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The research mainly focuses on the fine structure constant , a coupling constant that is taken as
a term responsible for the quantization of electric charge .Here what is the thing that persuades
one to think about the relationship of fine structure constant with the quantization is that it is a
constant and only determined by the single proton and photon interaction . ie only +e photon
interaction that leads to the generation of a –e , from that photon. What is the effect of the wave
entering in the potential well of a proton ? If a photon enters a torsion field , a magnetic moment
is generated on it and there is a net charge on the system due to that magnetic moment .What ,
if this is the way an electron is produced by a photon , in the presence of a potential well (of
proton), and the electric charge produced on the photon is quantized as an integral multiple of e
and the deterministic factor for quantizaton is α (the fine structure constant ).

This is the way a photon produces electron positron pair and their production is determined by
Heisenberg’s Uncertainity Principle . What this research says .

Uncertainity principle a deterministic principle in pair particle generation

Assuming a photon wave entering in a potential field V and then the effect on its velocity is a
function of the potential field . If we take the charge to be a quantized unit , then for a single +e
photon interaction , this velocity change will always be constant . That is like , we can take fine
structure constant α . where α= v/c ;

If we take here that this velocity change is due to the change in the electric and magnetic field’s
strengths (E/B=v) as a result of an extra magnetic moment developed on the photon (torsion
causes a magnetic moment generation on photon of magnitude of µγ = . ) of the

magnitude of µB (Bohr Magneton ) . where µB = . This is the magnetism that is

2 me c
responsible for the generation of –e charge on the photon wave producing an electron . The
velocity of the electron is the velocity of photon where now magnetic field and electric field
strengths are changed from E/B=c to E/B=v just because of the extra magnetic moment
produced in the torsion background by a proton’s field .
Now as Dirac says that the observed electric charge quantization can be accounted for if
magnetic charges or magnetic monopoles are allowed , provided the magnetic charge unit and
the unit of electric charge satisfy a reciprocal relationship . The Dirac quantization condition
given by


Where q is the magnetic pole strength and α fine structure constant .

Now when we take a n=1 for a single –e charge .

Then q =

Putting α =

q= ----- 1

We can then say that for –e charge to be developed on behalf of the magnetic moment
generation on photon in that potential field , the velocity of the wave has changed from c to v
and where

v= ------2

Since the quantized magnetic moment developed on the wave is equal to µB , we can replace
the magnetic part in the above equation relating magnetic pole strength with the magnetic
moment .

We know that magnetic moment µ = q x.

Where x is the distance between the two magnetic poles .

Then q =
Putting µ as µB we get q=
2me cx

Putting this value of q in equation 2 we get

v= ------- 3
me xc

from equation 3

x v
 me c 2

x 1 v
 me c c

x 1
= α
 p

Where p = mec , the momentum of electron wave when it should be normal to space . But if we
take the distance between the two poles to be varying and then momentum too varies as the
electron will change in its velocity according to the fields effect upon it , the mec breaks in mev
and (mec – mev) . where mev shows the velocity of electron and (mec – mev) shows the velocity
of positron in space .

From this equation we can easily see that the particles and anti particles are a compensating
magnetic charges for each other and as one travels in space always determines another’s
position in the space .

If we put x as distance between particle and antiparticle and Xp as the position of particle in
space and Xap position of antiparticle in space then ∆x = Xp - Xap .

And ∆p = mec = mev + (mec – mev) because the momentum difference between these two
particles will always remain equal to mec .As that of one increases that of another decreases .A
compensating property .

It is quite consistent with Heigenberg’s uncertainity principle



The above expressions say that the quantization of charge is determined by fine structure
constant and the photon when is passed through a torsion background causes a pair particle
production whose statistics are determined by the uncertainity principle . It means when a
particle is produced its antiparticle is generated simultaneously and the distance between
particle and antiparticle is delta x that says here that the particle and antiparticle are like a
separated magnetic poles of an elongated magnet whose length keeps on changing as these
particles cover distances in space. And the momentum of a particle and antiparticle always
follow the law of conservation of angular momentum . If α becomes a variable and varies in a
linear way , it means charge too can increase linearly rather being quantized . But α as a
constant , directs towards quantization of charge .If it is so then those variables that can bring
change in α can reveal the causes behind the quantization of charge .


[1]Gravitational measurements , fundamental meterology and constants by Venzo De

Sabbata , V. N. Melnikov

[2]Torsion Field Theory G.schipov

[3]The Fine- Structure Constant , Magnetic Monopoles and Dirac Charge Quantization
Condition T. Datta
Physics and Astronomy Department , University of South california – Columbia , S.C. 29208

[4]Dirac’s equation and the sea of negative energy Part 2 D L Hotson

[5]Journal of Theoretics Vol 4-4 -

The Law of conservation of angular momentum Ph . N .Kanarev

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1527 (1982)

[8] R.T.Rauch , “Time –Dependent Gravitational Coupling and Torsion,”Phys . Rev.

Lett . 52 , 1843(1984).
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minimal coupling , and torsion ,”Phys. Rev. Dev17 , 3141(1978).

[10] I.L.Shapiro “Physical aspects of the space-time torsion,” Phys. Rep.357 113(2002)

[11] Spin and Torsion in gravitation By Venzo De Sabbata, C. Sivaram