Sie sind auf Seite 1von 110
Survey instructions for the 2 n d National Forest Inventory (2001-2002) 2 n d corrected

Survey instructions for the

2 nd National Forest Inventory

(2001-2002)

2 nd corrected translation, February 2006, of the

2 nd corrected and revised reprint, May 2001

BWI
BWI

Survey instructions for Federal Forest Inventory II (2001-2002)

2nd corrected translation, February 2006, of the 2 nd corrected and revised reprint, May 2001

Publisher:

Federal Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Consumer Protection Bundesministerium für Verbraucherschutz, Ernährung und Landwirtschaft (BMVEL) Referat 533, F. Schmitz Postfach, 53107 Bonn Deutschland Internet: http://www.verbraucherministerium.de

Contents:

Dr. H. Polley, Institut VII, Bundesforschungsanstalt für Forst- und Holzwirtschaft

In cooperation with the Länder

Länder authorities in charge of the Federal Forest Inventory II:

Dr.

G. Kändler, Forstliche Versuchs- und Forschungsanstalt Baden-Württemberg

Dr.

R. Mößmer, Bayerische Landesanstalt für Wald und Forstwirtschaft

L. Wittich, Landesforstamt Berlin

J. Müller, Landesforstanstalt Eberswalde, Brandenburg

Dr. U. Lampe, Senator für Bau und Umwelt Bremen

F.

Spangenberg, Umweltbehörde, Fachamt für ökologische Forst- und Landwirtschaft Hamburg

S.

Nowack, Hessen-Forst Forsteinrichtung, Information und Versuchswesen

R.

Neuß, Landesamt für Forsten und Großschutzgebiete Mecklenburg-Vorpommern

U.

Neupert, Niedersächsisches Forstplanungsamt

W.

Wessels, Landesanstalt für Ökologie, Bodenordnung und Forsten Nordrhein-Westfalen

H.

Schroer, Struktur- und Genehmigungsdirektion Süd, Rheinland-Pfalz

E.

Fritz, Saarforst-Landesbetrieb

G.

Schulze, Sächsische Landesanstalt für Forsten

E.

Binnemann, Forstliche Landesanstalt Sachsen-Anhalt

G.

Heeschen, Ministerium für Umwelt, Natur und Forsten Schleswig-Holstein

Th. Erteld, Landesanstalt für Wald und Forstwirtschaft Thüringen

Print: Federal Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Consumer Protection

2006, Bonn The European Commission made the translation of the text possible.

Survey instructions for the 2nd National Forest Inventory

(2001-2002)

2nd corrected translation, February 2006, of the

2 nd corrected and revised reprint

BWI
BWI

Bundesministerium für Verbraucherschutz, Ernährung und Landwirtschaft (publisher)

Bundesforschungsanstalt für Forst- und Holzwirtschaft, Institut VII

in cooperation with the Länder

2006, Bonn

General

Survey instructions for 2 nd National Forest Inventory

Contents

1 GENERAL

4

1.1 SCOPE OF THE ADMINISTRATIVE REGULATION

4

1.2 COORDINATION OF THE NATIONAL FOREST INVENTORY

5

1.3 LAND INVENTORY ADMINISTRATION

6

1.4 INVENTORY TEAMS

7

1.5 TRAINING

7

1.6 RIGHT OF ACCESS

7

1.7 DATA VALIDATION AND TRANSMISSION

8

1.8 USE OF THE PROGRAMS AND STORED DATA

9

1.9 INVENTORY INSPECTION

9

1.10 ORGANISATION OF DATA COLLECTION AND DATA FLOW

10

1.11 DOCUMENTS AND WORKING TOOLS FOR THE INVENTORY TEAMS

11

2 INVENTORY METHOD

12

2.1

SAMPLE DISTRIBUTION

12

2.2

THE INVENTORY CLUSTER

12

2.3

ANGLE-COUNT SAMPLING / SAMPLE TREES

15

2.4

SAMPLE CIRCLES

16

2.5

BOUNDARY INTERSECTIONS

16

3 PRELIMINARY DETAILS OF THE CLUSTER

17

3.1

INFORMATION ON CLUSTER

17

3.1.1

Identification of cluster

17

3.1.2

Cluster status

18

3.1.3

Base map

19

3.1.4

Magnetic deviation

20

3.1.5

Altitude

20

3.1.6

Occurrence of hoofed game

20

3.2

INFORMATION ON PLOTS

21

3.2.1

Assignment of administrative characteristics

21

3.2.2

Types of ownership

22

3.2.3

Ownership size classes

22

3.2.4

Restriction on the use of timber

24

3.2.5

Stand age

24

3.2.6

Natural altitudinal zone

24

3.2.7

Natural forest community

25

3.3

INFORMATION ON BOUNDARY INTERSECTIONS

26

4 LAYING OUT THE CLUSTER IN THE SITE

28

4.1

SURVEYING IN THE CLUSTER

28

4.2

MARKING THE PLOTS

30

4.3

SURVEYING IN THE SAMPLE CIRCLES

31

4.4

SURVEYING IN FOREST EDGES AND STAND BOUNDARIES

32

5 SURVEYING THE CLUSTER

35

5.1

ACCESSIBILITY

35

5.2

FOREST/NON-FOREST

35

5.3

TYPE OF SILVICULTURAL SYSTEM

37

5.4

SAMPLE TREES FROM 7 CM DBH

38

5.4.1 Selection by means of angle-count sampling

38

5.4.2 Sample tree number

41

5.4.3 Sample tree code number

41

5.4.4 Species of tree

44

5.4.5 Azimuth

46

General

 

5.4.6 Horizontal distance

46

5.4.7 Canopy class

47

5.4.8 Breast-height diameter

47

5.4.9 Tree class

49

5.4.10 Tree age

50

5.4.11 Tree height

51

5.4.12 Upper diameter

52

5.4.13 Height code number

54

5.4.14 Trunk code number

54

5.4.15 Trunk damage

55

5.4.16 Lopping

55

5.5 SAMPLE TREES UNDER 7 CM DBH

56

5.6 STRUCTURAL AND BIOTOPE CHARACTERISTICS

58

5.6.1

Horizontal and vertical structure of tree stand

58

5.6.2

Shrub layer and ground vegetation

60

5.6.3

Particularly important forest plant species of ground vegetation

61

5.6.4

Special risks

62

5.6.5

Natural forest community

62

5.6.6

Specially protected forest biotopes

63

5.7 SITE CHARACTERISTICS

64

5.7.1

Site form

64

5.7.2

Site gradient

64

5.7.3

Site aspect

65

5.8 DEADWOOD

66

5.8.1

Selection

66

5.8.2

Deadwood tree species group

67

5.8.3

Type of deadwood

67

5.8.4

Diameter of deadwood

67

5.8.5

Length of deadwood

68

5.8.6

Degree of decomposition of deadwood

68

5.9 FOREST EDGES

69

5.9.1

Selection and surveying-in

69

5.9.2

Type of forest edge

70

5.9.3

Adjoining terrain

70

5.10

FOREST ACCESS

71

5.10.1 Selection

71

5.10.2 Grading of roads

71

5.10.3 Type of ownership and Land allocation of the adjoining stands

71

5.10.4 Width of road

71

5.10.5 Passability

72

5.10.6 Road surface

72

5.10.7 Road condition

72

5.10.8 Road gradient

73

5.10.9 Gradient of site at road

73

6

FINAL PROVISION

73

ANNEX 1: PARTNERS FOR THE COORDINATION OF THE NATIONAL FOREST INVENTORY AT FEDERAL LEVEL (SITUATION AT 01.04.2001)

74

ANNEX 2: ADDRESSES OF LAND INVENTORY ADMINISTRATIONS (SITUATION AT 04.04.2001)

75

ANNEX 3: ADDRESSES OF FEDERAL FORESTRY OFFICES (SITUATION AT 10.05.00)

77

ANNEX 4: LIST OF NATURAL FOREST COMMUNITIES

80

ANNEX 5: DIFFERENCES BETWEEN THE COMMON OAK (110) AND SESSILE OAK (111)

83

ANNEX 6: REDUCTION TABLE FOR GRADIENTS

87

ANNEX 7: FORMS

 

88

General

ANNEX 8: ALPHABETICAL LISTS OF TREE SPECIES

102

LIST OF KEYWORDS

107

Figures:

FIGURE 1: DATA COLLECTION AND DATA FLOW (FIGURES IN BRACKETS REFER TO THE CHAPTERS WITH EXPLANATIONS)

10

FIGURE 2: STRUCTURE OF A CLUSTER WITH ITS 4 PLOTS

13

FIGURE 3: SURVEYING IN STAND BOUNDARIES AND FOREST EDGES

34

FIGURE 4: ANGLE-COUNT SAMPLING BASAL AREA FACTOR 4 IN RELASCOPE VIEWABBILDUNG

39

FIGURE 5: DEFINITION OF BREAST HEIGHT AND MEASURING POSITION OF THE BREAST-HEIGHT DIAMETER

48

FIGURE 6: KRAFT TREE CLASSES

49

FIGURE 7: SIGHTING OF THE CROWN TO MEASURE HEIGHT

52

FIGURE 8: MEASUREMENT OF UPPER DIAMETER USING CALLIPERS

53

FIGURE 9: MEASUREMENT OF UPPER DIAMETER USING A RELASCOPE WITH METRIC SCALE CP

53

General

1

General

This special reprint of the General Administrative Regulation on carrying out the

second National Forest Inventory, NFI 2 (in German: Bundeswaldinventur II, BWI

II) of 17.07.2000, Federal Gazette No. 146a of 05.08.2000, is combined with the

guidance from the Technical Manual relevant for the BWI II fieldwork. This

guidance is printed in italics.

1.1 Scope of the Administrative Regulation

This Administrative Regulation applies to the implementation of § 41a of the

Federal Forest Act and the second National Forest Inventory Order of 28 May

1998 (Federal Law Gazette I, p. 1180).

The Administrative Regulation regulates the collection, checking and

communication of data. 1 It is addressed to employees of the Federal Government

and Länder, as well as to contractors who collect, check, communicate and

evaluate data.

- Chapter 1 gives an overview of the organisation of the National Forest Inventory.

- Chapter 2 explains the main characteristics of the inventory procedure.

- Chapter 3 describes the preliminary details of the cluster to be gathered before the outdoor surveying.

- Chapter 4 establishes how the statistical units in the forest are surveyed in.

- Chapter 5 determines how data are to be collected in the forest. The description of the data collection covers the forest/non-forest decision, the identification of the sample trees, the structural characteristics, the characteristics of the site, the deadwood and the forest edges, as well as access to the forest.

1 Further details are described in a “Technical Manual”.

General

The Administrative Regulation applies until BWI II has been completed or until a

new Administrative Regulation is adopted. It replaces the general Administrative

Regulation to carry out the National Forest Inventory 1986 – 1990 (NFI I). The

aim of the National Forest Inventory is to provide a general survey over an

extended area of the forest conditions and forest production potential in Germany.

1.2 Coordination of the National Forest Inventory

The compilation and evaluation of the data and the coordination tasks they entail

are undertaken by the Federal Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Forestry. 2 For this

purpose, it calls on the Bundesforschungsanstalt für Forst- und Holzwirtschaft

(Bundesinventurleitung) (Federal Research Centre for Forestry and Forest Products

– Federal inventory administration), which cooperates directly with the Land

inventory administrations in the context of the tasks assigned to it.

In particular, the coordination tasks include:

discussion of all questions of importance to ensure that the National Forest Inventory is carried out uniformly, including the results of the inventory check, with the Land inventory administrations,

examination of the data for plausibility and correction of implausible data,

evaluation of the data,

clearing up doubts of supraregional importance.

2 Since January 2001: Federal Ministry of Consumer Protection, Food and Agriculture.

General

In so far as insight into the conducting of the local inventory is necessary to

coordinate the National Forest Inventory, this is ensured by the Land inventory

administration.

The National inventory administration makes available to the Land inventory

administrations all the data of the National Forest Inventory 1986-1990 necessary

for the repeat survey, as well as the software for the following stages in the work:

- data collection and validation,

- data management (selection and import and export of data for measuring teams and Federal inventory administration),

- printing of forms (preliminary record with data from BWI I) and data-recording forms (with data for BWI II),

- printout of sketches of position of sample trees from the angle-count sampling.

The addresses of the partners for the coordination of the National Forest Inventory at Federal level are given in Annex 1.

1.3 Land inventory administration

The competent authority in the respective Land for collecting the data (Land

inventory administration) has the following tasks:

planning and coordination of the deployment of the inventory teams,

preparing the documents for the inventory teams,

ensuring the orderly collection of the data including inventory inspection,

forwarding the data to the Federal inventory administration in the prescribed format,

supporting the Federal inventory administration in checking and correcting the data,

informing the Federal inventory administration of the timetable for carrying out the inventory,

General

informing the Federal inventory administration of additional surveys specific to the Land.

The addresses of the Land inventory administrations are given in Annex 2.

1.4 Inventory teams

The inventory teams are responsible for the measurements and descriptions of the

forest condition in accordance with these instructions for surveying the cluster and

the directions of their Land inventory administration. The inventory team consists

of two people and is led by a qualified graduate forester (or a person with

comparable qualifications).

1.5 Training

Up to two members of the Land inventory administrations and the leaders of the

inventory teams are initiated into the collection procedure by order of the Federal

Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Forestry. The team staff members may also take

part in the training.

1.6 Right of access

The persons assigned the task of carrying out the National Forest Inventory are

entitled to enter land to perform their duties and to carry out the necessary work for

the inventory there (§ 41a(3) of the Federal Forest Act).

If it is found, when establishing the preliminary details of the cluster areas, that

clusters lie in areas used for military purposes, the local competent Federal

Forestry Office is asked to supplement the missing information for preliminary

details of the cluster and to designate the competent authority to grant permission

to enter the areas.

General

The addresses of the Federal Forestry Offices are listed in

.

Where the German Federal Armed Forces have jurisdiction, granting permission to

enter is the responsibility of the respective base commander, who takes the

necessary protection measures on a case by case basis. If the Land inventory

administration does not reach agreement with these authorities on the right of

access and the carrying out of the inventory work, it informs the Federal Ministry

of Food, Agriculture and Forestry. The latter decides, in agreement with the

Federal Ministry of Finance and the Federal Ministry of Defence, and

communicates the result to the Land inventory administration.

1.7 Data validation and transmission

All census data – apart from the location sketches – are entered with the given

software. The first plausibility check is carried out automatically by the software

on data entry. Each contested entry is to be re-examined and corrected if necessary.

The inventory teams pass on the collected data to the Land inventory

administration, which forwards these data in files to the Federal inventory

administration, at the following address:

Bundesforschungsanstalt für Forst- und Holzwirtschaft Institut für Forstökologie und Walderfassung - BWI-Inventurleitung - Alfred-Möller-Straße 1 16225 Eberswalde

General

There a further plausibility check is made. Implausible records are returned with

the request for explanation or correction to the Land inventory administration

concerned. The latter for its part calls on the inventory team if necessary or may

have a new survey carried out of the cluster or part of the cluster concerned. The

corrected or explained data are then returned to the Federal inventory

administration.

The teams and the Land inventory administrations check the data using the software made available by the Federal inventory administration and correct all data errors found. If the software shows errors in corrected data, the Federal inventory administration should be informed, which if necessary will change the check routines. In the case of warnings, the accuracy of the data should be checked and where appropriate corrections made. The Federal inventory administration assumes that all warnings still appearing have been examined and taken into consideration by the teams or Land inventory administrations.

It is recommended to transfer data between the inventory teams and the Land inventory administration every two to four weeks.

1.8 Use of the programs and stored data

The Federal Government sends the Länder the evaluation programs when the first

evaluations of the National Forest Inventory have been completed. In addition,

each Land is sent its records at the same time.

1.9 Inventory inspection

The Land inventory administration carries out an inventory inspection at a

minimum of 5% of the clusters. Errors and divergences (especially systematic) are

cleared up with the respective inventory team. A report is to be drawn up on each

inspected cluster, showing the divergences and the measures prompted.

General

1.10 Organisation of data collection and data flow

Figure 1 provides an overview of the division of work regarding data collection

and data flow. Details are given in the chapters indicated.

Federal inventory administration (1.2)

Land inventory administration (1.3)

Inventory team (1.4)

List of coordinates (2.1)

Establish status of

 
 

cluster (3.1.1)

 

BWI I data

Sketch of cluster and

 

surveying-in report of

Surveying in the cluster

 

BWI I

 

(4)

Base map (3.1.3)

 

Results of preliminary details of the cluster (3)

Preliminary details of the cluster if not dealt with by

 

Land inventory administration

 

Data validation

Inventory inspection (1.9)

Data from preliminary

 

details of the cluster and surveying-in (5)

List of implausible or missing data

Check

 

Check

()

Data storage and

 

confirmed /

 

evaluation

corrected data

Checked census data Derived quantities Inventory results

(1.7)

 

Figure 1: Data collection and data flow (figures in brackets refer to the chapters with explanations)

General

1.11 Documents and working tools for the inventory teams

2

inventory manuals

1

book for the identification of forest trees, shrubs, grasses and plants

6

ranging poles (3 suffice for the repeat survey)

1

range-finder

1

25 m measuring tape

2

girth tapes

1

Relascope (Metric CP or Standard metric)

2

compasses (400 gon)

1

clipboard

1

Federal inventory administration data-entry software, possibly mobile data-entry terminal with accessories

1 axe iron rods (T profile), forms, maps, chalk

in addition for the first inventory in the new Länder

3 callipers for diameters up to 30, 40, 60 cm

1 7 m telescopic rod for callipers

in addition for repeat inventory in the territory of the former West Germany:

1 metal detector

cluster documents from the first inventory

possibly

GPS device

Inventory method

2

Inventory method

2.1

Sample distribution

The sample distribution is based on a regular 4 km x 4 km quadrangle grid (basic

grid), determined by the Gauß-Krüger coordinates system. As for the 1986-1990

National Forest Inventory, the coordinates for the starting point of the grid are

R 3556.2; H 5566.2. The sample grid is intensified in some Länder or parts of

Länder to a 2.83 km x 2.83 km or 2 km x 2 km quadrangle grid (Annex to 2 nd

Federal Forest Inventory Order). The Federal Ministry of Food, Agriculture and

Forestry makes a list available to each Land with the coordinates of all grid points

which come within the territory of the Land concerned. The planned intensification

is taken into consideration in the lists.

2.2 The inventory cluster

The inventory cluster covers a quadrangle with sides of 150 m. The sides of the cluster are oriented north-south and east-west respectively. They form the boundaries of the cluster. The cluster coordinates give the location of the south- west plot. The data collections are carried out at the plots. The road inventory is conducted along the entire boundary of the cluster.

Forest clusters

Clusters in which at least one plot is located in a forest (see chapter 5.2) are forest clusters and are to be surveyed in accordance with these instructions.

The cluster structure is shown in Figure 2.

Inventory method

Inventory method Figure 2: Structure of a cluster with its 4 plots 13

Figure 2: Structure of a cluster with its 4 plots

Inventory method

Inventory method

The sample selection within the clusters is made according to the following procedure:

at the plots: angle-count sampling, sample areas;

along the boundary of the cluster: boundary intersections of road inventory (only in the new Länder)

2.3 Angle-count sampling / sample trees

Each plot in the forest is the centre of angle-count sampling with basal area factor

4.

Sample trees of the National Forest Inventory and to be described in more detail as a basis for a wide variety of evaluations are all trees which

- are included in the angle-count sampling (basal area factor 4) and

- are live or recent dead (fine branchwood maintained in full) and

- belong to the same stand as that in which the centre point of the sample lies and

- have a breast-height diameter of at least 7 cm.

In addition, angle-count sampling with basal area factor 1 or 2 is carried out in which the trees are counted as a basis for describing the forest structure by species of tree and storey (see chapter 5.6.1). At forest edges, the angle-count sampling must be the subject of regular reflexion. Stand boundaries are not taken into consideration.

Inventory method

2.4 Sample circles

1. Each plot located in the forest is the centre of a sample circle with a radius of 1.75 m. In this sample circle, all trees over 50 cm high and under 7 cm breast- height diameter are surveyed (see chapter 1.2).

2. A sample circle with a 1.00 m radius is located 5 m away from the plot, generally to the north. In this sample circle, the trees of 20 cm to 50 cm in height are recorded (see chapter 1.2).

3. In a sample circle with a 5 m radius around the plot, the occurrence of deadwood is determined (see chapter 5.8).

4. In a sample circle with a 10 m radius around the plot, trees up to 4 m in height (see chapter 5.6.1), shrub layer and ground vegetation (see chapter 5.6.2) are surveyed.

5. In a circle of 25 m around plots located in the forest, site characteristics and forest edges are recorded (see chapters 5.7 and 5.9).

If a sample circle with r=1.75 m or r=5 m is divided by a stand boundary, only the

part in which the plot is located is considered and the course of the stand boundary

is to be surveyed in. The surveying-in is not applicable if no sample objects are to

be found in the sample circle.

2.5 Boundary intersections

An inventory of roads in the forest is carried out in the new Länder. To this end, all

tracks and roads which intersect the boundary of the cluster in the forest or in the

area of the forest edge are described. Roads on which the loading of timber

transport vehicles is not authorised are not included.

Preliminary details of the plot

3

Preliminary details of the cluster

3.1

Information on cluster

3.1.1

Identification of cluster

The identification of the cluster is necessary to check that the data are complete.

Identification of cluster

N

=

Normal cluster, located entirely in one Land (4 plots)

L

=

Cluster on the border between Länder, which is covered in full (4 plots)

G

=

Cluster on the border between Länder, which on account of various grid size areas is only covered in part (<4 plots)

S

=

Cluster on the national border, which is only covered in part (<4 plots)

A

=

Cluster which is entirely outside the territory of the Federal Republic of Germany and is therefore not covered

R

=

Cluster which is not in the grid of BWI II and is therefore not covered

Categories A and R prevent no information being available in the BWI database

on sample coordinates at the German border or at the border of grid size areas

which were included in the list of coordinates as a precaution.

Preliminary details of the plot

3.1.2 Cluster status The status of the cluster serves as the basis for the decision as to whether a

cluster has to be sought in the site. It is determined with the help of up-to-date

forest distribution maps or aerial photographs.

The sample grid is plotted on the map or aerial photographs. The cluster extends

150 m to the north and to the east from the grid coordinate. Clusters with at least

one plot in the forest are forest clusters. Clusters which, according to the

representation on the map or aerial photograph, are incontestably situated

entirely outside the forest are non-forest clusters. All other cases are to be

considered to start with as “uncertain”.

Cluster status

1 BWI I forest cluster

=

2 Forest cluster to be included for the first time in BWI II

3 Forest/non-forest – decision uncertain

4 Non-forest cluster, situated entirely in built-up area or in a body of water

5 Non-forest cluster in the open countryside

=

=

=

=

Clusters in categories 1 to 3 are sought out in the site. Clusters in category 3 are

then assigned to the established category. Forest clusters are surveyed according

to the survey instructions.

If a cluster is divided by a Land border, the survey of the cluster is undertaken

by the Land in which the grid coordinate (south-west plot) lies. The Land

inventory administrations exchange the necessary documents and information

for this purpose.

Preliminary details of the plot

Departures from the general rule that clusters on Land borders are surveyed by the Land in which the south-west plot is located are possible in individual cases if the adjoining Länder have agreed in advance and informed the Federal inventory administration of this.

The cluster status determined in the preliminary details is corrected during the fieldwork if a different cluster status is established. In particular, category 3 clusters (cluster status uncertain) must be assigned to the established category in the site. If a BWI I forest cluster (cluster status 1) is now found to be “non- forest”, the cluster status must be amended accordingly (4 or 5).

Non-forest clusters, which are located partly in a built-up area or a body of water are assigned cluster status = 5 (non-forest in the open countryside).

Non-forest clusters of BWI I are shown on the forms with BWI I cluster status =

0.

3.1.3 Base map The base map serves to seek out the clusters in the site (chapter 4.1).

First survey All clusters classified as forest (2) or uncertain (3) are entered precisely on a large-scale base map (e.g. Deutsche Grundkarte 1:5,000). The section of the map with the cluster entered serves as a basis for surveying in the cluster. A copy is archived with the Federal inventory administration.

Repeat survey For all NFI 1 forest clusters, the completed form “preliminary details of the cluster / surveying in the cluster” from NFI 1 is copied.

For clusters classified for the first time as forest (2) or as uncertain (3), the procedure is the same as for the first survey.

The Land inventory administrations give copies of the base maps of each forest cluster and copies of the surveying-in reports on completion of the entire data collection to the Federal inventory administration for archiving.

Preliminary details of the plot

3.1.4 Magnetic deviation

The magnetic deviation gives the angle between true north and magnetic north

and must be taken into consideration when surveying in the plots. It is made

available by the Federal inventory administration.

The Federal inventory administration provides updates of the magnetic deviation relating to mid-year 2000, 2001 and 2002 respectively.

Allowance must be made for the magnetic deviation when surveying in the plots at the angle measured on the map. This can be undertaken mathematically or by adjustment on the compass (not always possible). In any case, the sign must be taken into account. In the case of mathematical consideration of the magnetic deviation, it must be ensured that no adjustment is made for magnetic deviation on the compass.

3.1.5 Altitude

For clusters to be newly recorded, the altitude above sea level for the centre of

the cluster is taken from the topographic map 1:25,000 or other suitable sources

(full metres).

The centre of the cluster is the point of intersection of the diagonals of the cluster from an orthogonal projection. The altitude is only to be indicated for forest clusters.

3.1.6 Occurrence of hoofed game

The local forest services are questioned about the regular occurrence of species

of hoofed game, which is shown by yes (1) or no (0) for wild boars, red deer,

fallow deer, roe deer and moufflons.

The occurrence of hoofed game is only to be indicated for forest clusters.

Preliminary details of the plot

3.2 Information on plots

In the repeat survey, the information available from National Forest Inventory I

is examined and if necessary corrected or supplemented.

The characteristics according to chapter 3.2.1 are in any case to be assigned to the plots. All other characteristics are only to be indicated if the plot lies in the forest.

3.2.1

Assignment of administrative characteristics First survey

Repeat survey

The assignment to the municipality should be supplemented. The other assignments are checked.

The following assignments are to be made for each plot: Land, district, municipality, forestry structural unit (forestry office, forest region, forest area).

The codes of the lists of the Länder, districts and municipalities and forestry structural units (forestry offices, forestry departments) contained in the NFI Land database are to be used. No account is taken of later restructuring.

In the case of clusters bordering on foreign countries (cluster identification = “S”, see chapter 3.1.1), the Land assignment “0” is entered for the plots located abroad. The other administrative characteristics are left blank. For the characteristic forest (chapter 5.2) “8” (= not relevant, because outside German territory) must be indicated.

In the case of clusters on the border of grid size areas (cluster identification = G, see chapter 3.1.1), for the plots not belonging to the grid only the Land is recorded. For the characteristic forest (chapter 5.2), “9” (= not relevant, because not belonging to intensification area) must be indicated. All other characteristics are left blank.

In the case of clusters bordering with another Land (cluster identification = L, see chapter 3.1.1), the information for all plots is to be collected in full. In so doing, care should be taken to use the current characteristics and key specific to the Land.

Preliminary details of the plot

3.2.2 Types of ownership

The types of ownership are determined on the basis of suitable map material

(e.g. map of forest estates, cadastral map) for each plot:

Types of ownership

1

= State forest (Federal)

2

= State forest (Land)

3

= Corporate body forest

30

= Municipal forest

31

= Church forest assigned to corporate body forest

32

= Community forest assigned to corporate body forest

33

= Cooperative forest assigned to corporate body forest

4

= Privately owned forest

40

= Privately owned forest

41

= Church forest assigned to privately owned forest

42

= Community forest assigned to privately owned forest

5

= Forest under Treuhandanstalt administration

The use of two-digit codes is optional and to be laid down as standard for each

Land. The primary one-digit code numbers may not then be used.

The following codes are used in the Länder:

SH, NW, RP, SL, BE, BB

One-digit codes 1)

HH, NI, HB, HE, BW, BY, MV, SN, ST, TH

Two-digit codes

Cooperative ownership and church forest are as a rule to be assigned to privately owned forest.

3.2.3 Ownership size classes

The corporate body forest and privately owned forest are broken down into the

size classes indicated below. The assignment is made according to the forested

area which is managed by the same undertaking or the same operating control

point.

1)

Preliminary details of the plot

If necessary, the forest owners should be asked which ownership size class they should be assigned to. In this way, it is ensured that forest ownership unknown to the inventory staff is considered. The decisive factor is the forested area in the whole country.

Ownership size classes

1

=

up to 20 hectares

11

=

up to 5 hectares

111

=

up to 1 hectare

112

=

1 to 5 hectares

12

=

5 to 20 hectares

2

=

20 to 50 hectares

21

=

20 to 30 hectares

22

=

30 to 50 hectares

3

=

50 to 100 hectares

4

=

100 to 200 hectares

5

=

200 to 500 hectares

6

=

500 to 1000 hectares

7

=

Over 1000 hectares

The use of the multi-digit codes is optional and to be laid down as standard for

each Land. The primary shorter code numbers may not then be used.

The following codes are used in the Länder:

HE, RP, SL

1 / 2 / 3 / 4 / 5 / 6 / 7

SN, ST, TH

111

/ 112 / 12 / 2 / 3 / 4 / 5 / 6 / 7

HH, NI, HB, BY

111

/ 112 / 12 / 21 / 22 / 3 / 4 / 5 / 6 / 7

SH, BW, BE, BB

11

/ 12 / 2 / 3 / 4 / 5 / 6 / 7

NW, MV

11

/ 12 / 21 / 22 / 3 / 4 / 5 / 6 / 7

Preliminary details of the plot

3.2.4 Restriction on the use of timber

Restrictions on use exist if, on the basis of legal provisions or other causes external to the operation, the possible uses of timber at least in part are not available.

Restrictions on use

0 = no restriction on the use of timber

1 = Restricted use of timber

2 = use of timber not authorised

3.2.5 Stand age

The age indicated is that reached on the reference date of the inventory

(01.10.2002).

First survey Where documents (including forest management work) exist, the age of the stand is taken from them and recorded for each species of tree or canopy class. If a species of tree occurs in several age groups, multiple entries are made.

3.2.6 Natural altitudinal zone

1 =

Flat

2 =

Hilly

3 =

Sub-montane

4 =

Montane

5 =

Alpine

Repeat survey The age of the main stand is extrapolated by the Federal inventory administration from National Forest Inventory I. It is checked on the basis of other documents and where appropriate supplemented with further information serving to derive the age of the other canopy classes.

The “alpine” zone includes high-montane and sub-alpine.

Preliminary details of the plot

3.2.7 Natural forest community

For each forest plot, the natural forest community is taken from the mapping of

the location and classified in the list in accordance with Annex 4. Where no

mapping of the location exists, a proposal for the natural forest community is

inferred by the Land inventory administration on the basis of corresponding

documents (general maps showing potential natural vegetation, topographic

map, geological map, soil map, regional/local vegetation mapping). This

proposal is examined by the inventory team on site and if necessary corrected

(see chapter 5.6.5). The training of the team necessary for this purpose is

organised by the Land inventory administration. Evidence must be given of the

basis from which the natural forest community is inferred.

Mapping of location

0 Mapping of the location not available

=

1 Natural forest community taken or inferred from mapping of location

=

Composition of tree species of the natural forest community

The Land inventory administrations describe the regional and area composition

of tree species of the present potentially natural vegetation for each natural

forest community occurring in the Land. This natural composition of tree

species is characterised by naming the main tree species (up to three tree

species) and further tree species (secondary species, accompanying species or

pioneer species). The validity at regional and area levels can be established

through the assignment of forest regions and forest areas and if necessary

contour areas.

Preliminary details of the plot

Main tree species are the dominant tree species in the upper canopy level.

Secondary tree species are obligate companions which are not dominant in the upper canopy.

Accompanying tree species are accessory companions, but not pioneer tree species.

Pioneer tree species are tree species which colonise the location at early stages of the succession following a disruption.

3.3 Information on boundary intersections

In the new Länder, the type of ownership (chapter 3.2.2) is communicated at the

points where tracks or roads intersect the boundary of the cluster in the forest or

in the area at the edge of the forest. If the types of ownership on either side of

the track or road are different, both are indicated.

Type of ownership at boundary intersection

1

= State forest (Federal)

2

= State forest (Land)

3

= Corporate body forest

30

= Municipal forest

31

= Church forest assigned to corporate body forest

32

= Community forest assigned to corporate body forest

33

= Cooperative forest assigned to corporate body forest

4

= Privately owned forest

40

= Privately owned forest

41

= Church forest assigned to privately owned forest

42

= Community forest assigned to privately owned forest

5

= Forest under Treuhandanstalt administration

Preliminary details of the plot

The use of two-digit codes is optional and to be laid down as standard for each

Land. The primary one-digit code numbers may not then be used.

The following codes are used in the Länder:

SH, NW, RP, SL, BE, BB

One-digit codes 1)

HH, NI, HB, HE, BW, BY, MV, SN, ST, TH

Two-digit codes

Cooperative ownership and church forest are as a rule to be assigned to privately owned forest.

This refers to the type of ownership of the adjoining forest – not that of the road.

If there is forest on only one side of the road (grading of road = 1), type of ownership 2 is left blank.

Side of cluster The side of the cluster on which the road lies is to be recorded.

1)

1

=

AB

2

=

BC

3

=

CD

4

=

DA

Land

The forest bordering on the road is to be assigned to a Land. For roads which

run along a Land boundary, both Länder should be indicated.

Laying out the plot in the site

4

Laying out the cluster in the site

4.1

Surveying in the cluster

First survey The cluster is recorded in the site by first surveying in the most accessible plot from a starting point clearly identifiable in nature and from the base map (e.g. boundary stone, road junction, corner of parcel). From this point, work is continued according to the specified structure of the cluster to the other plots. The starting point is to be documented in a sketch and the surveying-in of the plots is to be evidenced in a surveying-in report. In the case of full clusters (all four plots in the forest), the measurement is finally made as a check from the last plot surveyed in to the first plot. In this respect, the following divergences between the end point of the cluster boundary and the starting plot are tolerated:

in normal (easy) conditions 5 m

in difficult conditions 10 m

in very difficult conditions (ex- tremely steep places) 20 m. If the tolerance limits are exceeded, the cluster has to be surveyed in again.

Repeat survey To find the cluster, it is recommended first looking for the starting point noted in the form “surveying in the cluster” of the first survey. Then, with the help of the surveying-in report and the cluster and angle-count sampling sketches of the first survey, the first plot is surveyed in and the marker (chapter 4.2) located, if necessary with the metal detector. From this point, work is continued according to the specified structure of the cluster to the other plots. In any case, a new starting point is to be established from which a plot is surveyed in and its marker sought if the starting point of the first survey is not found again or if another sequence seems more favourable to survey in the cluster. If the plot marker is not found again, but its location can be clearly reconstructed with the help of the angle-count sampling sketch, a new marker is set. If a cluster or a plot is not found again at all, the reasons for each individual case are to be discussed with the Land inventory administration and the corresponding points are to be newly surveyed in.

Laying out the plot in the site

The surveying-in generally takes place using a compass, ranging poles and range

finder or measuring tape. When measuring direction, account has to be taken of the

magnetic deviation. All distances are to be measured horizontally.

The azimuth to the object to be surveyed in is always indicated. When surveying in

the plot, the measurement is taken from the starting point to the plot; when

surveying in a sample tree, on the other hand, the measurement is taken from the

plot center to the tree.

If there are obstacles on the cluster boundary, a survey traverse can also be used to

survey in the next plot.

Survey traverses can be calculated using a tool integrated in the data collection program.

The search for the cluster can also be undertaken with the help of a global positio-

ning system (GPS) or up-to-date aerial photographs. If no orthophotos exist, the

possible distortions in the aerial photograph must be taken into consideration.

The selection of a suitable starting point has a considerable influence on the effort needed to survey in the cluster – for both the present and future inventories. The starting point must be permanent, clear and near a plot. The starting point must be marked on the base plan and shown and sketched in the surveying-in report (e.g. surveying in the cluster form TE).

In the first survey, it is advisable to survey in all the plots first and only start with the data collection if the authorised deviation in closing the cluster (from the last to the first plot) is observed.

Laying out the plot in the site

If an electronic range-finder is used to survey in the cluster, a calibration is to be carried out according to the instruction manual daily and each time a cluster is surveyed in.

If in a sloping site the horizontal distance cannot be determined automatically using the range-finder, the distances measured on the slope are to be converted using the reduction factors in Annex 6.

If the surveying-in takes place using GPS, a prominent landmark to at least one plot (chapter 4.2) is to be indicated and recorded in the base map. This will ensure that the cluster is found again if there is doubt about the accuracy of the GPS surveying-in.

The Land inventory administrations give copies of the base maps of each forest cluster and copies of the surveying-in reports after the entire data collection has been completed to the Federal inventory administration for archiving.

4.2 Marking the plots

First survey The plots located in the forest are marked by steel rods (T section) which are sunk into the ground. If the marker cannot be driven in (e.g. rock, bed of a stream), a substitute point is marked and documented (azimuth, horizontal distance).

Repeat survey All clusters surveyed in National Forest Inventory 1 are marked by a metal rod sunk into the ground covered with a tube. Where the metal rod could not be driven in, (e.g. rock, bed of a stream), a substitute point was marked and recorded in the “Surveying in the cluster” form. If a marker can no longer be found or is no longer suitable as a permanent marker, this is to be noted and the plot is given a new marker as in the first survey.

Laying out the plot in the site

Marking the plot

0 Marker not sought / not found, because plot now in non-forest

=

1 old marker found again

=

2 old marker not found again or unsuitable, but plot and sample trees clearly identified; new marker placed

3 Marker placed for first time

4 old plot and sample trees not found again, new surveying-in of plot, new marker placed

=

=

=

If a prominent landmark is located near the plot (e.g. boundary stone, crossroads),

this is to be surveyed in with its polar coordinates (azimuth, horizontal distance) as

additional orientation assistance so that the plot can be found again at a later stage.

The plot is to be marked temporarily (chapter 5.4.2) for inspection purposes

(chapter 1.9).

As temporary marking of the plot, the sample tree nearest to the plot is to be inscribed with its sample tree number in chalk or in another suitable manner.

4.3 Surveying in the sample circles

The sample circles (apart from r=1 m) have their centre precisely at the plot

marker.

The sample circle with 1 m radius lies 5 m to the north (horizontal distance). If it is

not entirely in the same stand as the plot, the sample circle is shifted not to the

north but to the south. If it is not in the same stand there either, then it is shifted to

the east or finally to the west. The centre of the sample circle is marked by a

ranging pole for the time of the survey.

Laying out the plot in the site

Sample circle radii are measured as horizontal distances. The range-finder is used

for this purpose or a measuring tape or measuring rod is held horizontally.

4.4 Surveying in forest edges and stand boundaries

Forest edges are surveyed in within a radius of 25 m around plots located in the

forest.

In addition, stand boundaries which are not also forest edges must be surveyed in,

if the boundary circle of a sample tree of the angle-count sampling with basal area basal area factor 4 (chapter 5.4.1) is intersected. These are all stand boundaries within the radius of 25 times the breast-height diameter around sample trees of the angle-count sampling. However, stand boundaries which are further than 25 m from the plot are not surveyed in.

if it divides a sample circle with r=1.75 m or r=5 m. The surveying-in is not applicable if in the sample circle concerned no sample elements (trees between 50 cm height and 6.9 cm breast-height diameter or deadwood) are available.

The stand boundaries surveyed in during National Forest Inventory 1 should be

checked. Surveying-in is not applicable if correct data from NFI 1 are available.

The surveying-in of the stand boundaries and forest edges is simplest if horizontal

distance and azimuth are determined for two points on the boundary line. If the

stand boundary does not run in a straight line, a further point is surveyed in at the

knickpoint. The survey points on the stand boundary should be at least 10 m apart.

For one plot, a maximum of two stand boundaries (including forest edges) can be

recorded.

Laying out the plot in the site

Two separately surveyed-in boundary lines may not cross one another between the starting and end points surveyed in.

If the actual situation cannot be reflected correctly with two lines, the survey is to be simplified as follows:

1. Survey forest edges and if necessary omit stand boundaries.

2. Survey the stand boundaries which intersect the sample circle r = 1.75 m, if sample trees occur in it from 50 cm height up to 6.9 cm breast-height diameter.

3. Survey the stand boundaries which intersect the sample circle r = 5 m, if deadwood occurs in it.

4. Survey the stand boundaries which run the closest to a sample tree of the angle-count sampling (basal area factor 4).

If a boundary line has more than one knickpoint within the area to be surveyed in, the course is to be straightened so that the difference with reality is as small as possible.

The boundary line normally runs along the outer crown edge. If the adjoining form

of land use is clearly delimited (e.g. fence, road), this is the boundary line. In the

case of roads less than 5 m wide (wooded ground belonging to the forest), the

centre of the road is surveyed in as the boundary line.

The forest edges and stand boundaries surveyed in are also shown in the sketch of the location for the angle-count sampling on the data-entry terminal (MDE). The data are to be checked by the team on the spot, comparing the sketch with reality.

The direction is always specified from the plot to the measuring point on the boundary line (not the other way round!).

Laying out the plot in the site

end point starting- point
end point
starting-
point
endpoint
endpoint

starting

point

knickpoint

Figure 3: Surveying in stand boundaries and forest edges

Bestandesgrenze=Stand boundary Aufgenommener Bestand=Stand surveyed

To mark the validity of the stand boundaries and forest edges for the evaluation, a code number forest edge/stand boundary is to be indicated (see chapter 5.9.1).

Surveying the plot

5

Surveying the cluster

5.1

Accessibility

Accessible plots are surveyed in and recorded. For inaccessible plots, only the data

recognisable from a distance are recorded.

1 Accessible

=

2 Inaccessible, entry prohibited

3 Inaccessible, dangerous site conditions (e.g. mountain, bog, water)

4 Inaccessible, other dangers

5 Inaccessible, dwarf pine plantation

=

=

=

=

5.2 Forest/non-forest

After surveying in a plot, it is first established whether it is in the forest.

Forest within the meaning of the NFI is any area of ground covered by forest vegetation, irrespective of the information in the cadastral survey or similar records. The term forest also refers to cutover or thinned areas, forest tracks, firebreaks, openings and clearings, forest glades, feeding grounds for game, landings, rides located in the forest, further areas linked to and serving the forest including areas with recreation facilities, overgrown heaths and moorland, overgrown former pastures, alpine pastures and rough pastures, as well as areas of dwarf pines and green alders. Heaths, moorland, pastures, alpine pastures and rough pastures are considered to be overgrown if the natural forest cover has reached an average age of five years and if at least 50% of the area is covered by forest.

Areas with forest cover in open pasture land or in built-up areas of under 1000 m², coppices under 10 m wide and the cultivation of Christmas trees and ornamental brushwood as well as parkland attached to country houses are not forest within the meaning of the FFI. Watercourses up to 5 m wide do not break the continuity of a forest area.

Surveying the plot

The cultivation of Christmas trees and ornamental brushwood in the forest is forest within the meaning of the FFI.

Forest/non-forest

0

=

non-forest

1

=

productive forest, wooded ground

2

=

unproductive forest, wooded ground

3

=

forest, temporarily unstocked area

4

=

forest, non-wooded ground

8

=

not relevant, because outside German territory

9

=

not relevant, because not belonging to intensification area

Temporarily unstocked area are areas of wooded ground temporarily without forest cover.

Unproductive forest areas are fields of dwarf pines and green alders, areas of shrubs (but not temporarily unstocked area) and other forest areas which are

sparsely

(dGZ)/hectare).

covered

or

with

low

productivity

(

1

m³ average total growth

Non-wooded ground includes forest tracks*, rides** and firebreaks over 5 m wide, landings, tree nurseries, seed and plant nurseries, wood-pastures and fields for game, the areas of yards and buildings used for forestry purposes, recreational facilities linked to the forest and rocks, boulders, gravel and water located in the forest. In addition, if they are not overgrown, swamps and moors located in the forest come under non-wooded ground.

* When determining the width of the track for the identification of non- wooded ground, verges and ditches on both sides are included in the measurement, but not adjacent embankments.

** The measurement of the width of the ride is made from tree to tree at root collar level, with 3 m deductible on each side as belonging to the respective stand. A ride is therefore included as non-wooded ground if the distance from tree to tree at root collar level amounts to more than 11 m. The borders of the non-wooded ground are in these cases to be established at a distance of 3 m each from the trees at root collar level of the trees on the edge.

Further surveys are carried out only in the forest (wooded ground, including

temporarily unstocked area).

Surveying the plot

In non-wooded areas, only specially protected forest biotopes are recorded (see chapter 5.6.6).

5.3 Type of silvicultural system

1 = high forest

2 = multi-aged forest

3 = coppice with standards

4 = Coppice forest

The information is given for the stand in which the plot is located.

In particular, the conditions are to be considered in sample circle r = 25 m.

High forest is a forest developing from plantation or grown from seedlings or a forest from coppice stand or suckers which is not termed as a coppice forest on account of its age (>40 years). In the high forest, entire stands or parts of a stand are exploited through clearing or during a period of regeneration.

Multi-aged forest is a form of high forest in which trees of different ages and different dimensions (height, diameter) are mixed in small aggregations and over a long period.

Coppice forest is a forest from coppice stand or suckers of up to 40 years of age.

Coppice with standards is a hybrid formed from coppice forest and high forest, with overwood from grown coppice stands and seedlings and underwood from coppice stand, suckers and seedlings.

Surveying the plot / Sample trees from 7 cm

5.4

Sample trees from 7 cm DBH

5.4.1

Selection by means of angle-count sampling

5.4.1.1 Principles

For the selection of the sample trees from 7 cm breast-height diameter, angle-count sampling with basal area factor 4 is carried out at each forest plot.

The survey is carried out using the relascope. As a rule, this must be located precisely in the plot. For this purpose, the relascope is placed next to the ranging pole inserted in the plot. If there are obstructions to the view which cannot be removed easily, it is moved sideways. However, in so doing, the distance from the targeted tree may not change. The sights with the relascope are in principle carried out with the weighted wheel released. If the tree is leaning, the relascope is inclined accordingly.

Every live or recently dead tree from 7 cm DBH, with a breast-height diameter in the relascope view which appears wider than the scale for basal area factor 4 (a white band and four narrow alternating black and white bands) is selected as a sample tree.

In cases of doubt, a precise check of the borderline tree is to be carried out (see chapter 5.4.1.2). A tree is to be considered as recently dead if the entire fine branch structure is still in existence.

Surveying the plot / Sample trees from 7 cm

Surveying the plot / Sample trees from 7 cm yes no borderline tree Figure 4: Angle-count

yes

no

borderline tree

Figure 4: Angle-count sampling – basal area factor 4 in relascope viewAbbildung

Special for repeat survey:

In principle, all sample trees included in the 1986-1990 National Forest Inventory

are also to be verified in the repeat inventory. The whereabouts of sample trees no

longer in existence is to be documented (chapter 5.4.3).

The species of tree, azimuth and distance, as well as the age of the tree extrapolated from the first inventory are to be checked and if necessary corrected.

5.4.1.2 Check of borderline tree

A check of a borderline tree is carried out if on viewing through the relascope it

cannot be established clearly whether this is a sample tree. This involves checking

Surveying the plot / Sample trees from 7 cm

whether the centre of the angle-count sampling lies within the limit circle of the

tree to be checked. This is the case if the horizontal distance is smaller than 25

times the breast-height diameter (or the horizontal distance in m is smaller than ¼

of the breast-height diameter in cm).

As described in chapter 5.4.6, the horizontal distance is to be measured to 1 cm

accuracy.

For the trees included, the check of the borderline tree is carried out automatically on data validation with the MDE.

5.4.1.3 Angle-count sampling at the stand boundary

In the angle-count sampling, the selection should be made only of trees of the stand

in which the plot also lies. For sample trees in the vicinity of the stand boundary, it

must be ascertained which part of the limit circle lies within the stand. For this

purpose, forest edges or stand boundaries are to be surveyed in if their distance

from the sample tree is less than 25 times the breast-height diameter and their

distance from the sampling point is less than 25 m. Surveying-in is not applicable

if correct data from NFI 1 are available (chapter 4.4).

The stand boundaries and forest edges are surveyed in by determining the

horizontal distance and azimuth for two points situated on the boundary line. If the

boundary line does not run straight, a further point is surveyed in at the knickpoint.

For one plot, a maximum of two stand boundaries (forest edges) can be recorded.

The boundary line normally runs along the outer crown edge. If the adjoining form

of land use is clearly delimited (e.g. fence, road), this is the boundary line. In the

case of roads less than 5 m wide, the boundary line runs along the centre of the

road.

Surveying the plot / Sample trees from 7 cm

Further details on surveying in stand boundaries are given in chapter 4.4.

5.4.2 Sample tree number

Each sample tree is assigned a tree number with which it can be clearly identified

within the angle-count sampling. Forks developing below breast height (1.3 m) are

recorded in the same way as two separate trees.

First survey The sample tree closest to the centre of the angle-count sampling is recorded first. The further recordings take place clockwise. The sample trees are numbered in the order in which they are recorded starting at 1.

Repeat survey The tree numbers allocated during National Forest Inventory 1 are retained. The count of the newly recorded sample trees starts with the next free number. The trees are recorded clockwise.

It is recommended to identify the sample trees temporarily during the survey. The

sample tree standing closest to the plot is to be marked temporarily for control

purposes (chapter 1.9).

5.4.3

Sample tree code number

0

= new sample tree

1

= sample tree of NFI 1 recorded again

2

= selectively removed sample tree of NFI 1

3

= sample tree of NFI 1 removed by clear-cutting

4

= no longer standing existing sample tree of NFI 1, but obviously not merchantable

5

=

sample tree of NFI 1 dead without fine branch structure (not a sample tree of NFI 2)

6

= sample tree of NFI 1, which no longer belongs to the sample because it now stands behind a stand boundary

9

= sample tree of NFI 1 which can no longer be found, not even as a stump. 3

3 The following further code numbers are also assigned during the data validation:

7 = invalid sample tree of NFI 1, because horizontal distance greater than limit circle radius

8 = invalid sample tree of NFI 2, because horizontal distance greater than limit circle radius or not belonging to the stand.

Surveying the plot / Sample trees from 7 cm

Category 4 refers to trees which it is true were cut down or fell over but which may

not be counted as merchantable. This does not include freshly felled trees which

are obviously intended for skidding.

Further information is given only for trees with sample tree code number 0 or 1.

Before the code number “can no longer be found” (9) is given, a thorough check

first has to be made for a possible error in coordinates and to see whether a

corresponding tree not included is to be found in another place.

In particular, it should be checked whether it is found with an azimuth reduced by 200 gon. This error occurs if during NFI 1 the measurement was wrongly made not from the plot to the tree but in the opposite direction.

The distinction between “removed” (code number =2 or =3) and “no longer standing existing” (code number = 4) sample trees is important to calculate the quantity of timber harvested. In the case of “removed” sample trees, it is assumed that they were or are being utilised in some form or another. They are therefore to be taken into account in the calculation of the timber harvest. “No longer standing existing” sample trees, on the other hand, are not taken into account in the calculation of the timber harvest.

Surveying the plot / Sample trees from 7 cm

A sample tree is considered to be “removed” (code number =2 or =3) if the trunk

is no longer – either standing or lying – in its former place so that it can be assumed that it was harvested. Furthermore, freshly felled sample trees, which are

obviously for logging, are considered to be “removed”.

In contrast to this, code number = 4 is assigned if the sample tree has fallen and is lying in the vicinity of its former location. Moreover, code number = 4 is assigned for sample trees which have already been felled some time ago and not removed so that it is unlikely that they will be utilised.

If part of the tree has been “removed” and part is still in the vicinity of its former

location, the code number is assigned according to the whereabouts of the main

part of the trunk.

Sample tree code number = 3 is to be assigned if all trees have been eliminated since NFI 1 (reference date 1987) in the vicinity of the plot and no sample tree of NFI 1 exists any longer. Accordingly, code number = 2 is assigned if individual trees have been removed and others remained.

If sample trees from NFI 1 are contained in the data which, on examination of the

limit circle or of whether they belong to the stand, prove to be invalid, the corresponding code number (6 or 8) is assigned. Further surveys are not made of these trees. If the invalidity of newly recorded sample trees is recognised during the survey, the record can also be deleted. If this is a height-measured tree, pay attention to the required height measurements!

Surveying the plot / Sample trees from 7 cm

5.4.4 Species of tree

For the registration of the species of tree, the Länder can choose between a long

and a short list, which is then used throughout the Land.

Short list of tree species

Long list of tree species

Norway spruce (10)

Norway spruce (10)

Serbian spruce (11)

Serbian spruce (11)

other spruces (19)

sitka spruce (12), black spruce (13), Engelmann spruce (14), Colorado blue spruce (15), white spruce (16)

Scots pine (20)

Scots pine (20)

mountain pine (21)

mountain pine (21)

black pine (22)

black pine (22)

white pine (23)

white pine (23)

Swiss stone pine (24)

Swiss stone pine (24)

other pines (29)

Weymouth pine (25), Murray pine (26), yellow pine (27),

European silver fir (30)

European silver fir (30)

other firs (39)

American silver fir (31), white fir (32), giant fir (33), Nikko fir (34), Nordmann fir (35), Veitch fir (36)

Douglas fir (40)

Douglas fir (40)

European larch (50)

European larch (50)

Japanese larch (+hybrid) (51)

Japanese larch (+hybrid) (51)

yew (94)

yew (94)

other conifers (90)

white cedar (91), hemlock spruce (92), sequoia (93), Lawson cyprus (95), other conifers (99)

copper beech (100)

copper beech (100)

common oak (110)

common oak (110)

sessile oak (111)

sessile oak (111)

black oak (112)

black oak (112)

Turkey oak (113)

Turkey oak (113)

European ash (120)

European ash (120), white ash (121)

hornbeam (130)

hornbeam (130)

sycamore maple (140)

sycamore maple (140)

Norway maple (141)

Norway maple (141)

field maple (142)

field maple (142)

lime tree (150)

lime tree (150)

false acacia (160)

false acacia (160)

elm (170)

elm (170)

horse chestnut tree (180)

horse chestnut tree (180)

Surveying the plot / Sample trees from 7 cm

Short list of tree species

Long list of tree species

sweet chestnut (181)

sweet chestnut (181)

service tree (191)

service tree (191)

white mulberry tree (192)

white mulberry tree (192)

whitebeam (193)

whitebeam (193)

walnut (194)

walnut (194)

holly (195)

holly (195)

other long-lived broadleaved trees

marsh oak (114), box elder (143), silver maple (144), European plane (196), other long-lived broadleaved trees (199)

(190)

European white birch (200)

European white birch (200)

alder (210)

common alder (211), grey alder (212), European green alder (213)

aspen (220)

aspen (220)

black poplar (+hybrids) (221)

black poplar (+hybrids) (221)

grey poplar (+hybrids) (222),

grey poplar (+hybrids) (222)

white poplar (223)

white poplar (223)

balsam poplar (+hybrids) (224)

balsam poplar (+hybrids) (224)

sorb (230)

sorb (230)

willow (240)

willow (240)

bird cherry (250)

bird cherry (250)

wild cherry (251)

wild cherry (251)

alder buckthorn (291)

alder buckthorn (291)

crab apple tree (292)

crab apple tree (292)

wild pear tree (293)

wild pear tree (293)

Turkish hazel (294)

Turkish hazel (294)

criping fruited service tree (295)

criping fruited service tree (295)

downy birch (201)

downy birch (201)

other short-lived broadleaved trees

black cherry (252), ailanthus (296), other short-lived broadleaved trees (299)

(290)

Alphabetical lists of tree species are to be found in Annex 8. The following codes are used in the Länder:

HE, RP, BW, SL, BE, BB, SN, TH

short list

SH, HH, NI, HB, NW, BY, MV, ST

long list

Surveying the plot / Sample trees from 7 cm

Special for repeat survey:

The data from National forest inventory 1 must be checked and if necessary

corrected. The entries maple, larch, cherry and other broadleaved trees are in

principle to be specified in accordance with the new list of tree species. For other

conifers, it should be investigated whether it is possible to be specific.

The pubescent oak is included with the sessile oak (111) and the Carpathian birch with the downy birch (201).

Tips on distinguishing between the common oak and the sessile oak are given in Annex 5.

5.4.5 Azimuth

First survey The angle between the line from the angle-count sampling centre to the sample tree and the magnetic north is measured in gon (azimuth). The magnetic deviation is not taken into account here.

5.4.6 Horizontal distance

First survey The horizontal distance from the angle- count sampling centre to the sample tree is measured to accuracy of 1 cm. The measuring point on the tree is determined by the perpendicular axis through the sectional area at breast height. For trees which in the relascope sight are incontestably identified as sample trees, the indication of the horizontal distance to accuracy of 1 dm suffices.

Repeat survey The data for sample trees of National forest inventory 1 found again are corrected if the view in the direction indicated does not line up with the tree trunk.

Repeat survey The data for sample trees of National forest inventory 1 found again are corrected if a divergence of over ½ DBH is found. If a check of a borderline tree is necessary (chapter 5.4.1.2), a divergence of only up to 3 cm is tolerated.

Surveying the plot / Sample trees from 7 cm

The measuring point on the tree is determined by the point of contact of a tangent

running through the plot to the sectional area of the trunk at a height of 1.30 m.

The measured slope distances in an inclined site are to be converted using the reduction factors in Annex 6, if the horizontal distance cannot be ascertained automatically with an appropriate measuring instrument.

5.4.7 Canopy class

Each tree is assigned to a canopy class.

The canopy classes form the vertical configuration of the stand. Within a canopy class, the trees have their crown area at the same height above the ground. Different canopy classes of a stand have no contact with one another in the crown area. The main stand is the canopy class where the main economic focus lies. If the degree of cover of the highest canopy amounts to at least 5/10, this is always the main stand. The underwood is the canopy class below the main stand. The overwood is the canopy class above the main stand.

Canopy class

0 no assignment possible (multi-aged forest)

=

1 =

main stand

2 =

underwood

3 =

overwood

5.4.8 Breast-height diameter

The breast-height diameter is ascertained precisely to 1 mm accuracy using the

girth tape. The measurement is made at right angles to the axis of the tree. The

measuring tape is to be pulled taught. Loose pieces of bark, lichen, moss, etc. are

to be removed.

Surveying the plot / Sample trees from 7 cm

This breast height is determined by the use of a height stick. For this purpose, it is

set firmly on the ground so that annual growth and ground vegetation are

compressed. In the case of thickening of the trunk at breast height, the

measurement is taken above or below the swelling. The measuring height must be

recorded. It must lie between a height of 0.5 m and 2.5 m. Trees which have forked

below breast height (1.30 m) are recorded as two separate trees.

breast height (1.30 m) are recorded as two separate trees. F i g u r e

Figure 5: Definition of breast height and measuring position of the breast-height diameter

In level sites, the base for measuring breast-height diameter is established in the direction of the sampling centre.

Surveying the plot / Sample trees from 7 cm

Special for repeat survey:

If a divergent measured height is recorded from National forest inventory 1, the

measurement is made at the same height again as far as possible.

5.4.9 Tree class

The social position and crown formation of each sample tree in the main stand is

assessed according to KRAFT:

Tree class

0 not main stand

=

1 predominant tree

=

2 dominant tree

3 co-dominant tree

4 suppressed tree

5 not used because these trees do not belong to the main stand (class: 0, canopy class: underwood)

=

=

=

=

2 4 2 3 1 4 2 5 3 2 Tree classes according to KRAFT
2
4
2
3
1
4
2
5
3
2
Tree classes according to KRAFT

Figure 6: KRAFT tree classes

Surveying the plot / Sample trees from 7 cm

5.4.10Tree age

The age of the tree gives the number of calendar years (and growing seasons) since the germination of the seed or taking root of the cutting. The indication of age is related to the reference date (1.10.2002) of the inventory.

First survey The age of the tree is taken from the age of the stand in the preliminary details of the cluster, provided this is not obviously inconsistent with the real age of the tree. If the preliminary details of the cluster contain no indication of age or a false indication, counts of annual rings on trunks or counts of whorls on branches are to be carried out. Alternatively, the age is to be estimated considering the local growth dynamics. With the consent of the owner of the forest, an increment borer can also be used. This should not be undertaken at breast height, however.

Repeat survey The age of the tree is extrapolated from National Forest Inventory 1. This information is corrected if the visual estimate of age would give grounds for suspecting a considerably different age (>1/3 of the indication of age).

The age for sample trees newly recorded in the sample is estimated using the existing information about age (age of tree or age of stand) for the plot.

The way in which the age is determined should be indicated.

Determination of age

1 information taken from preliminary details of the cluster

=

2 age determined from trunks

3 count of whorls on branches

4 age determined by increment borer

5 estimate

6 extrapolation of age from NFI 1

7 same as age of stand

=

=

=

=

=