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Institute of Business

Management

Domestic Water Consumption


of Middle Class Household In
Karachi, Pakistan

Students Name: Shariq Mustafa


Student ID #: 14275
Degree Program: MBA (Environmental & Energy
Management)
Name of Supervisor: Dr. Abdulrauf Farooqi
Highest Degree: PhD
Designation: Professor, Environment & Energy
Management Program
Affiliation: IoBM, Karachi

Department of Environmental & Energy


Management
Institute of Business Management, Korangi Creek,
Karachi, Pakistan
July / 2014

Shariq Mustafa (14275)

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TABLE OF CONTENTS
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT................................................................................................... 3
PLAGIARISM.................................................................................................................. 4
DECLARATION............................................................................................................... 5
FORWARDING SHEET.................................................................................................... 6
APPROVAL SHEET......................................................................................................... 7
ABBREVIATIONS............................................................................................................ 8
ABSTRACT..................................................................................................................... 9
1.

INTRODUCTION.................................................................................................... 10
1.1

OBJECTIVE...................................................................................................... 10

2.

LITERATURE REVIEW............................................................................................ 11

3.

MATERIALS AND METHODS.................................................................................. 13

4.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION................................................................................... 14

5.

RECOMMENDATIONS............................................................................................ 17

Shariq Mustafa (14275)

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
July 26, 2014
Dear reader,
I am grateful to Allah Almighty for bestowing us with the knowledge and
strength to fulfill each requirement of this report efficiently. Alhamdulillah!
I would then like to express earnest thankfulness towards our mentor for the
course of Research and Methodology, Professor Dr. Abdulrauf Farooqi for
showing tremendous amount of support and guidance throughout the
semester and inspiring us to prepare the research.

Shariq Mustafa (14275)

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PLAGIARISM
I Shariq Mustafa Student ID No. 2012-01-06-14275 solemnly undertake
that I have not been engaged in any form of plagiarism. Plagiarism includes
copying publish work without referencing, copying coursework
essays/assignment/term report or submitting assignment done through hiring
of ghost writer(s) for writing/solving the assignment or submitting or
borrowed/copied or stolen assignment and claiming to be my own assignment
including falsifying the result will be liable for penalization under the IOBM
POLICY ON PLAGIARISM. Such act when found substantiated will declare the
student as failed in that subject and may debar the student from award of
degree/diploma at any stage depending upon severity and repetitiveness of
the plagiarisms incident.
I confirm that I have read and understood the IOBM POLICY ON PLAGIARISM
and have fully understood what plagiarism is and equally important how to
avoid it.
Signed and Dated:
Students Name: Shariq Mustafa

Shariq Mustafa (14275)

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DECLARATION
I Shariq Mustafa Student ID Number 2012-01-06-14275 do hereby
solemnly declare that this project/thesis entitled DOMESTIC WATER
CONSUMPTION of Middle Class Household In Karachi submitted as a
partial fulfillment of the degree of MBA (Environmental and Energy
Management) is my original work and has not been submitted in any version
thereof for assessment in any other subject/university/institution and shall not
in future be submitted by me for obtaining any degree/diploma from any other
University/Institution. I also affirm that I have read understood and signed the
IoBMs policy on plagiarism.
Signed and Dated---------------------------------------------Place (Signed) ------------------------------------------------Students name: Shariq Mustafa
ID No.: 2012-01-06-14275

Shariq Mustafa (14275)

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FORWARDING SHEET
The thesis entitled Domestic Water Consumption of Middle Class
Household In Karachi
Submitted by Mr. Shariq Mustafa
Student ID Number: 2012-01-06-14275
towards the partial fulfillment of MBA degree in Environment and Energy
Management has been completed under my guidance. I am satisfied with the
quality of the students research work.
Signature
Name:
Highest Degree:
Designation:
Department:
Place:
Date:

Shariq Mustafa (14275)

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APPROVAL SHEET
This thesis attached herewith entitled Domestic Water Consumption of
Middle Class House Hold in Karachi
Submitted by Mr. Shariq Mustafa
Student ID Number: 2012-01-06-14275
In fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of Master in Business
Management in Environment and Energy Management is hereby accepted.
Viva Voce Committee:
Dean, Faculty: (Signature/Name)
Chairman /Director (Department): (Signature/Name)
External Examiner: (Signature/Name/Department/University/Location)

Supervisor: (Signature/Department)
Member: (Signature/Name)

Dated:
Place/Address:

Shariq Mustafa (14275)

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ABBREVIATIONS
BWR
l/c/d
l/p/d
l/min
N/A
WHO
l
lpcd
UN
WWR

Basic Water Requirement


Liters per capita per day
Liters per person per day
Liters per minutes
Information is not available
World Health Organization
Liters
Liters per capita per day
United Nations
World Water Development Report

Shariq Mustafa (14275)

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ABSTRACT
Water is one of the basic human need and vital for sustaining quality of life on
earth. However, its unbalanced and unmanaged use makes it scarce. In
Pakistan, about 96% of its available water is being used for agriculture and
the remaining 4% for domestic, industrial and other purposes. A good
understanding of domestic water usage patterns and trends is essential to
bridge the gap between present and future domestic water supply and
demand. The present paper surveys the domestic water use in different
Middle Class House Holds in Karachi. This research may be further used as a
planning tool for the water conservation and sustainable use of water.

Shariq Mustafa (14275)

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1. INTRODUCTION
Water is critical in sustaining quality of life on earth. The sustainability of
socially sensitive good such as water depends on effective and efficient
use of available resources. The use of water has increased globally and the
efficacy of supply side is questionable. Due to drastic increase in
population, technological development and economic growth; the demand
for water supplies is constantly increasing.
The term domestic water demand, is usually taken to mean the amount
of water required for various domestic uses. Domestic water demand
comprise the amount of water used by households for various activities in
house as well as outside including drinking, cooking, bathing, washing,
water use for kitchen, laundry, and gardening etc.
Water resources management is a political and socio-economic issue as
well as a technological concern. The comprehensive analysis of water
demand by keeping in view the population growth and socio-economic
values etc. is an essential component in designing water demand curve. It
is vital to understand that how demand is formulated, which factors
determine it, how the water demand responds to social and econometric
variables, and how future demand will be shaped. The present paper
surveys the consumption patterns for domestic water use of Middle Class
House Holds in one of the mega cities of Pakistan.

1.1 OBJECTIVE
The prime objective of the present study is to gather the water usages
data of middle class households and to identify patterns and trends in
relation to socio-economic variables. The domestic water demand forecast
model can be developed for megacity of Karachi using the collected data
to formulate the future water policy. Finally, recommendations were made
for sustainable water demand management to cope with water scarcity.
Role of middle class to be added.

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2. LITERATURE REVIEW
Pakistan is the sixth largest country in the world by population with 2.48%
of the world total population (United Nations, 2009). The total population
increases from 34 million in 1951 to 170 Million by the year 2010. The
proportion of urban population increased from 17% in 1951 to 36% by
2010 with urban population of 58 million and population density of more
than 209 persons per square kilometer. Rapid urbanization and high
population growth rate directly impact the water demand for domestic,
industrial and agricultural sectors. In Pakistan, about 96 percent of its
available water is being used for agriculture, 2 percent for industrial and
the remaining 2 percent is used by the domestic sector. Approximately 35
percent of domestic water supply is unaccounted for water. Pakistan is on
the verge of becoming a water deficit country (Waterbury, 1979) (GardnerOutlaw and Engelman, 1997).
Access to safe and adequate potable water supply is a basic human right.
In Pakistan, groundwater is the main source for drinking water. However,
the city of Karachi depends on surface water as a drinking source.
Domestic water supply and demand is not uniform in different cities of
Pakistan and varies significantly based on location, climatic change, house
characteristics, and socio-economic variables. Residential water demand
depends on the number of individuals in the family, the size of the house,
the number of water-using appliances, and household income (Lyman R.A.,
1992) (Renzetti, S., 2002). Drinking water demand is increasing rapidly
while the options for new development of water resources are limited. In
Pakistan, the municipal infrastructure is in poor shape. Underfunding by
the government and low revenue collection over the decades has
weakened the capacity of municipal governments to fund, build, and
maintain infrastructure (Zaidi, S.A. 2005). Pakistans water quality ranks as
80th out of 122 nations (World Water Development Report, 2003).
Major issues faced by the domestic water supply sector are;
i) Inadequate, inequitable and inefficient distribution of water resources.
ii) No clear policy and guidelines for operation and maintenance of
municipal infrastructure
iii)
About 80% unmetered water supply connections in mega cites
iv) Lack of water awareness as an economic good
v) Lack of citizens interest and involvement in water related projects
vi) Confusion of social, technical, environmental and political aims
vii) Lack of an integrated approach and legal framework (Bhatti A.M. and
S. Nasu, 2010).
The World Health Organization defines domestic water as being water
used for all usual domestic purposes including consumption, bathing and
food preparation (WHO 1993). This definition suggests that domestic
water is not just solely related to the consumption of water but water has
several uses. Normal domestic supply can be categorized in the following
ways:
Shariq Mustafa (14275)

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Consumption (drinking and cooking)


Hygiene (including basic needs for personal and domestic cleanliness)
Productive use (includes uses such as brewing, animal watering,
construction and small-scale horticulture which are of particular
relevance to poor households in developing countries) (Howard &
Bartram, 2003).
Literature suggests that it is hard to give an accurate estimate of the daily
consumption of domestic water of an individual as water consumption per
inhabitant varies immensely based on their locality. For instance an
American needs an average 500 liters a day, western European 150 liters
a day and an African only 50 liters a day (Lenntech, 2012). Even if these
geographical differences decrease over time, individuals will rarely be
equal in their water consumption. It is for this reason that surveys
measuring domestic consumption of water should necessarily include
household characteristics and socioeconomic variables in order to get
valid results. Household characteristics would include the ages of
members of the household which will be used to calculate the day-time
occupancy of residents as well as certain factors affecting water use such
as the preference of baths over showers. Moreover, young and old persons
use less water than the average adult. Similarly, lactating women will be
consuming more water for drinking purposes in order to meet their bodily
requirements. Socio-economic variables may include water features such
as swimming pools, garden ponds, fountains and aquariums which are
likely to be found in more affluent households and give them a different
water-use profile from less affluent households (Aquaterra, 2008).
Individuals living in rural areas will also use less water than those living in
cities (Lenntech, 2012).
In 1977, the United Nations determined the concept of a water use
standard to meet peoples basic need for water.
all people, whatever their stage of development and their social and
economic conditions, have the right to have access to drinking water in
quantities and of a quality equal to their basic needs(United Nations
1977).

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3. MATERIALS AND METHODS


A. Materials:
Different instruments which were utilized for the quantitative analysis of
domestic water consumption includes:
1. Stop watch
2. Mug (1-2lit)
3. Plastic bottle (1-2lit) by finding flow rates of wash basin taps, hand and
head showers.
To support the research work, a preliminary questionnaire survey was also
carried out. About 10 households were surveyed. Calculations of domestic
water consumption occur physically and calculations are shown in
domestic water consumption survey form. All those conducting the study
have engineering background and living in different localities of Karachi.
B. Methods:
Primary data collection comprised of an End Use Analysis in order to
understand the components of household water use.

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4. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION


The research results that the average water consumption for the middle
class household in Karachi is 185 liters per capita per day. It is very
difficult to estimate the actual water consumption for the middle class
house hold in Karachi because it is dependent upon many factors such as
Life style, social factors, seasons and other behavioral factors. For the
actual results this study should be performed on the large number of
houses then this research will be helpful in developing policies for planning
and sustainable water use.

Domestic Water Consumption Survey Form


Questions

Answers

Unit

Remark
s

Basic Information
Shariq
Mustafa

Q.1

Name

Q.2

Geographical Location of Home

Q.3

What is area of your home? (Sq. yds.)

Q.4

How many family members live in your home?

Q.5

What is the size of your overhead water tank?

1.5

m3

Q.6

What is the size of your underground water tank?

15

m3

Gulshan-eIqbal
120

Sq.
yds.

2 Males &
1 Female
6x3x3
ft3
9.5 x 6 x
9 ft3

Drinking Water
Q.7
Q.8

What is the source of drinking water at home?


Classify is it tap or bottled water or any other?
If tap water is used, so do you purify it or use
straight away with tap?

Tap Water
Purify

Q.9

If water is purified, then what is method of


purification? Specify water is boiled or filtered?

Q.1
0

On average what is consumption of drinking


water per person?

lit

4 lit
(Female)

Total

lit

4 lit

Filtered

Toilet Consumption
Q.1
1

On average how many times a person flush the


toilet at your home? (daily)

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Q.1
2

What is consumption of water on total flushes at


home?

108

Q.1
3

On average how often does a person take bath at


your home?

Q.1
4

What is the method of taking bath at your home?


Bucket, Hand shower, Head shower?

Head Shower

Q.1
5

How long is the water kept running during


shower?

Q.1
6
Q.1
7

36 lit
(Female)

lit

15

min

On average how much total water is used for


taking bath in your home?

180

lit

80 lit
(Female)

On average how much total water is used for


general cleaning purpose like face, teeth etc.?

30

lit

10 lit
(Female)

318

lit

126 lit

30

lit/da
y

10 lit
(Female)

150

lit/da
y

30 lit
(Female)

180

lit

40 lit

Total
Washing Clothes
Q.1
8
Q.1
9
Q.2
0

Q.2
1

Do you wash clothes at home or they are sent to


laundry service?
If washed at home, are they hand washed or
machine washed?
How frequently are clothes washed at your
home?
On average how much water is used every time
for washing clothes? (Give separate estimate for
hand washed and machine washed)

Total

Home
Both
Twice a week

Cooking
Q.2
2

How frequently food is cooked at your home?

Q.2
3

On average how much water is used every time


for preparing meal? (Include water for rinsing,
soaking, washing & water used for cooking)

Total

3
10

lit

10

lit

lit

lit

3 lit

General Cleaning
Q.2
4

How much water do you use for home cleaning


purpose?

Total

1 lit

Washing Dishes
Q.2
5

How frequently do you wash dishes?

Shariq Mustafa (14275)

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Q.2
6

How much water is used for washing dishes each


time?

Total

10

lit

30

lit

9 lit

Garden/Plantation
Q.2
7
Q.2
8
Q.2
9

Do you have garden or plants at home?


How often do you water your garden/plants per
day?
Estimate water consumption on watering
garden/plants?

Yes
1
3

lit

Total

lit

Total Daily Consumption

555

lit

Consumption per person per day

185

lit

Shariq Mustafa (14275)

150 lit
(Female
)

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5. RECOMMENDATIONS AND CONCLUSIONS


The domestic water demand is function of various variables which
includes housing characteristics, accessibility to the water source,
economic class, water quality and climate. In order to cope with domestic
water needs of rapidly growing population, an efficient, economic and
environmentally acceptable integrated approach is needed to arrive at
sustainable solutions. There is dire need to evolve workable methods and
approaches to synchronize the demand and supply gap. It is dire need to
create knowledge to be shared among different disciplines. Building a
new social framework including community participation at all level of
water management is necessary. The community participation in
water management policies, incentives for efficient use, affordability by
low-income users and other vulnerable groups, water awareness especially
among the women and children are prime factors for success of any
domestic water project. Government of Pakistan should acknowledge a
water crisis and start to collect sufficient and reliable data. Safe, adequate,
equitable, sustainable and affordable water services are crucial for healthy
and prosperous Pakistan.

Shariq Mustafa (14275)

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