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Compressor Curves 1

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Compressor Curves
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ADV-2 2.pdf
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Workshop
In this module, compressor curves will be used to model the behaviour
of simulated compressors. Using curves to model these unit operations
allows HYSYS to accurately simulate actual plant equipment.
Learning Objectives
Once you have completed this module, you will be able to:
Specify and attach head and efficiency curves to compressors
Use single and multiple curves to model compressors
Accurately model existing plant equipment with HYSYS
Prerequisites
This module will continue to build on the model developed in the
previous workshop. Therefore, you need to have that module
completed before beginning this one.
If you were unable to complete the previous module for any reason, let
the instructor know. The solution for the previous module is supplied
with this course material and you can use that solution as the starting
point for this workshop.
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Compressor Curves
Using compressor curves in your HYSYS simulation allows you to
accurately model existing plant equipment. You can determine if an
existing compressor is able to meet the specifications of your process.
Using compressor curves allows HYSYS to calculate heads and
efficiencies that are dependant on the flow rate. If the flow rate through
the compressor is known to be constant, a single flow rate and
efficiency can be supplied. If, however, the flow rate is expected to
change, using a compressor curve will allow HYSYS to calculate new
heads and efficiencies based on the current flow rate.
This results in greater accuracy in the simulation, and allows HYSYS to
more closely model actual plant equipment.
For the first part of this module, we are going to add a single curve to
the Stage 1 Compressor from the previous simulation. Using a single
curve allows us to model a fixed speed operation. The curve will relate
outlet pressure and efficiency to gas throughput.
This consistency error is caused by the RCY-2 Out stream pressure not
updating to the new pressure value that you tried to set in the Cooler 1
Out stream. The Mixer 2 is set to "Equalize All". This means that it
expects all streams that connect to it to have the same pressure.
This problem can be eliminated by relocating the recycle block RCY-2.
Can you foresee any problems that could be caused by
adding a curve to this simulation? __________
Try changing the pressure of the stream "Cooler 1 Out".
What happens? __________
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Recycle Block Positions
Because the Recycle operation is a mathematical representation of a
physical process, its location in a simulation is a particularly important
one. The location of the tear stream can often determine success or
failure to converge a recycle
Choose a Tear Location to Minimize the
Number of Recycles
Reducing the number of locations where the iterative process is
required will save on the total convergence time. Choosing the location
of the Recycle will depend on the Flowsheet topology. Attempt to
choose a point such that specifying the assumed stream will define as
many streams downstream as possible. It generally occurs downstream
of gathering points (mixers) and upstream of distribution points (tees,
separators, and columns).
Choose a Tear Location to Minimize the
Number of Recycle Variables
Variables include vapour fraction, temperature, pressure, flow, enthalpy
and composition. Choose the tear stream so that as many variables as
possible are fixed, thus effectively eliminating them as variables and
increasing convergence stability. Good choices for these locations are
at separator inlets, compressor after cooler outlets and trim heater
outlets.
Choose a Stable Tear Location
The tear locations can be chosen such that fluctuations in the recycle
stream have a minimal effect. For example, by placing the tear in a
main stream, instead of the physical recycle, the effect of fluctuations
will be reduced. The importance of this factor depends on the
convergence algorithm. It is more significant when successive
substitution is used.
A very poor choice of a tear
stream is a stream with an
Adjust operation controlling
one of its variables.
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Our Two Choices
We have two choices for the position of the Recycle Block in our
simulation.
1. Relocate RCY-2 to a position upstream of Letdown 2. I.e. between
the HP Separator vessel and the let down valve.
OR
2. Relocate RCY-2 to a position upstream of the IS Separator. I.e.
between the Mixer 2 and the IS Separator vessel.
Make the required changes on the flowsheet to reflect this change.
Once the recycle block is repositioned, we can add the compressor
curve.
Which of these two options is most preferable? __________
Why? __________________________________________
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Adding the Single Compressor Curve
Here, we will add a single curve to the Stage 1 Compressor.
1. On the Parameters page of the Stage 1 Compressor, ensure that
the Polytropic and Adiabatic efficiency boxes both read <empty>.
These values must read <empty> because the efficiencies will be
calculated from the compressor curves, and defining the same value in
two places will always result in a consistency error.
2. On the Curves page, select the Adiabatic radio button in the
Efficiency group. Press the Add Curve button, and enter the data
as shown below. Be sure to select the proper units before entering
the data.
Be sure to use the correct units
for the curve.
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3. Close the above view, and activate Curve-1 on the Curves page.
Ensure that the Enable Curves box on the Curves page is
checked.
4. The pressure of the Stage 1 Out stream can be seen on the Work
Sheet page, or you can choose to Show Table when object
inspecting the outlet stream on the PFD. The Compressors
efficiencies can be found on the Results page.
Optional Exercise
It is desired to have an outlet pressure of 7500 kPa (1090 psia).
Use an Adjust operation with the following information:
What is the compressors outlet pressure? __________
What is the Adiabatic Efficiency? __________
And the Polytropic Efficiency? __________
In This Cell... Enter...
Adjusted Variable Feed - Molar Flow
Target Variable Cooler 1 Out - Pressure
Specified Target Value 7500 kPa (1090 psia)
Step Size 10 kgmole/h (20 lbmole/hr)
Iterations 50
What is the calculated Molar Flow once the Adjust has
completed its calculations? __________
Can you think of an easier way of doing this? __________
How? __________
Save your case!
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Multiple Curves
Typically, industrial compressors are able to run at multiple speeds
depending on the current demand. HYSYS allows users to enter
multiple compressor curves that each represent a specified speed.
Once the curves are entered, any compressor speed can be specified
and the head and efficiency are calculated automatically.
In this exercise, the Stage 2 Compressor will be fitted with multiple
curves to result in a more accurate simulation.
To make things easier for you, the curve data has been supplied in the
form of an Excel spreadsheet. Open the Curve-Data.xls file located on
the course disk at this time. The data contained in this spreadsheet will
look like this:
Simply, use the Copy (CTRL-C) and Paste (CTRL-V) commands to bring
the data from Excel into HYSYS. Again, make sure that you select the
right units on the curve data input screen before entering the data. Note
that there is no way of entering all four curves simultaneously.
Once all of the curves are entered, we can see the data in a graphical
format by pressing the Plot Curves button.
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5. Delete the specified pressure from the Cooler 2 Out stream. As
mentioned before, the outlet pressure from the compressor will
be calculated by the compressor speed and the flowrate of gas.
6. Ensure that all of the curves are activated, and the Enable Curves
box is checked. These curves are polytropic curves, therefore the
Polytropic radio button must be checked in the Efficiency group
on the Curves page.
7. On the Curves page, enter a speed of 11 000 per min.
Exercise
1. Delete the specified compressor speed of 11 000 per minute.
2. Re-enter the pressure specification on the Cooler 2 Out stream
(100 bar).
3. HYSYS will automatically calculate the compressor speed needed
to meet the desired conditions.
What pressure is calculated of the "Cooler 2 Out" stream?
__________
Is the specified compressor speed great enough to reach the
desired outlet pressure (100 bar) at the current flowrate?
__________
What is the compressor speed needed to achieve the
specified outlet pressure? __________
What are the Adiabatic and Polytropic efficiencies of the
compressor under these conditions? __________
Save your case!
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