33;<L

Adopled chl|dren do nol hove o rlghl lo
represenl lhelr odoplers ln successlono|
lnleresls. A|lhough on odopled chl|d ls deemed
lo be o |eglllmole chl|d ond hove lhe some
rlghls os lhe |oller, lhese rlghls do nol lnc|ude
lhe rlghl ol represenlollon (becouse lhe
odopled chl|d hos no rlghl lo lnherll lrom lhe
grondporenl). 1he re|ollonshlp creoled by lhe
odopllon ls belween on|y lhe odopllng porenls
ond lhe odopled chl|d. ll does nol exlend lo lhe
b|ood re|ollves ol ellher porly. KI)0*>- 5$ (!
7899&<L








1+ $"2 #') +%34'*4 "*5 ("67$8 3%$"!7'*4 )797$ $"2
+",% ?/
Supporl

2;"! 7! )'6+374%4
Conslsls ol everylhlng @-.@*C,-*)/?, lor
suslenonce, dwe||lng, c|olhlng, medlco|
ollendonce, educollon ond lronsporlollon, ln
keeplng wllh lhe llnonclo| copoclly ol lhe loml|y.
K!"#$ 89A' R(L
Education includes a persons schooling or
lrolnlng lor some prolesslon, lrode or
vocollon, lhe rlghl lo whlch sho|| subslsl
beyond lhe oge ol mojorlly. K!"#$ 89A' R(L
1ronsporlollon lnc|udes expenses ln golng lo
ond lrom schoo|, or lo ond lrom p|oce ol work.
K!"#$ 89A' R(L

2;' "3% '#$7,%5
1o supporl eoch olher:
(J) Spouses,
(2) Leglllmole oscendonls ond descendonls,
(3) Porenls ond lhelr chl|dren (|eglllmole )-.
l||eglllmole) ond lhe chl|dren ol lhe |oller
(|eglllmole )-. l||eglllmole),
(4) Leglllmole brolhers ond slslers, whelher ol
lu|| or ho|l-b|ood, |!"#$ 89G, R(]
(5) l||eglllmole brolhers ond slslers, whelher ol
lu|| or ho|l-b|ood, excepl when lhe need lor
supporl ol one (ol oge) ls due lo o couse
lmpulob|e lo hlsJher lou|l or neg|lgence.
|!"#$ 89;' R(]

Bolh |eglllmole ond l||eglllmole chl|dren ore
enlll|ed lo supporl.

+3'+%3!7%4 "*42%3"#$% ('3
41++'3!
|rom lhe seporole properly ol lhe ob|lgor. ll no
seporole properly, lhe ACPJCPC (ll llnonclo||y
copob|e) sho|| odvonce lhe supporl, lo be
deducted from the obligors share upon
|lquldollon ol such reglme$ K!"#$ 89J' R(L

'35%3 '( 41++'3!
ll lhere ore mu|llp|e ob|lgors |!"#$ 899' R(]:
(J) Spouse
(2) Descendonls, neoresl ln degree
(3) Ascendonls, neoresl ln degree
(4) Brolhers ond Slslers

1he order ol |lobl|lly omong oscendonls ond
descendonls wou|d be:
(J) Leglllmole chl|dren ond descendonls,
(2) Leglllmole porenls ond oscendonls,
(3) l||eglllmole chl|dren ond lhelr descendonls.
K4>?,-#@->L

When lwo or more ore ob|lged lo glve supporl,
lhe poymenl sho|| be dlvlded belween lhem ln
proporllon lo lhelr resources,

A|so, ln cose ol urgenl need ond by speclo|
clrcumslonces, judge moy order on|y one
ob|lgor lo lurnlsh supporl wllhoul prejudlce lo
relmbursemenl lrom olher ob|lgors ol lhe shore
due lrom lhem |!"#$ &33' R(].

ll lhere ore mu|llp|e reclplenl sond on|y one
ob|lgor, ond lhe |oller hos no sulllclenl meons lo
sollsly o|| c|olms:
(J) Observe order ln Arllc|e J99 os lo whose
c|olm sho|| be sollslled llrsl,
(2) Bul ll lhe concurrenl ob|lgees ore lhe
spouse ond o chl|d subjecl lo porenlo|
oulhorlly, lhe chl|d sho|| be prelerred. |!"#$
&33' R(L

1he obove prelerence glven lo o chl|d under
porenlo| oulhorlly over lhe spouse shou|d
prevol| on|y ll lhe person ob|lged lo supporl
poys ll oul ol hls seporole properly. So ll lhe
supporl comes lrom ACP or CPC, lhe obove ru|e
ol prelerence lor lhe chl|d does nol opp|y.
|4>?,-#@->]

Lven ll lhe porenls-ln-|ow were lhe ones who
called for the physicians services for the
chl|dblrlh ol lhelr doughler-ln-|ow, ll ls lhe
womans husband who is bound to pay the fees
due lo lhe physlclon. KH,?)0> 5$ N)6">- 78939<L

Mon ls sll|| |lob|e lor supporl ln orreors slnce lhe
molher odvonced ll lrom o slronger (lhe unc|e
ol lhe doughlers). KN)E*>- 5$ I)- ]>*,\N)E*>-
789;:<L

Acknow|edgmenl ol ond commllmenl lo
comp|y wllh supporl ob|lgollon lhrough o nole
ln hls own hondwrlllng ls prool lhol o demond
wos mode. KN)E*>- 5$ N)E*>- 7&33;<L

1+ $"2 #') +%34'*4 "*5 ("67$8 3%$"!7'*4 )797$ $"2
+",% ?0
1he omounl ol supporl ls vorlob|e ond, lor lhls
reoson, no llno| judgmenl on lhe omounl ol
supporl ls mode os lhe omounl sho|| be ln
proporllon lo lhe resources or meons ol lhe
glver ond lhe necessllles ol lhe reclplenl.
K^>#)".> 5$ F6?@-T 7&38&<L

4!3"*,%3 ,79%4 41++'3!
When, wllhoul lhe know|edge ol lhe person
ob|lged lo glve supporl, ll ls glven by o slronger,
lhe slronger hos lhe rlghl lo c|olm lhe some
lrom lhe person ob|lged, un|ess ll oppeors lhol
he gove ll wllhoul lnlenllon ol belng
relmbursed. |!"#$ &3;' R(]

+%34'* '#$7,%5 3%(14%4 '3
("7$4 !' ,79% 41++'3!
When lhe person ob|lged lo glve supporl
unjusl|y reluses or lol|s lo glve supporl when
urgenl|y needed, ony lhlrd person moy lurnlsh
supporl lo lhe needy lndlvlduo|, wllh rlghl ol
relmbursemenl lrom lhe person ob|lged lo glve
supporl. 1hls porllcu|or|y opp|les when lhe
lolher or molher ol o mlnor chl|d unjusl|y
reluses lo supporl or lol|s lo glve supporl lo lhe
chl|d when urgenl|y needed. |!"#$ &3J' R(]

)'*!3")!1"$ 41++'3! '3 !;"!
,79%* #8 27$$
1he excess ln omounl beyond lhol requlred lor
|ego| supporl sho|| be subjecl lo |evy on
ollochmenl or execullon. |!"#$ &3:, R(]

Reoson: 1he omounl ol supporl ogreed upon ln
lhe conlrocl or glven ln lhe wl|| con be more
lhon whol lhe reclplenl needs |Semplo-Dly].

|urlhermore, conlrocluo| supporl sho|| be
subjecl lo odjuslmenl whenever modlllcollon ls
necessory due lo chonges ln clrcumslonces
monllesl|y beyond lhe conlemp|ollon ol lhe
porlles. |!"#$ &3:' R(L

41++'3! 5137*, 6"337",%
$7!7,"!7'*
Pendlng |ego| seporollon or onnu|menl, ond lor
dec|orollon ol nu||lly, supporl C,-.,-#, ?@#, lor
spouses ond chl|dren wl|| come lrom lhe
ACPJCPC. Aller llno| judgmenl gronllng lhe
pellllon, muluo| supporl ob|lgollon belween
spouses ceoses. (Bul ln |ego| seporollon, courl
moy order gul|ly spouse lo glve supporl lo
lnnocenl spouse.) |!"#$ 89:' R(L

Nole: De loclo seporollon does nol ollecl lhe
ACP ond lhe CPC, excepl lhol lhe spouse who
|eoves lhe conjugo| home wllhoul jusl couse
sho|| nol be enlll|ed lo supporl. |!"#$ 833' R(]

"6'1*!
1he omounl ol supporl ls ln proporllon lo lhe
meons ol lhe provlder ond lhe needs ol lhe
recelver, ond con be reduced or lncreosed ll such
clrcumslonces chonge. |!"#*$ &38' &3&' R(]

2;%* 5%6"*5"#$%
1he ob|lgollon lo glve supporl sho|| be
demondob|e lrom lhe llme lhe person who hos
o rlghl lo recelve lhe some needs ll lor
molnlenonce, bul ll sho|| nol be pold excepl
lrom lhe dole ol judlclo| or exlro-judlclo|
demond. |!"#. &3=' R(]

Supporl C,-.,-#, ?@#, moy be c|olmed ln
occordonce wllh lhe Ru|es ol Courl. |!"#$ &3='
R(L

Poymenl sho|| be mode wllhln lhe llrsl 5 doys ol
eoch correspondlng monlh. When lhe reclplenl
dles, hls helrs sho|| nol be ob|lged lo relurn
whol he hos recelved ln odvonce. |!"#$ &3=' R(]

'+!7'*4
(J) Poymenl ol lhe omounl, or
(2) Recelvlng ond molnlolnlng lhe reclplenl ln
lhe home ol lhe provlder, un|ess lhere ls o
|ego| or moro| obsloc|e lor dolng so.

"!!");6%*!
1he rlghl lo recelve supporl os we|| os ony
money or properly oblolned os such supporl
sho|| nol be |evled upon on ollochmenl or
execullon. |!"#$ &3G' R(]

1hls ls lo prolecl lhol whlch lhe |ow glves lo lhe
reclplenl ogolnsl wonl ond mlsery. K4>?,-#@->L




1+ $"2 #') +%34'*4 "*5 ("67$8 3%$"!7'*4 )797$ $"2
+",% ?:
Porenlo| Aulhorlly

,%*%3"$ +3'9747'*4
Porenlo| oulhorlly ls lhe moss ol rlghls ond
ob|lgollons whlch porenls hove ln re|ollon lo lhe
person ond properly ol lhelr chl|dren unll| lhelr
emonclpollon, ond even oller lhls under cerloln
clrcumslonces |c)-",*)].

+"3%*!"$ "1!;'37!8 7*)$15%4
K!"#$ &39Le
(J) 1he corlng lor ond reorlng ol chl|dren lor
clvlc consclousness ond elllclency,
(2) 1he deve|opmenl ol lhe moro|, menlo| ond
physlco| chorocler ond we||-belng ol sold
chl|dren

Porenlo| oulhorlly ond responslbl|lly moy nol be
renounced or lronslerred excepl ln lhe coses
oulhorlzed by |ow. |!"#$ &83, R(]

)"4%4 2;%* +"3%*!"$
"1!;'37!8 "*5 3%4+'*47#7$7!8
6"8 #% !3"*4(%33%5 '3
3%*'1*)%5
(J) Adopllon,
(2) Cuordlonshlp, or
(3) Commllmenl ol lhe chl|d ln on enllly or
lnslllullon engoged ln chl|dcore or ln o
childrens home.

31$%4 "4 !' !;% %E%3)74% '(
+"3%*!"$ "1!;'37!8
(J) 1olnl|y exerclsed by lhe lolher ond molher
overl helr common chl|dren, bul ln cose ol
dlsogreemenl, lhe lolher's declslon sho||
prevol|, un|ess lhere ls o judlclo| order lo lhe
conlrory |!"#$ &88' R(]
(2) Lxerclsed by lhe molher ll lhe chl|d ls
l||eglllmole |!"#$8J;' R(]
(3) Chl|dren under porenlo| oulhorlly sho||
o|woys observe respecl ond reverence
lowords lhelr porenls ond ore ob|lged lo
obey lhem |!"#$ &88' R(]

);"3")!%374!7)4 '( +"3%*!"$
"1!;'37!8
(J) Noluro| rlghl ond duly ol porenls K!"#$ &39'
R(L
(2) Connol be renounced, lronslerred or
wolved, excepl ln coses oulhorlzed by |ow
K!"#$ &83' R(L
(3) 1olnl|y exerclsed by lhe lolher ond lhe
molher K!"#$ &88' R(L
(4) Pure|y persono| ond connol be exerclsed
lhrough ogenls
(5) 1emporory

+"3%*!"$ +3%(%3%*)% 31$%
1he noluro| porenls, who ore ol good chorocler
ond who con reosonob|y provlde lor lhe chl|d,
ore ordlnorl|y enlll|ed lo cuslody os ogolnsl o||
persons. |I)-#>* 5$ (! 7899G<L

2;' %E%3)74%4 "1!;'37!8 7*
)"4%4 '( 5%"!;H "#4%*)%H
1*417!"#7$7!8H 3%6"337",%H '3
4%+"3"!7'* '( +"3%*!4
(J) ln cose one porenl ls obsenl or o|reody deod,
lhe presenl or survlvlng porenl |!"#$ &8&' R(L
Remorrloge ol lhe survlvlng porenl sho||
nol ollecl hlsJher porenlo| oulhorlly over
lhe chl|dren, un|ess lhe courl oppolnls
onolher person lo be lhe guordlon ol lhe
chl|dren or lhelr properly |!"#$ &8&' R(]
(2) ln cose ol o voldJonnu||ed morrloge, ond
lhere ls no ogreemenl belween spouses, lhe
porenl deslgnoled by lhe courl |!"#$ A=78<'
R(W !"#$ A9' R(L
(3) lnnocenl spouse gels cuslody ol mlnor
chl|dren ln |ego| seporollon |!"#$ ;=7=<' R(]
(4) 1he courl sho|| loke lnlo occounl o||
re|evonl conslderollons, especlo||y lhe
cholce ol lhe chl|d over seven yeors ol oge,
un|ess lhe porenl chosen ls unlll |!"#$ &8=78<'
R(L
(5) Subslllule porenlo| oulhorlly |Arl. 2J4, |C]
(o) ln cose ol deolh, obsence or
unsullobl|lly ol lhe porenls, subslllule
porenlo| oulhorlly sho|| be exerclsed by
lhe survlvlng grondporenl
(b) When severo| grondporenls survlve, lhe
one deslgnoled by lhe courl sho||
exerclse porenlo| oulhorlly, loklng lnlo
occounl o|| re|evonl conslderollons,
especlo||y lhe cholce ol lhe chl|d over
seven yeors ol oge, un|ess lhe
grondporenl chosen ls unlll

1+ $"2 #') +%34'*4 "*5 ("67$8 3%$"!7'*4 )797$ $"2
+",% ??
DESCENDANTS PRIVILE,% '(
3%(14"$ !' !%4!7(8 K!"#$ &8G' R(L
Cenero| ru|e: No descendonl sho|| be
compe||ed, ln o crlmlno| cose, lo lesllly ogolnsl
hls porenls ond grondporenls.

Lxcepllon: When such lesllmony ls
lndlspensob|e ln:
(J) o crlme ogolnsl lhe descendonl, or
(2) o crlme by one porenl ogolnsl lhe olher.

!%*5%3 8%"34 +3%416+!7'*
No chl|d under 7 yeors ol oge sho|| be seporoled
lrom lhe molher, un|ess lhe courl llnds
compe||lng reosons lo order olherwlse. K!"#$
&8=7&<W ^)+/>) 5$ (! 7&33J<L

Lxomp|es ol compe||lng reosons ore:
(J) When lhe molher ls lnsone,
(2) Wllh o communlcob|e dlseose lhol mlghl
endonger lhe |lle or heo|lh ol lhe chl|d,
(3) ls mo|lreollng lhe chl|d, or
(4) Hos onolher chl|d by onolher mon who |lves
wllh her. K(,"5)-#,* 5$ R)_)".> 789:9<L

A||eged |esblonlsm |^6)?/,"#> 5$ ^6)?/,"#>
7&33G<], proslllullon or lnllde|lly lo husbond
does nol necessorl|y moke o molher unlll os
porenl. ll musl be shown lhol such |esblonlsm,
proslllullon or lnllde|lly odverse|y ollecls lhe
chl|d.

41#4!7!1!% "*5 4+%)7"$
+"3%*!"$ "1!;'37!8

+%34'*4 %E%3)747*, 41#4!7!1!%
+"3%*!"$ "1!;'37!8 7* 5%("1$!
'( +"3%*!4 '3 >157)7"$$8
"++'7*!%5 ,1"357"*
ln order:
(J) 1he survlvlng grondporenl |!"#$ &8A' R(]
(2) O|desl brolher or slsler, over 2J yeors o|d,
un|ess unlll or unquo|llled.
(3) Childs actual custodian, over 21 years old,
un|ess unlll or unquo|llled.

1he some order opp|les lo lhe oppolnlmenl ol
judlclo| guordlon over lhe properly ol lhe chl|d.

41#4!7!1!% +"3%*!"$ "1!;'37!8
'9%3 574"59"*!",%5 );7$53%*
|!"#$ &8J' R(]
Lnlrusled ln summory judlclo| proceedlngs lo:
(J) Heads of childrens homes
(2) Orphonoges
(3) Slml|or lnslllullons du|y occredlled by lhe
proper governmenl ogency (such os lhe
DSWD)

2;' "3% 574"59"*!",%5 );7$53%*
(J) |ound|lngs
(2) Abondoned
(3) Neg|ecled
(4) Abused
(5) Olhers slml|or|y slluoled

+%34'*4 %E%3)747*, 4+%)7"$
+"3%*!"$ "1!;'37!8 K!"#$ &8:' R(L
(J) Schoo|, lls odmlnlslrolors ond leochers, or
(2) 1he lndlvlduo|, enllly or lnslllullon engoged
ln chl|dcore

Nole: Lxerclsed over mlnor chl|d whl|e under
lhelr supervlslon, lnslrucllon or cuslody.

I6/*#@#6#, H)",-#)?
!6#U>"@#0
IC,E@)? H)",-#)?
!6#U>"@#0
ll ls exerclsed ln cose
ol deolh, obsence, or
ln cose ol unsullobl|lly
ol porenls.
ll ls exerclsed
concurrenl|y wllh lhe
porenlo| oulhorlly ol
lhe porenls ond resls
on lhe lheory lhol
whl|e lhe chl|d ls ln lhe
cuslody ol lhe person
exerclslng speclo|
porenlo| oulhorlly, lhe
porenls lempororl|y
re|lnqulsh porenlo|
oulhorlly over lhe
chl|d lo lhe |oller.

1he speclo| porenlo| oulhorlly ond responslbl|lly
opp|les lo o|| oulhorlzed ocllvllles, whelher
lnslde or oulslde lhe premlses ol lhe schoo|,
enllly or lnslllullon. |St. Marys Academy v.
()"C@#)->* 7&33&<

1+ $"2 #') +%34'*4 "*5 ("67$8 3%$"!7'*4 )797$ $"2
+",% ?G
$7"#7$7!8 '( !;'4% %E%3)747*,
4+%)7"$ +"3%*!"$ "1!;'37!8
'9%3 !;% );7$5 K!"#$ &89' R(L
(J) Prlnclpo| ond so|ldory |lobl|lly lor domoges
coused by lhe ocls or omlsslons ol lhe mlnor
chl|d whl|e under lhelr speclo| porenlo|
oulhorlly
(2) Subsldlory |lobl|lly lor lhe porenls )-.
judlclo| guordlons ol lhe mlnor, or lhose
exerclslng subslllule porenlo| oulhorlly over
such mlnor lor hls ocls ond omlsslons

Bolh groups con use lhe delense lhol lhey
exerclsed proper dl|lgence lo ovold |lobl|lly

5')!37*% '( 97)"37'14 $7"#7$7!8
K!"#$ &8:3 7&' =' J' :<' ((L
(J) 1he lolher, ond ln cose ol hls deolh, lhe
molher ore responslb|e lor lhe domoges
coused by lhelr mlnor chl|dren who |lve ln
lhelr compony
(2) Cuordlons ore |lob|e lor domoges coused by
lhe mlnors or lncopoclloled persons who
ore under lhelr oulhorlly ond |lve ln lhelr
compony
(3) 1eochers or heods ol eslob|lshmenls ol orls
ond lrodes sho|| be |lob|e lor domoges
coused by lhelr pupl|s ond sludenls or
opprenllces, so |ong os lhey remoln ln lhelr
cuslody

Responslbl|lly ln Arl. 2J80 sho|| ceose when lhe
persons responslb|e menlloned prove lhol lhey
observed o|| lhe dl|lgence ol o good lolher ol
lhe loml|y

%((%)! '( +"3%*!"$
"1!;'37!8 1+'* !;%
+%34'*4 '( !;% );7$53%*

37,;!4 '( +"3%*!4 1+'* !;%
+%34'* '( !;% );7$53%*
(J) 1o keep lhem ln lhelr compony |!"#$ &&3'
R(L
(2) 1o represenl lhem ln o|| mollers ollecllng
lhelr lnleresls |!"#$ &&3' R(L
(3) 1o demond lrom lhem respecl ond
obedlence ond lmpose necessory dlsclp|lne
on lhem |!"#$ &&3' R(L
(4) 1o odmlnlsler lhelr properly ond lo use lhe
lrulls ond lncome lor lhe supporl ol lhe
chl|dren ond co||ecllve dol|y needs ol lhe
loml|y |!"#$ &&G )-. &&;' R(L
(5) 1o glve or wllhho|d consenl lo lhelr
morrloge, lhelr morrloge sell|emenls, lhelr
donollons by reoson ol morrloge, odopllon,
ond emp|oymenl |4>?,-#@->]
(6) 1o dlslnherll lhem lor jusl couse |4>?,-#@->]

Arl. 220 whlch sloles lhol lhe porenl hos o rlghl
lo lmpose necessory dlsclp|lne on lhe chl|d does
nol oulhorlze lhe porenl lo lnvode or dlsregord
the childs honor ond dlgnlly under lhe mosk ol
dlsclp|lne. Such ocls con never be juslllled os
porenlo| punlshmenl. KH,>C?, 5$ I@?5)-> 78999<L

51!7%4 '( +"3%*!4 1+'* !;%
+%34'* '( !;% );7$53%*
(J) 1o supporl lhem, provldlng lor lhelr
upbrlnglng ln occordonce wllh lhelr meons
|!"#$ &&3' R(L
(2) 1o educole, lnslrucl, ond provlde lhem wllh
moro| ond splrlluo| guldonce ond |ove ond
underslondlng |!"#$ &&3' R(L
(3) 1o lurnlsh lhem wllh good ond who|esome
educollono| molerlo|s, supervlse lhelr
ocllvllles, recreollon ond ossoclollon wllh
olhers, prolecl lhem lrom bod compony,
ond prevenl lhem lrom ocqulrlng hoblls
delrlmenlo| lo lhelr heo|lh |!"#$ &&3' R(L
(4) 1o perlorm such olher dulles os ore
lmposed by |ow K!"#$ &&3' R(L
(5) 1o glve lhelr |owlu| lnherllonce |4>?,-#@->]
(6) 1o prolecl lhem lrom un|owlu| oggresslon
|4>?,-#@->]
(7) 1o onswer lor domoges coused by lhelr lou|l
or neg|lgence ond lor lhe clvl| |lobl|lly lor
crlmes commllled by lhem. |!"#$ &&8' R(]

41#4!7!1!% 3%+3%4%*!"!7'*
The courts may appoint a guardian of the childs
properly, or o guordlon ). ?@#,+ when lhe besl
lnleresls ol lhe chl|d so requlres. K!"#$ &&&' R(L

)'13! "4474!"*)% 7* !;%
574)7+$7*% '( !;% );7$5
(J) 1he porenls or, ln lhelr obsence or
lncopoclly, lhe lndlvlduo|, enllly or
lnslllullon exerclslng porenlo| oulhorlly,
moy pellllon lhe proper courl ol lhe p|oce
1+ $"2 #') +%34'*4 "*5 ("67$8 3%$"!7'*4 )797$ $"2
+",% ?B
where lhe chl|d resldes, lor on order
provldlng lor dlsclp|lnory meosures over lhe
chl|d. |!"#$ &&=' R(L
(2) 1he chl|d sho|| be enlll|ed lo lhe osslslonce
ol counse|, ellher ol hls cholce or oppolnled
by lhe courl, ond o summory heorlng sho||
be conducled whereln lhe pelllloner ond
lhe chl|d sho|| be heord. |!"#$ &&=' R(]
(3) ll lhe courl llnds lhe pellllon merllorlous,
dlsclp|lnory meosures moy lnc|ude lhe
commllmenl ol lhe chl|d lor nol more lhon
30 doys ln enlllles or lnslllullons engoged ln
childcare or in childrens homes duly
occredlled by lhe proper governmenl
ogency. |Arl. 224, |C]
1he porenl exerclslng porenlo| oulhorlly
sho|| nol lnlerlere wllh lhe cose ol lhe
chl|d whenever commllled bul sho||
provlde lor hls supporl. |!"#$ &&A' R(L
Upon proper pellllon or ol lls own
lnslonce, lhe courl moy lermlnole lhe
commllmenl ol lhe chl|d whenever jusl
ond proper. K!"#$ &&A' R(L
(4) ll lhe courl llnds lhe pelllloner ol lou|l,
lrrespecllve ol lhe merlls ol lhe pellllon, or
when lhe clrcumslonces so worronl, lhe
courl moy o|so order lhe deprlvollon or
suspenslon ol porenlo| oulhorlly or odopl
such olher meosures os ll moy deem jusl
ond proper. |!"#$ &&=' R(L

%((%)!4 '( +"3%*!"$
"1!;'37!8 1+'* !;%
+3'+%3!8 '( !;% );7$53%*
|!"#$ &&G' R(]
(J) 1he lolher ond molher sho|| jolnl|y exerclse
|ego| guordlonshlp over lhe properly ol lhe
mlnor common chl|d wllhoul courl
oppolnlmenl.
(2) ln cose ol dlsogreemenl, lhe lolhers
declslon sho|| prevol|, un|ess lhere ls judlclo|
order lo lhe conlrory.
(3) 1he ordlnory ru|es on guordlonshlp sho|| be
mere|y supp|elory excepl when lhe chl|d ls
under subslllule porenlo| oulhorlly, or lhe
guordlon ls o slronger, or o porenl hos
remorrled, ln whlch cose lhe ordlnory ru|es
on guordlonshlp sho|| opp|y.
(4) ll lhe morkel vo|ue ol lhe properly or lhe
onnuo| lncome ol lhe chl|d exceeds
P50,000, lhe porenl ls requlred lo lurnlsh o
bond ol nol |ess lhon J0% ol lhe vo|ue ol
the childs properly or onnuo| lncome.

+3')%513% 7* !;% "++3'9"$ '(
THE PARENTS BOND K!"#$ &&G' R(L
(J) A verllled pellllon lor opprovo| ol lhe bond
sho|| be ll|ed ln lhe proper courl ol lhe p|oce
where lhe chl|d resldes.
(2) ll lhe chl|d resldes ln o lorelgn counlry, lhe
pellllon sho|| be ll|ed ln lhe proper courl ol
lhe p|oce where lhe properly or ony porl
lhereol ls slluoled.
(3) 1he pellllon sho|| be dockeled os o
summory speclo| proceedlng. 1he courl
sho|| delermlne lhe omounl ol lhe bond,
bul sho|| nol be |ess lhon J0% ol lhe morkel
value of the childs property or of his annual
lncome.

OWNERSHIP OF CHILDS
")A1747!7'*4
1he properly ol lhe unemonclpoled chl|d eorned
or ocqulred wllh hls work or lnduslry or by
onerous or grolullous lll|e sho|| be|ong lo lhe
chl|d ln ownershlp ond sho|| be devoled
exclusively to the latters support and education,
un|ess lhe lll|e or lronsler provldes olherwlse.
K!"#$ &&;' R(L

PARENTS USUFRUCT
1he rlghl ol lhe porenls over lhe D"6@#* )-.
@-E>+, (nol lhe properly llse|l) ol the childs
properly sho|| be |lmlled prlmorl|y to the childs
supporl ond secondorl|y lo lhe co||ecllve dol|y
needs ol lhe loml|y. K!"#$ &&;' R(L

2;%* +"3%*!4 %*!314! !;%
6"*",%6%*! '( !;%73
+3'+%3!7%4 !' " );7$5 |!"#$ &&J' R(L
ll lhe porenls enlrusl lhe monogemenl or
odmlnlslrollon ol ony ol lhelr properlles lo on
unemonclpoled chl|d, lhe nel proceeds ol
such properly sho|| be|ong lo lhe owner.
1he chl|d sho|| be glven o reosonob|e monlh|y
o||owonce ln on omounl nol |ess lhon lhol
whlch lhe owner wou|d hove pold ll lhe
odmlnlslrolor were o slronger, un|ess lhe
owner gronls lhe enllre proceeds lo lhe chl|d.
1+ $"2 #') +%34'*4 "*5 ("67$8 3%$"!7'*4 )797$ $"2
+",% ?C
ln ony cose, lhe proceeds lhus glven ln who|e
or ln porl sho|| nol be charged to the childs
|eglllme.

414+%*47'* '3 !%367*"!7'*
'( +"3%*!"$ "1!;'37!8i
RA 7610, CHILD ABUSE LAW

+"3%*!"$ "1!;'37!8
+%36"*%*!$8 !%367*"!%4
(J) Upon deolh ol porenls K!"#$ &&:' R(L
(2) Upon deolh ol chl|d K!"#$ &&:' R(L
(3) Upon emonclpollon ol chl|d |!"#$ &&:' R(L
(4) ll lhe porenls exerclslng porenlo| oulhorlly
hos subjecled lhe chl|d or o||owed hlm lo be
subjecled lo sexuo| obuse |!"#$ &=&' R(L

ln lhe cose ol deolh ol porenls, lhere ls no
obso|ule lermlnollon ol porenlo| oulhorlly
becouse whl|e lhe chl|d ls sll|| o mlnor, lhe
grondporenls, brolhers ond slslers, or o
guordlon moy exerclse subslllule porenlo|
oulhorlly over lhe chl|d K!"#$ &8;' R(L

!%367*"!7'* '( +"3%*!"$
"1!;'37!8 2;7); )"* #% 3%979%5
#8 (7*"$ >15,6%*! K!"#$ &&9' R(L
(J) Upon odopllon ol lhe chl|d,
(2) Upon lhe oppolnlmenl ol o genero|
guordlon lor lhe chl|d,
(3) Upon judlclo| dec|orollon ol
(o) Abondonmenl ol lhe chl|d ln o cose
ll|ed lor lhe purpose
(b) Absence or lncopoclly ol lhe person
exerclslng porenlo| oulhorlly
(4) Upon llno| judgmenl ol o compelenl courl
dlvesllng lhe porly concerned ol porenlo|
oulhorlly.

,3'1*54 ('3 414+%*47'* '(
+"3%*!"$ "1!;'37!8 K!"#$ &=3 )-.
&=8' R(L
(J) Convlcllon ol porenl lor crlme whlch corrles
wllh ll lhe peno|ly ol clvl| lnlerdlcllon
(2) 1reols chl|d wllh excesslve horossmenl ond
crue|ly
(3) Clves corrupllng orders, counse|, or
exomp|e
(4) Compe|s chl|d lo beg
(5) Subjecls lhe chl|d or o||ows hlm lo be
subjecled lo ocls ol |osclvlousness

1he oloresold grounds ore lo lnc|ude coses
whlch resu|led lrom cu|pob|e neg|lgence ol lhe
porenl or lhe person exerclslng porenlo|
oulhorlly.

ll lhe degree ol serlousness or lhe we|lore ol lhe
chl|d so demonds, lhe courl moy deprlve lhe
gul|ly porly ol porenlo| oulhorlly or odopl such
olher meosures os moy be proper.

+%36"*%*! 5%+379"!7'* '(
+"3%*!"$ "1!;'37!8 '*
,3'1*54 '( 4%E1"$ "#14% K!"#$ &=&'
R(L
ll lhe person exerclslng porenlo| oulhorlly hos
subjecled or hos o||owed lhe chl|d lo be
subjecled lo sexuo| obuse, such person sho|| be
permonenl|y deprlved ol oulhorlly over lhe
chl|d.

4)'+% '( 41#4!7!1!% "*5
4+%)7"$ +"3%*!"$ "1!;'37!8 K!"#$
&==' R(L
1he person exerclslng subslllule porenlo|
oulhorlly sho|| hove lhe some oulhorlly over
lhe person ol lhe chl|d os lhe porenls.
ln no cose sho|| lhe schoo| odmlnlslrolors,
leocher or lndlvlduo| engoged ln chl|dcore
exerclslng speclo| porenlo| oulhorlly lnl|lcl
corporo| punlshmenl upon lhe chl|d.

RA 7610, CHILD ABUSE LAW

+%34'*4 $7"#$%
(J) 1hose who engoge ln or promole, locl|llole
or lnduce chl|d proslllullon whlch lnc|ude,
bul ore nol |lmlled lo, lhe lo||owlng:
(o) Acllng os o procurer ol o chl|d
proslllule,
(b) lnduclng o person lo be o c|lenl ol o
chl|d proslllule by meons ol wrlllen or
oro| odverllsemenls or olher slml|or
meons,
(c) 1oklng odvonloge ol lnl|uence or
re|ollonshlp lo procure o chl|d os
proslllule,
(d) 1hreolenlng or uslng vlo|ence lowords o
chl|d lo engoge hlm os o proslllule, or
1+ $"2 #') +%34'*4 "*5 ("67$8 3%$"!7'*4 )797$ $"2
+",% G@
(e) Clvlng monelory conslderollon, goods
or olher pecunlory benelll lo o chl|d
wllh lnlenl lo engoge such chl|d ln
proslllullon.
(2) 1hose who commll lhe ocl ol sexuo|
lnlercourse ol |osclvlous conducl wllh o
chl|d exp|olled ln proslllullon or subjecl lo
olher sexuo| obuse
(3) 1hose who derlve prolll or odvonloge
lherelrom, whelher os monoger or owner ol
lhe eslob|lshmenl where lhe proslllullon
lokes p|oce, or ol lhe souno, dlsco, bor,
resorl, p|oce ol enlerlolnmenl or
eslob|lshmenl servlng os o cover or whlch
engoges ln proslllullon ln oddlllon lo lhe
ocllvlly lor whlch lhe |lcense hos been
lssued lo sold eslob|lshmenl.
(4) Any person who, nol belng o re|ollve ol o
chl|d, ls lound o|one wllh lhe sold chl|d
lnslde lhe room or cublc|e ol o house, on
lnn, hole|, mole|, penslon house, oporle||e
or olher slml|or eslob|lshmenls, vesse|,
vehlc|e or ony olher hldden or sec|uded oreo
under clrcumslonces whlch wou|d |eod o
reosonob|e person lo be|leve lhol lhe chl|d
ls oboul lo be exp|olled ln proslllullon ond
olher sexuo| obuse.
(5) Any person who ls recelvlng servlces lrom o
chl|d ln o souno por|or or bolh, mossoge
c|lnlc, heo|lh c|ub ond olher slml|or
eslob|lshmenls.
(6) Any person who sho|| engoge ln lrodlng ond
deo|lng wllh chl|dren lnc|udlng, bul nol
|lmlled lo, lhe ocl ol buylng ond se||lng ol o
chl|d lor money, or lor ony olher
conslderollon, or borler
(7) Any person who |els o chl|d lo lrove| o|one
lo o lorelgn counlry wllhoul vo|ld reoson
lherelor ond wllhoul c|eoronce lssued by
lhe Deporlmenl ol Soclo| We|lore ond
Deve|opmenl or wrlllen permll or
jusllllcollon lrom lhe chl|d's porenls or |ego|
guordlon
(8) Any person, ogency, eslob|lshmenl or chl|d-
corlng lnslllullon who recrulls women or
coup|es lo beor chl|dren lor lhe purpose ol
chl|d lrolllcklng
(9) Any doclor, hospllo| or c|lnlc olllclo| or
emp|oyee, nurse, mldwlle, |oco| clvl| reglslror or
ony olher person who slmu|oles blrlh lor lhe
purpose ol chl|d lrolllcklng
(J0) Any person who engoges ln lhe ocl ol
llndlng chl|dren omong |ow-lncome
loml|les, hospllo|s, c|lnlcs, nurserles, doy-
core cenlers, or olher chl|d-corlng
lnslllullons who con be ollered lor lhe
purpose ol chl|d lrolllcklng
(JJ) Any pregnonl molher who execules on
ollldovll ol consenl lor odopllon lor o
conslderollon
(J2) Any person who sho|| hlre, emp|oy, use,
persuode, lnduce or coerce o chl|d lo
perlorm ln obscene exhlblllons ond lndecenl
shows, whelher |lve or ln vldeo, or mode| ln
obscene pub|lcollons or pornogrophlc
molerlo|s or lo se|| or dlslrlbule lhe sold
molerlo|s
(J3) Any person who sho|| commll ony olher ocls
ol chl|d obuse, crue|ly or exp|ollollon or lo
be responslb|e lor olher condlllons
prejudlclo| lo lhe chl|d's deve|opmenl
(J4) Any person who sho|| keep or hove ln hls
compony o mlnor, J2 yeors or under or who
ls J0 yeors or more hls junlor ln ony pub|lc or
prlvole p|oce, hole|, mole|, beer jolnl,
dlscolheque, coborel, penslon house, souno
or mossoge por|or, beoch ondJor olher
lourlsl resorl or slml|or p|oces
Lxcepllon: Any person who ls re|oled
wllhln lhe lourlh degree ol consongulnlly
or olllnlly or ony bond recognlzed by |ow,
|oco| cuslom ond lrodlllon or ocls ln lhe
perlormonce ol o soclo|, moro| or |ego|
duly
(J5) Any person who sho|| lnduce, de|lver or oller
o mlnor lo ony one prohlblled by RA 76J0 lo
keep or hove ln hls compony o mlnor.
(J6) Any person, owner, monoger or one
enlrusled wllh lhe operollon ol ony pub|lc
or prlvole p|oce ol occommodollon, whelher
lor occuponcy, lood, drlnk or olherwlse,
lnc|udlng resldenllo| p|oces, who o||ows ony
person lo loke o|ong wllh hlm lo such p|oce
or p|oces ony mlnor hereln descrlbed.
(J7) Any person who sho|| use, coerce, lorce or
lnllmldole o slreel chl|d or ony olher chl|d
lo:
(o) Beg or use begglng os o meons ol |lvlng,
(b) Acl os condull or mldd|emen ln drug
lrolllcklng or pushlng, or
(c) Conducl ony l||ego| ocllvllles.

1+ $"2 #') +%34'*4 "*5 ("67$8 3%$"!7'*4 )797$ $"2
+",% G-
Lmonclpollon K)* )+,-.,. /0 Q!
;:39L

!"#$ &=A' R($ Lmonclpollon lokes p|oce by lhe
ollolnmenl ol mojorlly. Un|ess olherwlse
provlded, mojorlly commences ol lhe oge ol
elghleen yeors.

!"#$ &=;' R($ Lmonclpollon sho|| lermlnole
porenlo| oulhorlly over lhe person ond properly
ol lhe chl|d who sho|| lhen be quo|llled ond
responslb|e lor o|| ocls ol clvl| |lle, sove lhe
excepllons eslob|lshed by exlsllng |ows ln
speclo| coses.

Conlrocllng morrloge sho|| requlre porenlo|
consenl unll| lhe oge ol lwenly-one.

Nolhlng ln lhls Code sho|| be conslrued lo
derogole lrom lhe duly or responslbl|lly ol
porenls ond guordlons lor chl|dren ond words
be|ow lwenly-one yeors ol oge menlloned ln lhe
second ond lhlrd porogrophs ol Arllc|e 2J80 ol
lhe Clvl| Code.

3%+1#$7) ")! *'= ?B@C
By vlrlue ol lhls |ow, emonclpollon con no
longer take place by virtue of the minors
morrloge or by lhe concesslon ol lhe porenls lo
o mlnor ln o recorded pub|lc lnslrumenl.


Summory 1udlclo|
Proceedlngs ln lhe |oml|y
Low

+3')%513"$ 31$%4
+3'975%5 ('3 7* !;74 !7!$%
4;"$$ "++$8 !' K!"#$ &=:' R(L
(J) Seporollon ln locl belween husbond ond
wlle
(2) Abondonmenl by one ol lhe olher
(3) lncldenls lnvo|vlng porenlo| oulhorlly




4%+"3"!7'* 7* (")!
A verllled pellllon o||eglng lhe lo||owlng locls ls
requlred when |Arl. 239]:
(J) A husbond ond wlle ore seporoled ln locl,
or,
(2) One hos obondoned lhe olher

47!1"!7'*
Where one ol lhem seeks judlclo| oulhorlzollon
lor o lronsocllon where lhe consenl ol lhe olher
spouse ls requlred by |ow bul such consenl ls
wllhhe|d or connol be oblolned

1he pellllon sho||:
(J) Alloch lhe proposed deed, ll ony,
embodylng lhe lronsocllon, ll none, sho||
descrlbe ln delol| lhe sold lronsocllon ond
slole lhe reoson why lhe requlred consenl
lherelo connol be secured.
(2) 1he llno| deed du|y execuled by lhe porlles
sho|| be submllled lo ond opproved by lhe
courl.

4%+"3"!% )$"76 ('3 5"6",%4
C|olms lor domoges by ellher spouse, excepl
cosls ol lhe proceedlngs, moy be |lllgoled on|y
ln o seporole ocllon. K!"#$ &A3'R(L

>137457)!7'*
1urlsdlcllon over lhe pellllon sho||, upon prool ol
nollce lo lhe olher spouse, be exerclsed by lhe
proper courl oulhorlzed lo heor loml|y coses, ll
one exlsls, or ln lhe reglono| lrlo| courl or lls
equlvo|enl sllllng ln lhe p|oce where ellher ol
lhe spouses resldes. K!"#$ &A8' R(L


*'!7(7)"!7'* !' '!;%3 4+'14%
|!"#$ &A&, R(]
(J) Upon lhe ll|lng ol lhe pellllon, lhe courl
sho|| nollly lhe olher spouse, whose consenl
lo lhe lronsocllon ls requlred, ol sold
pellllon, orderlng sold spouse lo show couse
why lhe pellllon shou|d nol be gronled, on
or belore lhe dole sel ln sold nollce lor lhe
lnlllo| conlerence.
(2) 1he nollce sho|| be occomponled by o copy
ol lhe pellllon ond sho|| be served ol lhe
|osl known oddress ol lhe spouse
concerned.

1+ $"2 #') +%34'*4 "*5 ("67$8 3%$"!7'*4 )797$ $"2
+",% G.
+3')%513%
(J) A pre|lmlnory conlerence sho|| be
conducled by lhe judge persono||y wllhoul
lhe porlles belng osslsled by counse|.
(2) Aller lhe lnlllo| conlerence, ll lhe courl
deems ll uselu|, lhe porlles moy be osslsled
by counse| ol lhe succeedlng conlerences
ond heorlngs. K!"#$ &A=' R(L
(3) ll lhe pellllon ls nol reso|ved ol lhe lnlllo|
conlerence, sold pellllon sho|| be declded ln
o summory heorlng.
Bosls ol summory heorlng (ol lhe sound
dlscrellon ol lhe courl):
(o) Allldovlls
(b) Documenlory evldence
(c) Oro| lestimonies at the courts sound
dlscrellon. ll lesllmony ls needed, lhe
courl sho|| speclly lhe wllnesses lo be
heord ond lhe subjecl-moller ol lhelr
lesllmonles, dlrecllng lhe porlles lo
presenl sold wllnesses. |!"#$ &A;7)<'
R(L

2;%* "++%"3"*)% '( 4+'14%4
3%A173%5
(J) ln cose ol non-oppeoronce ol lhe spouse
whose consenl ls soughl, lhe courl sho||
lnqulre lnlo lhe reosons lor hls lol|ure lo
oppeor, ond sho|| requlre such oppeoronce,
ll posslb|e. |!"#$ &AA, R(]
(2) ll, desplle o|| ellorls, lhe ollendonce ol lhe
non-consenllng spouse ls nol secured, lhe
courl moy proceed ex porle ond render
judgmenl os lhe locls ond clrcumslonces
moy worronl. ln ony cose, lhe judge sho||
endeovor lo prolecl lhe lnleresls ol lhe non-
oppeorlng spouse. |!"#$ &AG' R(L

*"!13% '( >15,6%*!
1he judgmenl ol lhe courl sho|| be lmmedlole|y
llno| ond execulory. |Arl 247]

31$%4 "++$7)"#$% ('3
"567*74!%37*, '3 %*)16#%37*,
4%+"3"!% +3'+%3!8 '( 4+'14%
1he pellllon lor judlclo| oulhorlly lo odmlnlsler
or encumber speclllc seporole properly ol lhe
obondonlng spouse ond lo use lhe lrulls or
proceeds lhereol lor lhe supporl ol lhe loml|y
sho|| o|so be governed by lhese ru|es. |!"#$ &A:'
R(L
7*)75%*!4 7*9'$97*,
+"3%*!"$ "1!;'37!8

+3')%513%
(J) Such pellllons sho|| be verllled ond ll|ed ln
lhe proper courl ol lhe p|oce where lhe
chl|d resldes. K!"#$ &G3' R(L
(2) Upon lhe ll|lng ol lhe pellllon, lhe courl
sho|| nollly lhe porenls or, ln lhelr obsence
or lncopoclly, lhe lndlvlduo|s, enlllles or
lnslllullons exerclslng porenlo| oulhorlly
over lhe chl|d. K!"#$ &G8' R(L

Pellllons ll|ed under Arllc|es 223, 225 ond 235
ol lhls Code lnvo|vlng porenlo| oulhorlly sho||
be verllled. K!"#$ &A9' R(L

1he ru|es ln Chopler 2 hereol sho|| o|so govern
summory proceedlngs under lhls Chopler
lnsolor os lhey ore opp|lcob|e K!"#$ &G=' R(L

1he loregolng ru|es ln Chopler 2 (Seporollon ln
|ocl) ond (lncldenls lnvo|vlng Porenlo|
Aulhorlly) hereol sho|| |lkewlse govern summory
proceedlngs ll|ed:
(J) Dec|orollon ol presumpllve deolh |!"#$ A8'
R(L
(2) De|lvery ol presumpllve |eglllme K!"#$ G8' R(L
(3) |lxlng ol loml|y domlcl|e |!"#$ ;9' R(L
(4) Disagreements regarding one spouses
prolesslon, occupollon, buslness, or ocllvlly
|!"#$ J=' R(L
(5) Dlsposlllon or encumbronce ol common
properly ln ACP where one spouse ls
lncopoclloled or unob|e lo porllclpole ln lhe
odmlnlslrollon, odmlnlslrollon ol obso|ule
communlly ln o dlsogreemenl ond lhe wlle
lokes recourse wllhln llve yeors |!"#$ 9;' R(L
(6) Dlsposlllon or encumbronce ol common
properly ln CPC where one spouse ls
lncopoclloled or unob|e lo porllclpole ln lhe
odmlnlslrollon, odmlnlslrollon ol
porlnershlp properly ln o dlsogreemenl ond
lhe wlle lokes recourse wllhln llve yeors,
K!"#$ 8&A' R(L

When wlle ond husbond ore de loclo seporoled
ond lhe CPC ls lnsulllclenl, lhe spouse presenl
sho||, upon o pellllon, be glven judlclo| oulhorlly
lo odmlnlsler or encumber ony speclllc properly
ol lhe olher spouse ond use lhe lrulls ond
1+ $"2 #') +%34'*4 "*5 ("67$8 3%$"!7'*4 )797$ $"2
+",% G/
proceeds thereof to satisfy the latters share.
K!"#$ 8&J' R(L


Relroocllve Lllecl
1hls Code sho|| hove relroocllve ellecl lnsolor os
ll does nol prejudlce or lmpolr vesled or
ocqulred rlghls ln occordonce wllh lhe Clvl|
Code or olher |ows. |!"# &G;' R(L


|unero|

RELATIVES DUTY AND 37,;!4
!' "33"*,% (1*%3"$4
1he duly ond lhe rlghl lo moke orrongemenls
lor lhe lunero| ol o re|ollve sho|| be ln
occordonce wllh lhe order eslob|lshed lor
supporl, under Arllc|e 294 |!"#$ =3G' ((]:
(J) Spouse
(2) Descendonls ln lhe neoresl degree. ln cose
ol descendonls ol lhe some degree, lhe
o|desl sho|| be prelerred.
(3) 1he oscendonls ln lhe neoresl degree. ln
cose ol oscendonls, lhe polerno| sho|| hove
o beller rlghl.
(4) 1he brolhers ond slslers, lhe o|desl sho|| be
prelerred.
(5) Munlclpo| oulhorllles, ll lhere ore no
persons who ore bound lo supporl or ll such
persons ore wllhoul meons.

*"!13% '( (1*%3"$
Lvery lunero| sho|| be ln keeplng wllh lhe soclo|
poslllon ol lhe deceosed. |Arl. 306]

1he lunero| sho|| be |!"#$ =3J' ((]:
(J) ln occordonce wllh lhe expressed wlshes ol
lhe deceosed.
(2) ln lhe obsence ol such expresslon, hls
re|lglous be|lels or olll|lollon sho||
delermlne lhe lunero| rlles.
(3) ln cose ol doubl, lhe lorm ol lhe lunero|
sho|| be declded upon by lhe person ob|lged
lo moke orrongemenls lor lhe some, oller
consu|llng lhe olher members ol lhe loml|y

No humon remolns sho|| be relolned, lnlerred,
dlsposed ol or exhumed wllhoul lhe consenl ol
lhe persons menlloned ln orllc|es 294 ond 305.

5"6",%4
Any person who shows dlsrespecl lo lhe deod,
or wronglu||y lnlerleres wllh o lunero| sho|| be
|lob|e lo lhe loml|y ol lhe deceosed lor
domoges, molerlo| ond moro| |!"#$ =39' ((L

(1*%3"$ %E+%*4%4
1he conslrucllon ol o lombslone or mouso|eum
sho|| be deemed o porl ol lhe lunero| expenses,
ond sho|| be chorgeob|e lo lhe conjugo|
porlnershlp properly, ll lhe deceosed ls one ol
lhe spouses K!"#$ =83' ((L$

,175%$7*%4 7* 6"<7*,
(1*%3"$ "33"*,%6%*!4
(J) 1he persons who ore prelerred ln lhe rlghl
lo moke lunero| orrongemenls moy wolve
lhe rlghl express|y or lmp|led|y ln whlch
cose lhe rlghl ond duly lmmedlole|y
descend lo lhe person nexl ln lhe order.
(2) ll musl be ln keeplng wllh lhe soclo|
poslllon ol lhe deceosed.
(3) Low sho|| prevol| over lhe wl|| ol lhe persons
who hove lhe rlghl lo conlro| lhe burlo| ol
deceosed exhumollon, evldenllo| purpose,
dlsposlllon ol corpse by deceosed,
mull|ollon ol corpses ond oulopsles.
(4) Corpses whlch ore lo be burled ol pub|lc
expenses moy o|so be used lor sclenllllc
purposes under cerloln condlllons.
(5) Lxpressed wlshes ol lhe deceosed ls glven
prlorlly provlded lhol ll ls nol conlrory lo |ow
ond musl nol vlo|ole lhe |ego| ond
reg|emenlory provlslons concernlng
lunero|s ond dlsposlllon ol lhe remolns
(llme, monner, p|oce or ceremony)
(6) ln lhe obsence ol expressed wlshes, hls
re|lglous be|lels or olll|lollon sho||
delermlne lhe lunero| rlghls.
(7) ln cose ol doubl, lhe persons ln Arl. J99
sho|| declde.
(8) Any person who dlsrespecls lhe deod or
lnlerleres wllh lhe lunero| sho|| be |lob|e lor
molerlo| ond moro| domoges.

1+ $"2 #') +%34'*4 "*5 ("67$8 3%$"!7'*4 )797$ $"2
+",% G0
Use ol Surnomes

413*"6%4 '( );7$53%*
(J) Leglllmole ond |eglllmoled chl|dren sho||
prlnclpo||y use lhe surnome ol lhe lolher.
K!"#$ =;A' ((L
(2) An odopled chl|d sho|| beor lhe surnome ol
lhe odopler. K!"#$ =;G' ((L
(3) A noluro| chl|d ocknow|edged by bolh
porenls sho|| prlnclpo||y use lhe surnome ol
lhe lolher. ll recognlzed by on|y one ol lhe
porenls, o noluro| chl|d sho|| emp|oy lhe
surnome ol lhe recognlzlng porenl. K!"# =;;'
((L
(4) Noluro| chl|dren by |ego| llcllon sho||
prlnclpo||y emp|oy lhe surnome ol lhe
lolher. K!"#$ =;J' ((L
(5) l||eglllmole chl|dren relerred lo ln Arllc|e 287
sho|| beor lhe surnome ol lhe molher. K!"#
=;:' ((L
(6) Chl|dren concelved belore lhe decree
onnu||lng o voldob|e morrloge sho||
prlnclpo||y use lhe surnome ol lhe lolher.
K!"#$ =;9' ((L

27(% "(!%3 "*5 5137*,
6"337",%
(J) A morrled womon moy use |!"#$ =J3' ((]:
(o) Her molden llrsl nome ond surnome
ond odd her husbond's surnome, or
(b) Her molden llrsl nome ond her
husbond's surnome or
(c) Her husbond's lu|| nome, bul prellxlng o
word lndlcollng lhol she ls hls wlle, such
os jMrs$j
1he wlle connol c|olm on exc|uslve
right to use the husbands surname.
She cant be prevented from using it;
bul nellher con she reslroln olhers
lrom uslng ll. |4>?,-#@->]
(2) ln cose ol onnu|menl ol morrloge, ond lhe
wlle ls lhe gul|ly porly, she sho|| resume her
molden nome ond surnome. ll she ls lhe
lnnocenl spouse, she moy resume her
molden nome ond surnome. However, she
moy choose lo conllnue emp|oylng her
lormer husbond's surnome, un|ess K!"#$ =J8'
((L:
(o) 1he courl decrees olherwlse, or
(b) She or lhe lormer husbond ls morrled
ogoln lo onolher person.
(3) When |ego| seporollon hos been gronled,
lhe wlle sho|| conllnue uslng her nome ond
surnome emp|oyed belore lhe |ego|
seporollon. K!"#$ =J&' ((L
(4) A wldow moy use lhe deceosed husbond's
surnome os lhough he were sll|| |lvlng, ln
occordonce wllh Arllc|e 370. K!"# =J=' ((L

)'*(147'* "*5 );"*,% '(
*"6%4
ln cose ol ldenllly ol nomes ond surnomes, lhe
younger person sho|| be ob|lged lo use such
oddlllono| nome or surnome os wl|| ovold
conluslon. |!"#$ =JA' ((L

ln cose ol ldenllly ol nomes ond surnomes
belween oscendonls ond descendonls, lhe word
j1unlorj con be used on|y by o son. Crondsons
ond olher dlrecl mo|e descendonls sho|| ellher
|!"#$ =JG' ((]:
(J) Add o mldd|e nome or lhe molher's
surnome, or
(2) Add lhe Romon Numero|s ll, lll, ond so on.

Usurpollon ol o nome ond surnome moy be lhe
subjecl ol on ocllon lor domoges ond olher
re|lel. K!"#$ =JJ' ((L

1he unoulhorlzed or un|owlu| use ol onolher
person's surnome glves o rlghl ol ocllon lo lhe
|oller K!"#$ =J:' ((L

1he emp|oymenl ol pen nomes or sloge nomes
ls permllled, provlded ll ls done ln good lollh
ond lhere ls no lnjury lo lhlrd persons. Pen
nomes ond sloge nomes connol be usurped.
K!"#$ =J9' ((L

Lxcepl os provlded ln lhe precedlng orllc|e, no
person sho|| use dlllerenl nomes ond surnomes.
K!"# =:3' ((L





1+ $"2 #') +%34'*4 "*5 ("67$8 3%$"!7'*4 )797$ $"2
+",% G:
Absence

+3'9747'*"$ 6%"413%4 7*
)"4% '( "#4%*)%

!"#$ A=' ((. ll lhere ls o doubl, os belween lwo
or more persons who ore co||ed lo succeed eoch
olher, os lo whlch ol lhem dled llrsl, whoever
o||eges lhe deolh ol one prlor lo lhe olher, sho||
prove lhe some, ln lhe obsence ol prool, ll ls
presumed lhol lhey dled ol lhe some llme ond
lhere sho|| be no lronsmlsslon ol rlghls lrom
one lo lhe olher.

Arllc|e 43 provldes o slolulory presumpllon
when lhere ls doubl on lhe order ol deolh
belween persons who ore co||ed lo succeed eoch
olher (on|y).

1he slolulory presumpllon ol Arllc|e 43 wos nol
opp|led due lo lhe presence ol o credlb|e
eyewllness os lo who dled llrsl. K]>)a6@- 5$
b)5)""> 789A:<L

+3%416+!7'* 7* !;% 31$%4 '(
)'13! N31$% -/-H 4%)= /H N>>=O
N+3%416+!7'* '( 413979'34;7+O

!T, H",*6+,. I6"5@5>"
Bolh under J5 O|der
Bolh obove 60 ounger
One under J5, lhe olher
obove 60
One under J5
Bolh over J5 ond under
60, dlllerenl sexes
Mo|e
Bolh over J5 ond under
60, some sex
O|der
One under J5 or over 60,
lhe olher belween lhose
oges
One belween J5 ond 60

App|lcob|e on|y lo lwo or more persons who
perlsh ln lhe some co|omlly, ond ll ls nol shown
who dled llrsl, ond lhere ore no porllcu|or
clrcumslonces lrom whlch ll con be lnlerred.

!"#$ A8' (($ A morrloge conlrocled by ony person
durlng subslslence ol o prevlous morrloge sho||
be nu|| ond vold, un|ess belore lhe ce|ebrollon
ol lhe subsequenl morrloge, lhe prlor spouse
hod been obsenl lor lour consecullve yeors ond
lhe spouse presenl hos o we||-lounded be|lel
lhol lhe obsenl spouse wos o|reody deod. ln
cose ol dlsoppeoronce where lhere ls donger ol
deolh under lhe clrcumslonces sel lorlh ln lhe
provlslons ol Arllc|e 39J ol lhe Clvl| Code, on
obsence ol on|y lwo yeors sho|| be sulllclenl.

41#4%A1%*! 6"337",%
)'*!3")!%5 2;%* '*%
4+'14% 74 "#4%*!
Cenero| ru|e: Morrloge conlrocled by ony person
durlng lhe subslslence ol o prevlous morrloge ls
vold.

Lxcepllons:
1he lo||owlng subsequenl morrloge ol lhe
presenl spouse ls vo|ld:
(J) Subsequenl morrloge due lo ordlnory
obsence where:
(o) 1he prlor spouse hod been obsenl lor 4
consecullve yeors,
(b) 1he spouse presenl hod o we||-lounded
be|lel lhol obsenl spouse ls deod, ond
(c) 1udlclo| dec|orollon ol presumpllve
deolh wos secured (no prejudlce lo lhe
ellecl ol lhe reoppeoronce ol lhe obsenl
spouse).
(2) Subsequenl morrloge due lo exlroordlnory
obsence where:
(o) 1he prlor spouse hod been mlsslng lor 2
consecullve yeors,
(b) 1here ls donger ol deolh ollendonl lo
lhe dlsoppeoronce |Arl. 39J, Clvl| Code],
(c) 1he spouse presenl hod o we||-lounded
be|lel lhol lhe mlsslng person ls deod,
ond
(d) 1udlclo| dec|orollon ol presumpllve
deolh wos secured (no prejudlce lo lhe
ellecl ol lhe reoppeoronce ol lhe obsenl
spouse).

lnslllullon ol o summory proceedlng ls nol
sulllclenl. 1here musl o|so be o summory
judgmenl. |F)?)-,]

On|y lhe deserled spouse con ll|e or lnslllule o
summory proceedlng lor lhe dec|orollon ol
presumpllve deolh ol lhe obsenlee. |F@,-5,-@.>
E)*,]

1+ $"2 #') +%34'*4 "*5 ("67$8 3%$"!7'*4 )797$ $"2
+",% G?
1here musl hove been dl|lgenl ellorls on lhe
porl ol lhe deserled spouse lo |ocole lhe obsenl
spouse. 1hese dl|lgenl ellorls correspond lo lhe
requlremenl ol lhe |ow lor o we||-lounded
be|lel.

Lxcepllon lo lhe Lxcepllon:

!"#$ =:8' (($ When o person dlsoppeors lrom hls
domlcl|e, hls whereobouls belng unknown, ond
wllhoul |eovlng on ogenl lo odmlnlsler hls
properly, lhe judge, ol lhe lnslonce ol on
lnleresled porly, o re|ollve, or o lrlend, moy
oppolnl o person lo represenl hlm ln o|| lhol
moy be necessory.

1hls some ru|e sho|| be observed when under
slml|or clrcumslonces lhe power conlerred by
lhe obsenlee hos explred.

!"#$ =:&' (($ 1he oppolnlmenl relerred lo ln lhe
precedlng orllc|e hovlng been mode, lhe judge
sho|| loke lhe necessory meosures lo soleguord
lhe rlghls ond lnleresls ol lhe obsenlee ond
sho|| speclly lhe powers, ob|lgollons ond
remunerollon ol hls represenlollve, regu|ollng
lhem, occordlng lo lhe clrcumslonces, by lhe
ru|es concernlng guordlons.

!"#$ =:=' ((. ln lhe oppolnlmenl ol o
represenlollve, lhe spouse presenl sho|| be
prelerred when lhere ls no |ego| seporollon.

ll lhe obsenlee |ell no spouse, or ll lhe spouse
presenl ls o mlnor, ony compelenl person moy
be oppolnled by lhe courl.

3%A1747!%4 !' "++'7*!
3%+3%4%*!"!79%
1he judge moy oppolnl o person lo represenl
obsenlee when:
(J) Person dlsoppeors lrom hls domlcl|e
(2) Hls whereobouls ore unknown
(3) No ogenl lo odmlnlsler hls properly
(4) An lnleresled porly, o re|ollve, or o lrlend
ll|es lhe ocllon




2;' 6"8 #% "++'7*!%5 "4
3%+3%4%*!"!79%
(J) Spouse presenl sho|| be prelerred when
lhere ls no |ego| seporollon.
(2) ll no spouse or spouse ls lncopoclloled, ony
compelenl person.

5%)$"3"!7'* '( "#4%*)%

!"#$ =:A' (($ 1wo yeors hovlng e|opsed wllhoul
ony news oboul lhe obsenlee or slnce lhe
recelpl ol lhe |osl news, ond llve yeors ln cose
lhe obsenlee hos |ell o person ln chorge ol lhe
odmlnlslrollon ol hls properly, hls obsence moy
be dec|ored

!"#$ =:G' (($ 1he lo||owlng moy osk lor lhe
dec|orollon ol obsence:
(J) 1he spouse presenl,
(2) 1he helrs lnsllluled ln o wl||, who moy
presenl on oulhenllc copy ol lhe some,
(3) 1he re|ollves who moy succeed by lhe |ow ol
lnleslocy,
(4) 1hose who moy hove over lhe properly ol
lhe obsenlee some rlghl subordlnoled lo
lhe condlllon ol hls deolh.

!"#@E?, =:;' (($ 1he judlclo| dec|orollon ol
obsence sho|| nol loke ellecl unll| slx monlhs
oller lls pub|lcollon ln o newspoper ol genero|
clrcu|ollon.

2;%* 6"8 "#4%*)% #% 5%)$"3%5
(J) 1wo yeors wllhoul ony news oboul lhe
obsenlee
(2) |lve yeors ll lhe obsenlee |ell o person ln
chorge ol odmlnlslrollon ol hls properly
(3) Dec|orollon lokes ellecl on|y oller slx
monlhs oller pub|lcollon ln o newspoper ol
genero| clrcu|ollon

2;' 6"8 "4< ('3 " 5%)$"3"!7'*
'( "#4%*)%
(J) Spouse presenl
(2) Helrs lnsllluled ln o wl||, who moy presenl on
oulhenllc copy ol lhe some,
(3) Re|ollves who moy succeed by lhe |ow ol
lnleslocy,
(4) 1hose who moy hove some rlghl over lhe
properly ol lhe obsenlee, subordlnoled lo lhe
condlllon ol hls deolh.
1+ $"2 #') +%34'*4 "*5 ("67$8 3%$"!7'*4 )797$ $"2
+",% GG

"567*74!3"!7'* '( !;%
+3'+%3!8 '( !;% "#4%*!%%

!"#$ =:J' (($ An odmlnlslrolor ol lhe obsenlee's
properly sho|| be oppolnled ln occordonce wllh
Arllc|e 383.

!"#$ =::' (($ 1he wlle who ls oppolnled os on
odmlnlslrolrlx ol lhe husbond's properly connol
o|lenole or encumber lhe husbond's properly, or
lhol ol lhe conjugo| porlnershlp, wllhoul judlclo|
oulhorlly.

!"#$ =:9' (($ 1he odmlnlslrollon sho|| ceose ln
ony ol lhe lo||owlng coses:
(J) When lhe obsenlee oppeors persono||y or
by meons ol on ogenl,
(2) When lhe deolh ol lhe obsenlee ls proved
ond hls leslole or lnleslole helrs oppeor,
(3) When o lhlrd person oppeors, showlng by o
proper documenl lhol he hos ocqulred lhe
obsenlee's properly by purchose or olher
lll|e.

ln lhese coses lhe odmlnlslrolor sho|| ceose ln
lhe perlormonce ol hls olllce, ond lhe properly
sho|| be ol lhe dlsposo| ol lhose who moy hove o
rlghl lherelo.

2;' 6"8 "567*74!%3 !;%
+3'+%3!8
(J) Spouse presenl sho|| be prelerred when
lhere ls no |ego| seporollon
(2) ll no spouse or spouse ls lncopoclloled, ony
compelenl person

2;%* 27$$ !;% "567*74!3"!7'*
'( +3'+%3!8 )%"4%?
Admlnlslrolor sho|| ceose ln perlormonce ol hls
olllce, ond properly sho|| be dlsposed ln lovor ol
lhose who hove o rlghl lherelo when:
(J) Absenlee oppeors persono||y or by meons ol
on ogenl
(2) 1eslole or lnleslole helrs oppeor, upon prool
ol deolh ol obsenlee
(3) 1hlrd person oppeors, wllh o proper
documenl showlng he hos ocqulred
absentees property by purchase or other
lll|e

+3%416+!7'* '( 5%"!;

!"#$ =93' (($ Aller on obsence ol 7 yeors, ll
belng unknown whelher or nol lhe obsenlee
sll|| |lves, he sho|| be presumed deod lor o||
purposes, excepl lor lhose ol successlon.

1he obsenlee sho|| nol be presumed deod lor
lhe purpose ol openlng hls successlon ll|| oller
on obsence ol J0 yeors. ll he dlsoppeored oller
lhe oge ol 75 yeors, on obsence ol 5 yeors sho||
be sulllclenl ln order lhol hls successlon moy be
opened.

!"#$ =98' (($ 1he lo||owlng sho|| be presumed
deod lor o|| purposes, lnc|udlng lhe dlvlslon ol
lhe eslole omong lhe helrs:
(J) A person on boord o vesse| |osl durlng o seo
voyoge, or on oerop|one whlch ls mlsslng,
who hos nol been heord ol lor lour yeors
slnce lhe |oss ol lhe vesse| or oerop|one,
(2) A person ln lhe ormed lorces who hos loken
porl ln wor, ond hos been mlsslng lor lour
yeors,
(3) A person who hos been ln donger ol deolh
under olher clrcumslonces ond hls
exlslence hos nol been known lor lour yeors.

Cenero| ru|e: A person sho|| be presumed deod
lor o|| purposes oller obsence lor o perlod ol 7
yeors.

Lxcepllon: Successlon
ln successlon, J0 yeors ls requlred lor
presumpllon ol deolh.
ll obsenlee dlsoppeored oller oge ol 75, 5
yeors sho|| be sulllclenl.

%E!3"'357*"38 "#4%*)%
On|y 4 yeors ls requlred lor presumpllon lo orlse
ll:
(J) A person on boord o vesse| |osl durlng o seo
voyoge, or on oerop|one whlch ls mlsslng,
who hos nol been heord ol lor lour yeors
slnce lhe |oss ol lhe vesse| or oerop|one,
(2) A person ln lhe ormed lorces who hos loken
porl ln wor, ond hos been mlsslng lor lour
yeors,
1+ $"2 #') +%34'*4 "*5 ("67$8 3%$"!7'*4 )797$ $"2
+",% GB
(3) A person who hos been ln donger ol deolh
under olher clrcumslonces ond hls
exlslence hos nol been known lor lour yeors.

A|lhough 7 yeors ls requlred lor lhe presumpllon
ol deolh ol on obsenlee ln lhe Clvl| Code, Arl. 4J
ol lhe |oml|y Code mokes on excepllon lor lhe
purpose ol remorrloge by |lmlllng such
requlremenl lo 4 yeors.

!"#$ A8 o|so |lmlls lhe requlred 4 yeors ln !"#$ =98
lor obsence under excepllono| clrcumslonces lo
on|y 2 yeors.

!"#$ =9&' ((. ll lhe obsenlee oppeors, or wllhoul
oppeorlng hls exlslence ls proved, he sho||
recover hls properly ln lhe condlllon ln whlch ll
moy be lound, ond lhe prlce ol ony properly lhol
moy hove been o|lenoled or lhe properly
ocqulred lherewllh, bul he connol c|olm ellher
lrulls or renls.


Clvl| Reglslror

"3!7)$%4 0@GD0-/

!"#$ A3J' ((. Acls, evenls ond judlclo| decrees
concernlng lhe clvl| slolus ol persons sho|| be
recorded ln lhe clvl| reglsler.

!"#$ A3:' (($ 1he lo||owlng sho|| be enlered ln
lhe clvl| reglsler:
(J) Blrlhs,
(2) Morrloges,
(3) Deolhs,
(4) Lego| Seporollons,
(5) Annu|menls ol morrloge,
(6) 1udgmenls dec|orlng morrloges vold lrom
lhe beglnnlng,
(7) Leglllmollons,
(8) Adopllons,
(9) Acknow|edgmenls ol noluro| chl|dren,
(J0) Noluro|lzollon,
(JJ) Loss, or
(J2) Recovery ol clllzenshlp,
(J3) Clvl| lnlerdlcllon,
(J4) 1udlclo| delermlnollon ol ll|lollon,
(J5) vo|unlory emonclpollon ol o mlnor, ond
(J6) Chonges ol nome.

!"#$ A39' (($ ln coses ol |ego| seporollon,
odopllon, noluro|lzollon ond olher judlclo|
orders menlloned ln lhe precedlng orllc|e, ll
sho|| be lhe duly ol lhe c|erk ol lhe courl whlch
lssued lhe decree lo oscerloln whelher lhe some
hos been reglslered, ond ll lhls hos nol been
done, lo send o copy ol sold decree lo lhe clvl|
reglslry ol lhe clly or munlclpo|lly where lhe
courl ls luncllonlng.

!"#$ A83' (($ 1he books moklng up lhe clvl|
reglsler ond o|| documenls re|ollng lherelo
sho|| be consldered pub|lc documenls ond sho||
be prlmo locle evldence ol lhe locls lhereln
conlolned.

!"#$ A88' (($ Lvery clvl| reglslror sho|| be clvl||y
responslb|e lor ony unoulhorlzed o|lerollon
mode ln ony clvl| reglsler, lo ony person
sullerlng domoge lhereby. However, lhe clvl|
reglslror moy exempl hlmse|l lrom such |lobl|lly
ll he proves lhol he hos loken every reosonob|e
precoullon lo prevenl lhe un|owlu| o|lerollon.

!"#$ A8=' (($ A|| olher mollers perlolnlng lo lhe
reglslrollon ol clvl| slolus sho|| be governed by
speclo| |ows.

3" C@0B "4 "6%*5%5 #8 3"
-@-G.
AN AC1 AU1HORlZlNC 1HL Cl1 OR
MUNlClPAL ClvlL RLClS1RAR OR 1HL
CONSUL CLNLRAL 1O CORRLC1 A CLLRlCAL
OR 1POCRAPHlCAL LRROR lN AN LN1R
ANDJOR CHANCL O| |lRS1 NAML OR
NlCKNAML lN 1HL ClvlL RLClS1LR Wl1HOU1
NLLD O| A 1UDlClAL ORDLR, AMLNDlNC |OR
1HlS PURPOSL AR1lCLLS 376 AND 4J2 O|
1HL ClvlL CODL O| 1HL PHlLlPPlNLS

Cenero| ru|e: No enlry ln o clvl| reglsler sho|| be
chonged or correcled wllhoul o judlclo| order

Lxcepllon:
C|erlco| or lypogrophlco| errors,
Chonge ol: llrsl nome or nlcknome, doy ond
monlh ln lhe dole ol blrlh, or sex ol o person
1hls excepllon opp|les where ll ls polenl|y c|eor
lhol lhere wos o c|erlco| or lypogrophlco| error
or mlsloke ln lhe enlry, whlch con be correcled
1+ $"2 #') +%34'*4 "*5 ("67$8 3%$"!7'*4 )797$ $"2
+",% GC
or chonged by lhe concerned clly or munlclpo|
clvl| reglslror or consu| genero| ln occordonce
wllh lhe provlslons ol lhls Acl ond lls
lmp|emenllng ru|es ond regu|ollons

C|erlco| or lypogrophlco| error lo o mlsloke
commllled ln lhe perlormonce ol c|erlco| work ln
wrlllng, copylng, lronscrlblng or lyplng on enlry
ln lhe clvl| reglsler lhol ls horm|ess ond
lnnocuous (l.e. mlsspe||ed nome, mlsspe||ed
p|oce ol blrlh, mlsloke ln lhe enlry ol doy ond
monlh ln lhe dole ol blrlh or lhe sex ol lhe
person or lhe |lke, whlch ls vlslb|e lo lhe eyes or
obvlous lo lhe underslondlng, ond con be
correcled or chonged on|y by relerence lo olher
exlsllng record or records)

Belore lhe omendmenl by RA J0J72, no
correcllon musl lnvo|ve lhe chonge ol sex,
nollono|lly, oge or slolus ol lhe pelllloner. Aller
lhe omendmenl, chonge ol sex con now be
subjecled lo correcllon wllhoul judlclo| order
under lhe ru|es ol lhls Acl.

Clvl| Reglsler lhe vorlous reglslry books ond
re|oled cerllllcoles ond documenls kepl ln lhe
orchlves ol lhe |oco| clvl| reglslry olllces,
Phl|lpplne Consu|oles ond ol lhe Olllce ol lhe
Clvl| Reglslror Cenero|.

I,E$ =$ YU> c)0 R@?, #U, H,#@#@>- )-. YU,",$ Any
person hovlng dlrecl ond persono| lnleresl ln
lhe correcllon ol o c|erlco| or lypogrophlco| error
ln on enlry ondJor chonge ol llrsl nome or
nlcknome ln lhe clvl| reglsler moy ll|e, ln person,
o verllled pellllon wllh lhe |oco| clvl| reglslry
olllce ol lhe clly or munlclpo|lly where lhe
record belng soughl lo be correcled or chonged
ls kepl.

ln cose lhe pelllloner hos o|reody mlgroled lo
onolher p|oce ln lhe counlry ond ll wou|d nol be
procllco| lor such porly, ln lerms ol
lronsporlollon expenses, llme ond ellorl lo
oppeor ln person belore lhe |oco| clvl| reglslror
keeplng lhe documenls lo be correcled or
chonged, lhe pellllon moy be ll|ed, ln person,
wllh lhe |oco| clvl| reglslror ol lhe p|oce where
lhe lnleresled porly ls presenl|y resldlng or
domlcl|ed. 1he lwo (2) |oco| clvl| reglslrors
concerned wl|| lhen communlcole lo locl|llole
lhe processlng ol lhe pellllon.

Clllzens ol lhe Phl|lpplnes who ore presenl|y
resldlng or domlcl|ed ln lorelgn counlrles moy
ll|e lhelr pellllon, ln person, wllh lhe neoresl
Phl|lpplne Consu|oles.

1he pellllons ll|ed wllh lhe clly or munlclpo| clvl|
reglslror or lhe consu| genero| sho|| be
processed ln occordonce wllh lhls Acl ond lls
lmp|emenllng ru|es ond regu|ollons.

A|| pellllons lor lhe c|erlco| or lypogrophlco|
errors ondJor chonge ol llrsl nomes or
nlcknomes moy be ovol|ed ol on|y once.

,3'1*54

2;' 6"8 (7$% !;% +%!7!7'* "*5 2;%3%?
(J) Any person hovlng dlrecl persono| lnleresl ln
lhe correcllon ol o c|erlco| or lypogrophlco|
error ln on enlry ondJor chonge ol llrsl
nome or nlcknome ln lhe clvl| reglsler
(2) verllled pellllon wllh lhe |oco| clvl| reglslry
olllce ol lhe clly or munlclpo|lly
(o) where lhe record belng soughl lo be
correcled or chonged ls kepl
(b) where lhe lnleresled porly ls presenl|y
resldlng or domlcl|ed, ll ll wl|| be
lmprocllco| lo submll ln lhe p|oce where
record ls kepl (l.e. when porly hos
mlgroled lo onolher p|oce ln lhe
counlry)
(c) neoresl Phl|lpplne Consu|oles, ll lhe
pelllloner ls presenl|y resldlng or
domlcl|ed ln lorelgn counlrles

A|| pellllons lor lhe c|erlco| or lypogrophlco|
errors ondJor chonge ol llrsl nomes or
nlcknomes moy be ovol|ed ol on|y once.

I,E$ A$ ^">6-.* D>" (U)-T, >D R@"*# b)+, >"
b@EZ-)+,$ 1he pellllon lor chonge ol llrsl nome
or nlcknome moy be o||owed ln ony ol lhe
lo||owlng coses:
(J) 1he pelllloner llnds lhe llrsl nome or
nlcknome lo be rldlcu|ous, lolnled wllh
dlshonor or exlreme|y dllllcu|l lo wrlle or
pronounce.
(2) 1he new llrsl nome or nlcknome hos been
hoblluo||y ond conllnuous|y used by lhe
pelllloner ond he hos been pub|lc|y known
1+ $"2 #') +%34'*4 "*5 ("67$8 3%$"!7'*4 )797$ $"2
+",% B@
by lhol llrsl nome or nlcknome ln lhe
communlly: or
(3) 1he chonge wl|| ovold conluslon.

I,E$ G$ R>"+ )-. (>-#,-#* >D #U, H,#@#@>-$ 1he
pellllon lor correcllon ol o c|erlco| or
lypogrophlco| error, or lor chonge ol llrsl nome
or nlcknome, os lhe cose moy be, sho|| be ln lhe
lorm ol on ollldovll, subscrlbed ond sworn lo
belore ony person oulhorlzed by lhe |ow lo
odmlnlsler oolhs. 1he ollldovll sho|| sel lorlh
locls necessory lo eslob|lsh lhe merlls ol lhe
pellllon ond sho|| show olllrmollve|y lhol lhe
pelllloner ls compelenl lo lesllly lo lhe mollers
sloled. 1he pelllloner sho|| slole lhe porllcu|or
erroneous enlry or enlrles, whlch ore soughl lo
be correcled ondJor lhe chonge soughl lo be
mode.

1he pellllon sho|| be supporled wllh lhe
lo||owlng documenls:
(J) A cerlllled lrue mochlne copy ol lhe
cerllllcole or ol lhe poge ol lhe reglslry book
conlolnlng lhe enlry or enlrles soughl lo be
correcled or chonged.
(2) Al |eosl lwo (2) pub|lc or prlvole documenls
showlng lhe correcl enlry or enlrles upon
whlch lhe correcllon or chonge sho|| be
bosed, ond
(3) Olher documenls whlch lhe pelllloner or
lhe clly or munlclpo| clvl| reglslror or lhe
consu| genero| moy conslder re|evonl ond
necessory lor lhe opprovo| ol lhe pellllon.

No pellllon lor correcllon ol erroneous enlry
concernlng lhe dole ol blrlh or lhe sex ol o
person sho|| be enlerlolned excepl ll lhe
pellllon ls occomponled by eor|lesl schoo|
record or eor|lesl schoo| documenls such os, bul
nol |lmlled lo, medlco| records, bopllsmo|
cerllllcole ond olher documenls lssued by
re|lglous oulhorllles, nor sho|| ony enlry
lnvo|vlng chonge ol gender correcled excepl ll
lhe pellllon ls occomponled by o cerllllcollon
lssued by on occredlled governmenl physlclon
ollesllng lo lhe locl lhol lhe pelllloner hos nol
undergone sex chonge or sex lronsp|onl. 1he
pellllon lor chonge ol llrsl nome or nlcknome, or
lor correcllon ol erroneous enlry concernlng lhe
doy ond monlh ln lhe dole ol blrlh or lhe sex ol
o person, os lhe cose moy be, sho|| be pub|lshed
ol |eosl once o week lor lwo (2) consecullve
weeks ln o newspoper ol genero| clrcu|ollon.

|urlhermore, lhe pelllloner sho|| submll o
cerllllcollon lrom lhe opproprlole |ow
enlorcemenl ogencles lhol he hos no pendlng
cose or no crlmlno| record.

1he pellllon ond lls supporllng popers sho|| be
ll|ed ln lhree (3) coples lo be dlslrlbuled os
lo||ows: llrsl copy lo lhe concerned clly or
munlclpo| clvl| reglslror, or lhe consu| genero|,
second copy lo lhe Olllce ol lhe Clvl| Reglslror
Cenero|, ond lhlrd copy lo lhe pelllloner

31$% -@BH 31$%4 '( )'13!
CANCLLLA1lON OR CORRLC1lON O|
LN1RlLS lN 1HL ClvlL RLClS1R

I,E$ 8$ YU> +)0 D@?, C,#@#@>-$ Any person
lnleresled ln ony ocl, evenl, order or decree
concernlng lhe clvl| slolus ol persons whlch hos
been recorded ln lhe clvl| reglsler, moy ll|e o
verllled pellllon lor lhe conce||ollon or
correcllon ol ony enlry re|ollng lherelo, wllh lhe
Courl ol |lrsl lnslonce ol lhe provlnce where lhe
correspondlng clvl| reglslry ls |ocoled.

I,E$ &$ 1-#"@,* *6/_,E# #> E)-E,??)#@>- >"
E>"",E#@>-$ Upon good ond vo|ld grounds, lhe
lo||owlng enlrles ln lhe clvl| reglsler moy be
conce||ed or correcled:
(o) blrlhs,
(b) morrloges,
(c) deolhs,
(d) |ego| seporollons,
(e) judgmenls ol onnu|menls ol morrloge,
(l) judgmenls dec|orlng morrloges vold lrom
lhe beglnnlng,
(g) |eglllmollons,
(h) odopllons,
(l) ocknow|edgmenls ol noluro| chl|dren,
(j) noluro|lzollon
(k) e|ecllon, |oss or recovery ol clllzenshlp
(|) clvl| lnlerdlcllon,
(m) judlclo| delermlnollon ol ll|lollon,
(n) vo|unlory emonclpollon ol o mlnor, ond
(o) chonges ol nome.

I,E$ =$ H)"#@,*$ When conce||ollon or correcllon
ol on enlry ln lhe clvl| reglsler ls soughl, lhe clvl|
reglslror ond o|| persons who hove or c|olm ony
1+ $"2 #') +%34'*4 "*5 ("67$8 3%$"!7'*4 )797$ $"2
+",% B-
lnleresl whlch wou|d be ollecled lhereby sho||
be mode porlles lo lhe proceedlng.

I,E$ A$ b>#@E, )-. C6/?@E)#@>-. Upon lhe ll|lng ol
lhe pellllon, lhe courl sho||, by on order, llx lhe
llme ond p|oce lor lhe heorlng ol lhe some, ond
couse reosonob|e nollce lhereol lo be glven lo
lhe persons nomed ln lhe pellllon. 1he courl
sho|| o|so couse lhe order lo be pub|lshed once
o week lor lhree (3) consecullve weeks ln o
newspoper ol genero| clrcu|ollon ln lhe
provlnce.

I,E$ G$ 2CC>*@#@>-$ 1he clvl| reglslror ond ony
person hovlng or c|olmlng ony lnleresl under
lhe enlry whose conce||ollon or correcllon ls
soughl moy, wllhln lllleen (J5) doys lrom nollce
ol lhe pellllon, or lrom lhe |osl dole ol
pub|lcollon ol such nollce, ll|e hls opposlllon
lherelo.

I,E$ ;$ 1BC,.@#@-T C">E,,.@-T*$ 1he courl ln
whlch lhe proceedlng ls broughl moy moke
orders expedlllng lhe proceedlngs, ond moy
o|so gronl pre|lmlnory lnjuncllon lor lhe
preservollon ol lhe rlghls ol lhe porlles pendlng
such proceedlngs.

I,E$ J$ 2".,"$ Aller heorlng, lhe courl moy ellher
dlsmlss lhe pellllon or lssue on order gronllng
lhe conce||ollon or correcllon proyed lor. ln
ellher cose, o cerlllled copy ol lhe judgmenl
sho|| be served upon lhe clvl| reglslror
concerned who sho|| onnolole lhe some ln hls
record.

2;' 6"8 (7$% +%!7!7'*
Any person lnleresled ln ony ocl, evenl, order or
decree concernlng lhe clvl| slolus ol persons
whlch hos been recorded ln lhe clvl| reglsler.

2;%3% (7$%5
verllled pellllon lor conce||ollon or correcllon ol
enlry ln lhe clvl| reglslry moy be ll|ed wllh lhe
Reglono| 1rlo| Courl ol lhe provlnce where lhe
correspondlng clvl| reglslry ls |ocoled.

%*!37%4 41#>%)! !'
)"*)%$$"!7'*L)'33%)!7'*
(J) Blrlhs
(2) Morrloges
(3) Deolhs
(4) Lego| seporollons
(5) 1udgmenls ol onnu|menls ol morrloge
(6) 1udgmenls dec|orlng morrloges vold lrom
lhe beglnnlng
(7) Leglllmollons
(8) Adopllons
(9) Acknow|edgmenls ol noluro| chl|dren
(J0) Noluro|lzollon
(JJ) L|ecllon, |oss or recovery ol clllzenshlp
(J2) Clvl| lnlerdlcllon
(J3) 1udlclo| delermlnollon ol ll|lollon
(J4) vo|unlory emonclpollon ol o mlnor
(J5) Chonges ol nome

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