Sie sind auf Seite 1von 12

SHAFT ALIGNMENT

AND VIBRATION ANALYSIS


Lesson 1 Code: Sabic M22B 1


LESSON 1
INTRODUCTION TO SHAFT ALIGNMENT

Shaft alignment is a technical skill that is not common in the construction and maintenance
professions, but categorized more like a specialty. It requires unique and expensive
measurement instruments, some calculation capability, and relies heavily on experience for
successful results on heavy, high-speed, or high-temperature machines. This training
course will provide an integral training knowledge and experience of shaft alignment to
solve misalignment problems in rotating machinery. Emphasis shall be laid on ways to
analyze, identify and correct the root causes of misalignment, unbalancing and vibration to
achieve precise operation, and improving machinery performance.



Vibration monitoring and analysis are useful tools for predicting incipient mechanical,
electrical, and process-related problems within plant equipment, machinery, and
continuous-process systems. Therefore, they are the most often used predictive
maintenance technologies. Vibration analysis can provide the means to first schedule
maintenance and ultimately to eliminate the need for corrective maintenance tasks.
Vibration analysis can be used to evaluate all equipment within a plant. The monitoring of
the condition of machinery can significantly reduce the costs of maintenance. Firstly it can
allow the early detection of potentially catastrophic faults which could be extremely
SHAFT ALIGNMENT
AND VIBRATION ANALYSIS
2 Code: Sabic M22B Lesson 1


expensive to repair. Secondly it allows the implementation of condition based maintenance
rather than periodic or failure based maintenance. In these cases significant savings can be
made by delaying scheduled maintenance until convenient or necessary. This training
course is designed to expose the techniques of vibration analysis of machinery, with the
aim of improving machinery monitoring and diagnosis and to implement latest standard
systems and procedures as a tool for achieving precise operation, and improving machinery
performance. Emphasis shall be laid on topics relevant to basics of vibration, vibration
measurements, vibration analysis, international standard system and assess machinery
condition. It provides valuable information and knowledge of the principles and procedures
of condition based monitoring and machine condition monitoring, with focus placed upon a
range of topics, e.g. machinery vibration response, data acquisition procedures, transducer
selection & mounting, signal conditioning, data displays, machinery condition evaluating
and analysis and computer application in vibration analysis and condition monitoring. The
objective of this training course is to prepare attendees to be better analysts and gain
understanding of vibration principles and techniques and add to their practical knowledge of
machines.

Who Should Attend:

The training program is designed and targeted to engineers and technicians who are
dealing with the operation and maintenance of rotating equipment and totally new to shaft
alignment and who are running alignment and wish to improve their knowledge and skills.
And for all interested and using vibration and equipment condition monitoring for identifying
and correcting the machinery problems. And for maintenance engineers, maintenance
planners, supervisors and managers and senior technicians involved in machines condition
monitoring and vibration measurement and analysis.






SHAFT ALIGNMENT
AND VIBRATION ANALYSIS
Lesson 1 Code: Sabic M22B 3


Introduction to Shaft Alignment

What is shaft alignment?

Shaft alignment is the positioning of the rotational centers of two or more shafts such that
they are co-linear when the machines are under normal operating conditions. The Process
of Adjusting a piece of machinery so that its shaft will be in line with the shaft of the
machine to which it coupled (The Stationary Machine). Alignment is a critical aspect of
operation and the techniques used should be properly understood. Misalignment is the
main cause of Machine Potential Failure Shaft alignment is a technical skill that is not
common in the construction and maintenance professions, but categorized more like a
specialty. It requires unique and expensive measurement instruments, some calculation
capability, and relies heavily on experience for successful results on heavy, high-speed, or
high-temperature machines.

Side Effect of Misalignment
Bearing failure
Coupling Failure, even in flexible types
Internal heating
Shaft Fatigue
Seal Leakage
High energy consumption
Bearing failure
Vibration

Misalignment causes excessive vibrations. It is, by far, the leading cause of machinery
malfunctions, downtime and maintenance (but often not identified as the root cause). There
is also no testing or certification of alignment craft people. With no common training, no
certification, and no common standards, it should come as no surprise that there is large
variability in the results. The guidelines for when to require alignment checks are:

1. All new shaft coupled equipment.
SHAFT ALIGNMENT

AND VIBRATION ANALYSIS

2. After repair work is done that disturbs shafts or bearings, and before energizing.
3. Whenever vibration indicates the need.
4. Periodically on critical equipment


Fig. 1-1.

The most important requirement for any shaft alignment system is repeatability of the
readings. This is evaluated with a 360 deg repeatability test. It is also a good way to
evaluate a fixture system when considering a purchase. Basically, measuring systems that
do not return to zero (within 0.002 inch) after a 360 deg rotation should be rejected. Be
suspicious of plastic straps or other flexible fixture components. The choice of measuring
systems and methods is up to the aligner. The two fundamental choices are dial indicators
or lasers. Dial-indicator systems are the most useful because they can be used to measure
shaft run out, bearing alignment, and soft foot directly. All of the above measurements are
required by the standard, and needed to assure a goo(l-running machine, but not attainable
with lasers. Lasers require batteries, are not intrinsically safe for use in explosive
environments, and cannot do face-and-rim measurements.

Correcting Common Problems
Time is spent on collecting vibration data on hundreds of machines, But not on actually
correcting the problems. Those involved with the PDM implementation do a lot of analysis
may not be involved in the correction of the problems they have identified.


4 Code: Sabic M22B Lesson 1
SHAFT ALIGNMENT
AND VIBRATION ANALYSIS
Lesson 1 Code: Sabic M22B 5


How to utilize these data?

First step:
Determine which pieces of equipment are problems and which are not. The vibration limit of
0.3 ips ( 7.6 mm/s) is a good break point to use. All equipment 0.3 ips (7.6 mm/s) or higher
should be repaired if the number of equipment at or above 0.3 ips is too large to tackle, a
further prioritizing process may be necessary.

Next Step:
Breaking down the equipment over the limit by type..



Fig. 1-2. Categorized Equipment Failures.

Of the 109 machines over the limit pumps and fans seem to have the biggest problems.

Third step:
Looking into the work performed on pumps and fans can often reveal a facility-wide or
systemic problem. For example, the facility that reported this data further investigated pump
problems. The result indicated that there was little or no alignment of coupled machinery
being performed.

Fourth step:
Deeper investigation revealed that the plants only dial indicator (used in precision
alignment) was damaged and locked away in a machinists toolbox. The facility purchased

SHAFT ALIGNMENT

AND VIBRATION ANALYSIS

new indicators and trained every mechanic in proper alignment techniques. As stated
previously, the most common problems found in rotating machinery through vibration
analysis are (in approximate order) misalignment, imbalance, bearing damage, and
looseness. Grouping all problems together can start to reveal other systemic problems.
Investigations can help facility management focus on the top problems that can be solved,
with additional training, new methods, or new equipment.


Fig. 1-3.

Types of Misalignment

Explanation of offset and angularity


Fig. 1-4.
6 Code: Sabic M22B Lesson 1
SHAFT ALIGNMENT
AND VIBRATION ANALYSIS
Lesson 1 Code: Sabic M22B 7


There are two components of misalignment-angular and offset.

Explanation of Vertical Angularity

i. Positive Vertical Angularity


Fig. 1-5.

ii. Negative Vertical Angularity


Fig. 1-6.
SHAFT ALIGNMENT

AND VIBRATION ANALYSIS

Explanation of Horizontal Angularity
i-Positive Horizontal Angularity


Fig. 1-7.

ii-Negative Horizontal Angularity


Fig. 1-8.

8 Code: Sabic M22B Lesson 1
SHAFT ALIGNMENT
AND VIBRATION ANALYSIS
Lesson 1 Code: Sabic M22B 9


Explanation of Offset
i. Positive Vertical Offset


Fig. 1-9

ii. Positive Horizontal Offset


Fig. 1-10.
SHAFT ALIGNMENT

AND VIBRATION ANALYSIS
iii. Negative Vertical Offset


Fig. 1-11.

iv. Negative Horizontal Offset


Fig. 1-12.




10 Code: Sabic M22B Lesson 1
SHAFT ALIGNMENT
AND VIBRATION ANALYSIS
Lesson 1 Code: Sabic M22B 11


Angular misalignment:

This occurs when the shaft center-lines are out of parallel, although they may intersect at
the coupling. Angular misalignment sometimes referred to as gap or face, is the
difference in the slope of one shaft, usually the moveable machine, as compared to the
slope of the shaft of the other machine, usually the stationary machine. The units for this
measurement are comparable to the measurement of the slope of a roof (i.e., rise/run). In
this case the rise is measured in mils and the run (distance along the shaft) is measured in
inches. The units for angular misalignment are mils/1 in. As stated, there are two separate
alignment conditions that require correction. There are also two planes of potential
misalignment-the horizontal plane (side to side) and the vertical plane (up and down). Each
alignment plane has offset and angular components, so there are actually four alignment
parameters to be measured and corrected. They are horizontal angularity (HA), horizontal
offset (HO), vertical angularity (VA), and vertical offset (VO).


Fig. 1-13.


SHAFT ALIGNMENT

AND VIBRATION ANALYSIS


Fig. 1-13. Contd.

Parallel, Offset misalignment:

This occurs when the shaft center-lines remain parallel, but are offset Offset misalignment,
sometimes referred to as parallel misalignment, is the distance between the shaft centers of
rotation measured at the plane of power transmission. This is typically measured at the
coupling center. The units for this measurement are mils (where 1 mil = 0.001 in.).


Fig. 1-14.


Fig. 1-15.

12 Code: Sabic M22B Lesson 1