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46 Aufrufe6 SeitenEngineering Problem Solving

Aug 03, 2014

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Engineering Problem Solving

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46 Aufrufe

Engineering Problem Solving

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Bruce R. Dewey

Mechanical Engineering

University of Wyoming

Laramie, WY 82071-3295

Abstract - The common first course in the engineering

curriculum has evolved from drafting/graphics to one in

computer applications. Goals for such a course include the

introduction of engineering methodologies, stimulation of

interest in the study of engineering, and development of

skills in using certain tools.

Candidate computing tools should solve equations such

as those in engineering applications and produce various

presentation graphics.

High level programming languages have been in

engineering curricula since the 1970s. More recently,

various solution programs have become available.

The intuitive graphical user interface makes the use of

spreadsheets appealing. As features have been added, we

have found increasing use of spreadsheets for problem

solving. An introductory course emphasizes basics, while

subsequent courses introduce applications that work well

on spreadsheets.

Introduction

In addition to the usual calculus, chemistry, and English,

beginning engineering students traditionally have a first

technical course that focuses on problem-solving aspects.

Over time, such a course has evolved from board-based

graphics to one in computer applications. General goals for

this course encompass aspects of appreciating engineering

methodologies, creating interest in the study of engineering,

and providing some common tools that will be useful in

subsequent courses.

General-purpose problem-solving tools work

engineering problems that have been reduced to

mathematical terms. Useful in typical engineering courses as

well as engineering practice, a list of abilities for such tools

might include:

Solving systems of linear and nonlinear algebraic

equations

Producing 2d and 3d presentation graphics including

regression to arbitrary functions

Performing repetitious calculations involving large

amounts of data

Finding optimum solutions problems subjected to

various constraints

Numerically integrating and differentiating arbitrary

functions

Supporting creative endeavors where what-if scenarios

can be tested

Being inexpensive, easy to obtain, and simple to learn.

A little over thirty years ago, Fortran was the only

practical way to solve problems with the computing

resource. Subsequently, other high level languages have been

developed with significant advantages over Fortran. The

ubiquitous and intuitive graphical user interface, such as the

one in spreadsheets, provides even more productivity.

Should only one software tool be chosen to meet the

above requirements, spreadsheets are the clear choice for a

common curriculum. Over the past eight years, an approach

has evolved for incorporating spreadsheet-based problem

solving in the curriculum. Our introductory course

emphasizes problem-solving methodology, starting with

formulation of practical problems and using various solution

techniques in spreadsheets. Sophomore courses assign

occasional problems that are appropriate for spreadsheet

solutions.

To show how spreadsheets support the above

requirements, we will first detail some of the built-in

functions available in the industry-leader Excel. Next, we

briefly discuss the available general-purpose numerical

equation solvers. Some examples follow, illustrating how

the listed goals are met with various Excel features.

Functions in Excel

Using one of nearly three hundred built-in functions in Excel

may be the quickest way to arrive at the solution to some

problem. A paperback [1] is available that gives a summary

of how to use the built-in functions and formulas. While

many of the functions handle esoteric financial calculations or

do some housekeeping item, a surprising number find direct

application in engineering.

About 100 built-in statistical functions in Excel support

practically all that is needed by engineers in this realm of

work. A number of functions cater to the common needs of

finding central tendency statistics for data sets and of

calculating best-fit straight lines, log-log, semi-log, and

polynomial curves. Furthermore, Excel determines several

different probability distribution functions.

The robust set of financial functions handily supports

the computation needed in engineering economics. While

depreciation rules are not built-in, schedules of depreciation

can easy be computed with row and column formulas. The

rate-of-return calculations that can be vexing to students are

trivialized in the Excel environment.

A set of functions labeled engineering is of some

interest. Included here are functions to convert numbers

between binary, decimal, octal, and hexadecimal as well as

to perform complex arithmetic. Bessel and error functions

can be computed.

A group of mathematical functions provides

trigonometric functions, including inverse and hyperbolic.

Matrix functions provide multiplication, inversion, and

determinant computation. Although not listed as a

mathematical function, Excel is very adept at sorting data.

Logical and information functions allow branching as

various conditions are met. The most used of these is the IF

function. Date and time functions find use in acquisition of

experimental data and in financial calculation.

The built-in plotting of presentation graphics produces

plots of high quality. Plot types include x-y (Excel calls

these scatter plots), pie, column, bar, radar (polar),

combination (such as column and line), 3-d surface, and 3-d

column. A best-fit line and R

2

are very easy to add to an x-y

plot.

Numerical Equation Solvers

Excel contains four different, useful schemes for numerical

solution of transcendental equations and systems of linear

and nonlinear equations.

1. Matrix Inversion

Linear systems of equations of the form [A][X] = [B] are

solved with the MMULT and MINVERSE functions that are

built into Excel. The typed function that returns [X] =

[A]

?1

{B]

=MMULT(MINVERSE(A),(B))

is entered in the array of cells [X] intended to receive the

solution. The matrices [A], [B], and [X] are naturally

adapted to the row/column structure of the spreadsheet.

Although the author has not tested the limitations of the

built-in inversion algorithm, the routine seems to be robust

for a moderately large number of equations. Excel returns an

error message if the system is singular, etc.

2. Goal Seek

The Goal Seek feature, a command in the Tools menu, lets

you vary the contents of one cell in order to make another

cell equal some arbitrary value. In other words, a cell

containing the value of x could be changed with an iterative

scheme until another cell containing f(x) becomes equal to a

chosen value such as 0. Goal Seek is faster, easier to use,

and more bulletproof than Solver, below.

3. Solver

Solver, also accessed under the Tools menu is considerably

more versatile than the Goal Seek command. Solver causes

the contents of one cell (the target cell) to take on a certain

value (or a maximum or a minimum value) by varying the

contents of one or more other cells (Changing Cells).

Optionally, one or more constraints can be applied to any or

all of the Changing Cells. Solver deals with large-scale

optimization problems, the solution of nonlinear systems of

equations, and other decision problems.

Solver uses proprietary nonlinear optimization code,

simplex methods, and branch and bound algorithms that are

supplied to Microsoft by Frontline Systems, Incline Village

Nevada. In use, Solver has proven to be fairly robust and

versatile. Improvements have been made in Solver as Excel

has gone up in versions.

Sometimes solutions require good starting guesses to

converge, an advantage in teaching engineering. In the

problem solving process, students should be encouraged to

estimate answers and to question whether results are

reasonable. In nonlinear problems with multiple solutions,

users need to provide starting guesses over the range of

acceptable solutions.

4. Iterative Solution of Circular Reference Formulas

While this solution method is by far more arcane than the

other choices, it is ideal from some problems, such as the

partial differential equation solution below. A circular

reference is where the contents of two or more cells depend

on each otherusually causing an error message because of

the undefined nature of the information. To use this method

of solution, the user selects manual calculation and iteration

from the Tools:Options menu. Additionally, the number of

iterations and the maximum change (the convergence

criterion) can be controlled from the same menu.

Examples

When asked what computer software they use most, a very

informal survey of perhaps two dozen mechanical engineers

in industry placed word processing and Excel as nearly

universal choices. AutoCAD, Ansys, and Nastran had a few

mentions. Excel found use for such diverse tasks as

Optimizing production schedules in a multi-product

manufacturing environment with hundreds of variables

Doing load and balance calculations on a commercial

airplane

Assembling data arising from various sources as input

to engineering analysis codes; passing data files in a

universal form among various groups

Doing budgets and keeping accounts (a no-brainer!)

Compiling and analyzing quality control statistics

Chosen to demonstrate application of one (or two) of the

Excel equation solvers, some typical engineering problem

solutions typical of those done in engineering classes are

presented below.

Example 1 Simultaneous Linear Equations

In many engineering analyses, simultaneous linear equations

of equations of the form [A]{x} = {B} arise. As a numerical

example, consider

(1)

On the spreadsheet, the input for [A] will be in cells A2:D5;

{B} will be in F2:F5. Descriptive titles are recommended.

The solutions, appearing in the column with cells for {x},

have the underlying code

=MMULT(MINVERSE(A2:D5),F2:F5) (2)

where the cell ranges references provide the location of the

input data. With Excel, the results are recalculated

automatically whenever any of the input data are changed.

If a user does this code sequence frequently, the macro

language in Excel permits the construction of a new function

that replaces Eq. (2) with a user-chosen name and a call such

as

= SIMEQ(A2:D5,F2:F5) (3)

The presentation of this solution on a spreadsheet (not

shown) can look almost identical to Eq. (1), with the

enclosing brackets being added using the drawing tools.

Example 2 Nonlinear Regression

The widely used regression process, finding unknown

parameters in the equation of a line or curve to best fit a set

of data, aids in the interpretation experimental data. Linear

regression is built into Excel as the Trendline function. The

Trendline gives the choice of fitting the data to a straight

line, to a semilog line, a log-log line, or to a polynomial up

to order five. The coefficient of determination R

2

can be

reported in addition to the equation of the line.

Excels Solver provides an intuitive method to perform

nonlinear regression by minimizing the sum of squares of

the residuals (the same criterion used in linear regression.)

The following example from hydrology involves fitting an

observed distribution of rainfall to the normal probability

distribution function.

The starting point is the frequency distribution of the

amount of rainfall over 55 years of observation as shown in

the first two columns of the worksheet in Fig. 1. The

normalized frequency distribution f(x) is given in the third

column. The model to which the data are regressed is given

by the equation

where the unknown parameters and will be

determined with nonlinear regression to best fit the data.

With guesses for and placed in the cells provided at

the bottom of the sheet, Eq. (4) coded in the fourth column

of the worksheet. The fifth column is the square of the

difference between the values in the third and fourth

columns. Excels Solver is called to minimize the sum of

the residuals squared (the last value in the fifth column) by

changing the guesses for and . The resulting values

appear in Fig. 1; the data in column four have been

computed with these values.

Figure 1. Worksheet for nonlinear regression.

The results are plotted in Fig. 2, using one of the

supplied line chart types in Excel. The shaded bars show

the given histogram, while the curve shows the normal

distribution function computed with the solved values of

and . Of course, features such as color, shading, titles,

font, line styles are under user control.

The foregoing method fits data to any arbitrary curve.

Criteria other than minimizing the sum of the squares of the

residuals can be used with this method. For example, it is

not difficult to regress with the criterion that the sum of the

squares of the perpendicular distances to a straight line is to

be minimized.

12

0

12

9

25 10 0 15

10 52 24 0

0 24 44 20

15 0 20 35

4

3

2

1

x

x

x

x

Annual Rainfall - Teton County

x f(x) f(x) model Resi

Amount Frequency Frequency squa

in (no. yrs) fraction

2 5 0.091 0.025 0.0

4 2 0.036 0.075 0.0

6 9 0.164 0.156 0.0

8 11 0.200 0.227 0.0

10 15 0.273 0.231 0.0

12 7 0.127 0.163 0.0

14 5 0.091 0.080 0.0

16 1 0.018 0.028 0.0

55 1.000 0.0

Parameters for normal distribution function

3.3258 9.0839

Not shown in this example is the built-in Trendline

function that very easily performs linear regression.

Figure 2. Histogram and best-fit normal distribution curve

for Example 1.

Example 3 Solution of a Nonlinear System of

Equations

Mass balance problems, hydraulics problems, and others

frequently yield systems of nonlinear equations. Solution of

such systems is the forte of programs like TK-Solver and

EES. In Excel, each of the equations need to be arranged in

the form f(xi) = 0. As an example, consider the contrived

system

(5) 0

0 2 . 2

0 77 . 0

0 42 . 2

2 1 3 2 4 1

4 3 2 1

4 3 1

2 1

+

+ +

+

x x x x x x

x x x x

x x x

x x

where the xi are the unknowns. (The contrived roots are 1.1,

2.2, 3.3, and 4.4.)

The worksheet of Fig. 3 provides four cells to hold the

initial guesses and the subsequent results of the iterative

solution. A solution criterion that works well, avoiding

problems with negative signs, is that

( ) (6) 0 ) (

2

j i

x f

Solver is used to minimize the contents of the cell labeled

sum of squares, which contains the code for Eq. (6). The

results for the xs appear in place of the initial guesses.

Figure 3. Worksheet for solution of nonlinear system of

equations.

The result, which depends on the quality of the initial

guesses, is good to four places without tweaking the default

precision in Solver.

Example 4 Eigenvalue Problem

Goal Seek, Solver, and matrix commands are useful in the

iterative solution of problems involving the extraction of

eigenvalues and eigenvectors. As an example, the orientation

of the principal axes and the values of the principal mass

moments are determined for a 3-d solid.

The worksheet, Fig. 4, contains space for the input of

the moments and products of inertia. The user provides a

reasonable guess for one of the three principal moments in

the cell for I. Goal Seek is used to make the iteratively find I

such that

where the value (|Det|) of the determinant is computed

with Excels MDETERM function. Goal Seek is appropriate

for this solution, since only one variable I is changed.

The corresponding direction cosines (l, m, n) must

make

(8)

subject to the constraint

(9) 1

2 2 2

+ + n m l

The user puts guesses for the direction cosines in {d}, with

the constraint of Eq. (9) coded in the shaded cell labeled

(di^2). The three shaded work cells for the product {P} are

each squared and added in the shaded cell labeled (Pi^2).

Annual Rainfall - Teton Cty

0.000

0.050

0.100

0.150

0.200

0.250

0.300

2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16

Amount (in)

F

r

e

q

u

e

n

c

y

(7) 0

I I I I

I I I I

I I I I

xx yz xz

yz xx xy

xz xy xx

0

n

m

l

I I I I

I I I I

I I I I

zz yz xz

yz yy xy

xz xy xx

Figure 4. Worksheet example for determination of one of

three principal moments of inertia.

Solver is used to change the {d} to minimize (Pi^2) with

the constraint that the contents of (di^2) = 1. The numbers

shown in Fig. 4 represent one of the solutions. The user is

expected to enter reasonable guesses for the other solutions

good pedagogy because some understanding of the problem

is required.

Example 5 Partial Differential Equation

Steady state heat conduction is governed by the equation

2

T = 0. The row-column arrangement of the worksheet is

intuitively used for nodes in PDE problems that are reduced

to difference equations. An interior node with temperature Tij

is related to its adjacent nodes by the equation

(10)

4

1 , , 1 1 , , 1 + +

+ + +

j i j i j i j i

ij

T T T T

T

Boundary nodes may have temperature specified, be

insulated, or have other conditions such as convection.

In a simple numerical example, a symmetrical

rectangular chimney is considered that has outside

dimensions of 3 ft by 2 ft with 0.5-ft thick uniform walls.

The outside temperature is 70F and the inside temperature

varies linearly from 300F at the center to 250F at the

corners. To make a compact illustration, nodes are selected

0.1 ft on center, and symmetry permits modeling one-fourth

the cross section.

The Excel worksheet provides one cell for each node

point, arranged exactly as in physical space. Because we are

going to use iterative solution of circular reference formulas,

we select manual calculation and iteration under the Tools:

Options:Calculation menu. The specified temperature

distribution is placed on the inner and outer boundaries. The

interior nodes and the insulated (symmetry) boundaries are

coded with relative cell references in the manner of Eq. (10).

Copy and fill features make this a very quick process. After

calculation, the worksheet of Fig. 5 appears.

Figure 5. Worksheet for heat conduction. Cells pertain to

one quadrant of the chimney.

Excels surface plot feature works very well for

illustrating the result, Fig. 6. To improve visualization, the

user can rotate plots around vertical and horizontal axes, and

change the perspective viewing distance parameter.

Conclusions

The examples presented show a sample of the versatility of

Excel in solving engineering problems. Engineering students

seem to have no trouble catching on to doing operations like

these. Beginning users of Excel will find getting started with

the excellent text by Gottfried [2] much less tedious than

using references aimed at non-technical/business users.

For the past eight years, our first-year students have

been introduced to Excel from an engineering standpoint.

Students find Excel fun and easy to use. In the introductory

course, students have far more challenge in formulating

problem solutions than in using computer software. Some

instructors in other core courses reinforce Excel instruction

by assigning the "computer problems" found in various

textbooks. Very little use of Excel macro functions seems to

Ixx Iyy Izz

10 16 22

Ixy Ixz Iyz

9 -3 -3

I

2.6077

Det

7.392 -9.000 3.000

-9.000 13.392 3.000

3.000 3.000 19.392

|Det|

0.000674

{d} {P}=[M]{d}

0.7887 0.000185

0.5773 -0.000162

-0.2113 0.000240

(di^2)

(Pi^2)

1.00000 1.179E-07

70 125 182 239 300

70 125 181 237 295

70 124 179 234 290

70 123 177 231 285

70 122 175 227 280

70 121 172 223 275

70 119 169 219 270

70 118 166 215 265

70 115 161 210 260

70 111 155 202 255

70 106 144 189 250 260 270 280 290

70 98 127 158 190 206 217 225 231

70 89 108 128 145 158 166 172 176

70 79 89 98 107 113 117 120 122

70 70 70 70 70 70 70 70 70

be needed. The supported programming language, visual

basic, fills in when needed.

In our curriculum, a junior-level course, taught by

math/computer science faculty, presents structured

programming in a high-level language (either Fortran or C as

determined by the department or advisor.) Programming

exercises cover various topics in numerical methods.

Because this course follows the traditional differential

equations class in the mathematics department, a more

rigorous treatment of the nuances of various algorithms is

possible. On an as-needed basis, other engineering courses

introduce software such as Matlab, Mathcad, C++,

AutoCAD, finite element analysis, etc.

Figure 6. Surface plot of temperature distribution in

chimney.

When given assignments and projects that require a

computing resource, our students will nearly always pick

Excel. This software is unsurpassed for reducing laboratory

data and for making all sorts of data plots. The built-in

presentation graphics of Excel encourages structure, e.g.

proper labels and "even" calibration of axes, of students'

work. Plots and tables produced by Excel can be seamlessly

pasted into Word documents.

None of the other computing tools enjoy the wide

availability (many computers come with Excel bundled) and

versatility of Excel. Furthermore, these other tools are less

intuitive and more difficult to use than Excel. For many

reasons, Excel is a clear choice for the first software learned,

and the one software system needed, if there can be only one.

References Cited

[1] Microsoft Excel 97 Worksheet Function Reference,

Microsoft Press, 1997.

[2] Gottfried, B., Spreadsheet Tools for Engineers, Excel 97

Version. WCB/McGraw-Hill. 1998.

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