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EUCLIDEAN GEOMETRY

Exercise 2.6.13. Show the converse to the preceding exercise, that is, that the

bisector of the angle made by two tangents from a point outside a circle to the circle

must pass through the center of the circle. [Hint: Try a proof by contradiction.]

Exercise 2.6.14. Let c and c

two lines that are tangent to both circles (at points other than T). [Hint: Let m

be the line through the centers. Consider the two radii that are perpendicular to

m. Let l be the line through the endpoints of these radii on their respective circles.

If l and m are parallel, show that l is a common line of tangency for both circles.

If l and m intersect at P, let n be a tangent from P to one of the circles. Show n

is tangent to the other circle.]

2.7 Project 4 - Circle Inversion and Orthogonality

In this project we will explore the idea of inversion through circles. Circle

inversion will be a critical component of our construction of non-Euclidean

geometry in Chapter 7.

We start out with the notion of the power of a point with respect to a

given circle.

Start the Geometry Explorer pro-

gram and create a circle c with cen-

ter O and radius point A, and create

a point P not on c.

O

A

c

P

2.7. PROJECT 4 - CIRCLE INVERSION 99

Now create two lines originating

at P that pass through the circle.

Find the two intersection points of

the rst line with the circle (call

them P

1

and P

2

) and the two in-

tersection points of the second line

with the circle (call them Q

1

and

Q

2

). Measure the four distances

PP

1

, PP

2

, PQ

1

, and PQ

2

. (To

measure distance, multi-select two

points and choose Distance (Mea-

sure menu).)

O

A

c

P

P

2

P

1

Q

2

Q

1

Dist(P,P1) = 1.83

Dist(P,P2) = 6.00

Dist(P,Q1) = 1.82

Dist(P,Q2) = 6.01

Now we will compare the prod-

uct of PP

1

and PP

2

to the product

of PQ

1

and PQ

2

. To do this we

will use the Calculator in Geometry

Explorer. Go to the Help Web page

(click on Help in the menu bar) and

then go to the View Menu link

and from there to the Calculator

link. Read through this section to

become familiarized with how to use

the Calculator. Now, choose Cal-

culator (View menu).

Notice that the four distance measurements are listed in the right half of

the Calculator window. Double-click the rst distance measure, then click

on the Multiplication button (labeled *), and then double-click the second

distance measurement. We have just created an expression for the product

of PP

1

and PP

2

.

100 CHAPTER 2. EUCLIDEAN GEOMETRY

To use this measurement back in

the Geometry Explorer main win-

dow, we click the Evaluate button

and then the Add to Canvas but-

ton. The new product measure will

now be on the screen. Do the same

for the product of PQ

1

and PQ

2

.

[Be sure to Clear the Calculator

rst.]

O

A

c

P

P

2

P

1

Q

2

Q

1

Dist(P,P1) = 1.83

Dist(P,P2) = 6.00

Dist(P,Q1) = 1.82

Dist(P,Q2) = 6.01

Dist(P,P1) *Dist(P,P2) = 10.95

Dist(P,Q1) *Dist(P,Q2) = 10.95

Interesting! It appears that these two products are the same. Drag point

P around and see if this conjecture is supported.

Exercise 2.7.1. Our rst task in this project is to prove that these two products

are always the same. [Hint: Consider some of the inscribed angles formed by

P

1

, P

2

, Q

1

, Q

2

. Use Corollary 2.32 to show that PP

1

Q

2

is similar to PQ

1

P

2

and thus show the result.]

Exercise 2.7.2. Show that the product of PP

1

and PP

2

(or PQ

1

and PQ

2

) can

be expressed as PO

2

r

2

, where r is the radius of the circle.

Denition 2.34. Given a circle c with center O and radius r and given a

point P, we dene the Power of P with respect to c as:

Power of P = PO

2

r

2

.

Note that by Exercise 2.7.2 the Power of P is also equal to the product

of PP

1

and PP

2

for any line l from P, with P

1

and P

2

the intersections of l

with the circle c.

Also note that the Power of P can be used to classify whether P is inside

(Power < 0), on (Power = 0), or outside (Power > 0) the circle.

Now we are ready to dene circle inversion.

Denition 2.35. The inverse of P with respect to c is the unique point P

on ray

OP such that OP

=

r

2

OP

(or (OP

)(OP) = r

2

).

Note that if the circle had unit radius (r = 1), and if we considered O

as the origin in Cartesian coordinates with OP = x, then the inverse P

of

P can be interpreted as the usual multiplicative inverse; that is, we would

have OP

=

1

x

.

How do we construct the inverse point?

2.7. PROJECT 4 - CIRCLE INVERSION 101

Clear the screen and create a circle

c with center O and radius point A

and then create a point P inside c.

Create the ray

OP. At P construct

the perpendicular to

OP and nd

the intersection points (T and U)

of this perpendicular with the cir-

cle. Create segment OT and nd

the perpendicular to OT at T. Let

P

perpendicular intersects

OP.

O

A

c

P

T

U

P

Measure the distances for seg-

ments OP and OP

and measure

the radius of the circle. Use the Cal-

culator to compute the product of

OP and OP

radius as shown in the gure.

O

A

c

P

T

U

P

Dist(O,P) = 1.24

Dist(O,P) = 5.10

Radius(c) = 2.52

Dist(O,P) *Dist(O,P) = 6.33

Radius(c) ^2 = 6.33

It appears that we have constructed the inverse!

Exercise 2.7.3. Prove that this construction actually gives the inverse of P.

That is, show that (OP)(OP

) = r

2

.

In the last part of this lab, we will use the notion of circle inversion to

construct a circle that meets a given circle at right angles.

Denition 2.36. Two circles c and c

and B are called orthogonal if the tangents to the circles at each of these

points are perpendicular.

Suppose we have a circle c and two points P and Q inside c, with P not

equal to Q and neither point equal to the center O of the circle. The goal

is to construct a circle through P and Q that meets c at right angles.

102 CHAPTER 2. EUCLIDEAN GEOMETRY

Using the ideas covered earlier in this project, construct the inverse P

tool in the Construct panel to construct the unique circle c

through these

three points. The claim is that c

is orthogonal to c.

To see if this is the case, lets rst nd the center of c

. Let R be the

intersection of

TP with circle c

(Fig 2.32).

O

c

P

T

P

Q

c

S

1

S

2

R

O

Angle(O,S1,O) = 90.00 degrees

Angle(O,S2,O) = 90.00 degrees

Fig. 2.32

Then RPP

Thus, by Theorem 2.33 RP

is a diameter of c

. The midpoint O

of RP

. Let S

1

and S

2

be the intersection points of c with

c

. Measure O

S

1

O and OS

2

O

Since the tangents to c and c

are orthogonal to OS

1

, OS

2

, O

S

1

, and O

S

2

,

then the tangents to the circles at S

1

and S

2

must also be orthogonal and

the circles are orthogonal. Note that this evidence of the orthogonality of

c and c

Theorem 2.38.

Exercise 2.7.4. What do you think will happen to circle c

P or Q approaches the center O of circle c? Try this out and then explain why this

happens.

2.7. PROJECT 4 - CIRCLE INVERSION 103

Project Report

The ability to construct orthogonal pairs of circles is crucial to developing a

model of hyperbolic geometry, where parallels to a line through a point are

abundant. We will look at this model in detail in Chapter 7.

For the project report, provide detailed analysis of the constructions

used in this project and complete answers to the exercises.

2.7.1 Orthogonal Circles Redux

Here is a proof of orthogonality of the circles constructed in the text pre-

ceding Exercise 2.7.4.

Theorem 2.38. Given a circle c with center O and radius OA and given

two points P and Q inside c, with P not equal to Q and neither point equal

to O, there exists a unique circle c

that is orthogonal to the given circle (Fig. 2.33).

O

A

c

P

P

Q

c

T

l

Fig. 2.33

Proof: It is clear that if P and Q lie on a diameter of c, then there is

a unique line (coincident with the diameter) that is orthogonal to c. So, in

the rest of this proof we assume that P and Q are not on a diameter of c.

Suppose that one or the other of P or Q, say P, is strictly inside c. As

above construct the inverse P

to P and let c

104 CHAPTER 2. EUCLIDEAN GEOMETRY

through Q, P, P

Let l be tangent to c

in Theorem 2.37.) We claim that T is also on circle c. To see this, consider

the power of O with respect to circle c

:

Power of O = (OP)(OP

) = (OT)

2

But, (OP)(OP

) = r

2

(r being the radius of c) since P

is the inverse

point to P with respect to c. Thus, (OT)

2

= r

2

and T is on circle c, and

the circles are orthogonal at T.

To see that this circle is unique, suppose there was another circle c

be the intersection of

OP with c

. Let T

) =

(OT

)

2

. But, (OT

)

2

= r

2

and thus, P

to P, and

c

The nal case to consider is when both P and Q are on the boundary of

c (Fig. 2.34). Then, any circle through P and Q that is orthogonal to c must

have its tangents at P and Q lying along OP and OQ. Thus, the diameters

of this circle must lie along tangent lines to c at P and Q. Thus, the center

of the orthogonal circle must lie at the intersection of these tangents, which

is a unique point.

O

c

P

Q

O

c

Fig. 2.34

We conclude this section on orthogonal circles with two results that will

prove useful when we study non-Euclidean geometry in Chapter 7.

2.7. PROJECT 4 - CIRCLE INVERSION 105

Theorem 2.39. Let c and c

on c and is not the center O of c. Suppose that c

the two circles are orthogonal if and only if c

point P

to P with respect to c.

Proof: First, suppose that c

(refer

to Fig. 2.35). We know from the proof of Theorem 2.30 that the center O

of c

. Since P and P

are inverses

with respect to c, then they both lie on the same side of ray

OP. Thus, O

is not between P and P

O > O

P. Thus, O is outside

of c

at points T

1

and

T

2

on c

, we have

(OT

1

)

2

= (OP)(OP

). But, (OP)(OP

) = r

2

by assumption, where r is the

radius of c. Therefore, (OT

1

)

2

= r

2

, and T

1

is on c. A similar argument

shows that T

2

is also on c. This implies that the two circles are orthogonal.

O

c

T

1

T

2

O

c

P

P

Fig. 2.35

Conversely, suppose that c and c

1

and T

2

.

The tangent lines to c

that O is outside c

. Thus,

OP must intersect c

at another point P

. Using

the power of points, we have r

2

= (OT

1

)

2

= (OP)(OP

), and thus P

is the

inverse point to P with respect to circle c.

Corollary 2.40. Suppose circles c and c

intersect. Then c

is orthogonal

to c if and only if the circle c

Proof: Suppose the circles are orthogonal, and let P be a point on c

. If

P is also on c, then it is xed by inversion through c. If P is not on c, then

106 CHAPTER 2. EUCLIDEAN GEOMETRY

by the proof of Theorem 2.39, we know that P is also not the center O of c.

Thus, Theorem 2.39 implies that the inverse P

of P with respect to c is on

c

on c

.

Conversely, suppose c

P be a point on c

the inverse point P

circles are orthogonal.

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