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Best Practice
SABP-Q-008 28 February 2005
Design of Concrete Masonry Walls/Buildings


DESIGN OF CONCRETE MASONRY
WALLS/BUIDLINGS












Developed By: Hisham Abu-Adas
Civil Engineering Unit / M&CED
Consulting Services Department


Document Responsibility: Onshore Structures SABP-Q-008
Issue Date: 28 February 2005
Next Planned Update: 1 March 2009 Design of Concrete Masonry Walls/Buildings


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DESIGN OF CONCRETE MASONRY WALLS/BUILDINGS

Table of Contents
Page
1 Introduction.........................................................................................................4
1.1 Purpose.....................................................................................................4
1.2 Scope.........................................................................................................4
1.3 Disclaimer ................................................................................................4
1.4 Conflicts with Mandatory Standards....................................................5
2 References............................................................................................................5
2.1 Saudi Aramco Standards .......................................................................5
2.2 Industry Codes and Standards ..............................................................5
3 General.................................................................................................................6
4 Masonry ...............................................................................................................7
5 Design Loads & Load Combinations ................................................................8
6 Notation................................................................................................................9
7 Allowable Stresses.............................................................................................10
8 Wall Reinforcement ..........................................................................................12
9 Design Properties .............................................................................................13

ATTACHMENTS:
Attachment 1:
Table 5: Area of Steel ....................................................................................... 15
Table 6: Area of Steel Per Foot of Wall (SI) ..................................................... 15
Table 7: Area of Steel Per Foot of Wall (Metric) .............................................. 16
Document Responsibility: Onshore Structures SABP-Q-008
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Next Planned Update: 1 March 2009 Design of Concrete Masonry Walls/Buildings


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Attachment 2: Masonry Wall Design - Example 1 (Manual Calculations) ............17
Attachment 3: Masonry Wall Design - Ex. 1 (In-house Developed Spreadsheet)...21



Document Responsibility: Onshore Structures SABP-Q-008
Issue Date: 28 February 2005
Next Planned Update: 1 March 2009 Design of Concrete Masonry Walls/Buildings


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1 Introduction
1.1 Purpose
The purpose of this practice is to provide the engineer and designer with
guidelines for design of concrete masonry walls for use by Saudi Aramco
engineers and engineers working on Saudi Aramco projects.
1.2 Scope
This design guide defines the minimum requirements for the analysis and design
of reinforced load bearing masonry walls for buildings and structures located
in process industry facilities at Saudi Aramco sites. It covers general design
philosophy and requirements to be used in the analysis and design of load
bearing masonry walls subjected to a combination of axial uniform dead and live
loads, eccentric uniform vertical dead and live loads, and lateral loads due to
wind or seismic forces. Section 2.0 of this instruction includes reference codes
and Saudi Aramco standards. The walls presented in this guideline covers load
bearing walls subject to axial compressive load and bending moment.
1.3 Disclaimer
The material in this Best Practices document provides the most correct and
accurate design guidelines available to Saudi Aramco which complies with
international industry practices. This material is being provided for the general
guidance and benefit of the Designer. Use of the Best Practices in designing
projects for Saudi Aramco, however, does not relieve the Designer from his
responsibility to verify the accuracy of any information presented or from his
contractual liability to provide safe and sound designs that conform to
Mandatory Saudi Aramco Engineering Requirements. Use of the information or
material contained herein is no guarantee that the resulting product will satisfy
the applicable requirements of any project. Saudi Aramco assumes no
responsibility or liability whatsoever for any reliance on the information
presented herein or for designs prepared by Designers in accordance with the
Best Practices. Use of the Best Practices by Designers is intended solely for,
and shall be strictly limited to, Saudi Aramco projects. Saudi Aramco is a
registered trademark of the Saudi Arabian Oil Company. Copyright, Saudi
Aramco, 2005.
Document Responsibility: Onshore Structures SABP-Q-008
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1.4 Conflicts with Mandatory Standards
In the event of a conflict between this Best Practice and other Mandatory Saudi
Aramco Engineering Requirement, the Mandatory Saudi Aramco Engineering
Requirement shall govern.
2 References
This Best Practice is based on the latest edition of the applicable codes, standards,
specifications, and references below, unless otherwise noted. Short titles will be used
herein when appropriate.
2.1 Saudi Aramco Standards
Saudi Aramco Engineering Standards (SAES)
SAES-A-204 Preparation of Structural Calculations
SAES-M-001 Structural Design Criteria for Non-Building
Structures
SAES-M-100 Saudi Aramco Building Code
SAES-Q-001 Criteria for Design and Construction of Concrete
Structures
SAES-Q-005 Concrete Foundations
Saudi Aramco Materials System Specification (SAMSS)
09-SAMSS-016 Concrete Masonry Units and Concrete Building
Bricks
2.2 Industry Codes and Standards
American Concrete Institute (ACI)
ACI 530-02 Building Code Requirements for Masonry
Structures
American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE)
ASCE 5-02 Building Code Requirements for Masonry
Structures
International Code Council (ICC)
IBC 2003 International Building Code, 2003 Edition
Document Responsibility: Onshore Structures SABP-Q-008
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The Masonry Society (TMS)
TMS 402-02 Building Code Requirements for Masonry
Structures
3 General
3.1 The design of load bearing masonry wall shall be in accordance with the
requirements of Saudi Aramco Engineering Standard SAES-M-100 and ACI
530-02/ASCE 5-02/TMS 602-02, and this guideline.
3.2 Concrete building load bearing concrete masonry units shall be in accordance
with 09-SAMSS-016.
3.3 The mortar shall be type S Mortar Cement as specified in Tables No. 2103.7(2)
of IBC 2003. The specified compressive strength of mortar shall not be less
than 1800 psi (12.4 MPa).
3.4 The minimum compressive strength of concrete masonry units shall be 1900 psi.
The corresponding specified compressive strength of masonry f
m
shall be
limited to a maximum of 1500 psi as per Table No. 2105.2.21.2 0f IBC 2003.
3.5 The use of full stresses by calling for special inspection is not allowed. The
allowable stresses for masonry shall be reduced by half.
3.6 The design of masonry structure shall comply with the provisions of Chapter 2
Allowable Stress Design of ACI 530-02.
3.7 The load bearing walls shall be designed as reinforced masonry. The minimum
vertical reinforcement shall be #4 bars at 4 ft spacing (12 mm diameter bars at
1.2 meters spacing). The minimum horizontal joint reinforcement shall be 2 #5
mm diameter longitudinal truss bars placed at 16-inch centers.
3.8 Vertical reinforcement shall be provided at each side of openings and at corners.
Also, horizontal masonry beams or lintels shall be provided to distribute
concentrated loads at the roof and above and below openings.
3.9 The structural calculations shall be prepared in accordance with the
requirements of SAES-A-204.
3.10 A strip of wall one-foot in length will be assumed in the analysis and design, and
all forces per linear foot basis. The design dead and live load moments at mid
height will be assumed to equal half () of moments at top of wall. The wall
will be assumed pinned at top and bottom. Wind or seismic moments will be
added to dead and live load moments at mid height of wall.
Document Responsibility: Onshore Structures SABP-Q-008
Issue Date: 28 February 2005
Next Planned Update: 1 March 2009 Design of Concrete Masonry Walls/Buildings


Page 7 of 22
4 Masonry
4.1 The most common hollow concrete masonry units used in the design are 6, 8,
10 and 12 widths and 16 lengths. These are nominal sizes assuming 3/8
grout and masonry units standard blocks manufactured in accordance with
ASTM C90.
4.2 The average weight of Completed Walls (psf) and Equivalent Solid Thickness
(inches) assuming weight of grout equals 140 pcf for Normal Weight block
(135 pcf) shall be as listed in Table 1 below:
TABLE 1 Average Wt. of Masonry Walls & Equivalent Solid Thickness
*Weight of Wall (psf) **Equivalent Solid
Thickness (inches)
Wall Thickness
6 8 10 12 6 8 10 12
Solid Grouted Wall 63 84 104 133 5.6 7.6 9.6 11.6
16 o.c. 52 66 86 103 4.5 5.8 7.2 8.5
24 o.c. 48 61 78 94 4.1 5.2 6.3 7.5
32 o.c. 47 58 74 89 4.0 4.9 5.9 7.0
40 o.c. 46 56 72 86 3.8 4.7 5.7 6.7
Vertical
Cores
Grouted
at
48 o.c. 45 55 70 83 3.7 4.6 5.5 6.5
No Grout in Wall 37 42 47 62 3.4 4.0 4.7 5.5
* The above table gives the average weight of completed walls of various
thicknesses in pounds per square foot of wall face area.
** Equivalent solid thickness (EST) means the calculated thickness of the
wall if there were no hollow cores, and is obtained by dividing the volume
of the solid material in the wall by the face area of the wall.
Document Responsibility: Onshore Structures SABP-Q-008
Issue Date: 28 February 2005
Next Planned Update: 1 March 2009 Design of Concrete Masonry Walls/Buildings


Page 8 of 22
4.3 The radius of gyration (r) for concrete masonry units shall be as listed in Table 2
below:
TABLE 2 Radius of Gyration (r) for Concrete Masonry Units
r = ( I/Ae)
1/2


5 Design Loads & Load Combinations
5.1 Vertical loads shall include the dead loads of the roof and wall as well as the
roof live load. Eccentricity of vertical loads shall be considered.
5.2 Horizontal loads due to wind or seismic shall be combined singly with dead and
live loads.
5.3 Load Combinations: Buildings and structures shall be designed to resist the most
restrictive of the following combination of loads:
D (a)
D + L (b)
D + L + (W or E) (c)
D + W (d)
0.9 D + E (e)
Nominal Width of Wall (inches) Grout Spacing
(inches) 6 8 10 12
Solid Grouted 1.62 2.19 2.77 3.34
16 1.79 2.43 3.04 3.67
24 1.87 2.53 3.17 3.82
32 1.91 2.59 3.25 3.91
40 1.94 2.63 3.30 3.97
48 1.96 2.66 3.33 4.02
Document Responsibility: Onshore Structures SABP-Q-008
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Page 9 of 22
where:
D = Dead load
L = Live Load
W = Wind Load
E = Earthquake Load
5.4 Seismic design requirements shall be in accordance with Section 1.13 of ACI
530-02. Seismic design category classification shall be as defined in Section
9.4.2 of ASCE 7-02.
5.5 The allowable stresses and allowable loads are permitted to be increased by one-
third when considering load combinations (c), (d), or (e).
6 Notation




Document Responsibility: Onshore Structures SABP-Q-008
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Page 10 of 22








7 Allowable Stresses
7.1 Steel Reinforcement:
Tension: The allowable tensile stress in reinforcement shall not exceed
24,000 psi (165.5 MPa) for Grade 60 reinforcement.
Compression: The compressive resistance of steel reinforcement shall be
neglected unless lateral reinforcement is provided in compliance with the
requirements of Section 2.1.6.5 of ACI 530-02. The compressive stress in
reinforcement shall not exceed 24,000 psi (165.5 MPa) for Grade 60
reinforcement.
Document Responsibility: Onshore Structures SABP-Q-008
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Page 11 of 22
7.2 Axial compression and flexure:
7.2.1 The compressive stress in masonry due to flexure or due to flexure in
combination with axial load shall not exceed (1/3) f
m
provided the
calculated compressive stress due to axial load component, f
a
, does not
exceed the allowable stress, F
a
given by Eq. (2-12) or (2-13) of ACI 530-
02 and as shown below:


7.2.2 Members subjected to combined axial compression and flexure shall be
designed to satisfy Eq. (2-10) below:

7.2.3 Axial tension and flexural tension:
Axial tension and flexural tension shall be resisted entirely by steel
reinforcement.
7.3 Shear in Flexural Members:
Where shear reinforcement is provided in accordance with Section 2.3.5.3 of
ACI-530-02 to resist all of the calculated shear, the calculated shear stress, f
v
,
shall not exceed Fv, where F
v
is determined as follows:

Document Responsibility: Onshore Structures SABP-Q-008
Issue Date: 28 February 2005
Next Planned Update: 1 March 2009 Design of Concrete Masonry Walls/Buildings


Page 12 of 22
Where reinforcement is not provided to resist all of the calculated shear, f
v
shall
not exceed Fv, where:

The calculated shear stress in the masonry shall be determined by the
relationship:

8 Wall Reinforcement
All load bearing walls, shear walls and walls transmitting flexural loads shall be
reinforced with both vertical and horizontal reinforcement. The sum of the areas of
horizontal and vertical reinforcement shall be at least 0.002 times the gross cross-
sectional area of the wall, and the minimum area of reinforcement in either direction
shall not be less than 0.0007 times the gross cross-sectional area of the wall. However,
the minimum vertical reinforcement shall be #4 bars at 4 ft spacing (12 mm diameter
bars at 1.2 meters spacing). The minimum horizontal joint reinforcement shall be 2 #5
mm diameter longitudinal truss bars placed at 400 mm (16-inch) centers."
Effective Depth, d, in Masonry Unit Wall:
TABLE 3 - Steel in Center of cell, Block

Nominal Thickness
(inches)
Actual Thickness
(t) (inches)
d
(inches)
6 5 5/8 2.75
8 7 5/8 3.75
10 9 5/8 4.75
12 11 5/8 5.75
Document Responsibility: Onshore Structures SABP-Q-008
Issue Date: 28 February 2005
Next Planned Update: 1 March 2009 Design of Concrete Masonry Walls/Buildings


Page 13 of 22

TABLE 4- Steel Place for Maximum d

Nominal Thickness
(inches)
Actual Thickness
(t) (inches)
Max. d
(inches)
6 5 5/8 2.75
8 7 5/8 5.25
10 9 5/8 7.25
12 11 5/8 9.00


9 Design Properties
The following design properties/parameters shall be used for the design of load bearing
walls:
Es = 29,000,000 psi for grade 60 reinforcing steel
Em = 750 fm = 750 x 1500 psi = 1,125,000 psi
n = Es / Em
Radius of gyration r (refer to TABLE 2)
p = As / bd

k = [(np)
2
+ 2np]
1/2
np
j = 1 k/3

f
a
= P
tot.
/A = P
tot.
/ (b x t) Equivalent Solid Thickness t = 7.2 in (TABLE 1)

f
b
= (M/bd
2
) x (2/kj) Actual Bending Stress
Document Responsibility: Onshore Structures SABP-Q-008
Issue Date: 28 February 2005
Next Planned Update: 1 March 2009 Design of Concrete Masonry Walls/Buildings


Page 14 of 22
Masonry: f
b
= (M/bd
2
) x (2/jk)
Steel: f
s
= (M/bd
2
) x (1/jp)



Revision Summary
28 February 2005 New Saudi Aramco Best Practice.
Document Responsibility: Onshore Structures SABP-Q-008
Issue Date: 28 February 2005
Next Planned Update: 1 March 2009 Design of Concrete Masonry Walls/Buildings


Page 15 of 22


Attachment 1 Design Aids

TABLE 5 - AREA OF STEEL

IMPERIAL
Bar Size Area ( in
2
) Area ( mm
2
)

#3 0.11 71
#4 0.20 129
#5 0.31 200
#6 0.44 284
#7 0.60 387

METRIC
Bar Size Area ( in
2
) Area ( mm
2
)

10 mm 0.122 79
12 mm 0.175 113
16 mm 0.312 201
20 mm 0.487 314

TABLE 6 - AREA OF STEEL PER FT OF WALL (A
s
) - in
2
/ ft

IMPERIAL
Bar Size
Bar Spacing (in) # 3 #4 #5 #6 #7

8 0.165 0.300 0.465 0.660 0.900
16 0.083 0.150 0.233 0.330 0.450
24 0.055 0.100 0.155 0.220 0.300
32 0.041 0.075 0.116 0.165 0.225
40 0.033 0.060 0.093 0.132 0.180
48 0.028 0.050 0.078 0.110 0.150


Document Responsibility: Onshore Structures SABP-Q-008
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Next Planned Update: 1 March 2009 Design of Concrete Masonry Walls/Buildings


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TABLE 7 - AREA OF STEEL PER FT OF WALL (A
s
) - in
2
/ ft

METRIC BARS
Bar Size
Bar Spacing (in) 10 mm 12 mm 16 mm 20 mm

8 0.183 0.263 0.468 0.731
16 0.092 0.131 0.234 0.365
24 0.061 0.088 0.156 0.244
32 0.046 0.066 0.117 0.183
40 0.037 0.053 0.094 0.146
48 0.031 0.044 0.078 0.122


Document Responsibility: Onshore Structures SABP-Q-008
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Next Planned Update: 1 March 2009 Design of Concrete Masonry Walls/Buildings


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Attachment 2: Masonry Wall Design Example 1 (Manual Calculations)


Design (Partially Grouted) Load Bearing Masonry Wall:

Building Dimensions:
Width = 40 ft Length = 50 ft Height = 16.4 ft (5 meters)





GENERAL INFORMATION:

Given: Wall Height = 16.40 ft
f
m
= 1500 psi (Based on Type S Mortar, Compressive Strength of Masonry unit =
1900 psi) Per Table No. 2105.2.2.1.2 (IBC 2003)
F
s
= 24,000 psi (Grade 60 Steel) Per ACI 530-02 Sect. 2.3.2.1
Wall Thickness = 10 inch (no special inspection)
Rebar Size = #4 @ 16
H = 16.4 ft
WL = 20 psf
P
R
v

R
h

R
h

Document Responsibility: Onshore Structures SABP-Q-008
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Depth of rebar d = 4.75 inch (see TABLE 3)
Seismic Zone Factor 0
Duration factor 1.33 for wind Load
Wall Equivalent Solid Thickness = 7.200 inch (per TABLE 1)
Wind Load = 20 psf
Roof DL = 110 psf
Roof LL = 20 psf

Step 1: Calculate Loads
Dead Load = 110 psf x 20 ft = 2,200 #/ft
Live Load = 20 psf x 20 ft = 400 #/ft
Wind Load = 20 psf
Weight of Wall at Mid-height = 86 psf x 16.4 ft x 0.5 = 705.2 #/ft
Total Load P
t
= 2,200 + 400 + 705.2 = 3,305.2 #/ft
Moment due to W.L.: M = wl
2
/8= 20 psf x (16.4)
2
/ 8 = 672.4 #-ft/ft = 8,068.80 #-in/ft
Shear Vmax = 20 psf x 16.4 x 0.5 = 164 #/ft

Step 2: Calculate Maximum Allowable Stress:
E
m
= 750 f
m
= 750 x 1500 psi = 1,125,000 psi
E
s
= 29,000,000 psi for reinforcing steel
n = E
s
/ E
m
= 29,000,000 / 1,125,000 = 25.778
h = 16.4 ft = 16.4 ft x 12 = 196.8 inch
r = (I/A)
1/2
= 3.04 in (ref. Table 2)
h/r = 196.8 / 3.04 = 64.74 < 99 Use Eq. 2-12 (ACI 530-02)
Allowable Masonry Axial Stress Fa:

F
a
= 0.25 x 1,500 [(1- {196.8/(140 x 3.04)
2
} = 294.82 psi x 0.5 (no Sp. Insp.)
F
a
= 147.41 psi
Document Responsibility: Onshore Structures SABP-Q-008
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Allowable Masonry Bending Stress F
b
:

F
b
= 0.333 x 1,500 x 0.5 = 249.75 psi
Allowable Steel Bending Stress F
s
:
F
s
= 24,000 psi
Step 3: Calculate Maximum Actual Block Wall Stress at Mid-Height:
Note: Axial load is carried mainly by masonry block, steel does not carry compression load.
f
a
= P
tot.
/A = P
tot.
/ (b x t) Equivalent Solid Thickness t = 7.2 in (TABLE 1)
f
a
= 3,305.2 / 7.2 x 12 = 38.25 psi Actual Axial Stress
f
b
= (M/bd
2
) x (2/kj) Actual Bending Stress
Calculate: np, j, k & 2/jk
Assume Reinforcing # 4 @ 16
A
s
= 0.20 in
2
x 12 /16 = 0.15 in
2
/ft
P = A
s
/bd = 0.15 / 12 x 4.75 = 0.0026
n p = 25.778 x 0.0026 = 0.0678
k = [(np)
2
+ 2np]
1/2
np
k = [(0.0678)
2
+ 2 x 0.0678]
1/2
0.0678 = 0.3067
j = 1 k/3 = 1 0.3053/3 = 0.8978
2 / jk = 2 / 0.8978 x 0.3067 = 7.2637
Actual Bending Stress:
Masonry: f
b
= (M/bd
2
) x (2/jk)
f
b
= (8,088.80 /12 in x 4.75
2
) x (2/0.8978 x 0.3067)
f
b
= 216.47 psi
Document Responsibility: Onshore Structures SABP-Q-008
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Page 20 of 22
Steel: f
s
= (M/bd
2
) x (1/jp)
f
s
= (8,088.80 /12 in x 4.8
2
) x (1/0.8982 x 0.0026)
f
s
= 12,614 psi
Step 4: Calculate Maximum Unity Check for masonry and Steel:
Axial Compression and Flexure for Masonry:

38.25 / 147.41 + 216.47 / 249.75 = 0.259 + 0.867 = 1.126 < 1.33 O.K.
Flexure for Steel:
f
s
/ F
s
= 12, 614 / 24,000 = 0.52 < 1.33 O.K.

Therefore Use #4 @ 16


S = 16 t = 10 Bar Size = #4



Document Responsibility: Onshore Structures SABP-Q-008
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Attachment 3 Masonry Wall Design

Example 1 - In-House Developed Program

10" (250 mm) Load Bearing Masonry Block Wall
Assume Wall is pinned at top and bottom
Assume DL and LL moments at mid-height of wall M = 0.5 P e

See Example 1 Sketch


GIVEN

f'
m
1,500 psi
Per SAES-M-100 & IBC 2003 Table No.
2105.2.21.2
F
s
24,000 psi Per ACI 530-02 (Grade 60 Steel)
E
s


29,000,000 psi
E
m
= 750 f'm

1,125,000 psi
Vertical Bars #4 @16 Assumed vertical reinforcement
t 7.2 inch Equivalent Solid Thickness Per TABLE 1
r 3.04 Radius of Gyration per TABLE 2
d 4.75 inch Depth of rebar -At center see TABLE 3
b 12 inch Assume typical 1 ft section of wall
Seismic Zone 0 Assume earthquake zone = 0
Duration Factor 1.33 Due to combining with wind load
No Special Inspection

INPUT
Note: All loads given are at top of wall
Wall Height 16.4 ft
P
DL
2200 # / ft
P
LL
400 # / ft
e (eccentricity) 0 inches
M
DL
0.00 # / ft Moment at mid-height of wall
M
LL
0.00 # / ft Moment at mid-height of wall
Wind Load 20 psf
A
s
0.15 in
2
/ft - From TABLE 6 (for #4 @ 16 inch)
Wt (B. Wall) 86 psf - From TABLE 1
Document Responsibility: Onshore Structures SABP-Q-008
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CALCULATIONS (at mid-height of wall):
n p np k j 2/jk h/r h/140r 70r/h
25.778 0.0026 0.0678 0.306696 0.8978 7.263702 64.74 0.4624 1.081301


P
DL
Wall P
DL+LL
M
DL+LL
M
WL
M
TOT
fa fb fs Fa Fb
# / ft # / ft #-ft #-ft/ft #-in/ft psi psi psi psi psi
705.2 3,305.2 0.00 672.4

8,069 38.25 216.4704

12,614.2 147.41 249.75

UNITY CHECK Masonry Steel

f
a
/F
a
+ f
b
/F
b
f
s
/ F
s

1.126 < 1.33 O.K. 0.526 <1.33 O.K.

CONCLUSION:

Use #4 @ 16" (12 mm bars @ 400) Vertical Bars
Use #5 mm diameter longitudinal truss bars placed at 400 mm (16-inch) centers (per SAES-M-100)