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POPULATION AND ASSOCIATED

ISSUES
I Womens Health
a)What is the status of womens
health?
1
b)Which are the programmes
available for women to
improve their health status?
c)How do women use the
services meant for them?
Womens health status is
understood from the
perspective of life cycle
2
changes that occur in her
life span;
Adverse outcomes in some
ages
Advantageous in others
Sufer from higher mortality
and morbidity at certain
lifecycle stages
3
At this stage they are very
vulnerable due to
reproductive
functions/years and during
early childhood;
In later years in life they
have an advantage over men
4
due to low mortality rates
than men
Maternal Mortality Rate
(MMR) as an Issue in
Population
The MMR measures number
of maternal deaths in the
age group of 15-49 years of
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women per every 1,00,000
live births
MMR is used as an
indication of maternal
health
The high rate (212) of MMR
in India is an indication of
low status of women
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SRS (Sample Registration
System) data from the
Ofce of the Registrar
General Of India
Karnataka has a low MMR
as compared to a few other
states of India in the
southern region
7
It was 213 per every 100000
live births in 2004-05
Ratio decreased to 178 in
2007-2009
But still signifcantly high
as compared to that of AP
(134); Kerala (81) and TN
(97).
8
The all India fgures for the
year were 254
MOHFW collects all data in
the 3 rounds of district level
HH surveys & National
family welfare surveys
2007-08 data shows that
about half of women who
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had a live birth in the last 5
years of the survey
reported some pregnancy
related complications
Only 85% sought treatment
to their complications
As far as occurrence of
complications are
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concerned, there is no
diference between rural and
urban women; but the urban
women have at least sought
medical assistance to solve
their problems
Reproductive and health
care services in India aim at
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giving at least 3 times of
check up as antenatal care
to pregnant women
The aim is to achieve safe
motherhood
District Level HH Survey
(DLHS) data points towards
the trend towards health
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check up practices among
women both before and
during delivery
For eg., 90 per cent of
women who had a live or
stillbirth three years
preceding the 2005-06
survey, reported that they
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had seen a doctor sometime
during their pregnancy
period.
It was 65 per cent in 1994-
95
As expected urban antenatal
care utilization rates (82%)
14
were much higher than rural
rates (58%) in 1994-95
But by 2004-05, this rate
had increased to95% for
urban and 87% for rural
women who were using
antenatal services
15
District-wise, the DLHS
sows that overall for
Karnataka 9 out of every 10
women received some
antenatal care during 2007-
08.
It was near 100% in
Dakshina Kannada district,
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Udupi and Bangalore (Urban)
districts. It was 70% in
Raichur.
Northern Karnataka
districts showed a lower
coverage compared to
southern and coastal
regions.
17
9 out of 10 women received
ANC check up and 5 out of
10 women received full
antenatal care (covering
three antenatal check ups,
one TT injection and
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adequate amounts of iron
and folic acid tablets.
The %age of women
receiving such antenatal
care ranged from 16% in
Bijapur to 91 % in Koppal.
Place of delivery should be
institutional, not
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home;proper hygiene and
supervision of trained
personnel; still 35% are
home deliveries (96% in
shimoga and 41% in
Bidar)2007-08
Nutritional status of women-
Body Mass Index
20
Calculated as the weight in
kgs divided by the height in
metres squared. The result
is the BMI used to group
people as underweight,
normal and overweight
About 34% of women in KA
are underweight
21
It is comparable as average
for India as a whole & AP
but much higher than that
of Kerala and TN. Women
are no diferent from men in
KA as far as underweight
goes
22
Anaemia (low levels of HB in
the blood).HB is important
as it crries oxygen from the
lungs to the other organs in
the body and low levels of
oxygen increase fatigue and
impairs cognitive and
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physical performance. Poor
HB levels or presence of
anaemia is recognized as
the pre dominant issue in
womens health.
2005-06 data (NFHS-
National Family Health
Survey) shows that a little
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more than half of the
women in the reproductive
age group of 15-49 years
were anaemic. These fgures
are signifcantly lower than
all India fgures and in AP
and TN. But they are high
25
making nutritional status of
women a cause of concern.
Data does not show that
these women are from
marginalized groups either.
For eg., tribal women have
shown to be high in both
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under nutritioned and
obese-both! Followed by
women who are from SC
groups. Women who are not
from SC, ST and OBC are
those who are most
advantaged in terms of
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nutrition. But compared to
fgures of 1998-99, the
number of obese or
underweight women from all
groups was decreasing by
2005-06
Eforts to address the
situation: MoWCD provides
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foodgrains to
undernourished adolescent
girls in rural areas-identifed
by anganawadi workers in
51 identifed districts fo the
countre . 2006-07, 6030
mts of food graings were
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distributed under NPAG
(Nutrition programme for
ado. Girls).
Second is KSY (Kishori
SHakthi Yojana) to improve
the status of women by
addressing the needs of
adols for self devt.
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Nutrition, health and
literacy, voctl. skills etc
6108 ICS blocks in the
country in 2008-09;Rs101.8
lakhs spent in KA
General Health of women
and women: men & women
have specifc health
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disorders as they are
exposed to diferent types of
environments-work, food,
etc
NHFS provides details of
health disorders such as
diabetes, asthma and goiter
or thyroid which are not sex
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specifc. Yet, in India, more
women have asthma and
goiter (3 times higher than
men in the country) while
more men have diabetes. KA
also shows similar patterns
of health disorders. Of all th
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southern states, Kerala has
the highest of diabetes,
asthma and thyroid
problems. It is lowest in KA
for diabetes and goiter but
not for asthma, which is the
lowest in TN.
34
Look at the place of
residence and health
disorders: urban areas have
the high incidence of
diabetes and asthma; while
it is vice versa for goiter and
thyroid disorders
Reproductive Health-
35
Infertility as a problem-
couples with this disorder
are on a rise in the country
Nearly 8% of couples
reported this primary and
secondary IF, the former
referring to the inability to
have any children at all and
36
the latter having problems
in conceiving a second
child.
Mensturation problems
(Highest in Hassan; lowest
in CMR nagar)
37
Infertility highest in
Bagalkot (11.2) and lowest
in Bidar (3.5)
Knowledge of HIV AIDS-
WHO reports that India
accounts for over 2/3 of all
human immunodefciency
virus infected people in the
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south east asia region. HIV
Sentinel Surveillance 2003,
males account for 73.5% of
AIDS in the country and
females 26.5%
Nearly 83% of women in
the state have heard of AIDS
AnD a little more than one
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fourth of women have been
tested for the same (10% in
Koppal, the least and 46%
in DK district, the highest)
Prevalence of HIV infection
among Adults of 15-49 years
is estimated to be 0.28 %.
40
Prevalence rate is higher for
males (0.36%) than for
females (0.22 %)
NFHS reports that 6 states
in India have the highest
incidence of AIDS. Manipur
(1.13%) followed by AP
(0.97%). Karnaaka has
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0.69% and Maharashtra
(0.62 per cent). TN has the
lowest among all 6 states
(0.39)
Reproductive Tract
Infections (RTI) globally
rising awareness about it as
a serious health problem.
42
Consequences are severe
such infertility, ectopic
pregnancy, chronic pelvis
pain, miscarriage and
increased risk of HIV
transmission. Prevention
being the best avenue,
43
knowledge about them is
necessary.
RTI is highest in DK district
and lowest in Bellary
(abnormal vaginal bleeding);
other complications from
Dharwad (highest) and Bidar
(lowest)
44
Gaps in information: Health
status of girls and old
women is rather unknown.
Adolescent child bearing has
negative health
consequences for both
mother and child as
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reproductive system of the
mother is not yet fully
developed.
Average age at marriage in
KA is 19 years and 22% of
women are married by 18
years. Detrimental efects of
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early marriages should be
told
If marriage age increases,
girls in schools will improve.
That will improve better and
improved employment
opportunities for women
47
Likewise, older women are
also important as far as
their health status goes.
Signifcant aspect in the life
of a old woman is loss of her
spouse. Ageing and
widowhood are both times
of increased vulnerability of
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a woman. Studies have
shown that widows have
acute and chronic
morbidity; they lkive alone
and less likely to access
health care. Old age and
widowhood both threaten
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the well-being of women.
Reduced fertility and
resulting ge structure
transition with more people
in old age groups living for
longer periods has serious
implications for the state.
50
What is needed is a life
cycle perspective to
understand and thereby
improve the status and
wellbeing of both men and
women.
Good nourishment and
health in younger ages is
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needed for subsequent
health outcomes. Maternal
and child health are quite
well attended to but
adolescents and old are not
adequately investigated fo r
health disorders.
52
There is no sex
disaggregated data on those
categories; they are not the
target of any policy or
programme.
A comprehensive public
health system is needed.
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