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Petroleum Development Oman L.L.C.

Document Title: Specification for HSE Cases

Document ID SP-2062
Document Type Specification
Security Unrestricted
Discipline Technical Safety Engineering
Owner MSE/4 Head of Technical Safety Engineering
Issue Date 31 March 2011
Version 1.0

Keywords: This document is the property of Petroleum Development Oman, LLC. Neither the whole nor
any part of this document may be disclosed to others or reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or
transmitted in any form by any means (electronic, mechanical, reprographic recording or otherwise)
without prior written consent of the owner.

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i Document Authorisation


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ii Revision History
The following is a brief summary of the 4 most recent revisions to this document. Details of all
revisions prior to these are held on file by the issuing department.


Version
No.
Date Author Scope / Remarks
Draft 22/02/2011 Karen McConnachie New document











iii Related Business Processes
Code Business Process (EPBM 4.0)

iv Related Corporate Management Frame Work (CMF)
Documents
The related CMF Documents can be retrieved from the Corporate Business Control
Documentation Register CMF.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS
i Document Authorisation ......................................................................................................... 3
ii Revision History ..................................................................................................................... 4
iii Related Business Processes ................................................................................................. 4
iv Related Corporate Management Frame Work (CMF) Documents ........................................ 4
1 Introduction ............................................................................................................................ 8
1.1 Purpose ............................................................................................................................ 8
1.2 General Definitions ........................................................................................................... 8
1.3 Review and Improvement (SP 2062) ............................................................................... 8
1.4 Deviation from Standard .................................................................................................. 8
2 WHEN ARE HSE CASES REQUIRED? ................................................................................ 9
3 WHAT TYPES OF HSE CASES ARE THERE? .................................................................. 11
3.1 Asset/Facility HSE Cases at different ORP phases ....................................................... 11
3.1.1 Identify and Assess ...................................................................................... 12
3.1.2 Select ............................................................................................................ 12
3.1.3 Define ........................................................................................................... 12
3.1.4 Execute ......................................................................................................... 12
3.1.5 Operate ......................................................................................................... 13
3.2 Roles and Responsibilities for the HSE Case ................................................................ 13
3.2.1 Sign Off Dates .............................................................................................. 13
3.3 Roles and Responsibilities within the HSE Case ........................................................... 13
3.4 Workforce Involvement .................................................................................................. 16
3.5 Deliverables .................................................................................................................... 16
3.6 Performance Monitoring ................................................................................................. 16
3.6.1 Review and Improvement (HSE Cases)....................................................... 17
3.6.2 Material Change ........................................................................................... 17
4 ASSET INTEGRITY - PROCESS SAFETY MANAGEMENT .............................................. 18
4.1 Process Safety Manual, HSSE Control Framework, Section ........................................ 18
4.2 Centre for Chemical Process Safety Guidelines for Risk Based Process Safety (CCPS
RBPS) ...................................................................................................................................... 18
4.3 Process Safety in Projects ............................................................................................. 19
4.4 Critical Drawings ............................................................................................................ 19
5 HEMP ................................................................................................................................... 20
5.1 Hazards and Effects Register ........................................................................................ 21
6 BOW-TIES ........................................................................................................................... 22
7 SAFETY CRITICAL ELEMENTS ......................................................................................... 25
7.1 SCE (Hardware) Barriers ............................................................................................... 25
7.2 SCE Selection ................................................................................................................ 27
7.3 Performance Standards ................................................................................................. 28

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7.3.1 Performance Standard Approval .................................................................. 29
8 HSE CRITICAL TASKS ....................................................................................................... 30
9 MATRIX OF PERMITTED OPERATIONS (MOPO) ............................................................ 31
9.1 Using the MOPO ............................................................................................................ 31
9.2 Deviations from the MOPO ............................................................................................ 31
10 ALARP demonstration .................................................................................................... 32
10.1 ALARP Definition .......................................................................................... 32
10.2 How to Undertake an ALARP Assessment .................................................. 33
10.2.1 Principles of Hazard Management ............................................................... 33
10.2.2 Good Engineering Practice .......................................................................... 33
10.2.3 Good Engineering Principles ........................................................................ 34
10.2.4 HEMP Studies .............................................................................................. 34
10.2.5 ALARP Review ............................................................................................. 34
10.3 Assessment of Complex Decisions .............................................................. 35
11 OPERATE PHASE CONTINUOUS IMPROVEMENT .................................................... 36
11.1 Drivers for Improvement ............................................................................... 36
11.2 Remedial Actions .......................................................................................... 36
11.2.1 Qualitative Analysis of RAP Items ................................................................ 37
11.2.2 Interpreting the RAP ..................................................................................... 38
12 STATEMENT OF FITNESS ........................................................................................... 39
13 MANAGEMENT OF CHANGE ....................................................................................... 41
14 CONCEPT SELECTION REPORT ................................................................................ 43
14.1 DCAF Deliverables for Identify, Assess and Select Phases ........................ 44
15 DESIGN HSE CASE REQUIREMENTS ........................................................................ 45
15.1 Basic Requirements ..................................................................................... 45
15.2 Format .......................................................................................................... 45
15.2.1 Contents ....................................................................................................... 45
15.2.2 Part 1 Introduction ........................................................................................ 45
15.2.3 Part 2 CSR ALARP demonstration Summary .............................................. 46
15.2.4 Part 3 Design Basis & Facility Description ................................................... 46
15.2.5 Part 4 Hazards & Effects Management Process .......................................... 46
15.2.6 Part 5 Improvement (Action Plan) ................................................................ 47
15.3 DCAF Deliverables for Define and Execute phases .................................... 47
16 OPERATIONS HSE CASE REQUIREMENTS .............................................................. 49
16.1 Basic Requirements ..................................................................................... 49
16.2 Format .......................................................................................................... 49
16.2.1 Contents ....................................................................................................... 49
16.2.2 Part 1 Introduction ........................................................................................ 50
16.2.3 Part 2 Facility Description ............................................................................. 50

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16.2.4 Part 3 People, HSE Critical Tasks ................................................................ 50
16.2.5 Part 4 Hazard and Effects Management ...................................................... 50
16.2.6 Part 5 Improvement (Action Plan) ................................................................ 51
16.3 DCAF Deliverables for Execute and Operate Phases ................................. 51
Appendix 1 Glossary of Definitions, Terms and Abbreviations ....................................... 53
Appendix 2 Related Business Control Documents and References ............................... 55
Appendix 3 Hazard Inventory Checklist .......................................................................... 56
Appendix 4 Example Hazard and Effects Register ......................................................... 63
Appendix 5 Safety Critical Elements Categories ............................................................. 64
Appendix 6 Example Safety Critical Elements Register .................................................. 65
Appendix 7 Example Design Performance Standard ...................................................... 66
Appendix 8 Example Operations Performance Standard (EP 2009-9009, Ref. 10) ....... 69
Appendix 9 Example of Implementation Table ................................................................ 70
Appendix 10 MOPO ........................................................................................................... 72
Appendix 11 Operations HSE Case Change Approval ..................................................... 78
Appendix 12 CCPS RBPS Process Safety Elements ....................................................... 83



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1 Introduction
An HSE Case provides a documented demonstration that risk reduction philosophies and
measures have been developed and implemented at each phase of the Opportunity
Realisation Process (ORP) to ensure that the risks are tolerable and as low as reasonably
practicable (ALARP) through the systematic application of the Hazards and Effects
Management Process (HEMP) as set out in the PDO HSE Management System (HSE-
MS).
This document should be read in conjunction with the guideline Applying Process Safety in
Projects GU-648 [4].
1.1 Purpose
This purpose of this specification is to establish minimum requirements for the content of
HSE Cases and it shall be used for the development of HSE Input to Concept Select
Reports, Design HSE Cases and Operations HSE Cases.
This specification SHALL [PS] be used for demonstration of the following requirements of
the Process Safety Manual in the Shell HSSE & SP Control Framework [Ref. 7]:
Identify and document Hazards with RAM red and yellow 5A and 5B Process
Safety Risks for existing and new Assets (Requirement 1).
Develop a Statement of Fitness for the Assets (Requirement 7)
Review the Process Safety Risks to the Asset at least annually, in line with 8
Management Review (of the HSSE & SP Management System) (Requirement
20).

This specification contains information on the contents of each type of HSE Case and
gives guidance and examples of information to be contained in specific sections.
1.2 General Definitions
The capitalised term SHALL [PS] indicates a process safety requirement.
The lower case word shall indicates a requirement.
The word should indicates a recommendation.
1.3 Review and Improvement (SP 2062)
Responsibility for the upkeep of this Specification shall be with the CFDH Technical
Safety Engineering (Owner of this Specification). Changes to this document shall only be
authorised and approved by the Owner.
Any user of this document who encounters a mistake or confusing entry is requested to
immediately notify the Document Custodian using the form provided in CP 122 Health,
Safety and Environment Management System [Ref. 1].
This document shall be reviewed as necessary by the Owner, but not less than every two
years.
1.4 Deviation from Standard
Deviation to this Specification shall follow the requirements of PR-1247 Project Change
Control & Standards Variance Procedure, Version 1 31/8/1999.

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2 WHEN ARE HSE CASES REQUIRED?
HSE Cases are mandatory for all PDO operated (owned, leased or contracted)
projects/operations containing hazards rated severity five or high risk on the PDO risk
assessment matrix (RAM) as per Figure 2-1 [Ref. 1]. Hazards to that fall into this category
are referred to as Major Accident Hazards (MAH), and are typically identified during the
HAZID conducted at the start of concept phase of a project.
However, for smaller, less complex projects or modifications to an existing asset where an
Operations HSE Case already exists, it may be suitable to undertake a design review in
place of a Design HSE Case and then update the existing Operations HSE Case.
For projects that fall into Category C as per Figure 2-2 overleaf, both qualitative (bow-tie
analysis) and quantitative analysis (QRA) are required to determine the level of risk and to
demonstrate that risks are reduced to tolerable and ALARP, thus a Design and Operations
HSE Case must be compiled.
Guidance and confirmation shall be sought from MSE/4 on an individual project basis.



Figure 2-1: PDO Risk Assessment Matrix
Figure 2-2 shows the industry guidelines for a framework for risk related decision support by
Oil and Gas UK in 1997 (formerly the UK Offshore Operations Association, UKOOA).
Once a new project has been assessed against the risk assessment matrix in Figure 2-1
and found to contain level 5 or high risk hazards, it shall be categorised as per the chart in
Figure 2-2.
A B C D E
Never
heard of in
the Industry
Heard of in
the Industry
Has
happened
in PDO or
more than
1>yr in the
Industry
Has
happened
at the
Asset or
more than
1>yr in
PDO
Has
happened
more than
1>yr at the
Asset
0
No injury or
health effect
No damage
No
effect
No
impact
1
Slight injury
or health
effect
Slight
damage
Slight
effect
Slight
impact
2
Minor injury
or health
effect
Minor
damage
Minor effect Minor impact
3
Major injury
or health
effect
Moderate
damage
Moderate
effect
Moderate
impact
4
PTD or up to
3 fatalities
Major
damage
Major effect major impact
5
More than 3
fatalities
massive
damage
massive
effect
Massive
impact
Increasing likelihood
R
e
p
u
t
a
t
i
o
n
A
s
s
e
t
E
n
v
i
r
o
n
m
e
n
t
Consequences
S
e
v
e
r
i
t
y
P
e
o
p
l
e


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Figure 2-2: Framework for risk related decision support in PDO

To use the Framework, first relate the decision being considered to the decision context
characteristics on the right hand side of the Framework. Establish a horizontal line across
the Framework at the point that best fits the nature of the decision. The segments of this
horizontal line define the relative weight that should be given to the different decision
making approaches in the ALARP determination. The descriptors on the lefthand side of the
diagram describe the type and extent of consultation that is needed for the selected
decision context and type.
Type B and C decisions shall be taken at higher levels within an organisation than Type A
decisions.
Type A decisions are those involving well-understood hazards and proven solutions. The
lessons learned from past years have been incorporated into authoritative Good Practice.
Reference to the relevant Good Practice, supported by expert judgment, is sufficient to
define the barriers needed to reduce the risks to both tolerable and ALARP.
Type B decisions are those involving less well-understood hazards. Good Practice has to
be supplemented by more detailed analytical methods such as quantified risk assessment
(QRA) particularly to address the uncertainties of novel aspects of design. However, risk-
based analysis cannot be the only approach, as illustrated by the fact that it forms no more
than 40% of a horizontal line through the Type B band.
Type C decisions are those involving hazards that may create societal concerns. The more
technological factors in the ALARP determination need to be conditioned, or viewed in the
context of how the situation will be seen by stakeholders.
The A, B, C groupings are not intended to split the framework into three discrete sections,
but should be used to indicate a continuum of decision context types from a strongly Type A
(technology based) at one extreme to a strongly Type C (judgment based) at the other
extreme. A range of decision-making approaches will contribute, especially to Type B and C
decisions. The background to the Framework is described in [4].

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3 WHAT TYPES OF HSE CASES ARE THERE?
PDO activities and operated facilities fall into different categories and the different types of
HSE Cases used to cover these are listed below:
o Asset/facility: hydrocarbon gathering/production facilities organised into delivery
teams or hydrocarbon transporting infrastructure and storage facilities. The majority of
PDO HSE Cases fall into this category and the content shall meet the requirements of
this HSE Case Specification
o Contractor drilling rigs and hoists; the content shall meet the requirements of
International Association of Drilling Contractors (IADC) [Ref. 4] and this HSE Case
Specification
o Air Operations; the content shall meet the requirements of EP 2005-0263 Air
Transportation Standard and this HSE Case Specification
o Land Transport; the content shall meet the requirements of EP 2005-0261 Road
Transportation Standard and this HSE Case Specification

Air transport operations, road transport operations and marine operations with severity 5 or
high level hazards (as defined by the RAM in Figure 2-1) that are PDO operated (owned,
leased or contracted) shall have an Operations HSE Case.
The nature of Transport and Drilling Rig HSE Cases is that they are developed to describe
the hazards and set out controls associated with the respective operation or activity. These
cases are reviewed and updated as they develop, but rarely is there a requirement to
develop a new HSE Case for these activities.
Asset/Facility HSE Cases differ in that new design projects or production stations may
require that a new HSE Case is developed in accordance with this specification.
Asset/Facility HSE Cases are further separated into the following types of HSE Cases:
o Concept Select Report: This demonstrates that there has been a systematic
application of HEMP during the Identify, Assess and Select phases, that the HSE risks
associated with each development option have been identified and assessed, the
lowest risk option has been chosen or that the cost/effort required to adopt the lowest
risk concept is grossly disproportionate to the benefit.
o Design HSE Case: This demonstrates that there has been a further systematic
application of HEMP during the Define and Execute phases, demonstrates that the
severity 5 or high level hazards identified are both tolerable and ALARP and that all
safety critical elements (with associated performance standards) have been identified
and meet the performance standards.
o Operations HSE Case: This describes management of the severity 5 or high level
hazards to ensure that they are tolerable and ALARP, bow-tie diagrams showing the
hazards and the barriers to the hazards, a list of HSE critical tasks, references to
operational management systems and a statement of fitness. This acts as
confirmation that the HSE Case Owner (Director) is satisfied that the arrangements
are in place for the facility to operate safely.

3.1 Asset/Facility HSE Cases at different ORP phases
The opportunity realisation process (ORP) is split into 5 phases punctuated by Decision
Gates (Dg1-5) and Value Assurance Reviews (VAR1-5). Once the need for an HSE Case
has been identified, the type of HSE Case and when it should be compiled needs to be
identified as per Figure 3-1.
The Identify & Assess; Select; Define; Execute and Operate phases are discussed in the
following sections.

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Figure 3-1: 5 stages and applicable HSE Cases
3.1.1 Identify and Assess
This phase initiates opportunities and demonstrates the feasibility of those
opportunities. Ideas are generated and aligned with business principles and
strategies and potential values established so a decision to fund and staff further
development of these ideas can be made.
This phase also asks the question as to whether the project has looked sufficiently at
the risks, different development options, realisations and all possible outcomes. Is
there at least one solution that would work in most, perhaps all, of the realisations?
The project must understand what it is going to be taking into the Select phase.
HSE input at this stage is at a high level and includes a preliminary HAZID, HSE-SD
Plan and input to the Risk Register.
3.1.2 Select
This stage must select the best concept solution for delivering value from the
opportunity and make it clear why one choice was the preferred option.
HSE input into the select phase has potentially the greatest impact. The option
selected to take forward into the define phase must be ALARP. An ALARP
demonstration must be provided in the CSR (see section 14).
3.1.3 Define
The selected concept must be defined technically (scope, cost, schedule) or
commercially (JVA, JOA, country entry) for final investment decision (FID). Note that
the timing of a technical FID may not coincide with a commercial FID.
HSE activities and deliverable at the define stage include a Design HSE Case and
other HEMP Studies.
3.1.4 Execute
The project is to be delivered as a facility consistent with the forecast scope, cost,
schedule and proven performance and has to be accepted by the Owner of
operations (usually the Relevant Director) for use.

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During the execute phase the Design HSE Case is refined. The Operations HSE
Case is developed prior to handover to operations. Further HEMP studies are
carried out to support the ALARP Demonstration.
3.1.5 Operate
The project is operating as per expected and is maximising returns to Shareholders
and protecting the License to Operate. The Owner of operations (usually the
relevant Director) has accepted responsibility for continued safe operations.
The Operations HSE Case will contain the ALARP demonstrations for the Operate
phase. This is built and maintained throughout the operate phase, (see section 16).

3.2 Roles and Responsibilities for the HSE Case
Delivery Team Leaders (DTL): DTLs are responsible for ensuring that the HSE Cases
are developed and maintained for their assets and meet the requirements of this
specification.
Project Managers: Project Managers are responsible for ensuring that the Concept
Select Report and Design HSE Cases are developed and meet the requirements of this
specification.
Contract Holders: For Air Operations, Road Transport and Drilling & Hoist Rigs, it is the
Contract Holders that are responsible for ensuring that their Contractors develop and
maintain HSE Cases that meet the requirements of this specification.
3.2.1 Sign Off Dates
Sign off dates for the CSR/HSE Cases shall be as follows:
o The Concept Select Report Case shall be signed off prior to VAR3.
o The Design HSE Case shall be signed off prior to VAR4.
o The Design HSE Case during detailed design phase shall be signed off when
completed and prior to the PSUA.
o The Operations HSE Case shall be signed off prior to start up.

3.3 Roles and Responsibilities within the HSE Case
There are three main roles for developing, implementing and maintaining an HSE Case; the
HSE Case Owner, HSE Case Custodian and the HSE Case Administrator. These roles for
each type of HSE Case are shown in Table 3-1 and cover new projects and modifications to
existing facilities.
Table 3-1: Roles and responsibilities within an HSE Case

HSE Input to Concept
Select Report (CSR)
Design HSE Case Operations HSE Case
HSE
Case
Owner
Project Manager

Identifies the
requirement for a HSE
Section in the CSR in
accordance with this
specification
Appoints HSE resource
Project Manager

Identifies the
requirement for an HSE
Case in accordance with
this specification
Appoints HSE Case
Custodian and assigns
responsibilities
Asset Director

Identifies the
requirement for an HSE
Case in accordance with
this specification
Initiates Operations
Case and assigns
responsibilities

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HSE Input to Concept
Select Report (CSR)
Design HSE Case Operations HSE Case
Approves the Concept
Select Report
Approves outcome of
ALARP multi-disciplinary
reviews
Develops a Statement of
Fitness for the Asset
Approves the Design
HSE Case
Develops a Statement of
Fitness for the Asset
Approves outcome of
HEMP studies
Approves the Operations
HSE CaseAssigns HSE
Critical Element
ownership to the
appropriate Technical
Authority/HSE Adviser;
Ensures ongoing
compliance with this
specification
Conducts periodic
Operations HSE Case
reviews
Ensures facility is
operated according to
the Operations HSE
Case
HSE
Case
Custodi
an
Project HSE Lead

Manages HEMP studies,
ensures risk tolerability
and suitable and robust
ALARP demonstrations
are made
Prepares HSE content of
the CSR and checks
DCAF content all signed
off
Coordinates the
development of the HSE
Input to the CSR.
Lead Technical Safety
Engineer

Identifies HEMP studies
to assess the hazards
and risk associated with
the project
Develops risk reduction
strategies, identifies
safety critical elements
(SCE) and associated
Performance Satandards
in conjunction with SCE
Technical Authorities
(TA)
Facilitates that suitable
and robust ALARP
demonstrations are
made.
Reviews and approves
all action items raised for
correct detail, action
party and target date
Compiles/co-ordinates
the HSE Case
Delivery Team Leader

Ensures the HSE Cases
are developed and
maintained for their
assets in accordance
with latest requirements.
Ensures participation in
development and
awareness and proper
use of the HSE Case by
the organisation
Validates HEMP studies
and technical accuracy
of the contents of the
HSE Case
Co-ordinates review of
HSE critical tasks listings
and associated
Performance Standards
Ensures that revisions
and updates are
prepared when
necessary, adequately
controlled and distributed
Reviews facility specific
emergency response
plans
Reviews and approves
all action items raised for
correct detail, action
party and target date

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HSE Input to Concept
Select Report (CSR)
Design HSE Case Operations HSE Case
HSE
Case
Adminis
trator
N/A N/A
Directorate Technical Safety
Engineer
Compiles/co-ordinates
the HSE Case and
subsequent reviews and
updates
Supports the HSE Case
Custodian



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3.4 Workforce Involvement
The HSE Case shall demonstrate that the workforce have been part of the development
and review of the HSE Case. Workforce in this context is the front line operations and
maintenance staff that are directly involved in the day-to-day running of the facilities.
The purpose of this requirement is to ensure that front line operations and maintenance
staff:
have knowledge of the Major Accident Hazards that have been identified for the
facility where they work
are aware of the controls and barriers in place to manage these MAHs (SCEs,
performance Standards, HSE Critical Tasks, MOPOs)
have knowledge of how these controls are managed (MIE, FSR, assurance
reviews)

For Design HSE Cases, workforce involvement can be demonstrated by ensuring that
relevant staff representatives have been involved in the design. This may be done by
ensuring they participate directly in the design activities (HAZIDs, HAZOPs, HEMP
studies) and by participating in project assurance reviews such as Design Reviews, peer
reviews and project Audits.
Operations HSE Cases shall be communicated to the operations and maintenance teams
on site. The focus shall be on what the case means to them and what impact is it likely to
have. In addition, representatives from current operational, engineering, and
maintenance teams and workforce representatives (where applicable) shall be included in
the regular reviews as described in Section 13. This engagement may be demonstrated
by ensuring that the HSE case is reviewed regularly by operations and maintenance staff,
which can be achieved through
job descriptions and staff performance contracts
dedicated communications initiatives
staff onboarding
committees or working groups (e.g. AIPSALT).
For both types of HSE Cases, the details of how workforce involvement has been
achieved shall be described in the HSE Case or in the documentation of the periodic
review of the HSE Case.

3.5 Deliverables
Design and Operations HSE Cases are classified as Essential Records according to CP-
102 Documents & Records Management and shall be maintained on Livelink by the
HSE Case Administrator.
Design and Operations HSE Cases are mandatory deliverables for new projects and
existing assets, as described by the Discipline Control and Assurance Framework
(DCAF) section in SP-2061 Technical Authority System [Ref. 7].

3.6 Performance Monitoring
Routine performance monitoring of HSE Cases shall include:
o Assurance of Design HSE Cases at VARs
o Review of Operations HSE Cases during Pre-Start up Audits

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o AI-PSM Assurance of Operations HSE Cases
o Monitoring of Operations HSE Case KPIs
3.6.1 Review and Improvement (HSE Cases)
Once the Concept Select Report is signed off, it is not anticipated that any revisions
will be required as further project work will be covered in the Design HSE Case.
The Design HSE Case may need to go through several revisions during the Define
and Execute phases depending on the nature of the design of the new project.
The Operations HSE Case shall be reviewed and updated at a maximum interval of
5 years unless any of the following circumstances occur:
o As part of a Material Change to the Facility, operation or surrounding environment
that may have a potential impact on the risk profile
o When it cannot be verified that the performance of safety critical elements (SCEs)
meet the performance standards and/or when mitigation measures have been
employed for extended periods to compensate for this shortfall
o Prior to any material changes to the organisational arrangements or personnel
levels
o Following a major incident involving the Facility or operation, or from lateral
learning from other major incidents applicable to the Facility or operation
o Enhancements in knowledge or technology that change the basic assumptions on
which the risk tolerability and ALARP demonstrations are based
o If there is a change to any of the signatory parties for the HSE Case, i.e. HSE
Case Owner (Director), HSE Case Custodian (Delivery Team Leader) or HSE
Case Administrator (Technical Safety Engineer)

3.6.2 Material Change
A material change is any change that significantly affects the basis for original the
ALARP demonstration in the HSE Case. In practice this usually includes changes
that have the potential to affect the major accident hazards or their controls, either
directly or indirectly.
Examples of direct effects are:
o Significant modifications or repairs to the plant or equipment, either as
single large modifications or multiple smaller modifications.
o an increase in hydrocarbon inventory,
o new technology, processes or operational complexity,
o new types of combined operations, or new activities in connection with an
installation,
o new operational risk controls.
Examples of indirect effects are:
o new ownership or operatorship, introducing a change in the management
system,
o a major change of contractor, and
o extension of the use of the installation or its components beyond the
original design life.

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4 ASSET INTEGRITY - PROCESS SAFETY MANAGEMENT
Assuring the safety of people, assets, the environment and reputation is a core value and
providing assurance that major process safety risks are being managed is a critical aspect
of PDO corporate governance. Asset Integrity Process Safety Management (AI-PSM)
describes the way in which PDO assets are managed so that the process risk is as low as
reasonably practicable (ALARP).
There are two Process Safety implementation mechanisms within PDO:
1. The Process Safety Manual of the Shell Group HSSE Control Framework [Ref. 6]
2. AI-PSM as developed by Centre for Chemical Process Safety Guidelines for Risk
Based Process Safety (CCPS RBPS) [Ref. 9].
4.1 Process Safety Manual, HSSE Control Framework, Section
The HSSE & SP Control Framework replaces the mandatory requirements in EP2005
series, and includes mandatory Standards, Manuals, Specifications and Glossary terms,
and non-mandatory Assurance Protocols and Guides.
The Process Safety Manual of the HSSE & SP CF comprises four elements:
1. Asset Integrity Process Safety Management Application Manual
2. Design and Engineering Manual 1 (DEM1)
3. Design and Engineering Manual 2 (DEM2)
4. Override of Safeguarding Systems.

A full description of each element can be obtained in The HSSE & SP Control Framework
[Ref. 6]
Compliance to the detailed requirements of the Process Safety Manual is demonstrated
by signing a Statement of Fitness (SoF). The Statement of Fitness is shown in section 12
and testifies that the hazards have been appropriately managed in accordance with
HEMP and that a suitable and robust ALARP demonstration has been made.
The Statement of Fitness is a requirement of the AI-PSM Application Manual and a
signed SoF shall be included in Design and in Operations HSE Cases, respectively.
For operational assets the SoF shall be signed by Asset Directors, and for new projects
by the Project Manager before handover to operations.
4.2 Centre for Chemical Process Safety Guidelines for Risk Based
Process Safety (CCPS RBPS)
The CCPS RBPS AI-PSM process is an assurance process containing 20 elements
1
that
describe minimum expected standards and stipulates the requirements for a range of
process related activities ranging from organisational culture, workforce involvement, risk
management, HEMP and audit through to design.
The assurance process includes routine checking, self-assessments and audits, as well
as independent 3rd party verification that the AI-PSM system and practices are consistent
with industry best practice and are controlling process risk to ALARP.
The assurance process also identifies opportunities for improving the management and
control of process risk and therefore, is a key driver for continuous improvement.

1
A description of the 20 AI-PSM elements is provided in Appendix 12.

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HEMP is an integral element of the AI-PSM process and the HSE Case and provides a
clear link between the two processes. Both the AI-PSM and HSE Case processes aim to
identify, control and reduce risk levels to ALARP.
4.3 Process Safety in Projects
AI-PS requirements in projects, from project identification through to execution, is
described in GU-648 Guide for Applying Process Safety in Projects [Ref. 4].
This guideline extracts all the relevant information from the existing ORP documentation
that is necessary to meet the AI-PS requirements at handover. It also provides further
clarity with regards to the assurance processes which underpin the project teams ability
to demonstrate that AI-PS requirements are met at the end of every project phase.
The main objective of this guideline is to explain the key AI-PS objectives and
deliverables throughout the project phases that demonstrate the facility is fit for the safe
introduction of process fluids and that systems, processes and procedures are in place so
that AI-PS can be safeguarded in the subsequent operate phase.
This will allow PDO to make the statement that Our Asset is Safe and we know it after
each project phase.
4.4 Critical Drawings
Critical drawings are those drawings which are required to be maintained in order to
support the implementation of critical tasks. Critical drawings are required to ensure that
the risks from MAHs are ALARP.
A list of critical drawings shall be made for each facility. All critical drawings shall be
stored in an easily accessible database to reflect the current design and status of the
asset (as-built status).
This will ensure that all personnel have access to reliable and up to date information to
allow accurate planning of work operations and activities, management of change and
investigative activities (when an incident has occurred).
Critical drawings include, but are not limited to:
o PFS
o PEFS
o Cause and Effect matrix
o Hazardous area classification
o Area Layout
o Site plan (sub-field layout)
o Key plan and Plot plan
o Escape routes
o Safety equipment layout
o Critical valve list (including locked open and locked closed valves)
o Fire and Gas layouts.

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5 HEMP
The hazards and effects management (HEMP) process identifies and asses HSE hazards,
implements control and recovery measures and maintains a documented demonstration
that major HSE risks have been reduced to a level that is as low as reasonably practicable
(ALARP).
HEMP shall be applied to all activities over which PDO has operational control and shall
cover the entire lifecycle of the asset or operation; from concept through to
decommissioning and disposal. Work undertaken by a Contractor and under the
Contractors own management system shall have a requirement for an equivalent HEMP
approach expressly stated in the contract.
HEMP is fundamental to all analysis and assessment elements of the formal HSE activities,
and is at the heart of the HSE management system used in PDO. The HEMP process
comprises four basic steps:
Systematic identification of hazards, threats, unwanted events and their effects
Assessment of the risks against screening criteria, taking into account the
likelihood of unwanted events and the potential severity of the consequences in
terms of effects to people, assets, the environment and reputation of PDO
Implementation of suitable risk reduction measures to control or mitigate the
hazard and its effects
Planning for recovery in the event of a loss of control leading to an unacceptable
effect.
The main objective of HEMP activities is to demonstrate that hazards (and associated risks)
have been identified and where the hazard cannot be eliminated the risks are controlled to a
level that is tolerable and as low as reasonably practicable (ALARP). The HEMP model is
characterised by Figure 5-1.



Figure 5-1: HEMP Model
HEMP studies shall be performed by staff who are knowledgeable about the facility and
operations and who are competent in the HEMP techniques necessary. The studies shall
be planned and implemented in a timely manner to enable the results to be incorporated
without incurring avoidable rework and costs. The studies should be documented such that
key information and decisions made are transparent and available for future reference.
Recommendations arising from HEMP studies shall be recorded in an appropriate action
tracking system.
Identify Control Assess
RISKS TOLERABILITY & ALARP
Recover
DOCUMENT

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5.1 Hazards and Effects Register
Hazards and their effects on people, the environment, the assets and the reputation of
PDO shall be systematically identified and listed for the full lifecycle of the asset and
operations.
The hazards are identified in a Hazard Identification (HAZID) meeting, and the outcome
of this meeting is used to develop the Hazards and Effects Register.
PDO use a checklist of potential hazards to populate the Hazards and Effects Register. It
is recommended that a multi-disciplinary team facilitated by an experienced person go
through the list of hazards and identify those relevant to the specific facility/asset/
operation under consideration. Ideally the team should be made up of Management,
Operations, HSE, Maintenance and Engineering Disciplines (Concept, Detailed Design
as appropriate) personnel.
The PDO Risk Assessment Matrix in Figure 2-1 shall be used to assess the hazards and
their severity and frequency of occurrence. The experience of the team will be used to
brainstorm hazards known to have been realised from previous experience or thinking
whether it is a credible hazard that could occur within PDO operations. This is a
subjective process and care must be taken not to over-complicate the process by thinking
of multiple events, double jeopardy events or highly unlikely events.
Examples of credible scenarios could include major leak from oil storage tank at MAF,
leak at a Booster station on the main oil line, leak from offtake tanker hose, loss of
containment from on-plot processing facilities, loss of containment of H2S (affecting both
onsite personnel and the general public). Consequences from such incidents usually
cover injury/fatalities, fires/explosions, environmental impact, loss of facility and negative
impacts on reputation.
For low and medium risk hazards, the controls for the hazards, i.e. permit to work, job
safety assessment, operating procedures, competence assessments, tool box talks, etc.,
are discussed and then added to the Hazards and Effects Register.
Hazards that have been assessed as being a severity 5 or high risk on the risk
assessment matrix are then modelled further using bow-tie methodology as described in
next section.
See Appendix 3 for the full checklist of potential hazards, and an example of a Hazard
and Effects Register is provided in Appendix 4.

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6 BOW-TIES
The Hazards and Effects Register documents that all hazards associated with the facility
and that control and mitigation measures have been identified. Hazards that have been
assessed as being a severity 5 or high risk on the risk assessment matrix (Figure 2-1) are
then modelled further using bow-tie methodology.
The Bow-Tie is a model that represents how a Hazard can be released, escalate, and how it
is controlled. It contains the elements required to effectively manage the Hazard such that
the risks are tolerable and ALARP. Bow-Ties can also be used to support risk management
of non-HSE processes.
For each severity 5 or high level hazard, the bow-tie methodology allows for:
1. Identification of the hazard release, escalation and consequence scenarios
2. Identification of controls, e.g. barriers and escalation factor controls required to
manage the hazards
3. Categorisation of controls into Inherent Safety, Safety Critical Element (hardware)
or Critical activity (procedures, processes, operator action)
4. A clear visual representation to enable the ALARP review to be undertaken
5. An aid in the incident review process if occurrence of such a major incident has
occurred.

The bow-tie is a model that represents how a hazard can be released, escalate and how it
is controlled. Bow-Tie XP is the PDO preferred software tool


Figure 6-1: Generic bow-tie model




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Table 6-1: HEMP definitions and Bow-tie terminology
ALARP As Low As Reasonably Practicable (Risk) means that having
reviewed all practical alternatives for Major Accident Hazard
elimination, Threat Controls and Recovery Measures, further
reduction in risk would involve disproportionate cost or resources
for the risk reduction achieved.
Barrier Barriers prevent or reduce the probability of each Threat (left
hand side of the bow-tie), limit the extent of, of provide
immediate recovery from the Consequences (right hand side of
the bow-tie). Barriers may be hardware, such as safety systems
(e.g. F&G ESD, etc) or management systems and procedures.
Consequence Consequences in the bow-tie are a direct result of the Top Event
occurring. Indirect consequences, if applicable shall be modelled
in a separate bow-tie, Can include potential consequences that
have not been heard of in the industry.
Escalation
Factor
Factors that defeat, or reduce the effectiveness of a Barrier
Escalation
Factor Control
Measures put into place to prevent or mitigate the effects of
Escalation Factors.
Hazard Any situation with the potential for harm to people, environment,
asset or reputation e.g. hydrocarbons under pressure, dropped
load.
HSE Critical
Task
An HSE Critical Task develops, implements or maintains the
effectiveness and integrity of a Barrier or Escalation Control
Factor in Bow-Ties for Severity 5 or High Risk Hazards. HSE
Critical Positions are those that execute HSE Critical Tasks
HSE Critical
Position
HSE Critical Positions are those that execute HSE Critical Tasks
Major Accident
Hazards (MAH)
Hazards that are classed as High Risk (Red) or severity 5 on the
PDO Risk Assessment Matrix. This means any situation with the
potential for major consequences (harm) to people, environment,
asset and reputation if released.
Recovery
Measure
Any measure put in place to manage Consequences and assist
recovery from a Top Event.
Risk The likelihood of a Top Event combined with the severity of the
Consequences (The risk is from the Hazard to people,
environment, asset and reputation).
Threat Any action or mechanism that could bring about the unplanned
release of a hazard.
Threat Control Any measure put in place to prevent a Threat being successful.
Tolerable Risk Tolerable Risks are those that have been reduced to a level
where they comply with the applicable laws and regulations,
standards, strategic objectives and other agreed Tolerability
Criteria.
Top Event The first thing that happens when a hazard is released.
Individual bow-ties shall have a single Top Event.

The role of a barrier on the bow-tie diagrams is to prevent (Left hand side of BT) or limit
(Right hand side of BT) the consequence of a major incident. Barriers may be:

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1. Design (inherent) features, e.g. separation distances, reduction of process pressures,
minimisation of leak sources, etc. (depicted blue on the bow-tie).
2. Safety Critical Elements (hardware and logic software), e.g. Process Containment
Systems, Pressure Relief Valves, ESD, Fire and Gas Detection, Escape & Evacuation
Systems, Breathing Protection, etc. (depicted green on the bow-tie)
3. Operational Safety Processes, e.g. valve lock out/tag out, breaking containment
procedures, permit to work, etc. (depicted yellow on the bow-tie)
4. Operational Intervention Tasks, e.g. Plant Monitoring, Alarm Response, Shutdown, etc.
(depicted yellow on the bow-tie)

Barriers shall be:
1. Effective in preventing the Top Event or Consequence
2. Able to prevent a specific Threat from releasing the Hazard
3. Verifiable how shall the effectiveness of the barrier be confirmed?
4. Independent of other barriers in the same Threat line, e.g. no common mode failure.

Hardware Barriers for Severity 5 or High Risk Hazards (HSE) shall be classified as HSE
Critical Elements. Selection of these Barriers shall be in accordance with EP2009-9009
SCE Management Manual [Ref. 10]and is further described in Section 7.
Common barriers or escalation factor controls that appear frequently, e.g. such as those to
do with Operator/Human Error, should be modelled using a separate bow-tie to manage the
single Threat of Operator/Human Error.
See Section 10 ALARP demonstration for further information.

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7 SAFETY CRITICAL ELEMENTS
A Safety Critical Element (SCE) is any item of hardware, system or logic software the failure
of which could cause a major Accident Hazard (MAH) or whose purpose is to prevent or
mitigate the effects of a MAH. SCEs groups are categorised according to Shell EP2009-
9009 Safety Critical Element Management Manual [Ref. 10]. These groups or barriers
(see section 7.1) contain the definitions of those items that may be classed as safety critical
on any given facility.
Safety Critical Elements shall be selected from these groups during the bow-tie
development process. The bow-tie diagrams show the SCEs as barriers to the MAH. A
deliverable of the Bow-Tie development process is a list of SCEs applicable to the facility.
This list shall be further developed as part of a SCE identification process that defines the
safety critical components of each SCE barrier.
The role of a barrier on the bow-tie diagrams is to prevent or limit the consequence of a
major incident. Barriers may be:
1. Design (inherent) features, e.g. separation distances, reduction of process pressures,
minimisation of leak sources, etc.
2. Safety Critical Elements (hardware and logic software), e.g. Process Containment
Systems, Pressure Relief Valves, ESD, Fire and Gas Detection, Escape & Evacuation
Systems, Breathing Protection, etc.
3. Operational Safety Processes, e.g. valve lock out/tag out, breaking containment
procedures, permit to work, etc.
4. Operational Intervention Tasks, e.g. Plant Monitoring, Alarm Response, Shutdown, etc.

The SCE management manual [Ref. 10] describes the activities and processes for
managing the critical hardware barriers (SCEs) that appear in the MAH bow-ties.
7.1 SCE (Hardware) Barriers
Each SCE is grouped under one of 8 hazard management barriers, as depicted in the
Swiss Cheese Model (Figure 7-1). The hazard management barriers are as follows:
Structural Integrity
Process Containment
Ignition Control
Detection Systems
Protection Systems
Shutdown Systems
Emergency Response
Life Saving Equipment
Each SCE belongs to one hazard management barrier. Generally, the Structural Integrity,
Process Containment and Ignition Control SCEs together with some aspects of the
PSD/ESD system, reside on the left hand-side of the bow-tie top event. Failure of any of
these barriers could cause or significantly contribute to a MAH. The remaining SCEs
normally reside on the left hand-side of the bow-tie top event. These SCEs are provided
to control or mitigate the effects of a MAH after it has occurred.

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Figure 7-1: SCE Hardware Barriers and SCE Groups

The hardware barriers in Figure 7-1 are depicted with a number of small holes that
represent an integrity failure either in design or operating performance. On their own,
these failures may not be significant but, if the holes line up, there may be no effective
barriers in place between safe operations and escalating consequences, leading to a
major incident.
For example, a loss of containment in a sweet gas facility would not normally be
expected to cause fatalities unless it is ignited. An integrity failure in the process
containment system combined with a failure in the ignition control system could cause an
ignited event, i.e. a fire or explosion. If there are no personnel in the area then this in
itself would not cause fatalities. However, if there are integrity failures in the fire and gas
detection system then the event may not be detected and the process system not
isolated and the event may have the potential to escalate to adjacent inventories. This
would also be the case if an ESD Valve or Blowdown Valve failed to operate on demand.
Finally, if adequate assembly points and EER systems such as emergency telecoms are
not provided or are not suitable, then personnel may not be evacuated quickly enough
and the process release would have the potential to cause fatalities. The example shows
that a number or what on their own would sometimes be considered as minor failures
have combined to produce a Major Accident causing fatalities.

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Figure 7-1 shows the importance of maintaining and monitoring and ensuring the
integrity status of all hardware barriers, so that what might be considered to be relatively
small faults in individual barriers do not combine together in an unforeseen manner that
compromises the ability if the barriers to prevent or control a major incident.
Note that it is not necessary for all barriers to fail to lead to a major incident. For
example, failure of a single barrier such as process containment on a high sour facility
may lead directly to major incident.
Each SCE is attached to a relevant discipline who are designated as the owner of the
associated Performance Standard.
7.2 SCE Selection
SCEs should be colour coded green on the Bow-tie and the specific SCE category
denoted beneath the barrier that appears in the Bow-tie.
The process for selection of SCEs starts with a review of the generic list of SCEs provided in the
SCE Management Manual [Ref. 10] to identify those SCEs that are applicable to the facilities, for
each of the identified Major Hazards. The list of selected SCEs shall be reviewed and agreed by
the relevant discipline engineers during the define phase.
Figure 7-2 depicts the process for the selection of SCEs.
The HSE Case shall contain a list of the SCEs identified in the bow-tie diagrams as per
the table provided in Appendix 5.
The HSE Case shall contain a table showing each SCE against the MAH bow-ties where
they appear as hardware barriers, and an example is shown for the SCE group Process
Containment in Appendix 6.

Is the purpose
of this element
to prevent a
MAH?
Could failure of
this element
cause a MAH?
Could failure of
this element
contribute
substantially to a
MAH?
Is the purpose
of this element
to limit the
effects a
MAH?
This item is a
Safety Critical
Element.
This item is
not a Safety
Critical
Element.
No
No

No

No

No

No

No

Ye
s

No

Ye
s

No

Ye
s

No
Ye
s

No

Generic List
of SCEs
EP9009-2009

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Figure 7-2: Selection Process for Safety Critical Elements

7.3 Performance Standards
A Performance Standard is a statement, which can be expressed in qualitative or
quantitative terms, of the functional performance required of a SCE, and which is used as
the basis for managing the risk from the Major Hazards. Defining and ensuring
compliance with suitable Performance Standards provides assurance that the SCE is and
will remain a barrier to the identified MAH.
Generally, the SCEs and Performance Standards follow a one-to-one relationship where
each SCE has its own Performance Standard.
Performance Standards are used as the basis for design and technical (operational)
integrity verification and are expressed in terms of functionality, availability, reliability,
survivability and dependencies/interactions with other SCEs.
Functionality
Functionality is an expression used to define what the system or equipment is required to
achieve in order to ensure design integrity.
Reliability and Availability
Reliability is defined as the required probability that the system or equipment will operate
on demand, when required.
Availability is defined as the extent to which the system or equipment is required in order
to retain its functional integrity.
Survivability
Survivability defines the external loading events such as fires, explosions or extreme
weather, associated with the various MAHs against which the system or equipment is
required to retain its functional integrity.
Dependencies and Interactions
This is used to identify other systems or equipment that are critical to the functionality of
the primary system or equipment. By identifying these dependencies and interactions it
is ensured that all interfaces have been covered.

There are two types of Performance standards;
Design Performance Standards. Design Performance Standards must be developed
during the Define phase. They shall provide a list of key functional criteria to which
the SCE must comply with during the design. In practice the content of the
performance standards will be largely taken from the design and engineering
standards that apply to the item or SCE. However, other information may be taken
from the basis for design, the design philosophies, or the results of workshops and
HEMP Studies such as HAZID/HAZOP, Design Review, Layout Reviews, Fire &
Explosion Analysis, QRA, IPF, SAFOP, etc.
The Design Performance Standards will mature further during the execute phase and
will check that the SCEs have been constructed as designed. The existing QA/QC
procedures and practices should be used to support the Design Performance
Standards. The design must take into account operational demands so that
suitability can be ensured into the operate phase.
The Design Performance Standards will evolve into Operate phase Performance
Standards at the end of the execute phase before handover.
Operations Performance Standards. The Operate phase Performance Standards for
SCEs should evolve from the Design Performance Standards. These Performance

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Standards are formatted to comply with the requirements of SAP-PM and SAP-QM in
terms of minimum assurance tasks, assurance measures, assurance value and units
of measure for the correct allocation to the appropriate level in the asset hierarchy.
Examples of the two types of Performance Standard are provided in Appendix 7 and
Appendix 8, respectively.
7.3.1 Performance Standard Approval
Each performance standard is allocated an owner. The owner is responsible for
ensuring that the content of the performance standard is appropriate and achievable. The
performance standard owner is normally the CFDH for the items covered by the SCE.
However, the CFDH may delegate the review and approval of their performance
standards to the relevant TA2.

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8 HSE CRITICAL TASKS
An HSE Critical Tasks is one that is in place to develop, implement or maintain the
effectiveness and integrity of a Barrier, Escalation Factor Control or Recovery Measure
Control in the MAH bow-ties.
An HSE Critical Position are those that execute HSE critical tasks.
The minimum information required for a HSE critical task shall be:
The description and purpose of the HSE critical task required
The person (position and reference indicator) responsible for performing each task
Reference to supporting documentation, e.g. work instructions, SAP, procedure, etc
The method and criteria to verify that the task is performed as required to maintain
barrier effectiveness.
HSE critical tasks should be developed to the level of the party responsible for ensuring that
tasks are completed on time and to the required standard, e.g. Managers, Supervisors and
Specialists the position responsible for ensuring that the task is done and not the person
who is actually undertaking the work.
Bow-tie XP software enables the HSE critical tasks to be linked to the relevant barriers.
Inspections and preventative maintenance activities for hardware SCEs are implemented
via the Maintenance Management System, i.e. SAP. The task information is contained
within the task description in SAP for all SCE barriers and is NOT listed as an HSE critical
task, and is considered part of the hardware barrier itself. This applies to for example
maintenance and calibration of a gas detector.
Implementation tables shall be developed for each HSE Critical Position. The
implementation tables describe each HSE Critical Task, its supporting business controls
and the business records required to verify that the task is being adequately executed. The
implementation tables also provide a link to relevant barriers (HSE Critical Activities) and
hazards on the Bow-Tie diagrams.
See Appendix 9 for an example extract from an Implementation table. Communication of
HSE Critical tasks to affected people in affected position is the responsibility of the HSE
Case Custodian.

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9 MATRIX OF PERMITTED OPERATIONS (MOPO)
A matrix of permitted operations (MOPO) is an information tool to assist Supervisors and
Line Managers during the planning and coordination of operations and activities by
providing useful information on:
The operation or activity operating envelope and safe operating limits.
Actions(s) to take if/when certain situations arise that could compromise safe
operations.
The MOPO is a set of matrices that maps operational activities against foreseeable
situations that if or when they arise could compromise safe operating limits these
situations are identified from:
The Threats and Escalation Factors identified as part of the Bow-tie assessments
for severity 5 and high risk hazards.
An assessment of other operations and activities that could contribute to the
escalation of an incident, e.g. continuing with hot work when fire pumps (a safety
critical element (SCE)) are unavailable.
Circumstances that could compromise safe operations are grouped into three categories:
Simultaneous operations (SIMOPs), where large work parties under different
management structures carry out work which results in hazards that may impact the
other. e.g. removal or overhaul of equipment and/or production and/or construction
and/or drilling in the same area (MOPO entitled SIMOPs MOPO)
External influences, e.g. extreme weather, visibility, security issues (MOPO entitled
Adverse Weather MOPO)
Inactive safeguards; i.e. SCE unavailability or impairment, e.g. ESD systems,
firefighting systems (MOPO entitled SEC Impairment MOPO).
The MOPOs shall identify and differentiate between stop (red) conditions, i.e. operation
NOT permitted and what are proceed with caution (amber) conditions, i.e. continue
following appropriate risk assessment and provide additional controls where necessary. All
other activities in the MOPO that do not require further assessment or controls are denoted
safe to proceed (green).
For developing a new MOPO or reviewing and updating an existing MOPO, refer to
Appendix 10.
9.1 Using the MOPO
Copies of the MOPO shall be readily available in a suitable format (poster size,
laminated, etc) and displayed in the control room and other operational and job planning
/coordination areas.
The MOPO shall be referred to during both routine work planning and coordination and
in responding to unforeseen conditions.
9.2 Deviations from the MOPO
In event of a situation arising where the preferred option is contrary to that given in the
MOPO, this shall be assessed and approved by the Delivery Team Leader and relevant
discipline authority as defined in DCAF. In the event of a SCE being impacted, relevant
discipline authorities shall also be consulted using the FSR process.


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10 ALARP demonstration
10.1 ALARP Definition
ALARP (As Low As Reasonably Practicable) allows a proportional level of effort to be put
into risk reduction once the initial level of risk has been assessed for a particular
operation or process. The ALARP principle is used to determine whether risks are
broadly acceptable, tolerable or intolerable via comparison against company risk criteria.
The use of the ALARP principle requires judgement to determine whether or not risk
levels are as low as reasonably practicable. ALARP can be demonstrated when the
sacrifice (cost, time, effort) required to reduce the risk any further, would be
disproportionate to the risk reduction potentially achieved (the benefit). The term
sacrifice relates to the time, effort and/or cost of the complete implementation and future
maintenance and operation of the particular risk reduction measure in question. Benefit
relates to the level of risk reduction offered by a risk reduction measure. Reasonably
practicable is the balance between the sacrifice and benefit of implementing the risk
reduction measure, or suite of measures.
ALARP justification also requires demonstration that all risk reduction measures
assessed as reasonably practicable have been implemented. The use of reasonably
practicable uses a goal setting approach to risk reduction rather than a prescriptive one.
This is a standard approach for all high risk industries including the oil and gas industry.
ALARP demonstration can be based on a comparison of the suite of barriers and control
measures that are in place, versus those expected to be seen in equivalent assets or
industries. This represents good practice and can be identified as standards for
controlling risk that have been judged and recognised as satisfying a particular set of
laws or regulations. In the absence of a developed regulatory system, company
standards, corporate global standards, best engineering practice and engineering
judgement may be used as a basis for comparison.
For ALARP to be demonstrated, all hazards and risks must have been identified as far as
practicable and assessed against the PDO Risk Assessment Matrix (RAM) (Figure 2-1)
and as described in Section 5. This provides a prioritised listing of hazards. As a
minimum, all Major Accident Hazards (High Risk and Severity 5 hazards) shall be
subjected to Bow-Tie analysis as described in Section 6. This is a qualitative approach to
demonstrating ALARP using the engineering, process, Process Safety and HSE
knowledge and experience of the selected workshop group.
In addition to this approach, ALARP demonstration can employ a combination of
qualitative and quantitative techniques dependent on the novelty, complexity and type of
process or project under assessment. The HSE Cases are assessed in line with the
Framework for risk related decision support in PDO as shown in Figure 2-1 and the level
of risk assessment performed proportional to the level of risk associated with the process
or project.
Refer also to GU-648 Guide for Applying Process Safety in Projects [Ref. 4] and CP-
117 Project Engineering Code of Practice [Ref. 6] for further description of ALARP
requirements.


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10.2 How to Undertake an ALARP Assessment
10.2.1 Principles of Hazard Management
The hazard management hierarchy as shown in Error! Reference source not
ound. is used to manage HSE risks and shall be referenced when demonstrating
ALARP. .
Nevertheless, all hazard management controls should be considered at each stage
of the development.




Figure 10-1: Hazard Management Hierarchy

The strategy selected for managing a hazard will differ depending on the project
phase, and this principle shall form part of the evaluation when making ALARP
demonstrations.
As the opportunity for influencing the facility design is greatest during early design
phases, the focus shall be on elimination or substitution of the hazards. This
typically applies to Identify& Assess and Select phases of the ORP process.
As the project matures into Define and Execute, there is less opportunity to apply
elimination or substitution and hence the predominant hazard management controls
consist of isolation/separation and engineering solutions that can be put in place.
Once a facility becomes operational, the hazard management will largely focus on
the organizational and procedural controls. PPE is generally regarded as the last
principle of hazard management and therefore also the least effective.
10.2.2 Good Engineering Practice
In most situations, deciding whether HSE risks have been reduced to ALARP
involves a comparison between the control measures a project is proposing and the
measures PDO would normally expect to see in such circumstances i.e. the
requirements of relevant good practice captured in Company specifications and
procedures listed in GU-611.
PPE
Isolate
Engineer
Admin
Isolate/Separate
PPE
Engineer
Organisation
Procedures
MOST
EFFECTIVE
LEAST
EFFECTIVE
Eliminate
Substitute
Eliminate
Eli minate sources of f lammable gas release
Substitute
Substitute Compressor Housefor open arrangement
Separation
Separatecompressorsfromeach other
Separatecompressorsfromrest of plant
Separate gas cloudfromi gni tion sources
Engineered Safeguards
PREVENTIONDesi gn f or process containment integri ty
MITIGATION Gas detection, shutdown, blowdown
Isolati on of igni tionsources
Forced ventilation
Organisational Controls
Operator trai ni ng f or Compressor upset condi tions
Communi cati on for emergency response
Procedural Controls -
Operati ng procedures
Emergency response procedures
Personal Protective Equipment
N/ A there is no PPE effective against explosion
Not
assessed in
quantitative
terms
PPE
Isolate
Engineer
Admin
Isolate/Separate
PPE
Engineer
Organisation
Procedures
MOST
EFFECTIVE
LEAST
EFFECTIVE
Eliminate
Substitute
Eliminate
Eli minate sources of f lammable gas release
Substitute
Substitute Compressor Housefor open arrangement
Separation
Separatecompressorsfromeach other
Separatecompressorsfromrest of plant
Separate gas cloudfromi gni tion sources
Engineered Safeguards
PREVENTIONDesi gn f or process containment integri ty
MITIGATION Gas detection, shutdown, blowdown
Isolati on of igni tionsources
Forced ventilation
Organisational Controls
Operator trai ni ng f or Compressor upset condi tions
Communi cati on for emergency response
Procedural Controls -
Operati ng procedures
Emergency response procedures
Personal Protective Equipment
N/ A there is no PPE effective against explosion
Not
assessed in
quantitative
terms

Eliminate
Eliminate the hazard
Substitute -
Use processes or methods with lower risk impact
Isolation / Separation
Segregate hazards and/or targets
Engineered Safeguards
PREVENTION Design to prevent an unwanted event
RECOVERY Design to mitigate harmful consequences
Organisational Controls
Traini ng, Competency, Communication
Procedural Controls -
Operating procedures, Work instructions, Permits
Maintenance regimes
Emergency Response procedures
Personal Protective Equipment
Protect the person

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The scope for eliminating hazards and threats and reducing the scale of
consequences is greatest at the beginning of the project and progressively reduces
as the project develops. In part this is because the cost and difficulty of delivering a
given risk reduction solution increases as the project develops. ALARP
demonstrations must be robust for each of the HSE Cases as per Figure 3-1.
CP-122 Health, Safety and Environment Mgmt System CoP describes application
of the AI-PSM process from CCPS RBPS within PDO to demonstrate compliance to
good engineering practice and to ensure that risk levels are ALARP. This is made
via demonstrating compliance against the 20 Process Elements shown in Appendix
12.
10.2.3 Good Engineering Principles
Company specifications and engineering standards should be followed unless there
is sound justification, and then consideration given to whether there is any more that
can be done to reduce the risk. If there is more that can be done, these further
measures need to be assessed by comparing the risk reduction with the cost and
effort involved in further reducing it.
Simply following standards does not in itself demonstrate ALARP, particularly for
more complex or novel projects, where additional considerations shall be made.
10.2.4 HEMP Studies
HEMP studies undertaken during the select, define, execute and/or operate phases
of the development are used to assess risk levels and identify any further risk
reduction measures.
Applicable HEMP studies for each project phase are defined in DCAF.
10.2.5 ALARP Review
In assessing the risks associated with the Design or Operations HSE Case hazards,
a qualitative review of the Bow-ties shall be undertaken. The review shall be led by
an experienced facilitator and the review team shall be comprised of experienced
staff from the following areas of expertise:
o Engineering
o Process
o HSE
o Maintenance
o Operations
o Management
o Asset stakeholders.

Each of the threat lines in the bow-ties shall be reviewed in turn and the discussion
should cover such questions such as:
o Does industry best practice state what should be done or make any
recommendations?
o Can a benchmark exercise be undertaken against other operators and similar
controls implemented?
o Where are the gaps/shortfalls and what action needs to be taken to address these
gaps/shortfalls? See Section 11.2.
o Is there sufficient quantity and quality of barriers?
o Is there anything else that can be done to further reduce the risk?


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Both barrier effectiveness and the number of barriers contribute to the overall
effectiveness of control, although in general, the effectiveness of individual barriers
is more critical.
The number, independence and reliability of the control and recovery measures shall
be commensurate with the risk.
By approaching the bow-tie review in this systematic fashion, the barriers can be
challenged in terms of completeness and adequacy and gaps identified and
addressed so that the review team is satisfied that the risks arereduced to ALARP.
The HSE Case process enables an ALARP argument to be formulated although in
isolation, a complete ALARP argument cannot be made. The claims made against
the numbers, quality, performance and location of the barriers must also be verified.
This verification of the safeguards (both hardware and procedural controls) is
performed via AI-PSM audit and the TR-MIE and TI-HBV processes. These
processes substantiate the claims made within the Bow-Ties and MOPO in terms of
barrier integrity and performance.
10.3 Assessment of Complex Decisions
Demonstrating ALARP shall involve consideration of fundamentally different options to
provide assurance that the Company gets the best value for money over the lifetime of
the facility. The assessment of fundamentally different options normally takes place in
the identify, assess and select phases.
Assessment of complex decisions requires consideration of all the hard and soft issues
related to a range of options and should reflect a decision taken at the right level in the
organisation with full knowledge of all the options and their associated risks and costs.
The following structure is recommended for documenting ALARP demonstration for
complex project decisions:
1. IDENTIFY
a. Problem Definition
b. HSE Issues and Potential Risk
c. HSE Standard & Tolerability Criteria
2. ASSESS
a. Options Considered
b. Basis for Selection and Uncertainties
c. Justification for Chosen Option
3. CONTROL & EVALUATION
a. Residual HSE Risks
b. Recommendation for Next Project Phase
c. Requirements for the Operations HSE Plan/Case

The ALARP demonstration for such decisions shall be signed by the person developing
the demonstration as well as relevant discipline Technical Authorities.

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11 OPERATE PHASE CONTINUOUS IMPROVEMENT
11.1 Drivers for Improvement
Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) have been established for the AI-PSM programme
within PDO. AI-PSM KPIs consist of:
o A set of KPIs defined by Operational and Functional Leadership, collected on a
uniform basis at all assets (Corporate KPIs).
o Any additional asset-specific KPIs targeted at the key risks of that asset.

Typical AI-PSM KPIs include:
o Number of Process Safety incidents reported YTD.
o Number of Process Safety near misses reported YTD.
o Percentage compliance with Level 2/3 audit schedule.
o Number of deviations/non-compliance with PTW discovered during worksite visits (in
the quarter).
o Number of approved waivers, forces and safeguarding overrides in place.
o Safety Critical Element corrective maintenance compliance.
o Safety Critical Element preventive maintenance compliance.
o Number of overdue actions arising from Process Safety studies (HAZOP, OBRA,
FERM, TI-HBV, PSBR, Incident investigations, LEVEL 1/2/3 AI-PSM audits, PSUA).
o Number of SCEs that failed to meet Performance Standard (per quarter).

11.2 Remedial Actions
Action items can be raised during compilation of a new HSE Case or review and update
of an existing HSE Case. These areas for improvement in the systems or controls in
place to manage Major Accident Hazards need to be addressed to ensure that operations
continue to be maintained at ALARP.
All action items raised shall be reviewed and approved by the action party and the HSE
Case Custodian prior to be entered into the HSE Case and the action tracking system
(FIM) for close out. The HSE Case Administrator is responsible for ensuring that actions
are closed out in a timely manner. The HSE Case Custodian has overall responsibility for
ensuring all technical information within the action close out is correct and complete.
Target dates are dictated by the most reasonably practicable timescale within which the
actions can be completed. Items in the remedial action plan (RAP) must be rectified in
accordance with the timescales set out. Where an action is not to be taken because the
cost and resources required to complete the action are not considered reasonably
practicable in view of the benefits gained in risk reduction (ALARP evaluation), this is
stated in the RAP.


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Sample Score Assignments
Range Proposed Action
1-4 Do
6-9 Study
12 or greater Pass

Solution Matrix
Cost x Effort
H Benefit
1
M Benefit
2
L Benefit
3
1 1 2 3
2 2 4 6
3 3 6 9
4 4 8 12
6 6 12 18
9 9 18 27


11.2.1 Qualitative Analysis of RAP Items
Risk reduction measures, and in particular those warranting the implementation of
additional safeguards, shall be compared against a simplistic cost benefit matrix, as
detailed in the Cost, Benefit, Effort Multiplier in Table 11-1. This results in each of
the potential risk reduction measures being categorised as:
o Do - Implement the option
o Study - Investigate the option further and implement if practicable
o Pass Review category to confirm rating, if still assessed as Pass, record decision
making process and do not invest further effort. Review in future for
practicability.

The decision on whether to take the action shall be dependent on the resulting
score. The multiplication results in a numerical score from 1 (most attractive) to 27
(least attractive).
The result of this iterative process shall be tabulated in the Remedial Action Plan
within the HSE Case.

Table 11-1: Cost * Benefit * Effort Multiplier

Score 1 2 3
Cost (over 3
years)
<$50K $50-$500k >$500k
Benefit High Medium Low
Effort Quick fix Simple Fix Complex






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11.2.2 Interpreting the RAP
The remedial actions shall be included in a table as described below so that actions
and targets appear in a consistent format.

Table 11-2: Example Remedial Action Plan
Item
no.
Bowtie
ref.
Action
Description
Strategy to
Achieve the
Action
Measure /
Indicator
C B E S
Reso
urce
Action
Owner
Target
Date
Comments
/ Status
1 H-01.005b
H-01.003a
H-01.003d
H-01.005d
H-04.002
H-10.016
Ensure
compliance of
speed limits
inside NRPS.
Speed limits
within NRPS are
currently not
complied with.
Conduct drive to
further
communicate
hazards of
speeding within
NRPS.
Develop and
implement
program to
reinforce
awareness of
speed limits
inside NRPS.
Implement PDO
consequence
management
procedures for
speeding.
Install speed
limits signs (if not
present).
Developed
and
implement
program to
reinforce
awareness of
speed limits
inside NRPS.
PDO
consequence
management
procedures for
seeding
implemented.
Speed limits
installed (if
required).
1 2 1 2 OSO OSS Q109 Closed
12/09/2009
PDO
consequen
ce matrix
implemente
d. Drive for
road safety
(within the
4MW).
Various
campaigns
and
posters
displaying
consequen
ces for
breaking
road rules
(includes
speeding).

Table 11-3: Interpreting the RAP
TITLE SCOPE/COMMENTS
Action No Sequential action number or FIM reference
Bow-Tie Ref Reference number of the Bow-Tie diagram where the action was raised
Action Description Description of action
C
A qualitative assessment of the cost of implementation, derived using the Qualitative
ALARP matrix (Section 0)
B
A qualitative assessment of the HSE benefit from implementation, derived using the
Qualitative ALARP matrix (Section 0)
E
A qualitative assessment of the effort of implementation, derived using the
Qualitative ALARP matrix (Section 0)
S A qualitative score derived using the Qualitative ALARP matrix (Section 0)
Action Resource The person responsible for carrying out the action
Action Owner The individual who is accountable for the completion of the action.
Date Action Was
Logged
The date when the action was raised.
Target Date
Date at which the target will be reached and action completed. Timescales can be
revised at the annual review stage of the action plan. If an action is no longer
applicable and/or the target cannot be met, clear reasoning and steps to resolve
must be given.
Comments/Risks Opportunities and risks if action is not undertaken.

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12 STATEMENT OF FITNESS
A Statement of Fitness is required by CP-117 [Ref. 6] and CP-122 HSE Management
Manual and shall be included in the HSE Case.
A Statement of Fitness shall be developed for the Assets prior to teh pre start up audit for a
project, before starting or commissioning a new Asset or a modification to an existing Asset.
Table 12-1 contains each element of the Statement of Fitness together with a guide to
minimum requirements for demonstrate compliance with each element. Further guidance is
provided in GU-648.
Table 12-1: Statement of Fitness
REQUIREMENT DEMONSTRATION
Process Safety Risks have been
identified and documented and are
managed to ALARP
HSE Risk studies including HAZOP, HEMP, FERM
and Bow-Ties have been completed
ALARP demonstration has been made for the asset
ALARP demonstration includes assessment of
SIMOPS and development of a MOPO
Risk register and Risk Management Plan in place
An Emergency Response Plan addressing each of the
identified Major Accident Hazards has been developed
and is routinely tested
Critical PCAP deliverables
No outstanding unapproved variations to DEM1,
DEM2 or actions from ALARP workshops
Employees or Contractors executing
HSE Critical Activities are competent and
fit to work
Operator competence assurance plans with HSE
critical roles indentified in job descriptions
Personnel in HSE Critical roles are fit to work
TA approval framework is in place (DCAF or similar)
Safety Critical Equipment meets its
Technical Integrity Requirements
SCEs have been indentified and documented and
included in the HSE Case
Performance Standards have been developed for all
identified SCEs and approved by TAs
PCAP in place & followed
TIV Report (assurance and verification of the SCEs)
finalized all punch listed items closed out
Design and Construction of new Assets
and modifications to existing Assets meet
design and engineering requirements
All requirements of DEM 1 are met a derogation
register is maintained where DEPs cannot be satisfied
Critical documents and drawings are prepared and
approved.
Well Handover Document completed
Process Safety Basic Requirements are
met
All applicable PSBRs are met (DEM2)
Procedures are in place to operate
Safety Critical Elements within its
Operational Limits.
The Asset Register, Safety Critical
Elements (SCEs), SCE related
Performance Standards (PSs)
acceptance criteria and Maintenance /
Operations procedures are in place
Integrity operating envelopes and Alarm Catalogues
are completed
Protection Device (Trip) settings in place, including
wells
Operations Procedures in place
Performance Standards and maintenance/ inspection
routines are current and uploaded to SAP

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REQUIREMENT DEMONSTRATION
Inspection Routines are identified and
loaded into the maintenance
management system (SAP).
Asset register is current and uploaded to SAP
CMMS and SCE Management system is populated
and available
Corrosion management plans are in place
Well integrity management is in place
FSR is in place
Modifications are complete and have
been managed via the Management of
Change process (PR-1001)
Management of Change (MOC) Process is
documented
Staff in HSE Critical Positions are trained and a log
maintained
MOC procedures are in place and used
A change register is maintained
HSE audit and inspection programmes
test compliance with the AI-PSM and
HSE Case Standards
Level 1, 2 and 3 audits are scheduled and completed
as per the HSE Business Plan
Audit findings are internally communicated to all levels
in the organisation and a RAP developed



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13 MANAGEMENT OF CHANGE
All PDO Operations HSE Cases shall be reviewed on an annual basis (by year end) to
ensure that all the following sections of the HSE Case remain true and valid to operations.
It is the responsibility of the Delivery Team Leader as the HSE Case Custodian to ensure
these updates are completed, with support from the HSE Case administrator.
Bow-tie assessment
o Have any new severity 5 or high level risks been identified?
o Are all barriers still valid?
o Have any new barriers been identified?
o Are all barriers correctly categorised (Inherent Safety, SCE, Critical Activity)?

SCE listing
o Is the hardware barrier correctly identified as an SCE?
o Does the barrier have the correct SCE identifier attached?
o Are all the performance standards complete and up to date?
o Has all SCE been entered into the Asset Register?
o Has the task information embedded within the system been added to the HSE
Critical Task information?

HSE Critical Tasks
o Has there been any Directorate/Departmental re-organisation?
o Are all the reference indicators and positions still current?
o Have all personnel signed off to say they are aware of their tasks (annual
requirement) and that their assigned tasks are correct?

Remedial Actions
o Are any of the remedial actions overdue?
o Do any of these open action items compromise safe operations of the plant as
signed in the Statement of Fitness?

Statement of Fitness
o Annual review of the Statement of Fitness to ensure that it is correct and accurately
reflects the status of operations.
o The Statement of Fitness shall be signed off by the HSE Case Custodian after each
review.

Other changes that may trigger a revision to the Operations HSE Case are listed below:

o As part of a Material Change to the Facility, operation or surrounding environment
that may have a potential impact on the risk profile
o When it cannot be verified that the performance of safety critical elements (SCEs)
meet the performance standards and/or when mitigation measures have been
employed for extended periods to compensate for this shortfall
o Prior to any material changes to the organisational arrangements or personnel levels

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o Following a major incident involving the Facility or operation, or from lateral learning
from other major incidents applicable to the Facility or operation
o Enhancements in knowledge or technology that change the basic assumptions on
which the risk tolerability and ALARP demonstrations are based
o Updated HEMP study findings/results
o If there is a change to any of the signatory parties for the HSE Case, i.e. HSE Case
Owner (Director), HSE Case Custodian (Delivery Team Leader) or HSE Case
Administrator (Technical Safety Engineer)

All identified changes to the HSE Case, whether as a result of a periodic review or any of
the other criteria listed above shall be assessed by the HSE Custodian, the Technical
Safety Engineer and the HSE Case administrator (where this is not the TSE). Where
relevant, the change should also be assessed by a discipline Technical Authority.
The roles and responsibilities for changes to the HSE Case and how these changes shall
be recorded are further described in Appendix 11.


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14 CONCEPT SELECTION REPORT
The Concept Selection report forms the basis for the engineering activities in the Define
phase. It clarifies the context in which the selection decision has been made, the data that
have been used, the alternatives that have been studied, and the values and trade- offs
between alternatives.
The purpose of the HSE content of the Concept Selection report is to:
1. Demonstrate that there has been a systematic application of HEMP during the
Identify & Assess and Select Concept phases of the ORP [18] for each option
being considered;
2. Confirm that the lowest risk option have been actively sought and selected; or
alternatively, demonstrate that the cost/effort required to adopt the lowest risk
concept is grossly disproportionate to the benefit (ALARP).

The HSE content of the Concept Selection report shall include:
o Reference to descriptions of the options being considered;
o A Hazards and Effects Register in accordance with EP Tool Hazards and Effects
Register [14] for each development option considered;
o Summary of the risk profiles associated with each option;
o A summary of the HEMP studies and key assumptions that have been made in the
Hazard identification and risk assessments studies;
o Summaries of the philosophies and measures implemented during this phase to
reduce residual risks to ALARP
o The justification that the selected option shall present the lowest overall risks, or
alternatively, the ALARP demonstration showing that the cost/effort required to adopt
the lowest risk concept is grossly disproportionate to the benefit;
o Any issues that may have an impact on the risk profile and so need to be addressed
during the Define and Execute phases.
o Summary of rejected options with a description of reason for not pursuing the
respective options.
o SIMOPS considerations for Sour projects

Relevant HEMP studies will depend on the nature, size and complexity of the project.
Large and complex projects will typically require a separate ALARP demonstration report to
meet the above requirements.



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14.1 DCAF Deliverables for Identify, Assess and Select Phases
Individual components of the Concept Select Report are required deliverables under the
Discipline Controls and Assurance Framework (DCAF). The Concept Select Report is
itself a required DCAF deliverable.
The full list of HSE DCAF deliverables for the Select phase which should be produced
and signed off individually by the relevant competent person/Technical Authority is given
below. Ensure DCAF is consulted for latest version of specified deliverables and the
Discipline Authority Manual (TAs):

o ALARP Demonstration Report
o HEMP Findings and Close out Report
o HAZID Report
o Concept Risk Assessment Report (i.e. the Qualitative Risk Assessment (QRA))
o Preliminary Hazard and Effects Register
o Greenhouse Gas (GHG) and Energy Efficiency Report
o Fire and Explosion Assessment
o Sustainable Development Strategy
o Regulatory Compliance and Permitting Plan
o HSSE and SP (Social Policy) Plan
o HSSE and SP Philosophy Document

The Concept Select Report shall contain summaries and/or references to all the above
documents.



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15 DESIGN HSE CASE REQUIREMENTS
The Concept Select Report is the starting point for developing the Design HSE Case as it
describes the Identify & Assess and Select phases in detail.
The Design HSE Case focuses on the chosen concept through the Define and Execute
phases and is a DCAF Deliverable. It must be signed off by the project management prior
to VAR4 (for FEED) and prior to the Pre-Start Up Audit for HSE Cases at the end of detailed
design. The final design HSE Case is used as part of the ALARP demonstration in the
Operations HSE Case.
15.1 Basic Requirements
The Design HSE Case:

o Is required to demonstrate that there has been a systematic application of HEMP
during the Define and Execute phases and that the risk has been actively and
systematically reduced to ALARP
o shall incorporate any design changes made during the Define and Execute phases
that impact severity 5 or high level hazards and updating the risk tolerability and
ALARP demonstrations
o shall incorporate a full list of safety critical elements (SCEs) with relevant
performance standards (SCEs shall be identified in accordance with EP2009-9009)
o shall be signed off by the Project Manager
o shall be used to develop the Operations HSE Case prior to the pre-start up audit
(PSUA) and subsequent operate phase
15.2 Format
The Design HSE Case shall be based on the following structure:
o Contents
o Part 1 Introduction
o Part 2 Concept Select Report Summary
o Part 3 Design Basis & Facilities Description
o Part 4 HEMP and major accident hazard (MAH) assessment (including ALARP
Demonstration, safety critical elements (SCE) and Bow-ties)
o Part 5 Improvement (Remedial Action Plan)
15.2.1 Contents
This part shall contain:
o Document authorisation, identification of the HSE Case Owner, HSE Case
Custodian, and HSE Case Administrator and their responsibilities
o Version control, showing the scope of each revision
o Signed off Statement of Fitness for the Design HSE Case by the HSE Case Owner
(usually the Project Manager).

The Statement of Fitness is signed on the understanding that all remedial actions
outlined in Part 5 of the Design HSE Case are, or will be, closed out effectively by
their action target dates.
15.2.2 Part 1 Introduction
Part 1 shall:

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o Describe the scope of the Design HSE Case
o State the relationship with the HSE Management System (HSE-MS) Manual, CP-
122
o Provide a summary of the change control process applied trhough the various
stages of the project.
o Include a project summary
15.2.3 Part 2 CSR ALARP demonstration Summary
Part 2 shall contain a summary of the ALARP demonstration in the Concept Select
Report which describes the process from the Identify & Assess phase to the Select
phase and the selection of the chosen concept. This includes a list of supporting
safety studies undertaken.
15.2.4 Part 3 Design Basis & Facility Description
Part 3 shall contain:
o A detailed description of the chosen concept, including site selection, plant layout,
material selection, etc., including a project overview to show boundaries of the
HSE Case
o A description of all of the safety critical elements and any other safety systems
provided.
o A list of all DEPs, codes, standards and specifications used in the design
o A summary description and reference to, the Operations and HSSE Philosophies,
including manning strategies and philosophies
o A list of identified HSE risks from the Project Risk Register.
o A list of the MAH associated with the facilities
o A Variance Register, or reference to it, providing justification why the engineering
standards or specifications for the project deviate from applicable Design
Engineering practices (DEP)
o A list of all safety critical elements (SCE) - defined as hardware barriers on the
bow-ties (in accordance with EP2009-9009)
15.2.5 Part 4 Hazards & Effects Management Process
Part 4 shall contain:
o A Hazard and Effects Register containing details of all severity 5 and high risk
hazards and an assessment of each hazard including the key assumptions
(assessed using the PDO risk assessment matrix in Figure 2-1)
o Bow-Tie diagrams for severity 5 and high risk hazards, with barriers categorised as
inherent safety, safety critical element (SCE), procedural control and remedial
action/shortfall
o ALARP Demonstration, to state how the qualitative Bow-Tie assessment has been
reviewed to ensure all applicable measures to reduce risk to tolerable and ALARP
have been assessed and implemented
o Details of utilised HSE Risk Tolerability, Acceptance Criteria, and ALARP
Framework
o Summaries of the philosophies and measures implemented during the Design
phase to reduce residual risks to ALARP
o Summary of HEMP studies undertaken since the Concept Select Report, e.g.
Hazard Identification studies (HAZID), Hazard and Operability studies (HAZOP),
Instrumented Protective Function (IPF), plant layout study, Quantified Risk
Assessment (QRA), Health Risk Assessment (HRA) Human Factors Engineering
(HFE), consequence modelling, EER Assessment, etc.

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o A summary of practical risk reduction measures and their implementation unless
demonstrated not reasonably practicable. These may be represented on ALARP
Worksheets.
o Any issues that may have an impact on the risk profile and so need to be
addressed during the Operate phase

See Sections 5, 6 and 10 for more details on undertaking HEMP, Bow- Ties and
ALARP Demonstrations, respectively.
15.2.6 Part 5 Improvement (Action Plan)
Part 5 shall contain an action plan that is SMART (specific, measurable, agreed,
realistic and timely) which lists all the actions to be carried forward to, and dealt with,
in the Operations HSE Case.
All remedial action items arising from review and update of the HSE Case shall be
accepted by the appropriate action parties and approved by the HSE Case
Custodian (Delivery Team Leader).
Following approval, the action items shall then be entered into the PDO action
tracking system to be formally tracked and closed out. At the time of issue of this
Specification, the Fountain Incident Management (FIM) system is used for tracking
actions from HSE Cases.
See Section 11 for more details on continuous improvement.
15.3 DCAF Deliverables for Define and Execute phases
Many of the individual components of the Design HSE Case are required deliverables
under the Discipline Controls and Assurance Framework (DCAF) (note that the Design
HSE Case is a required deliverable in itself).
Some deliverables may simply require an update of the DCAF deliverable from I/A and
Select phase. The Design HSE Case shall contain summaries of, and/or references to,
the following HSE DCAF deliverables for the Define and Execute phases:
o ALARP Demonstration Report (Final)
o HEMP Findings and Close out Report (updated)
o HAZID Report (updated)
o Concept Risk Assessment Report (i.e. the Qualitative Risk Assessment (QRA)
updated)
o Hazard and Effects Register (Updated)
o Greenhouse Gas (GHG) and Energy Efficiency Report
o Facilities Layout Rational
o Living Quarters Specification and temporary refuge where applicable, e.g. Sour
projects.
o Performance Standards for Safety Critical Elements
o Impact Assessment Implementation (including Baseline studies)
o Fire and Explosion Assessment (updated)
o Sustainable Development Plan (Updated)
o HSSE and SP (Social Policy) Plan
o HSSE and SP Philosophies Document (updated)
o Environmental Permit
o Health Hazards Exposure Monitoring
o Medical facilities Assessment
o Matrix of Permitted Operations (MOPO) part of the Design HSE Case.

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Consult DCAF for latest version of specified deliverables and the Discipline Authority
Manual (TAs)

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16 OPERATIONS HSE CASE REQUIREMENTS
The Operations HSE Case focuses on the Operate phase of the project and covers safe
and continuous operation of the facility. It ensures that all procedural (operational,
maintenance and inspection) controls are in place to ensure that the facility remains within
pre-set design limits and specifications (as per the Design HSE Case where relevant).
For new projects, the Design HSE Case will usually be the starting point for developing the
Operations HSE Case.
For brownfield projects, the Design HSE Case serves as the starting point for updating the
existing Operations HSE Case.
The Operations HSE Case shall be signed by HSE Case Owner, Custodian and
Administrator prior to the Start-Up of the facility.
16.1 Basic Requirements
The Operations HSE Case:
o Is required to demonstrate how severity 5 or high level hazards are managed during
operations to ensure that the risk is tolerable and ALARP
o Shall describe how the relevant management systems (asset integrity, Maintenance
Integrity Execution, competence and permit to work, etc.) implement the
requirements of the PDO HSE-MS and the AI-PSM systems, including management
of medium hazards
o Shall be accepted and signed off by the relevant Director (in the Statement of
Fitness)
16.2 Format
The Operations HSE Case shall be based on the following structure:
o Contents (including the Statement of Fitness)
o Part 1 Introduction
o Part 2 Facility Description
o Part 3 People, HSE critical tasks
o Part 4 HEMP and major accident hazard (MAH) assessment (including ALARP
Demonstration, safety critical elements (SCE) and Bow-ties)
o Part 5 Improvement (Action Plan)
16.2.1 Contents
This part shall contain:
o Document authorisation, identification of the HSE Case Owner, HSE Case
Custodian, and HSE Case Administrator and their responsibilities
o Version control, showing the scope of each revision
o Signed off Statement of Fitness of the Operations HSE Case by the HSE Case
Owner (the relevant Director).

The Statement of Fitness is signed on the understanding that all remedial actions
outlined in Part 5 are, or will be, closed out effectively by their action target dates.



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16.2.2 Part 1 Introduction
Part 1 shall:
o Describe the scope of the HSE Case
o State the relationship with the HSE Management System (HSE-MS) Manual, CP-
122
o State the purpose of the Operations HSE Case in relation to different users and
where relevant information can be found within the document
o Summarise the change control process to be applied to the HSE Case and the
mandatory review and update requirements.
16.2.3 Part 2 Facility Description
Part 2 shall contain:
o A detailed description of the facility, including plant layout, material selection,
safety system, process systems, utilities, etc., including a project overview to show
boundaries of the HSE Case
o A description and reference to, the Operations and HSSE Philosophies, including
manning strategies and philosophies
o A list of the MAHs associated with the facilitiesA list of all safety critical elements
(SCE) defined as hardware barriers on the bow-ties (in accordance with EP2009-
9009)
o A list of major changes to the HSE Case since its inception
16.2.4 Part 3 People, HSE Critical Tasks
Part 3 shall contain:
o Normal operation facility manning levels and listing of key positions
o An organogram showing the organisational structure and highlighting all personnel
within the Operations HSE Case who hold an HSE Critical Position, i.e. they have
HSE critical tasks assigned to them
o Tables arranged by HSE Critical Position identifying for each HSE Critical Task:
Where the HSE Critical Task fits into the Bow-ties e.g., Facilities/
Equipment and Hazards/Barriers
A brief description of the HSE Critical Task and link to the specifications
and procedures, documenting how the HSE Critical Task is implemented
The means by which the HSE Critical Task is assured e.g. PTW forms, FAIR
Reports, etc.
o A summary of the HSE Competency assurance system and links for further
information

16.2.5 Part 4 Hazard and Effects Management
Part 4 shall contain:
o A Hazards and Effects Register containing all hazards identified for the
facility/operations are to be listed and assessed using the PDO risk assessment
matrix (Figure 2-1). The severity 5 and high risk hazards contain references to the
relevant Bow-Tie diagrams
o Bow-Tie diagrams for severity 5 and high risk hazards, with barriers categorised as
inherent safety, safety critical element (SCE), procedural control and remedial
action/shortfall

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o ALARP Demonstration, to state how the qualitative Bow-Tie assessment has been
reviewed to ensure all applicable measures to reduce risks to tolerable and ALARP
levels have been assessed and implemented see Section 10.2.5.
o Summary of HEMP studies undertaken since the Design HSE Case, e.g. Hazard
Identification studies (HAZID), Hazard and Operability studies (HAZOP),
Instrumented Protective Function (IPF), plant layout study, Quantified Risk
Assessment (QRA), SIMOPS QRA, Human Factors Engineering (HFE),
consequence modelling, etc.
o A matrix of permitted operations (MOPO) to define the operating envelope and
safe operating limits for the facility and provide guidance on action required in
event of abnormal situations. Situations mapped shall cover:
Adverse weather conditions
Simultaneous operations (SIMOPs)
Safety critical element (SCE) and critical manpower unavailability

See Appendix 10 for details on MOPO requirements.
16.2.6 Part 5 Improvement (Action Plan)
Part 5 shall contain an action plan that is SMART (specific, measurable, agreed,
realistic and timely) which lists all the actions raised during the development of the
Operations HSE Case.
All action items shall be entered into the PDO action tracking system to be formally
tracked and closed out once they have been fully approved by the HSE Case
Custodian. At the time of issue of this Specification, Fountain Incident Management
(FIM) is used for tracking actions from PDO HSE Cases.
Part 5 also contains a brief description of how the Operations HSE Case is
continually improved through the use of annual HSE Plans, HSE Case key
performance indicators (KPIs) and audit and review.
See Section 11 for more details on continuous improvement.
16.3 DCAF Deliverables for Execute and Operate Phases
Many of the individual components of the Operations HSE Case are required deliverables
under the Discipline Controls and Assurance Framework (DCAF) (note that the
Operations HSE Case is a required deliverable in itself).
The full list of HSE DCAF deliverables for the later Execute and Operate phases which
should be produced and signed off individually by the relevant competent
person/Technical Authority are:
o ALARP Demonstration (Bow-ties for qualitative ALARP demonstration)
o HEMP Findings and Close out Report (updated)
o HAZID/HAZOP Reports (updated)
o Concept Risk Assessment Report, i.e. the Qualitative Risk Assessment (QRA)
updated
o Hazard and Effects Register (updated)
o Greenhouse Gas (GHG) and Energy Efficiency Plan
o Performance Standards for Safety Critical Elements
o Impact Assessment
o Fire and Explosion Assessment (updated)
o Sustainable Development Plan (Updated)
o HSSE and SP (Social Policy) Plan (updated)
o HSSE and SP Philosophies Document (updated)

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o Environmental Permit
o Health Hazards Exposure Monitoring Plan
o Health Risk Assessment report
o Medical facilities Assessment
o Job type Health Risk Assessment
o Emergency Response Plan
o Security Management Plan

Consulted DCAF for latest version of specified deliverables and the Discipline Authority
Manual (TAs)The Operations HSE Case shallcontain summaries and/or references to all
the above documents. The following DCAF documents will be incorporated into the
Operations HSE Case, either within the main body or as an appendix.
o Statement of Fitness (within the Operation HSE Case)
o Matrix of Permitted Operations (MOPO) (within the Operations HSE Case)
o Asset Register (updated) (Appendix)
o Safety Critical Element Register (Appendix)



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Appendix 1 Glossary of Definitions, Terms and Abbreviations
Acronym Definition
AI-PSM Asset Integrity - Process Safety Management
ALARP As low as reasonably practicable
CFDH Corporate Functional Discipline Head
CSR Concept Selection Report
DCAF Discipline Controls and Assurance Framework
DEP Design engineering practise
DG Decision Gate
FEED Front End Engineering and Design
FERM Fire and Explosion Risk Management study
FID Final investment decision
GHG Greenhouse gas
HAZID Hazard Identification
HAZOP Hazard and operability study
HBV Hardware Barrier Verification
HEMP Hazards and Effects Management Process
HFE Human Factors Engineering
HSE Health, Safety and Environmental
HSE-MS Health, Safety and Environmental Management System
HSSE Health, Safety, Security and Environmental
IADC International Association of Drilling Contractors
IPF Instrumented protective function
JOA Joint Operating Agreement
JVA Joint Venture Agreement
KPI Key performance indicator
MAH
Major accident hazard - Any situation with the potential for major consequences (harm) to
people, environment, asset and reputation if released (severity 5 or high risk hazard)
MIE Maintenance Integrity Execution
MOPO Matrix of permitted operations
ORP Opportunity Realisation Process
PEFS Process engineering flow schematics
PSBR Process safety basic requirements
PSUA Pre-start up audit
PTW Permit to Work
QRA Quantitative Risk Assessment
RAM Risk assessment matrix
Recovery measure Any measure put in place to manage consequences and assist recovery from a top event
Risk
The likelihood of a Top Event combined with the severity of the Consequences (The risk is
from the Hazard to people, environment, asset and reputation).
SCE Safety Critical Element
SIEP Shell International Exploration and Production
SMART Specific, measurable, agreed, realistic and time-constrained

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Acronym Definition
SP Social policy
TA Technical Authority
Threat Any action or mechanism that could bring about the unplanned release of a hazard
Threat control Any measure put in place to prevent a Threat being successful
Tolerable risk
Tolerable Risks are those that have been reduced to a level where they comply with the
applicable laws and regulations, standards, strategic objectives and other agreed
Tolerability Criteria.
Top event The first thing that happens when a hazard is released (also known as first consequence)
TR-HBV Total Reliability - Hardware Barrier Verification
TR-MIE Total Reliability - Maintenance integrity Execution
UKOOA UK Offshore Operators Association
VAR Value Assurance Review


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Appendix 2 Related Business Control Documents and
References

1. CP-122 - Health, Safety and Environment Management System CoP, Version 4,
22/04/02
2. Shell Yellow Guide, Risk Assessment Matrix, Issue 3.0, March 2006
3. A Framework for Risk-related Decision Support, UKOOA, 1999
http://www.ukooa.co.uk/
4. GU-648 - Guide for Applying Process Safety in Projects, Rev 1.0, 15th December 2010
5. International Association of Drilling Contractors (IADC) Drilling Contractors, Health,
Safety and Environment Case Guidelines for Land Drilling Contractors, Issue 1.0.1, 27
July 2009. Click Here for latest version of this document.
6. CP-117 - Project Engineering Code of Practice, Rev 4.0, 11 January 2011
7. SP-2061 - Functional Technical Directorates, Technical Authority System, Revision 2.0,
Jun-10
8. Shell Group HSSE & SP Control Framework, Section 03, Process Safety Manual.
http://sww.manuals.shell.com/HSSE/
9. Guidelines for Risk Based Process Safety. Center for Chemical Process Safety, 978-
0-470-16569-0, 2007.
http://www.knovel.com/web/portal/browse/display?_EXT_KNOVEL_DISPLAY_bookid=1
794
10. Safety Critical Element Management Manual, Second Edition, EP2009-9009, Feb 2009.
Click Here for all Operational Excellence documentation on Shell Wiki.

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Appendix 3 Hazard Inventory Checklist
Ref. No Hazard Name Possible Source
H-01 Hydrocarbons (Unrefined)
H-01.001 Liquid Natural Gases (LNGs) Cryogenic plants, tankers.
H-01.002 Condensate
Storage tanks, gas wells, gas pipelines, gas separation
vessels.
H-01.003 Hydrocarbon gas
Reservoirs, wells, oil/gas separators, gas processing plants,
compressors, gas pipelines.
H-01.004 Coal Mining activities, boiler fuel source.
H-01.005 Crude (oil) Reservoirs, wells, pipelines, pressure vessels, storage tanks.
H-01.006 Hydrocarbons from Shale Mining activities, extracted oil shale deposits.
H-01.007 Oil Sands Tar sands, bituminous sands (clay, sand, water, bitumen).
H-01.008 Other Hydrocarbon source Sub sea gas hydrates.
H-02 Hydrocarbons (Refined)
H-02.001
Liquefied Petroleum Gases
(e.g. Propane)
Process fractionating equipment, storage tanks, transport
trucks and rail cars.
H-02.002 Gasoline's (Napthas) Vehicle fuelling stations, vehicle maintenance.
H-02.003 Kerosenes / Jet Fuels
Aircraft, portable stoves, portable lanterns, heating
systems, storage tanks.
H-02.004
Gas Oils (Diesel Fuels / Heating
Oils)
Vehicle fuelling stations, vehicle maintenance.
H-02.005 Heavy Fuel Oils Shipping fuel, bunkers, heating systems, storage tanks.
H-02.006 Lubricating Oil Base Stocks
Engines and rotating equipment, hydraulic pistons, hydraulic
reservoirs and pumps.
H-02.007 Aromatic Extracts
Heavy fuels, petroleum pitches and resins, rubber and
plastics, naphtha.
H-02.008 Waxes and Related Products Filter separators, well tubulars, pipelines.
H-02.009
Bitumen's and Bitumen
Derivatives
Road construction.
H-02.010 Petroleum Coke Furnaces, boilers
H-03 Explosives
H-03.001 Detonators Seismic operations, pipeline construction.
H-03.002 Commercial Explosive Material
Seismic operations, blasting, construction, firework
displays.
H-03.003 Shaped Charges Well completion activities, demolition.
H-03.004 Military Ordnance
Spent munitions, UXB, land mines, depleted uranium
rounds, improvised explosive devices.
H-04 Pressure
H-04.001 Gas under Pressure
Welding bottles, laboratory gas, pipe-works, air lines, air
brakes, air guns, diving operations (air tanks).
H-04.002 Liquid under Pressure
Water disposal, water floods and injection operations,
strength testing of pipe works, well fracturing and
treatments.
H-04.003 Vacuum Tanks, accumulators.
H-04.004 Hyperbaric Operations Diving operations.
H-04.005 Hypobaric Operations Working at high altitude (generally >2000m).
H-05 Differences in Height

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Ref. No Hazard Name Possible Source
H-05.001 Personnel at Height >2m
Working on scaffolding, suspended access, ladders,
platforms, excavations, towers, stacks, roofing, working
overboard, working on monkey board.
H-05.002 Personnel at Height 0m<2m
Slippery/uneven surfaces, climbing/descending stairs,
obstructions, loose grating.
H-05.003 Objects Overhead
Objects falling while being lifted/handled or working at a
height over people, equipment or process systems, elevated
work platforms, slung loads, hoists.
H-05.004 Ground / Slope Stability Pipeline trenches, excavations, repairing buried facilities.
H-06 Objects under Induced Stress
H-06.001 Objects under Tension
Guy and support cables, anchor chains, tow & barge tie-off
ropes, slings.
H-06.002 Objects under Compression
Spring-loaded devices such as relief valves and actuators
and hydraulically operated devices.
H-07 Dynamic Situations
H-07.001 Land Transport (Driving)
Driving to and from locations and camps, transporting
materials, supplies and products, seismic field operations,
moving drilling rigs and work over rigs.
H-07.002 Water Transport (Boating)
Boat transport to and from locations and camps,
transporting materials, supplies and products, marine
seismic operations, barges moving drilling rigs and work
over rigs, boat collision.
H-07.003 Air Transport (Flying)
Helicopter and fixed wing travel to and from locations and
camps, transporting materials, supplies and products.
H-07.004
Equipment with Moving or
Rotating Parts
Engines, motors, compressors, drill stems, rotary table,
thrusters on DP ships.
H-07.005 Using Hand Tools Galley, seismic line clearing, grubbing operations.
H-08 Natural Environment
H-08.001 Weather Conditions Winds, temperature extremes, rain, storms.
H-08.002 Marine / Water Conditions
Physical impact of waves, tides or other sea states, river
currents, floods, tsunami.
H-08.003 Tectonic / Land Effects Earthquakes, landslips or other earth movement activity.
H-08.004 Fire Natural wild fire potential, forests, grasslands.
H-08.005 Lightning
Working in open spaces, close to power lines, close to trees,
near seismic spreads.
H-09 Electricity
H-9.001 Voltage > 50v
Power cables, temporary electrical lines, electric motors,
electric switchgear, power generation, welding machines,
transformers, overhead power lines, office equipment, and
domestic equipment. Consider AC, DC, current, single and
three phase.
H-9.002 Electrostatic Energy
Contact between storage vessels and piping, product
transfer hoses, wiping rags, unearthed equipment, high
velocity gas discharges, offimce carpets, door handles.
H-10 Physical
H-10.001 X rays <10nm (ionising) Medical scanners, inspection.

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Ref. No Hazard Name Possible Source
H-10.002
Ultra Violet Light (UV) -
Wavelength 100 - 400 nm (Non
Ionising)
Sunlight, arc welding.
H-10.003
Visible Light - Wavelength 400 -
780 nm (Non Ionising)
Arc welding, sunshine, flood lighting, night lights.
H-10.004
Infra Red (IR) - Wavelength 400
- 1400 nm (Non Ionising)
Flares, laser pointers.
H-10.005 Microwaves (750 - 2500nm) Domestic, industrial catering equipment.
H-10.006
Lasers - Wavelength: 100 - 1000
nm (Non Ionising)
Instrumentation, surveying, metal cutting.
H-10.007
Radio Wave / Microwave
Radiation - Wavelength: 1 mm -
30 km (Non ionising)
Telecoms, mobile phones.
H-10.008
Extremely Low Frequency
Magnetic Radiation (ELF) -
Wavelength: > 30 km
Transformers, power cables.
H-10.009 Alpha, Beta Particles
Well logging, radiography, densitometers, interface
instruments.
H-10.010 Gamma Rays Well logging, radiography.
H-10.011 Neutron Radiation Nuclear reactors, well logging.
H-10.012
Naturally Occurring Ionising
Radiation (NORM)
Scales in tubulars, vessels and process plant fluids
(especially in C3 reflux streams), cosmic radiation
(international air travel), radon gas (granites), mining
activity oil/gas/coal/mineral sands, phosphates, recycled
scrap steel.
H-10.013 Noise
Both impact (acute) and background (chronic), releases
from relief valves, pressure control valves, engine rooms,
compressor rooms, drilling brake, air tools.
H-10.014 Vibration
Hand / whole body vibration, hand power tools,
maintenance and construction worker, boating, motion
sickness.
H-10.015 Cold Temperature Differentials
Process piping, storage vessels, tankers, vapour lines,
crogenic plants, cold stores / walk in refrigerators, arctic
climates, seas < 10oC.
H-10.016 Hot Temperature Differentials
Near flare, on the monkey board, in open exposed areas,
summer heat, process piping, steam outlets, exhausts,
confined closed spaces, glycol regeneration, steam
generators, hot oil heating systems, regeneration gases.
H-10.017 Humidity
Climates where sweat evaporation rates are too low to cool
the human body, personal protective clothing, lack of
moisture (cold dry climates).
H-10.018 Cellulosic Materials Packing materials, wood planks, paper rubbish
H-10.019 Pyrophoric Materials
Metal scale from vessels in sour service, scale on filters in
sour service, iron sponge sweetening units
H-11 Toxic Atmosphere/Medium
H-11.001
Oxygen concentration in air (in
balance)
Breach of oxygen / nitrogen balance. Confined spaces,
tanks, nitrogen deluge systems, Oxygen depleting deluge
systems

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Ref. No Hazard Name Possible Source
H-11.002
Toxics in air (CO, H2S, heavy
metals etc)
Welding/burning operations, blanking systems that are
toxic, exhaust pipes, faulty heating devices, poorly vented
workshops, condensate vapours, sour gas gantries, fuelling
points, aluminium oxides.
H-11.003 Particulates in Air / Dusts
Smoke, soot, diesel fumes, cutting brickwork and concrete,
driving on unpaved roads, carpenter shops, grit blasting,
sand blasting, catalyst (dumping, screening, removal,
drumming), mineral fibres, powdered mud additives,
sulphure recovery plants.
H-11.004 Water Risk of drowning in rivers, creeks, swimming pools.
H-12 Chemical Substances
Note: If required a detailed Level 3 Hazard listing is
provided in EP Guideline Explanatory Text to the Hazard
Inventory [2].
H-12.010 Additives
H-12.011 Asbestos all Forms CAS# 1332-21-4, CAS# 12001-28-4.
H-12.012 Brines Hydrocarbon production, well kill fluid, packer fluids.
H-12.013 Butanes Bottled gases.
H-12.014 Degreasers Maintenance shops (halogenated & non-halogenated).
H-12.015 Glycols
MEG, TEG used for dehydration of natural gases. Used as
antifreeze.
H-12.016 Halons Fire fighting equipment, refrigerants
H-12.017 Nickel Catalysts CAS# 7440-02-0.
H-12.018 Paints & Thinners Two-pack paint systems (isocyanates).
H-12.019
Polychlorinated Biphenyls
(PCBs)
Transformer oils (NB, approx. 50 congeners each with a
separate CAS number.).
H-12.104 Ammonia CAS# 7664-41-7.
H-12.105 Ammonium Bifluoride CAS# 1341-49-7.
H-12.108 Benzene CAS# 71-43-2.
H-12.115 Calcium Bromide CAS# 7789-41-5.
H-12.116 Calcium Chloride CAS# 10043-53-4.
H-12.119 Chlorine CAS# 7782-50-5.
H-12.130 Diisopropanolamine LFG90 Hand cleaning gel. CAS# 110-97-4.
H-12.132 Ethane CAS# 74-84-0.
H-12.133 Ethanol CAS# 64-17-5.
H-12.136 Ethylene CAS# 74-85-1.
H-12.141 Gluteraldehyde Cleaning agent. CAS# 111-30-8
H-12.142 Hexane CAS# 110-54-3 (Chem-SBP containing n-hexane >5%).
H-12.143 Hydrogen CAS# 1333-74-0.
H-12.144
Hydrogen Chloride
(Hydrochloric Acid)
CAS# 7647-01-0.
H-12.145
Hydrogen Fluoride
(Hydroflouric Acid)
CAS# 7664-39-3.
H-12.146 Hydrogen Sulphide CAS# 7783-06-4.
H-12.153 Mercury CAS# 7439-97-6.

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Ref. No Hazard Name Possible Source
H-12.154 Methanol CAS# 67-56-1.
H-12.163 Nitric Acid CAS# 7697-37-2.
H-12.170 Phosphoric Acid CAS# 7664-38-2.
H-12-176 Propane CAS# 74-98-6.
H-12.180 Sodium Hydroxide CAS# 1310-73-2.
H-12.182 Sodium Hypochlorite Disinfecting agent (e.g. bleach), CAS# 7681-52-9.
H-12.183 Sulphur 7704-34-9.
H-12.184 Sulphuric acid CAS# 7664-93-9.
H-13 Biological
Note: If required a detailed Level 3 Hazard listing is
provided in EP Guideline Explanatory Text to the Hazard
Inventory [2].
H-13.001 Plants Ivy, deadly nightshade, fungi.
H-13.002 Animals & Reptiles Dogs, cats, wild animals, snakes, rats.
H-13.003
Insects, Spiders, Scorpions,
Bees
Arthropods insects, spiders, scorpions, stinging bees.
H-13.004 Bacteria
Contaminated food, water. Includes WHO A15-A19; A20-28;
A30-49; A50-A64; A65-69; A70-74.
H-13.005
Protozoa, Mycoses and other
Parasitical Diseases (includes
'other')
Includes WHO Classification A00 to A09; A75-79; B35-49;
B50-64; B65-83; B85-89; B90-94; B99.
H-13.006 Virus Contaminated blood, blood products and other body fluids.
H-13.007 Fungal Growths Metal working fluids containing fungal growth.
H-13.008 Lifestyle Factors
Choices relating to smoking, alcohol / drug use, diet,
physical exercise, sexual behaviours.
H-14 Ergonomic
H-14.001 Workspace
Awkward, difficult or uncomfortable working conditions,
inadequate lighting, noise, etc.
H-14.002 Physically Demanding Task
Lack of knowledge or unrealistic expectations about the
physical abilities of the workforce (e.g. differences between
males and females in reach, strength, endurance), medical
unfitness.
H-14.003 Human Machine Interface
Inability of the workforce to detect and comprehend the
feedback (visual and auditory) provided about
machine/equipment identification and status during normal
and abnormal situations, thus leading to human error.
H-15 Psychological
H-15.001
Organisation, Systems and
Culture
Poor leadership, lack of clarity about organisational
objectives and structure, bureaucratic procedures;
formality of hierarchy, inability to talk openly to manager;
lack of support by colleagues, complex, new or unreliable
systems e.g. IT, inadequate tools to perform job,
information overload or under-communication, career
stagnation and uncertainty, under-promotion / over-
promotion, limited opportunities for learning or
development.

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Ref. No Hazard Name Possible Source
H-15.002 Job Demands
Work overload/under load (boredom); lack of control over
work content or process; frequent deadlines; unclear or
conflicting roles and responsibilities; poor work/life
balance; Lack of training; travel requirements; badly
designed shift patterns and rosters; long or unpredictable
hours.
H-15.003 Experience of Change
Frequent changes to organization and/or job; tele-working,
virtual teams; outsourcing and globalisation; introduction of
new systems; poor management and communication; not
understanding changing priorities; job insecurity;
expatriation and repatriation.
H-15.004 Reward and Recognition
Poorly understood reward policies; perceived inequity;
mismatch of individual expectations; lack of
transparency/communication in assessment and reward
process; poorly managed performance management process;
poor status, pay and conditions.
H-15.005 Diversity & Inclusiveness
Discrimination, bullying and harassment; lack of
inclusiveness and isolation; problems working with people
from different cultures and backgrounds; interpersonal
issues with manager and/or colleagues.
H-15.006 Litigation & Liability
Concern about personal liability resulting from actions;
difficulties in delivering due to legal constraints; fear of
prosecution; unpredictability of legal process; length of
legal processes involving the individual e.g. as witness in a
tribunal or court case.
H-15.007 Critical Incidents at Work
Witnessing or being involved in a serious incident; natural
disasters and terrorist attacks; travel fears and incidents.
H-15.008
Personal Issues External to
Work
Physical and mental health issues; substance abuse and
recovery; conflicting demands of work and home; domestic
issues involving family; lack of social support; care of
dependants; financial issues; housing and travel.
H-16 Security
H-16.001 Armed Conflict
War, Armed Insurrection, Insurgent Groups against legal
governments.
H-16.002 Terrorism
Unprovoked violent attacks against general public,
authorities.
H-16.003 Violent Crime Assault, violence against an individual.
H-16.004 Organised Crime
Large scale criminal manipulation of Company operations,
extortion, kidnap, piracy, Mafia, white collar, cyber hacker.
H-16.005 Militant Activism
Pressure Groups, Single Issue Zealots, violet or threatening
protests against Company, people, assets.
H-16.006 Civil Unrest
Breakdown of social order, riots, lawlessness, absence of
government authority.
H-16.007 Theft of Sensitive Information
Deliberate, targeted espionage and loss of commercially
sensitive information, documents, plans, financials,
telephone conversations, email loss, senior management
itineries.
H-17 Environmental Aspects1
Note: If required an example of a more detailed Level 3
Hazard listing is provided in EP Guideline Explanatory Text
to the Hazard Inventory [2].

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Ref. No Hazard Name Possible Source
H-17.001 Resource Use
Consumption of materials, water, land, raw materials, air,
energy, steam, process chemicals, Habitat removal,
ecological degradation.
H-17.002 Discharge to Water
Produced Water. Regular drainage of liquids including
sewage systems (grey/black water), water outfalls, &
overflows to surface waters; seepage of liquids to
groundwater.
H-17.003 Discharge to Land
Waste disposal including domestic, industrial (inc. Pig trash,
oil based tank sludges, medical & hazardous chemicals, used
engine oils etc).
H-17.004 Emissions to Air
Discharge of chemicals to air (deluge systems), venting,
fugitive emissions, flare stacks, exhaust, dusts, particulates,
smoke (normal and abnormal operations).
H-18 Social Performance
H-18.001 Procurement Philosophy
Supply chain management, local purchasing, employment
and labour.
H-18.002 Revenue Streams
Revenue transparency and revenue streams, equity, socio-
economic changes, corruption.
H-18.003 Land Take
Land right entitlement, resettlement, loss/change of
livelihood.
H-18.004
Temporary Project (e.g.
construction)
Change in make up of population, boom-bust, social
services, large workforces, disturbance impacts,
archaeological sites or artefacts, cultural and sacred sites.
H-18.005 (Lack of) Engagement
Changes in power relations, community decision-making
structures and skills, high expectations, vulnerable groups,
conflict, human rights, perceived health and environmental
impacts.
H-18.006 Conflicting Use for Resources
High prices paid for local commodities, use of local labour
and talent, use of local accommodation, transportation, and
infrastructure.
H-99 Emergency response
H-99.000 Emergency Response Response to any emergency


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Appendix 4 Example Hazard and Effects Register
Hazard
ID
Hazard Activity Threats Controls
Top
Event
Consequence
Risk Ranking
Recovery Measures
P E A R
H-01.01 Crude oil
under
pressure
Loading
Crude at
the SBM
Integrity
Failure: hose,
flange, piping.
Programme of equipment inspections:
Floating Hose daily
Underwater hose- 6 mths
SBM topsides- daily
Submarine pipeline- 5 yearly
Pipeline pigging -5 yearly
Corrosion protection:
Impressed current Anodes
Replacement:
Change-out equipment on a time &
condition basis
Oil Spill Localised
environmental
impact
- C3 C2 C2 1. Oil spill
contingency
2. Pollution control
capability
3. Radio controlled
ESD from vessel
4. 3 yearly MOSAG oil
spill audit
Anchor
Handling
Ships Anchors lashed & checked
Restricted area defined
Pipeline route area under
observation
Damaged
Pipeline
Localised
environmental
impact
- C3 B3 C2 1. SBM/ PL
redundancy
2. OSR capability
3. Continuous diving
capability
Vessel
collision with
SBM
1. Engine use procedure
2. Focsle watchkeeper
3. Tug assistance available
Damaged
SBM
Localised
environmental
impact
- C3 B3 C2 1. Spare SBM
2. SBM Redundancy
3. Critical SBM spares
available

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Appendix 5 Safety Critical Elements Categories
Those SCEs in the SCE Management Manual relevant only to offshore facilities have been
omitted.
SCE
CODE
SCE DESCRIPTION
SCE
CODE
SCE DESCRIPTION
SI001 Foundation Structures PS004 Firewater Pumps
SI002 Topsides & Surface Structures PS005 Firewater Ringmain
SI003 Mechanical Handling
Equipment
PS006 Passive Fire Protection
SI005 Road Vehicles PS007 Gaseous Fire Protection Systems
SI008 Drilling Systems PS008 Fine Water Spray Systems
PC001 Pressure Vessels PS009 Sprinkler Systems
PC002 Heat Exchangers PS010 Power Management Systems
PC003 Rotating Equipment PS011 Fixed Foam Systems
PC004 Onshore Tanks PS012 Sand Filters
PC005 Piping Systems PS013 Chemical Injection Systems
PC006 Pipelines SD001 ESD Systems
PC007 Relief Systems SD002 Depressurisation Systems
PC008 Well Containment SD003 HIPPS Systems
PC009 Fired Heaters SD004 Operational Well Isolation
IC001 Hazardous Area Ventilation SD005 Pipeline Isolation Valves
IC002 Non-Hazardous Area
Ventilation
SD006 Process ESDVs
IC003 Certified Electrical Equipment SD008 Drilling Well Control
IC005 Earth Bonding SD009 Utility Air
IC006 Fuel Gas Purge Systems ER001 Temporary Refuge/Muster Areas
IC007 Inert Gas Blanket Systems ER002 Escape & Evacuation Routes
IC008 Miscellaneous Ignition Control
Components
ER003 Emergency/ Escape Lighting
IC009 Flare Tip Ignition Systems ER004 Communications Systems
DS001 Fire & Gas Detection Systems ER005 Uninterruptible Power Supply
DS002 Security Systems ER007 Emergency Power
DS003 Water in Condensate (gas
dew point) Measurement
ER010 Drain Systems
PS001 Deluge Systems LS001 Personal Survival Equipment
(PSE) Drain Systems
PS002 Fire and Explosion Protection -

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Appendix 6 Example Safety Critical Elements Register
SCE GROUP
SAFETY CRITICAL
ELEMENT
H
-
0
1
.
0
0
3
a


H
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0
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-
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3
d


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s
s

M
e
a
s
u
r
e
s

Process
Containment
PC001 Pressure Vessels - - - - - -
PC002 Heat Exchangers - - - - - - - -
PC003 Rotating
Equipment
- - - - - - -
PC004 Tanks - - - - - - - - - -
PC005 Piping Systems - - - - - - -
PC006 Pipelines - - - - - - - -
PC007 Relief System - - - - -
PC008 Well Containment - - - - - - - - - -


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Appendix 7 Example Design Performance Standard
BARRIER REFERENCE PROCESS CONTAINMENT Assigned TA Mechanical Static
SCE GROUP PC001 Pressure Vessels Review #
SCE GOAL To maintain integrity of the pressure envelope Date
Function
No.
Functional
Criteria
Performance criteria Assurance Verification
1
To maintain the
pressure
envelope for
conditions within
design basis
1.1 Pressure Vessel External Inspection
There shall be no unacceptable flaws in the Pressure Vessel as defined within the Inspection
Management Process.
* There shall be no unacceptable cracks in the vessel or supports.
* There shall be no unacceptable corrosion in the vessel, flanges, bolting and supports
* There shall be no unacceptable visible damage (gouges, dents, deformations, arc strikes) to vessel
or supports.
These should be tasks/activities in a
scheduled assurance event specified in a
Company process/procedure.**
Approved Flare Relief and blowdown Study.
Approved/checked calculations for relief
devices.
Approved specification and data sheets.
HAZOP review.
PCAP/DCAF Driven
TIVP/AIPSM Driven
OE/Flawless Driven
Review flare relief and
blowdown study and
10% sample review of
relief device
calculations,
specifications, vendor
data sheets and
supplier quality field
inspection reports to
check that performance
criteria has been
achieved.
1.2 Pressure Vessel Internal Inspection
There shall be no unacceptable internal flaws in the Pressure Vessel as defined within the Inspection
Management Process.
* There shall be no unacceptable cracks in the vessel.
* There shall be no unacceptable corrosion inside the vessel.
* There shall be no unacceptable visible damage (gouges, dents, deformations, arc strikes) to vessel.

These should be tasks/activities in a
scheduled assurance event specified in a
Company process/procedure.**
PCAP/DCAF Driven
TIVP/AIPSM Driven
OE/Flawless Driven


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1.3 Key Documents
The latest piping and instrument drawing(s) on which the pressure vessel appears shall accurately
represent the vessel configuration and design conditions.
These should be tasks/activities in a
scheduled assurance event specified in a
Company process/procedure.**
PCAP/DCAF Driven
TIVP/AIPSM Driven
OE/Flawless Driven

1.4 Wall Thickness
There shall be no Pressure Vessel with a wall thickness less than its design.
These should be tasks/activities in a
scheduled assurance event specified in a
Company process/procedure.**
PCAP/DCAF Driven
TIVP/AIPSM Driven
OE/Flawless Driven

1.5 Attachments
No bolting is missing or loose.
No valves or instruments are loose or damaged.
These should be tasks/activities in a
scheduled assurance event specified in a
Company process/procedure.**
PCAP/DCAF Driven
TIVP/AIPSM Driven
OE/Flawless Driven

2
To prevent a
release of
hazardous
materials
2.1 Loss of containment
There shall be no unacceptable leaks, weeps or seeps from the main body of the vessel nozzles, or
mechanical connectors onto the vessel.

These should be tasks/activities in a
scheduled assurance event specified in a
Company process/procedure.**
PCAP/DCAF Driven
TIVP/AIPSM Driven
OE/Flawless Driven

RELIABILITY / AVAILABILITY
Function
No.
System /Sub System Performance criteria Basis and Assurance Verification

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These should be tasks/activities in a
scheduled assurance event specified in a
Company process/procedure.**
PCAP/DCAF Driven
TIVP/AIPSM Driven
OE/Flawless Driven

SURVIVABILITY
Function
No.
Hazardous Event Performance criteria Basis and Assurance Verification

These should be tasks/activities in a
scheduled assurance event specified in a
Company process/procedure.**
PCAP/DCAF Driven
TIVP/AIPSM Driven
OE/Flawless Driven




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Appendix 8 Example Operations Performance Standard (EP 2009-9009, Ref. 10)



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Appendix 9 Example of Implementation Table
The table below provides guidance on interpreting the HSE Critical Task implementation tables.
This framework has been developed to set out the HSE Critical Task implementation tables in a
consistent and user-friendly format.
Table 16-1: Implementation Table Guidance
TITLE DESCRIPTION
Task ref. HSE Critical Task reference number as developed in BowTieXP
software in accordance with PDO activity model:
Project Engineering (e.g. 1.01)
Technical Integrity Management (e.g. 2.01)
Occupational Health (e.g. 3.01)
Operate Surface Assets (e.g. 4.01)
Communication (e.g. 5.01)
Organisation (e.g. 6.01)
Competence Assurance (e.g. 7.01)
Bow-Ties Bow-Tie diagram/s on which activity appears e.g. H-01.001.
Threats/Consequences Threat or consequence line/s on which HSE Critical Task appears
e.g. internal corrosion, ignited release
HSE Critical Activities HSE Critical Activity (yellow barriers) for which HSE Critical Task is
carried out to ensure barrier is in place and functional.
Task Description Brief description of HSE Critical Task
Documentation Supporting documentation for HSE Critical Task
Verification Document/audit control to provide assurance HSE Critical Task has
been carried out.

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Table 16-2: Example Implementation Table
3.1.1. South Operations Manager (OSO)
Task
Ref.
Bow-Ties
Threats/
Consequences
HSE Critical Activities (Bow-
Tie Barriers)
Task Description Documentation Verification
4.29 H-01.003a
H-01.003b
H-01.003c
H-01.003d
H-01.005a
H-01.005b
H-01.005c
H-01.005d
H-04.002
H-10.016
Human error Consequence management
(disciplinary procedures) for
non-compliance
Implement company consequence management
procedure for non compliance
Plant Operations Manual
PR-1029 Competence
Assurance and
Assessment
Disciplinary reports
4.49 H-01.003a
H-01.003b
H-01.003c
H-01.005a
H-01.005b
H-01.005c
H-01.005d
H-10.016
Sabotage/ 3rd party
interference

Asset Security Plan
ROP presence
Ensure asset security plan appropriate for
location risks is established and implemented.
This should include dialogue and interface with
the ROP.
CP-126 Personnel and
Asset Security
PL-10 Security &
Emergency Response
Policy

Asset Security Plan
6.03 H-01.003a
H-01.003b
H-01.003c
H-01.003d
H-01.005b
H-01.005c
H-01.005d
H-10.016
Lack of manpower/
resources
Man Power Model/ERROS -
Estimated Resources
Required on Site
Ensure the Manpower model is implemented for
Nimr operations
GU-4884 Planning and
Scheduling Guidelines

Manpower report


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Appendix 10 MOPO
The team to develop or review the MOPO shall consist of operations, maintenance, HSE and
management personnel who are familiar with the operation of, and the activities required, at the
facility/asset.
The team shall be lead by an experienced facilitator and shall:
Identify Threats and Escalation Factors in the Bow-ties that could compromise safe operating
limits.
Identify other operations and activities that could compromise safe operating limits.
Develop the MOPO under the appropriate headings of SIMOPs, External Influences and
Inactive SCE
Identify the stops and proceed with cautions using the red/amber traffic light system.
Provide supporting guidance notes for the proceed with cautions that will assist Supervisors
etc if/when the situation arises.
Collectively review the matrices and ensure they reflect current practise and give clear
guidance for action to be taken under the specific circumstances.

A number of assumptions are used in the template MOPO:
The SIMOPs MOPO shall assume that two or more major activities, e.g. production, drilling,
are simultaneously being performed in the same location/area.
The Impaired SCE MOPO shall assume that the operation is in the vicinity of, or within the
area affected by, the impaired SCE.
The Impaired SCE MOPO shall define the minimum level failure mode assessed as having an
impact on one or more of the high level activities/operations. Failure modes below this level
shall be subject to risk assessment and remedial action in accordance with EP2009-9009.
When SCEs are in test mode, alternative controls shall be put in place to ensure that their
functionality is provided. Testing of these systems is not generally considered impairment for
purposes of this MOPO.
In case multiple barriers are unavailable/impaired, the combined effect of the simultaneous
failure on the activities shall be subject to risk assessment.

Additional controls required as indicated in the MOPOs (coloured amber) shall be listed. Wok shall
only be carried out under the formal control of the Permit to Work (PTW) system, including component
elements such as plant isolation certificates, vessel entry certificates, hot work permits, etc. All
applicable procedures and work instructions relating to the work to be undertaken shall be complied
with.
In certain cases, the specific operation is not directly impacted by the barrier that is impaired, but
consideration shall be given to proceeding with non-essential work that could increase the risk.
Where necessary, the requirement for undertaking risk assessment shall be noted. Measures shall
be taken to maintains risks at ALARP and the effectiveness of the measures shall be verified. All
actions involving bypassing the safeguarding systems shall be authorised by the Production Delivery
Team Leader who shallprepare individual procedures for all tasks not covered by existing procedures
and consult relevant discipline technical authority.
Examples of the three MOPOs (Adverse Weather, SIMOPs, and SCE Impairment) follow. These shall
be used as guidance for construction of a new MOPO or for review of an existing MOPO. The notes
within the MOPO are intended to support rather than supersede the specific risk assessments
required, particularly for SCE Impairment where FSR and CMPT processes shall be applied. For a
MOPO to be effective it must provide clear concise information to the Operator of immediate action to
be taken under the specified conditions, e.g. if working at height is ongoing and wind speed increases,
he needs to be able to quickly see when to stop the activity in question.

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MOPO NOTES TO ACCOMPANY THE EXAMPLE MOPOs
NO. REQUIREMENT
1 Operation specific. Subject to well engineering procedures; refer to WECO HSE case.
2 Loading and unloading pigs not permitted in adverse weather conditions.
3 Subject to task-based risk assessment.
4 Subject to appropriate risk assessment and PDO Journey Management Procedures.
5 Continued work subject to heat stress evaluation. Schedule work during cooler part of day. Provide forced
ventilation, shaded areas and cold water (not iced). Summer working hours and extended lunch breaks apply.
6 Simultaneous drilling and production operations permitted subject to compliance with minimum separation
distances between live wells and flowlines and drilling operations in accordance with WECO HSE Case.
Simultaneous drilling and production operations not permitted inside separation distances.
7 Permitted subject to pigging procedures (maximum flow rate for pigging operations).
8 Grit blasting/jet washing not permitted on live systems.
9 Venting permitted outside the sterile area only.
10 Permitted subject to risk assessment with specified controls or mitigation in place.

MOPO ADVERSE WEATHER CONDITIONS
ACTIVITY/OPERATION
ADVERSE WEATHER CONDITION
W
I
N
D

>
2
0

K
T
S

H
E
A
V
Y

S
H
A
M
A
L

N
I
G
H
T

T
I
M
E

W
O
R
K
I
N
G

H
E
A
V
Y

M
I
S
T

-

S
E
V
E
R
E
L
Y

R
E
D
U
C
E
D

V
I
S
I
B
I
L
I
T
Y

H
E
A
V
Y

R
A
I
N

-

S
E
V
E
R
E
L
Y

R
E
D
U
C
E
D

V
I
S
I
B
I
L
I
T
Y


&

W
A
D
I

F
L
O
O
D
I
N
G

L
I
G
H
T
N
I
N
G

H
I
G
H

A
M
B
I
E
N
T

T
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M
P

>
5
0

C

Drilling 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
Well Services 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
Operate Wells/Flowlines Y Y Y Y Y Y Y
Operate Pipelines Y Y Y Y Y Y Y
Pigging (future) 2 N N 2 2 2 5
QA MPS Operation Y Y Y Y Y Y Y
GT operation Y Y Y Y Y Y Y
BFW Heater Start-up (Plant Start-up) Y N Y N N N 5
HRSG Start-up (Plant Start-up) Y N Y N N N 5
Steam Distribution Plant Start-up Y N Y N N N 5
Oil & Gas Plant Start-up Y N Y N N N 5
PGC/Plant unit Start-up Y N Y N N N 5
Operate Steam Plant Y Y Y Y Y Y Y
Operate Oil & Gas Plant Y Y Y Y Y Y Y
APO Operation Y Y Y Y Y Y Y
N2/He Leak Testing Y N Y N N N 5
Working Outdoors 3 N Y 3 N N 5
Sampling 3 N Y N N N 5
Radiography Y N Y N N N 5
Vehicle Movement on-plot 3 N Y N N N Y
Vehicle Movement off-plot 3 N 4 N N N Y
Road Maintenance/ Grading 3 N N N N N 5
Grit Blasting / HP Water Jet 3 N N N N N 5
Lifting/Crane Operations N N N N N N 5
Fork Lift Truck Operations 3 N N N N N 5
High Noise Generating Activities Y N Y N N N 5
Excavation Activities 3 N N N N N 5
Work at Height (outside permanent structures) N N N N N N 5
Working on Tall Structures 3 N N N N N 5
Zone 1 Area Work Y N 3 N N N 5
Zone 2 Area Work Y N Y N N N 5
Breaching Maintenance 3 N Y N N N 5
Non-Breaching Maintenance Y N Y N N N 5
Class A Permit Work Y N Y N N N 5
Class B Permit Work Y N Y N N N 5
HRSG entry Y N Y N N N 5
Confined Space Entry Y N Y N N N 5
Flaring Y Y Y Y Y Y Y
Local Venting 3 N Y N N N 5
Draining to open systems Y N Y N N N 5
Chemical unloading 3 N N N N N 5
Chemical Disposal by Vac Truck 3 N N N N N 5
Construction Activities 3 N 3 N N N 5

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MOPO SIMOPs
ACTIVITY/OPERATION
D
R
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L
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G

W
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Drilling
Well Services 6
Operate Wells/Flowlines 6 6
Operate Pipelines Y Y Y
Pigging (future) Y Y Y 7
QA MPS Operation Y Y Y Y Y
GT operation Y Y Y Y Y Y
BFW Heater Startup (plant
startup)
Y Y Y Y Y Y Y
HRSG Startup (plant
startup)
Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y
Steam Distribution Plant
start-up
Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y
Oil & Gas Plant start-up Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y
PGC/Plant unit Startup Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y
Operate Steam Plant Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y
Operate Oil & Gas Plant Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y
APO Operation Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y
N2/He Leak Testing Y Y Y N N Y Y N N N N N N N N
Working Outdoors Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y N
Sampling Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y N Y
Radiography Y Y Y Y Y Y Y N N N N N Y Y Y N N N
Vehicle Movement on-plot Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y N Y N N
Vehicle Movement off-plot Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y N Y Y
Road Maintenance/ Grading Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y
Grit Blasting / HP Water Jet Y Y 8 8 8 Y Y N N N N N 8 8 8 N N N N N N Y
Lifting/Crane Operations Y Y N N Y Y Y N N N N N Y Y Y N N N N N N Y N
Fork Lift Truck Operations Y Y Y Y Y Y Y N N N N N Y Y Y N Y Y N Y Y Y N N
High Noise Generating
Activities
Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y N Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y
Excavation Activities Y Y Y Y Y Y Y N N N N N Y Y Y N Y Y N Y Y Y N N N Y
Work at Height (outside
permanent structures)
Y Y Y Y Y Y Y N N N N N Y Y Y N Y Y N Y Y Y N N Y Y Y
Working on Tall Structures Y Y Y Y Y Y Y N N N N N Y Y Y N Y Y N Y Y Y N N Y Y Y Y
Zone 1 Area Work Y Y 3 3 3 Y Y N N N N N 3 3 3 N Y Y N N N N N N N Y N N N
Zone 2 Area Work Y Y Y Y Y Y Y N N N N N Y Y Y N Y Y N Y Y Y N N Y Y Y Y Y N
Breaching Maintenance Y Y N N N Y Y N N N N N Y Y Y N Y Y N N N N N N N Y N N N N N
Non-Breaching
Maintenance
Y Y Y Y Y Y Y N N N N N Y Y Y N Y Y N Y Y Y N N Y Y Y Y Y N Y N
Class A Permit Work Y Y 3 3 3 Y Y N N N N N 3 3 3 N Y 3 N Y Y Y N N Y Y Y Y Y N Y N N
Class B Permit Work Y Y Y Y 3 Y Y N N N N N Y Y Y N Y Y N Y Y Y N N Y Y Y Y Y N Y N Y Y
HRSG entry Y Y Y Y Y Y N N N N N N Y Y Y N Y Y N Y Y Y N N Y N Y Y Y N Y N Y Y Y
Confined Space Entry Y Y Y Y Y Y Y N N N N N Y Y Y N Y Y N Y Y Y N N Y N Y Y Y N Y N Y Y Y Y
Flaring Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y N N N Y Y Y Y Y Y Y
Local Venting Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y N N Y N N N N N N N Y N N N N N N N N N N N 9
Draining to open systems Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y N N Y N N N N N N N Y N N N N N N N N N N N Y Y
Chemical unloading Y Y Y Y Y Y Y N N N N Y Y Y Y N Y Y N Y Y Y N N Y Y N N N N N N N N N Y N Y N N
Chemical Disposal by Vac
Truck
Y Y Y Y Y Y Y N N N N Y Y Y Y N Y Y N Y Y Y N N Y Y N Y Y N N N N N N Y N Y N N N
Construction Activities Y Y Y Y Y Y Y N N N N Y Y Y Y N Y Y N Y Y Y N N Y Y Y Y Y N Y N Y N Y Y Y Y N N N N


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MOPO SCE & CRITICAL MANPOWER IMPAIRMENT/UNAVAILABILITY

ACTIVITY/OPERATION
S
T
A
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T
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P

E
Q
U
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IMPAIRED/UNAVAILABLE SCE
























SCE GROUP SCE FAILURE MODE
SI002 Civil
Structures /
Structural Support
Observed or detected
structural defect resulting
in increased risk of MAH
N 10 N 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10
SI003 Heavy lift
cranes and
mechanical
handling
Observed or detected
structural/mechanical
defect resulting in
increased risk of MAH
due to dropped load
Y Y Y Y Y N Y Y Y Y Y Y
PC001 - PC006
Process
Containment
Uncontrolled release of
process fluids resulting in
increased risk of MAH
N N N 10 10 N N N N N N N
PC007 Relief
System
Unavailability of relief at
design flow rate resulting
in increased risk of MAH
due to overpressure
N 10 N 10 Y 10 10 10 10 10 10 10
PC008
Operational Well
Containment
Uncontrolled release of
well fluid resulting in
increased risk of MAH
N Y N Y Y 10 10 10 10 10 10 10
PC009 Fired
Heaters (Burner
Management
System)
Unavailability of
BMS/IPS resulting in
increased risk of MAH
N Y N Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y
IC003 Certified
Electrical
Equipment
Certified electrical
equipment fails to meet
PS requirement resulting
in increased risk of
ignition
N 10 N 10 Y Y Y Y 10 Y 10 Y
IC005 Earth
Bonding
Earth bonding fails to
meet PS requirement
resulting in increased risk
of ignition
N Y 10 Y Y Y Y Y 10 Y N Y
IC006 Fuel Gas
Purge
Inability to provide
required fuel gas purge
flow to flare header
resulting in air ingress to
flare
N N N 10 Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y
IC007 Gas
Blanket System -
Total loss
Total loss of gas blanket
system resulting in
increased risk of ignition
N N N N Y Y Y Y Y 10 Y Y
IC007 Gas
Blanket System -
Loss to individual
equipment
Inability to provide
required gas blanket flow
individual equipment
resulting in increased risk
of ignition
N 10 N 10 Y Y Y Y Y 10 Y Y
IC009 Flare
Ignition Control
System
Loss of primary &
secondary flare ignition
systems resulting in flare
out
N N 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10
DS001 Fire and
Gas - Total loss
Total loss of F&G
detection system
N N N N 10 10 10 10 N N 10 10

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ACTIVITY/OPERATION
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(
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)

DS001 Fire and
Gas - Local or
partial loss
Loss of F&G detection
end element resulting in
impaired local
functionality e.g. 2ooN in
voted system & 1ooN in
non-voted systems
N 10 10 10 Y 10 10 10 10 10 10 10
DS002 Security
Systems
Loss of access control to
facilities
10 Y 10 Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y
PS013 Chemical
Injection System
Inability to provide
required chemical
injection flow
10 Y 10 Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y
SD001 ESD
System - Total
loss
Total loss of ESD system N N N N N 10 10 10 10 10 10 10
SD001 ESD
System - Local or
partial loss
Local or partial loss of
ESD system
N 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10
SD002
Depressurisation
System - Total
loss
Total loss of EDP system N N N N N 10 10 10 10 10 10 10
SD002
Depressurisation
System - Local or
partial loss
Local or partial loss of
EDP system
N 10 N 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10
SD004
Operational Well
Isolation
Inability to isolate steam
injection well or annulus
resulting in potential back
flow of HC
N Y N Y Y 10 10 10 10 10 10 10
SD006 Process
ESDV
Inability of ESD end
element valve to
adequately isolate
processes resulting in
potential escalation of
MAH
N 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10
ER001 Temp
Refuge/ Muster
Areas
Primary muster area
impaired
10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10
ER002 Escape/
Evacuation
Routes
Escape/ evacuation
routes impaired
10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10
ER003
Emergency/
Escape Lighting
Emergency/ escape
Lighting impaired
10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10
ER004
Communication
Systems - Loss of
GA
Loss of GA
communication system
N N 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10
ER004
Communication
Systems - Loss of
ER
communications
Loss of ER
communication system
including radios and
landlines
N N 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10
ER005
Uninterrupted
Power Supply
(UPS)
Inability to provide
emergency power supply
to essential systems
N N 10 10 10 Y Y Y Y Y Y Y

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ACTIVITY/OPERATION
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ER010 Drains
System
Inability to provide
secondary containment
for HC/chemicals spills
resulting in potential
escalation of MAH
N 10 10 10 Y Y Y Y Y Y 10 Y
LS001 Personal
Survival
Equipment -
Personal monitors
Personal H2S monitors
below minimum level or
faulty
N N 10 10 10 N N N N N N N
LS001 Personal
Survival
Equipment -
Escape sets
Portable BA Sets below
minimum level or faulty
(Escape Sets)
N N 10 10 10 N N N N N N N
LS001 Personal
Survival
Equipment -
Rescue BA sets
Portable BA Sets below
minimum level (SCBA &
Rescue Sets)
N N 10 10 10 N N N N N N N
LS001 Personal
Survival
Equipment -
Chemical PPE
Insufficient number or
inadequate type of
Chemical PPE available
10 Y 10 Y Y Y Y Y Y Y N Y
LS001 Personal
Survival
Equipment -
Safety
showers/eye wash
stations
Safety showers/eye
wash stations not
available or inoperable
10 Y 10 Y Y Y Y Y Y Y N Y
CRITICAL MANPOWER
UNAVAILABILITY

HSE Critical
Position
Competent persons not
available to fill HSE
Critical Position
N N 10 10 10 N N N N N N N
ER - Team
Members
Competent persons not
available to fill ER team
member position
N N 10 10 10 N N N N N N N
ER - QA Fire
Brigade
QA fire brigade not
available for extended
period
10 10 Y Y Y 10 10 10 10 10 10 10
ER - First Aider Insufficient number of
first aiders available on-
site
10 10 Y Y Y 10 10 10 10 10 10 10
LECC Competent persons not
available to fill LECC
positions or LECC not
available
N N 10 10 10 N N N N N N N



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Appendix 11 Operations HSE Case Change Approval
This appendix details the process for identifying, assessing and implementing changes to
Operations HSE Cases to ensure that the hazards and risks associated with Major Accident
Hazards (MAHs) are maintained as low as reasonably practicable (ALARP).
This procedure is mandatory for Operations HSE Cases in PDO but may also be used for
Design HSE Cases.
It is to be used by all parties who may be responsible for initiating a change that may have an
effect on the underlying assumptions or information presented in a HSE Case.
A suitable system to ensure that the Steps described in this procedure are followed is provided
by the proforma HSE Case Change Approval Form at the end of this Appendix
RACI Matrix
Task
Roles & Responsibilities
T
e
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l
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s

O
r
i
g
i
n
a
t
o
r

A
c
t
i
o
n

P
a
r
t
i
e
s

1. Identify Change C C A I R -
2. Assess Impact of Change and
Develop Workscope
R C C I C I
3. Perform Workscope A C C C C R
4. Prepare HSE Case Changes R I A I I I
5. Review proposed HSE Case
Changes
R C A C C I
6. Approve Changes R C A C I I
7. Publish Changes R I A I I I

(R) Responsible: The party responsible for executing the task and obtaining parties
involvement
(A) Accountable Party accountable for approval
(C) Consult Party responsible for contributing when consulted
(I) Informed Party informed of outcome

Role Responsibilities
Originator
Individual or group who identifies the
need for change(s). This function
describes a variety of roles:
- Asset (management,
supervision or operations);
- Workforce;
- Technical Authorities (TAs);
- Discipline engineers;
- Contractors.
Identifies and summarises need for change(s)
Discusses potential change with MSE/4 Dept. to
determine whether it will affect the HSE Case or its
underlying assumptions
Identifies relevant Stakeholders, with advice from
MSE/4 Dept.
Contributes to preparing text change(s) as required
Reviewing and approval of proposed change(s)

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Role Responsibilities
Technical Safety Engineer Assesses the impact of the change(s) on the HSE
Case and its underlying assumptions
Supports the HSE Case by providing management,
technical support, knowledge and authoring
Ensures appropriate description of the change(s) in
the HSE Case
Liaises with other TAs as appropriate
Once the change has been agreed, logs the
change in the HSE Case MOC register
Maintains an up to date version of the HSE Case
MOC register
Action Parties Advise on impact of change(s)
Provide information on actions required
Provide input to HSE Case update
HSE Case Custodian (Delivery Team
Leader / Asset Representative)
Propose change(s) resulting from, for example,
changes to the operation of the asset or other
changes raised by personnel associated with the
asset
Review change(s) as a Stakeholder
Contribute to text change(s) in the HSE Case
Check proposed change(s) and co-ordinating
workforce involvement
Ensure that the information contained in the HSE
Case reflects the current status of the asset and its
operating practices
Technical Authorities Propose change(s) resulting from, for example,
change(s) to the engineering or operation of the
Asset or other change(s) raised as a result of
issues in their discipline
Review change(s) as a Stakeholder
Contribute to text change(s) in the HSE Case
Check proposed change(s) and co-ordinating
involvement of other TAs
Stakeholder
A person or person(s) who may be called
upon to contribute to/consult on the
assessment of change(s) required, or
who may need to be advised of the
potential change(s) to the HSE Case.
This function describes a variety of roles:
- Asset (management,
supervision or operations);
- Workforce;
- Technical Authorities (TAs);
- Discipline engineers;
- Contractors.
Provide specialist knowledge and expertise
Review and approve text change(s) in the HSE
Case


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HSE Case Change Approval Form
HSE Case Change Approval Form Ref.: GD/2008/01

Step 1: Identify Change
Asset/Facility: Yibal Originator: A N Other Date raised: 24/07/2010
Details of proposed change(s) (summary of the change(s) use continuation sheet if required):


Step 2: Assess Impact of Change(s) and Develop Workscope
Significant
Change?
(Yes/No)
Justification:
Details of Stakeholder engagement:

Description of assessment and statement of required work activities:


Step 3: Perform Workscope (record the summary of outcomes for Step 3):


Step 4 & 5: HSE Case Changes (record summary of changes use continuation sheet if required for detailed changes):
Part: Section: Heading: Comments:




Immediate publication of change
required? (Yes/No)
Justification

Step 6: Approve Changes (signatories as required)
a. Originator Name: Signature: Date:
b. Technical
Authority
Name: Signature: Date:
c. HSE Case
Custodian
Name: Signature: Date:
d. Technical
Safety
Engineer
Name: Signature: Date:

Step 7: Publish Change
Date
Completed:
Rev
Number:
Name: Signature




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Step 1: Identify Change(s)
As soon as it is practicable, discuss the potential change(s) with the Asset Technical Safety
Engineer to determine whether the proposed change(s) will affect the HSE Case or its
underlying assumptions.
Any proposed changes (e.g. engineering, procedural, organisational) that have an impact
on the risk profile of the Facility or Activity, shall be managed in accordance with this
Procedure (including an ALARP Demonstration) and the HSE Case shall be updated
accordingly.
The possible changes that might affect the HSE Case and its underlying assumptions are
those listed in Section 13.

Step 2: Assess Impact of Change(s) and Develop Workscope
a) Determine whether the proposed changes(s) will affect the Case content or its
underlying assumptions. If it is agreed that there is no effect on the Case or its
supporting studies, no further action is required.
b) Where it is agreed by there is an effect on the Case, develop workscope with
relevant Stakeholders.
c) Ensure that the workscope includes review and update, as required, to:
i. HEMP Studies and ALARP justification;
ii. QRA Studies;
iii. Bow-Tie assessments;
iv. HSE Critical Element and Performance Standards;
v. HSE Critical Task listings.
d) Agree and record actions with originator, action parties and Stakeholders.
e) Summarise details of the HSE Case Change Approval Form
f) Logs the HSE Case change in the HSE Case MOC register. The register should
ensure that all changes to the HSE Case are grouped together for review and to
allow assessment of cumulative effects or risk.

Step 3: Perform Workscope
a) Perform agreed workscope as identified in 2b above.
b) Representatives from the current operational, engineering and maintenance teams,
and workforce involvement representatives shall actively participate in performing
the workscope as appropriate.
c) Review outcomes for actions to determine final impact.
d) Consult with Stakeholders on effect on HSE Case (where appropriate).
e) Complete change(s) to relevant supporting studies or other associated
documents/processes/drawings etc.

Step 4: Prepare HSE Case Change(s)
a) Prepare change(s) to HSE Case in consultation with action parties and
Stakeholders.

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Step 5: Review Proposed HSE Case Change(s)
a) Issue the HSE Case Change Approval Form with proposed change(s) to the HSE
Case to relevant action parties and Stakeholders for comment/review.
b) Amend proposed change(s) as required reflect any comments received. On the
HSE Case Change Approval Form annotate which sections of the HSE Case have
been changed.
c) Determine need for immediate publication of change(s). Consider whether change
is significant and needs immediate update. Also consider cumulative effects of
changes to date.

Step 6: Approve Change(s)
a) Gain acceptance of proposed change(s) from relevant parties, including sign-off of
HSE Case Custodian (obtain signatures).
b) Update status of HSE Case Change Approval Form in the HSE Case MOC
Register including Date Agreed.
c) If applicable, update FIM to record any changes that affect any open items still
under review (e.g. Change to HSE Case Remedial Action Plan).

Step 7: Publish Change(s)
a) Make change(s) to HSE Case.
b) Publish HSE Case on Livelink / issue to document copy holders.
c) Update status of Update status of HSE Case Change Approval Form in the Change
Register including Date Completed.

HSE Case MOC Register
Ref. Description Significant
change?
Yes/No
FCP No. (if
applicable)
Date
raised
Date
agreed
Date
completed
GD/2008/01 Revision of Yibal HSE
Case to address internal /
external audit findings
and issues raised at
workforce reviews.
Structure and content
changed to reflect PDO
adoption of EP2005-
0310-ST.
Yibal team involved in
engagement workshops,
bow tie review
workshops, ALARP
workshops, and roll out
sessions
Yes n/a 01/01/2008 01/01/2008 01/10/2008




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Appendix 12 CCPS RBPS Process Safety Elements
The AI-PSM process within PDO identifies 20 elements from the Centre for Chemical Process
Safety Guidelines for Risk Based Process Safety (CCPS RBPS) which describes minimum
expected standards and stipulates the requirements for a range of process related activities
ranging from organisational culture, workforce involvement, risk management, HEMP and audit
through to design.

ELEMEN
T
NUMBER
AI-PSM ASSURANCE
ELEMENT
ELEMENT AIMS AND OBJECTIVES
1
Process Safety
Culture
To establish and reinforce high standards of process safety
performance through the organisational norms for employee
and contractor values and behaviours at all levels in the
organisation.
2
Compliance with
Standards
To ensure that the facility conforms to the applicable
standards, codes and regulations so that the facility operates
in a safe and legal fashion.
3
Corporate Process
Safety Competency
A key aspect of demonstrating commitment to process safety,
the process safety competency element is about developing,
sustaining and enhancing organisational competency. This is
different to individual competency assurance (which is
covered in element 12). The key concern here is the concept
of the learning or transformational organisation
4
Workforce
Involvement
Personnel at all levels of the organisation should have roles,
responsibilities and opportunities to effectively contribute to
process safety programmes. This element ensures that a
system is developed for enabling the participation of
operators, technicians and contractors in the development and
implementation of process safety activities through employee
participation
5
Stakeholder
Outreach
To ensure that internal and external stakeholders to the
organisation are identified, and that their information needs
are understood and adequately met.
6
Process Knowledge
Management
To enable risk assessment and risk-based process safety.
Understanding process risk depends on having accurate
process knowledge, and without an understanding of process
risk, process safety can never be assured.
7
Hazards and Effects
Management
Process (HEMP)
To enable risk assessment and risk-based process safety.
Understanding process risk depends on correctly and
completely identifying the hazards associated with the
operation, and accurately assessing the risks posed by those
hazards. Without an understanding of process risk, process
safety can never be assured.
8
Operating
Procedures
A consistent high level of human performance is essential for
a successful process safety programme. Up to date clear
operating procedures assure that the intended and proven
methods and techniques are applied consistently.
9 Permit to Work
To ensure that the risks associated with non-routine work are
managed in a systematic way through the application of a
permit-to-work system and operations / maintenance
procedures (which are described in the previous element)

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ELEMEN
T
NUMBER
AI-PSM ASSURANCE
ELEMENT
ELEMENT AIMS AND OBJECTIVES
10 Technical Integrity
To ensure that equipment is properly designed, fabricated,
installed and maintained in accordance with recognised
standards and codes, and that it fulfils its design intent and
remains fit for purpose until removed from operation
11
Contractor
Management
To ensure that contracted services do not add to or increase
process safety risk by ensuring familiarity with process safety
risks and a formalised process to manage contractor activities
from a process safety (as well as commercial) point-of-view.
12
Training and
Performance
Assurance
A consistent high level of human performance is essential for
a successful process safety programme. Training and
performance assurance provides confidence and
demonstration that work tasks will be consistently completed
to the required standard, and that personnel have the
knowledge and ability to respond appropriately to non-routine
situations.
13
Management of
Change
To ensure that changes made to plant equipment or
technology, or to the Organisation operating the equipment,
do not result in the inadvertent introduction of new hazards
and risks, or unknowingly increase the risk from existing
hazards.
14
Operational
Readiness
To ensure that equipment is safe to start-up and operate, and
that the activities necessary to ensure continued fitness for
service have been put in place. It covers start up of new
equipment, modified equipment and existing equipment re-
starting after a plant shutdown
15
Conduct of
Operations
To create an organisation that demonstrates excellence in the
performance of every task, and has zero tolerance for
deviations.
16
Emergency
Management
To reduce the consequences of a major accident and to save
lives, protect property and the environment.
17
Incident
Investigation
To learn from incidents and near misses and to prevent them
from recurring. Identifying and correcting systemic incident
causes will not only help prevent a repeat of that incident but
by strengthening the AI-PSM management system can
prevent other incidents.
18
Measurement and
Metrics
To provide a means for near-real-time monitoring of the
performance of the AI-PSM system, and so indicate whether
process risk is being managed as low as reasonably
practicable and in line with company criteria for tolerable risk.
19 Auditing
To reduce risk by systematically and pro-actively identifying
strengths and weaknesses in the implementation of AI-PSM.
20
Management
Review and
Continuous
Improvement
To ensure that the defined AI-PSM activities produce the
desired results throughout the facility lifecycle.