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Solar Photovoltaic Systems



INDEX
Evaluation of the solar resource

Increasing the plant profitability from the
design

Choosing the components

Photovoltaic facilities calculations

Single-line diagram
3
Evaluation
Evaluation of the solar resource

Increasing the profitability of the
plant from the design

Choosing the components

Photovoltaic facilities calculations

Single-line diagram
4
But, to get a completely certain measure, a rigorous solar radiation
evaluation must be done in site.

INFO SOURCE :

http://www.wunderground.com/calculators/solar.html
6
Solar resource evaluation:
Solar Radiation maps

Each day, we can find new
maps, which have less
uncertain measures

They allow a first approach to
the viability study for a solar
plant location

They can be considered enough
for small solar facilities

7
INDEX
Evaluation of the solar resource

Increasing the plant profitability from the design

Choosing the components

Photovoltaic facilities calculations

Single-line diagram
8
System losses (PR)

Shadows

Disconnections &
Breakdowns

Panel tolerance

Pollution, dispersion &
reflectance

Temperature

Inverter

Cables
Towards the profitability of
the plant from the design

Resource evaluation

Latitude

Longitude

Altitude

Data from closest

meteorological
stations
Data from satellites
OPTIMUM
PROFITABILITY



9
INDEX
Evaluation of the solar resource

Increasing the plant profitability from the design

Choosing the components

Photovoltaic facilities calculations

Single-line diagram
The inverter can be considered as the heart of a solar facility
Its cost, in relation to the complete installation, is between 6% - 9%
Its performance is already between 95 %-97 %
It is important to know about their operation principles. We can
find 2 options:
10
Inverters: Trends
The electrical companies can ask for galvanic isolation transformers
when the connection is in low voltage


11
I nverters: features
The inverter main features are:
Maximum Input Voltage:
The PV generator voltage must be under the
inverter maximum input voltage

MPPT Voltage:
It is the range where the inverter is able to
Get the Maximum Power Point from the PV
generator I-V profile.

The PV generator voltage must be within
This range in the different conditions and
Weather during the whole year.
Source: SolarMax
MPPT
PV Cells have a complex relationship between
their operating environment and the
maximum Power they can produce.
The Fill factor , abbreviated FF, is a parameter
which characterizes the non-linear electrical
behavior of the solar cell.
Fill factor is defined as the ratio of the maximum
power from the solar cell to the product of Open
Circuit Voltage V
oc
and Short-Circuit Current I
sc
.
For any given set of operational conditions, cells
have a single operating point where the values of
the Current (I) and Voltage (V) of the cell result in
a maximum Power output. These values
correspond to a particular load Resistance which
is equal to V / I as specified by Ohms Law.
The power P is given by P=V*I.
A photovoltaic cell, for the majority of its useful
curve, acts as a Constant Current Source.
However, at a photovoltaic cell's MPP region, its
curve has an approximately inverse exponential
relationship between current and voltage.
From basic circuit theory, the power delivered
from or to a device is optimized where the
Derivative (graphically, the slope) dI/dV of the I-
V curve is equal and opposite the I/V ratio
(where dP/dV=0)
This is known as the maximum power
point (MPP) and corresponds to the "knee" of
the curve.

12
Inverters: Features

Other important parameters are:

Inverter efficiency:

As it is shown in the graphic, the inverter has a different efficiency
depending on the load. Usually, the manufacturers give the maximum
efficiency and the european efficiency, which is the weighting of the
different efficiencies when the load is: 5%, 10%, 30%...100%

Inverter temperature range:

This is really important, as in some places the temperature can reach
over 40, and extra cooling might be considered
13
Crystalline or Thin-film Panels

Visual identification:
Mono crystalline Poli crystalline Thin film A-Si:H
They are cheaper, but they need larger surfaces & structures
The guaranteed output power is not as precise as in Mono/
Poly crystalline modules
There are no references from facilities producing an important
amount of years
Source: Atersa

Thin film panel observations:
PV System Standards
THINFILMPANEL
CGIS(Copper-Gallium-Indium
Selenide)
CIS(Copper-IndiumSelenide)
CdTe(Cadmiumtelluride)
A-Si:Htriple(Amorphoussilicon
tripleunion)
A-Si:Htandem(Amorphoussilicon
doubleunion)
A-Si:Hsingle(Amorphoussilicon)
14
Crystalline or Thin filmmodules
CRYSTALLINE PANEL
Mono crystalline

Poly crystalline
EFFICIENCY REQUIRED
SURFACE
This information can be altered depending on each manufacturer price policy

15
PV Module Specs
The most important electrical spec is the
panel efficiency
The highest the efficiency is, we will
require a smaller surface to reach a certain
output power

Voltage and current parameters are not
determinant, as we can connect the panels in
series or in parallels to fit the inverter input.
Source: Atersa
16
PV Module Specs
The losses due to temperature affect the
production specially in countries with
latitudes between 0 35
Among panels with the same technology:
the thermal coefficient is quite similar
among the different manufacturers &
models

Among panels with different technologies:
we can find big differences, as we can see in
the technical information below.
A: Si Polycrystalline
STC Vs PTC
Difference between STC and PTC

STC stands for Standard Test Conditions which are
1,000 watts per square meter solar irradiance,
1.5 Air Mass and
25 degrees C. cell temperature.
STC are indoor factory test conditions.

PTC stands for PV USA Test Conditions which were developed at the
PV USA test site at Davis, California. PTC are
1,000 watts per square meter solar irradiance,
1.5 Air Mass, and
20 degrees C. ambient temperature at 10 meters above ground level and
wind speed of 1 meter per second.

PTC is more like "real-world" conditions but does not factor in
dust and dirt, module mismatch, DC and AC wire losses, actual
inverter efficiency, and electric storage efficiency if you have
batteries.




























17
Concentration Panel

Concentration technology is still being developed

Fresnel Lens (and other kinds)

Refractive optical system

Concentration up to 500x

Potential cost savings

Improvement in cell efficiency: from actual 30% towards 40%

Increasing the concentration: from actual 500x towards 1000x

Hardest challenges

Extremely accurate suntracking (Accuracy < 0.1 - 0.2): High costs

Optical elements degradation

Cooling systems are required

Source: Everphoton
18
Example: ABB S800PV (Specifications)
S800PV-S High Performance MCB
Versions: 2P, 3P & 4P
Current: Up to 80 A
Voltage: 800 Vdc with 2P & 1200Vcc with 3P & 4P
S800PV-M Switch-Disconnector
Versions: 2P, 3P & 4P
Current: Up to 125 A
Voltage: 800Vcc with 2P & 1200Vcc with 3P & 4P
AC
MCB
AC
Differential
DC
Fuses
Source: ABB
DC
MCB
AC side
Protections




The protections to be installed are:

DC side
Type 150 275 320 385
Accordingtostandard IEC616431
Maximumvoltage(AC/DC) Uc(L-N/N-PE) 150/200V 275/350V 320/420V 385/500V
Nominaldischargecurrent(8/20) In(L-N/N-PE) 20/20kA
Maximumdischargecurrent(8/20) Imax(L-N/N-PE) 40/40kA
ProtectionLevel Up(L-N)
Up(N-PE)
<0.9kV <1.5kV <1.5kV
<2kV
<1.9kV
Trackingcurrent If(L-N/N-PE) >100ARMS
Responsetime tA(L-N/N-PE) <25ns/100ns
19
Overvoltage protections
To protect the installation against
overvoltage we must Install high energy
varistors close to the element that we
want to protect

The main aim of this device is to detect
an overvoltage within a certain period of
time and then divert it to the
ground

The device may be destroyed depending
on the power to be diverted to the ground
20
Cables
Cable Requirements for PV facilities

The facility has a lifetime of over 25 years

From solar panel to inverter: weatherproof for
outdoor conditions and suitable for indoor
conditions (in houses or industries)

From inverters to meters: direct burial or inside
cable ducts

If medium-voltage is required, it might be
suitable:
For underground installation (inside cable
ducts)
For aerial installation
Source: TopCable







21
Cables
It is recommended to use*:
Specific PV usage cable
Main features:



Conductor: electrolytic copper
Insulation: halogen free
Cover: fireproof; low emissions (corrosive gas & toxic smokes)
In case of fire


To avoid health damages and device damages
Obligatory in public locations
Source: TopCable
* Based in previous slide considerations
24
Typical elements (used in every electrical
installation):

Earth peg: different sizes depending on the
required depth
(from 1,5 to 2,5 meters)
Cable: copper without cover >35mm2.

Depending on the installation:

Low-power installations: It would be enough
to use several earth pegs connected by a
copper cable (without cover)

High-power installations: a copper cable grid
is usually used (without cover). Depending
on the physical measures, earth pegs can be
also used.
Earthing System
26
Source: Circutor
Metering Device

The meter must be certified

Typical specifications to meet are:

Class 1.0 ( Class B)

Bidirectional

Optical & RS 485 outputs

Depending on the installed power the meter can be directly
Connected or coil inductors are to be used.

The most usual cases are:

The grid connected PV facility exports all the generated electricity towards
the grid, except the consumption of its own devices: Inverters, Monitoring &
communications devices, Auxiliary services, Suntracking devices

The grid connected PV facility uses the network as a battery. This type is
known as Net metering
29
INDEX
Evaluation of the solar resource

Increasing the plant profitability from the design

Choosing the components

Photovoltaic facilities calculations

Single-line diagram
30
Radiation (Wh/m2)
PR = 0,74 - 0.78
System Losses
Considerations:
The values considered in the following slides are estimated values and
should only be used as an approach. They may vary depending on
each location.
A detailed Performance Ratio study is fundamental to evaluate the
profitability of each solar facility
Towards the PR (Performance Ratio)
definition



Electric Energy (Wh)
1. Temperature. (9%) +10C 4% received energy
2. Inverter. We can consider about 6%. New inverters can
reach 4%

3. Cable: AC, DC & other electric devices: < 2%

4. Pollution, dispersion & reflectance.
1. Fixed panel: aprox.3%
2. Suntracking system: 2%.
In urban areas, it should de increased by 2%

5. Shadowing. They should be below 4%. In case of using
sun tracking systems, a shadowing study might be necessary.

6. Other losses (incidences, etc).
1. Fixed panel: 2%
2. Suntracking system: 4%.
31
100%
91%


87,%


85,%


80%



78%






76%
SystemLosses evaluation
Choose cool locations, as elevated areas

Select inverters with high efficiency and Maximum Power Point Tracking
(MPPT)

Consider extra cable sizing avoiding long traces with voltage drops

Choose solar panels with tolerances between +/- 2-3%

Cleaning the modules in long periods without rain

Balance the separation between panel rows (to avoid shadowing) with the
optimization of the surface area

Minimize the impact of breakdowns, with a preventive maintenance.
32
Keys to optimize the PR
33
Shadowing evaluation

Depending on the type of installation, the shadowing study and the surface
optimization, the project profitability may vary.

The main aspect to study are:
Azimuthal deviation from the south (North hemisphere) or north
(South hemisphere)
Tilt of the solar panel
Shadows of extern elements
Shadows of own elements
FIX - GROUND SUNTRACKING-GROUND FIX - ROOF INTEGRATION
34
Fix - Ground

1. Distance between panel rows

A basic rule would be to avoid shadows during the 4 central hours
of the day, in the day of the year with less radiation.

This implies calculating the angle of the sun (height regarding the line
of the horizon) to +/-2 hours regarding the solar midday.
This angle will vary depending on the latitude

The objective is to avoid that the top of the front panel projects a
shadow to the lowest part of the panel that is placed behind.
d= h / k
Latitude
k
29
1,600
37
2,246
39
2,475
41
2,747
43
3,078
45
3,487
The optimum tilt angle of the solar panel can be expressed by the following
simplified formula: Tilt = Latitude 10 for Latitude above 30deg

In India, tilt angles from 15 to 33 are considered as optimum, but tilt angles
between 30 40 dont mean considerable system losses

Tilt angles below 15 in urban areas may cause system losses due to pollution
and dirt accumulation on the panels.

Local land slope will be logically taken into account, which can help reducing
distance between the panel rows to improve the surface profit. (Obviously, the
opposite effect can happen)
35
Fix - Ground




2. Tilt angles
The most favorable orientation is 0 South (North hemisphere).
An orientation deviation below 20 (East or West) cause negligible system losses.
The following graph (which is valid for a 40 latitude) shows how additional
Losses may appear depending on the combination of orientation and tilt angle.
36
Fix - Ground


3. Orientation angle
Environmental conditions

Urban conditions

Topography

External elements shadowing study (trees, electrical posts, etc)

Own elements shadowing study: direct & crossed (in suntracking
cases)

Definition of the distance between suntrackers (or panel rows)
38
Suntracking - ground

Location optimization

Previous tasks:
40
To adapt the solar panels to the roof shape

We should take into account:
Impact of angle orientation.
Impact of tilt angle.
Impact of shadows
Roof geometrical limits

Remarks: be careful with panels from
the same row in different planes
Fix - Roofs

As grid connected solar facilities are considered as an investment, we have
to choose between the following cases:
To place the solar panels at the optimum tilt and orientation angle.
OPTIMUM ANGLE & ORIENTATION















ROOF ADDAPTED
41
Two possibilities:
To avoid visual impact, adapting the solar panels to the roof shape
To integrate the panel as a constructive element with a certain function:







Electricity generation
Sunshade effect: special panels which allow some sunlight to go
through
Innovative design: usually special structures are required, and this
may increase the installation costs
In architectural integration, the solar facility is not considered as just
a profitable investment, but also as an image and design element
Architectural integration
Hmed-day Average solar radiation per day
PR Performance ratio for the solar installation. Dimensionless
Finc Tilt coefficient: a ratio normally obtained from the optimum tilt for a
fixed panel(Which optimizes its performance).In
Hyderabad(Latitude=17.36) it is1.0
Pinst Installed solar power
ISTC Average irradiance in the horizontal plane
(5.6 kW-h/ m2 day x 0.74 x 1.0 x 365 day x 1 kW) / 1 kW/m2
Expected production for this horizontal radiation, with a PR = 0.74,
would be: 1512.56 kW-h
Hmed day PR finc days/ year Pinst

ISTC
Eannual/kWp
43
Annual production



Production by kWp (installed with 5.6kwh/sq.m Irradiance)
44



Maximum input voltage of the inverter
Maximum input current of the inverter
Voltage and current at Maximum Power Point
When designing the solar panel configuration in series and parallels, we
must take into account that the voltage and current of the branch will change
depending on the temperature. Therefore it will be necessary to choose
extreme values of the region for the calculation.
Systemconfiguration




Once the modules and inverters are selected, the configuration of the
system allows to maximize the produced energy

It is possible that in some cases we should consider the use of a different
module or inverter in order to improve the system performance.

The configuration of the systems takes into account:
45
Systemconfiguration
Source: PVsyst
A configuration example of a designing software for Solar Plants
(PVSYS screen shot ) OR SOLAR PATHFINDER
46
Electrical calculation
It is very important to take into account:
Maximum current in the cables
Maximum allowed voltage drop.
If there is a long distance the main factor to determine the cable section
will be the voltage drop.
If there is a very short distance the current that flows along the cable will
determine the section of the cable
TypeofSoil Soilresistivity(Ohm)
Cultivable and fertile soils, compact and wet soils 50
Cultivable non fertile soil,or other soils 500
Naked rock soils, and dried and permeable soils 3.000
Electrode Soilresistivity(Ohm)
Buriedplate R=0,8/P
Verticalpeg R=/L
Buriedconductor R=2/L
47
Electrical design
In order to do a simplified earthing calculation, we can start with the following formulas
depending on the soil resistivity and the electrode characteristics

, soil resistivity (Ohm x m)
P, Plate perimeter (m)
L, Peg or conductor length (m)

The average values of the resistivity, depending on the type of soil are:
Material 20 70 90
Copper 56 48 44
Aluminium 35 30 28
Temperature 20C 70C 90C
48
Electrical calculations
The cable sizing is based on the following formulas:
Three Phases
One Phase

Considering:
P = Power
L = Cable length

= Cable conductivity



E = Allowed voltage drop
U= Line voltage
For example, for LV in Europe:

400V in Three-phase

230V in One-phase

TABLE OF CONDUCTIVITY DEPENDING ON THE TEMPERATURE
DEVICE PROTECTIONLEVEL
INVERTER
METER
CC CABINET
49
High Middle Low
Over Voltage

A lightning may produce a transitory overvoltage of
short duration, with a huge amplitude.

The overvoltage produced due to network unbalances is
a permanent overvoltage, with a longer duration and a
lower amplitude.

In order to protect our installation against overvoltage,
electrical dischargers can be connected at the input and
output of each device to be protected.

There are three different protection levels:
Source: Cirprotect
TRANSITORY OVERVOLTAGE


PERMANENT OVERVOLTAGE
50

Transformers connection topology

In installations where more than one Medium Voltage transformer is required, it is
important to define the correct topology for the connection between all the MV
transformers and the main grid (Power line).



The possible connections options are:

STAR

RING



PRODUCTION
LOSSES



CABLE BREAK DOWN


NO PRODUCTION
LOSSES
51
INDEX


Evaluation of the solar resource


Increasing the plant profitability from the design


Choosing the components


Photovoltaic facilities calculations


Single-Line diagram
52
Single-line diagram
FUSE


DC
MCB






DIFERENTIAL
PROTECTION
AC
MCB


ELECTRICAL COMPANY
DEVICE
Why Rooftop PV?
Reduced reliance on the grid

Offsetting the usage of diesel generators, leading to lower pollution

Max power generation at max load(for commercial segment)

Consumption at the point of generation

Significantly reduced transmission losses.
The Aggregated Technical and Commercial (ATC) losses in India are expected to be about 32%.
1 kWh of power lost for every 3 kWh generated, which means 2 kWh of power from rooftop = 3
kWh of kWh from far-off thermal plant

Operation and Maintenance Easy and inexpensive
Off-grid PV 48
Off-grid or grid-tied PV?
Parameters Off-grid Grid-tied
Grid
connection
Operates independent of the utility
power grid
Connected to the utility power grid
Suitability Suitable when utility power is not
easily accessible or cannot be
installed
Used when selling power to utility or
the system smaller than the minimum
power load.
Storage
required
Yes No
Cost Costlier due to battery bank Less expensive
Installation Easy to commission Complex restricted by the utility grid
Monitoring Important, but not critical Requires grid related monitoring,
feedback and safety features
Off-grid PV 49
Off Grid System
Grid Connected System
GRID INTERACTIVE
POWER MW WITH SUNTRACKER WITHOUT SUNTRACKER
0,10,5 MW
1 PERSON.
INTERMITTENT
INFORMATION FROM THE
INVERTERS
0,51 MW 1 PERSON. HALFTIME
INFORMATION FROM THE
INVERTERS
12 MW
1 PERSON. FULL TIME
WITH MONITORING
SYSTEM
1 PERSON. HALFTIME
25 MW
2 PERSONS. FULL TIME
WITH MONITORING SYST
EM
1 PERSON. FULL TIME
WITH MONITORING
SYSTEM
FOR EACH 5 MW
ADDED
.+ 2 PERSON. FULL TIME .+ 1 PERSON. FULL TIME
8
Operation & Maintenance Options (IV)

Depending on the plant size and technology, we should answer the following
questions:
Who? How? With which tools?
14
Components to be maintained:
The PV module (I)

It is the most massive element within the facility
It has a guarantee for manufacturing defects during its first period of life
Usually, from 3 to 5 years
It has a guarantee for producing with a minimal performance during
25 years

Due to these reasons, this element should never be repaired.
We analyze the panel, if it has any defect, it is
replaced by the manufacturer

Panel Analysis: Manufacturing defects

They should be detected visually
Defective frames
Yellowing (The panel becomes yellow)
Defective connection boxes
Broken glass
15
Components to be maintained:
The PV module(II)

Panel Analysis: Production defects (I)
They are harder to be detected, as other components may be
involved
It is important to isolate the defect, and confirm it has been
produced in the panels

Testing mechanisms

1. To detect which array has the issue
a. Within large facilities: The monitoring
system could control each array separately
b. Within small facilities: we have to do a
manual testing for each array
16
2. To detect the defective panels within the array:
a. Test both the voltage and the current for each panel:
The voltage may be reduced if a cell has any defects
Components to be maintained:
The PV module (III)

Panel Analysis: Production defects (II)
b.
The hot spots may produce a voltage
reduction:
They can be detected visually, but a
thermographic camera can help to find
them out
17
Components to be maintained:
The inverter (I)

Type of inverter
The maintenance strategy may vary depending on the type of inverter
Small inverters: to be placed on the wall
Big inverters: to be placed on the ground

Small inverters maintenance

We should have a number of inverters in stock, ready to replace
any defective one
When a malfunction is detected:
The inverter is replaced by one in stock
And it is sent to the factory for its reparation

NOTE: This operation can be done really fast, so that
we can avoid production losses, as if we have a stock
we do not depend on third parties
Manufacturer maintenance Maintenanceby our own company
No need of qualifiedpersonnel in the plant The reparationmight be done faster
Thirdparty dependence when any incidence happens Need of qualifiedpersonnel in the plant,
It mightbe profitable from a certain installed
power
Try to avoid sending the inverter to be repairedin the
factory
Itmay take more than a week to be repaired
In the contract, it is essentialto add a clause for indemnity
in case of production losses
Ifthe reparation takes more than a certain period, the
indemnity may be executed
This period should be less than48 hours (weekends
included)
In thiscase, the spare parts stock
management is really important
For large inverters, the cost of the spare parts
can be important
P
r
o
s

C
o
n
s

O
b
s
e
r
v
a
c
i
o
n
e
s

18
Components to be maintained:
The inverter (II)

Big inverter maintenance
We can find two options:
NOTE: in any case, if we want to guarantee a fast
reparation we must have spare parts in the plant
19
Components to maintain:
The suntracker

The suntracker has software, mechanical & electrical devices

Mechanical:

Its preventive maintenance is very important:
Motor lubrication
Sensor state supervision
Any corrective measure will be more expensive

Control

The software must be always updated to the last version
The possibility to remotely update the software can reduce the
time to update it locally

NOTE: As in the inverters case, depending on the amount of units, it can be
interesting either to outsource the maintenance of the suntrackers, or to
employ qualified personnel to do it ourselves.
20
Components to maintain:
Control cabinets, protections & cables (I)

Control cabinets

Preventive: Visual inspection is very important to know
their state.

Punctual: if they are in the open air, if it is important to
check their state after bad weather conditions

For example, after a hard storm, water could have
gone inside the cabinet

If the control cabinet has lost its capabilities, it must be
replaced as soon as possible
21
Components to maintain:
Control cabinets, protections & cables (II)

Protections

Preventive:

Periodical tests to the protections that allow them will be
done.

Periodical inspections will be done, specially in the
connections

If any defect is detected, the device will be immediately
replaced. The spare part stock is important

NOTE: A bad connection can produce an electrical arc, that may raise
the temperature and cause the device breakdown
22
Components to maintain:
Control cabinets, protections & cables (III)

Cable

Preventive
To check the connections between the different
equipments
To check those parts where the cable cover can
be damaged

Facilities without suntracker: once the cable installation
has been verified, and its voltage and connection have
been checked, the cable shouldnt have any problems
Facilities with suntracker: it is important to periodically
check the cable route and test if there are any important
mechanical tensions at any point, which may cause a
serious problem in the future
23
Components to maintain:
The meter

The meters are solid devices

They have a critical function

Once they are installed and the plant has been commissioned,
the electric company seals them to avoid being operated

Anyway, a preventive maintenance should be done:

To check if the data being sent by the meter is logical, and is
the same as the one
we can read at the display

When handling any incidence, we must contact the electric
company:

They can send their own personnel

They can allow us to operate the meter
SOLAR SYSTEM AT SYNERGY infra
110 MODULES EACH OF 240W
POLY CRYSTALLINE MODULES
11MODULES IN EACH STRING WITH VOLTAGE OF 330V
MPPT RANGE OF INVERTER : 280-360V
10 STRINGS TOTALLY
ONE ARRAY JUNCTION BOX
25KW INVERTER GRID INTERACTIVE
BATERY OF 150AH CAPACITY


SOLAR SYSTEM AT SYNERGY infra
MAKES OF COMPONENTS
MODULES : PHOTON
INVERTER : NEOWATT
BATTERIES : EXIDE
ARRAY JUNCTION BOX : LOCAL
COST ANALYSIS
INITIAL COST :
MODULES : RS 12LAKHS
INVERTER : RS 7LAKHS
BATTERY : RS 3 LAKHS
STRUCTURE : RS 6 LAKHS
OTHERS : RS 4 LAKHS
TOTAL : RS 32LAKHS




SOLAR SYSTEM AT SYNERGY infra
PHOTOS

208KWp system at Bellary
208KWp system at Bellary
1000KWp system at Hyderabad
1000KWp system at Hyderabad
1000KWp system at Hyderabad
53

Thank you