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Construction Design History

Ursula Baus, Mike Schlaich
With photographs by Wilfried Dechau
Basel Boston' Berlin
6 About this Book
128 Urban Renovation
... R l' COIHllh-'r I ost lc-rrain
8 Bridges and Pictures
148 The Bridge as Interior Space
Prut t l t ion from \Vind .tnt! \\\ '.ltIH'I"
158 Covered and Enclosed Bridges
10 Characterization of the Footbridge
Con st ru c li on . lorm, Ili ... t on
14 Parameters and Structural Design
162 The Call for Symbols
.\1ill cllll iulll Bridgl... vtt r. t \ttvoti oll .1. .. le- on s"
,lIHI "1 vcnt -."
18 Retrospective
Bigger, last cr, Further
Traffic, Architect and Engineer
180 PlayStations
h)lding, Tilting, Lifting, Turning
Bridge Designl'rs I{e'luire Mechanical Engineers
192 Loadbearing St ruct ures for Moveable Bridges
58 Construction as an Ethical Maxim
Prestressed Concrct c l'ost -War and
the Prohibit ion or Ornament
196 Landscape, Gardens
Bridges as Garden s
Parks and Landscape
70 Taking Lightness to the Limit
Wah-r-t hin St avs and Filigree
Cabl Bridges
82 StressRibbon Bridges
214 Footbridges
120 Furopean Examples
104 Experiments In Construction
Structural Hype and its Erkets since till' 1970s
100 Dynamics, Vibrations
116 Curved Bridges
248 References
250 Index
255 Picture Credits
About this Book
In his int roduct ion to th e 19 84 re pr int of Georg Mehr t ens' classic,
Der Deutsche Briickenbau im XIX. Jahrhundert , which was fir st publi shed in
1900, Er nst Werner comme nte d succi nctly : "It is the fat e of bridges th at
serve only th e pedestrian simply t o be overl ooked in the chronology of
br idgebuilding." It was not until th e new millennium that th is began to
change somewhat not least becaus e a remarkabl y large number of citie s
saw the beginning of a new er a as an occ asion to poli sh up t heir image
with a "mi llen ni um br idge". A bibliogr aphi c search on the subjec t of
bri dges car r ied out in the German Nati onal Library at the beginning of
20 0 7 ret urned a total of around 2, 5 0 0 publicat ion s. Wh en th e searc h t erm
was rest r ict ed to footbridges, th e cat alogue produced 31titles, of which a
considerable number were bibliog raphic lists of essays and articles. The
huge di scr epancy in the results is partly explaine d by the fact that bridges
have a gr eat metaphorical and symbolic value, and thu s appe ar in count-
less titles rel ating to politics and soc iety. The lit erature on footbridges is
sparse at an int ernational level t oo. Apart from th e published proceed ings
of two confere nces and th efi bgUidelines of 20 0 5, no attempt has yet been
mad e to focus exclusively on thi s small and impressively var ied t ype of
st r uct ure . With this book , we hope t o have made a modest st ar t .
The idea of writing a book about bridges that ar e for the sole use of
peopl e on foot - or at most on bicycles - excite d us grea tly. We hope th at
engi nee rs, architect s, land scape ar chit ect s and t own planner s will find it
sti mulat ing, and that the lay reader will find it just as appealing.
We wanted t o give as bro ad a view as possible of foot bridge
construct ion in Europe without being t ied to any cur rent ideology or
doct rine. Br idges that st r ive for perfection as structures alone have as
much of a place in ou r select ion as th ose deSigned t o delight th e eye with
or name nt . But mor e about thi s lat er .
Thi s book pr esents around 9 0 footbridges in a lat ent chronology. By
"late nt ", we mean t hat we have not blindl y foll owed th eir exact dat es,
preferring t o explain their variety in te r ms of more comp lex rel ationships
th at can best be grasped th ematicall y. After all , some ty pes of structure
are the result of technological or scie nt ific developments li nked to
particula r per iods, while other appr oaches t o deSign belong to ages with a
particular way of expressi ng form. At one t ime th e engi nee rs are spu r re d
on to achieve ever lighter st ru ctures; at another th e architect s re alise the
br idge's effect ivenes s as a qua si-homoeop ath ic means of repairing the
damaged t ownscape, and at yet another th e br idge as a t echni cal ar tefact
is subli mate d to th e aest het ic of an Arcadi an landscape. The hi st or y of
foot br idge constructio n is ther efor e a prime example of how th e histori es
of tec hnology, ar t and the world in general overlap, and we wanted t o
t ake into acco unt the complex int erpl ay bet ween t hem.
The speciali st knowledge of the struct ural enginee r comes t o th e
fore in essays that explain th e t echnical aspects in st ra ight for ward and
under st and able language, so th at anybody can underst and th e aesth eti c
potential th at is inh er ent in a particular st r uct ural deSign . Finally there is
a compendium, list ed by location, of a further 120 foot bridges th at we had
no space to discuss in detail. We hope it will provide a sta rting point for
rea de rs who want t o discover more for themselves aft er t his fir st gli mpse
of a fascinating area of bridgebuildin g.
Which bridges should we discuss in greater detail - and for what
reasons? One thorny question followed another. We had no intention of
hiding the fact that one of this book's authors works for Schlaich
Bergermann and Partners, a practice which to date has built more than
50 footbridges, but as a quick glance at the book will confirm, there was
no question of using it as a showcase for their work. So it was back to the
difficult decisions. We selected bridges of relevance to one or another
aspect of the relatively short history of the footbridge; bridges that
appealed to us both (or to one of us, at least); bridges that are unequalled
in some way; bridges that could certainly be improved; bridges that
demonstrate courage in construction, astuteness in design, or an
infallible sense of form. We made a point of seeing all of the bridges
ourselves (with a few exceptions), as did our photographer, who enjoyed
our complete confidence.
Our selection is necessarily incomplete, subjective and open to
argument - completeness was never our aim. We admit that our view,
naturally, is one from the German-speaking countries. We were kept
busy enough just by having to work together as an engineer and an ar-
chitectural critic: a rare combination, in which agreement is certainly
not reached without argument first, but ultimately we succeeded because
we both had the will to make it work.
To venture upon the first ever study, however limited, of the
construction, design and history of any type of structure is a daring, not
to say crazy, undertaking, and we would never have begun it if we had
not been able to count on assistance from many quarters. For their
advice and information we would like to thank Jan Biliszczuk, Berthold
Burkhardt, Keith Brownlie, Dirk Buhler, Jurg Conzett, Cornel Doswald,
Sergej Fedorov, Andreas Kahlow, Andreas Keil, Martin Knight, Jorg
Reymendt, Jorg Schlaich, Klaus Stiglat, Rene Walther and Wilhelm
Zellner. Without the energetic and support and encouragement of
Auyon Roy, Simone Hiibener and Andrea Wiegelmann, this book would
never have appeared in 2007 - and might not even have made it in 2008.
We would also like to thank our knowledgeable translators, Chris Rieser
and Richard Toovey.
In addition, our special thanks go to Wilfried Dechau, who
discovered many bridges, especially older ones, during his constant
travels as our photographer; he would set off on account of one bridge
and come back with seven. During the last few years he has taken new
photographs of almost all of the bridges in this book - a labour whose
documentary value to the study of the history of footbridges cannot be
Ursula Baus, Mike Schlaich, July 2007
8 Kronsforde, bridge over the Elbe-TraveCanal , 1959
Bridges and
At th e age of IS, with the fir st singl e-l ens reflex came ra of my ver y
own, I naturally took shot s of the area around my parent' s hous e. That
included the bridge across the Elbe-Trave Canal. I crossed this bridge
every day on the way to school and I could see it from my room. Of
course, it would be going too far to say that this was the origin of my
affinity for bridges. My enthusiasm for looking at bridges through the
medium of photography was (re-)awakened 30 years later on, when I
photographed th e Max Eyt h Lake footbridge by Jorg Schlai ch. In [989,
this was a welcome and relaxing diversion for me from th e routine of
conventional architect ure photography. I recently revisit ed the bridge to
photograph it again for this book (see p. 92) .
In spit e of that refreshing int ermezzo, bridges remained an except ion
in my work. This changed with the building of the Storeba elt (Great Belt)
bridge in Denmark: I visit ed the sit e many times between [996 and 1998
to record the excit ing process of building what was, for a br ief period,
th e susp ension bridge with th e longest fr ee span in the world. I managed
to get a lot of int eresting shots , some of which were shown in th e briicken-
schlag exhibition in 2000, and in a photo calendar. They wer e followed, in
2004, by a project on th e Traversiner footbridge. This gave me a unique
opportunity to photograph work on sit e in the Grisons Alps every day for
a period of several months. Its immediate results wer e a book and exhibi-
tion about the Traversiner footbridge. At the same tim e, plans for this
book by it s two authors wer e gaining substance, and I gradually came to
the decision that my camera and I should take an active part her e too.
This meant t aking up-to-date photographs of as many of the bridges
featured in it as poss ible. The illustrations that the authors had managed
to collect up to that point wer e very disparate, so it was going to be
difficult to produce a book that would be pleasant t o look at . The idea of
starting again from scratc h and giving the book a consiste nt photographic
identity ther efor e eliminated a lot of problems at one st roke .
It was clear that thi s could onl y be done t o a cer tain degree. Trips
to Coimbra and London, for example, turned out to be unn ecessar y,
since outstanding phot os of th ese bridges had alr eady been tak en by
Christian Ri chters , Nick Wood and James Mor ris . It also seemed out of
proportion to make a long trip through Nor way for a few bridges far
apar t , when plenty of photos of them alr eady existed. Not to mention th e
problem of time travel : some br idges no longer exist ed, because they had
been built for special event s, and in th ese cases we were fortunate in
being able to use photos taken pr eviously by Leo van dcr Kleij and Florian
Holzher r. That still left plenty to do, however . All the same , we were not
really aware that we had let ourselves in for an almost endless t ask. I came
back from every journey with at least twice as many bridges as I had been
expec t ing to find on the basis of the source material. On my travels, almost
everyone I talked to about the objects of my inter est had a suggest ion to
make. And so the itinerary became ever longer and, at the same t ime,
more fruitful. My thanks ar e due above all to Martin Knight and Cornel
Do swald, from whos e expe r t ise I benefited in Engl and and Switzerland.
Th e mo st adventurous discovery for me personally was , by the way,
thanks to Bill and Alison Landale, my bed-and-breakfast hosts in Ellem-
ford, Berwickshir e, without whom I would never, ever, have found the
uncommonly delicate and apparently fragil e - yet astonishingly pr acti cal-
suspension bridges across the River Esk (see p. [98) .
It can, on the other hand, be quite frustrating to have to ask for in-
formation in order to find a cer t ain bridge. It then becomes clear how
much people's perceptions of one and th e same bridge can differ . In
Maidstone, for example, neither the name "Millennium Bridge", nor
words like "susp ension cabl e", "concret e" or "ne w" were of mu ch help in
finding out which way to go. Not to mention the name of th e bridge's en-
gineer, Jiri Strasky. Ever yone who we asked direct ed us to a cabl e-stayed
bridge, which, although it was also called the Mill ennium Bridge, had
nothing in common with the one that I was looking for, except that it,
too, crossed th e River Medway - at th e other end of the town.
Int ernet route planners are also of limited use, since th eir purpose
is to give directions to drivers - who have, of course, no need of foot -
bridges. The most reliable sources of information ar e topographic maps,
but they ar e not always to hand - or, at least, not all of those that ar e
Vagli di Satt a, bridge by Riccardo Morandi. 5 June 2007, 12.20 and 13.27 9
needed. And even th en, t hey ar c only of usc if t hey ar e up -t o-dat e . One
""ample of th is was the footbr idge ove r t he Bregenzer Ach r iver near
Langen aru l ltu ch . These two villages lie five kilometres apart, as t he
crow fI ics. Th e footpath winds along th e valley for st ret ches, pet ering
out in meadows amo ng herds of cows. The older peopl e in t he yill age
st ill remember a br idge t hat was th er e when th ey wer e children. A
spri ng flood washed it away one night. But a littl e bit fur t her upstream ,
t hcv tell me , th er e is anot her one like it , ncar Fischbach and Doren - and
that one is sti ll sta nd ing. Off I go again . My nayigat ion syst em knows
l l a n ~ Fischbachs, but none of t hem near Bregenz. The faint hop e th at
Illlight find signpos ts to thi s, th e only bridge in th e vicinit y, pr oyes, as
it so oft en has, to be nai ve. Signposts t ell you about pl aces to get t o, not
\ \ a ~ s of get t ing th ere . In ot her words: th e next village, and not a bridge
on one of th e ways to it . The except ion docs proye th e r ule, of course ,
and once , looking for a suspe nsion bridge across th e Subersach nea r Egg,
I did find a signpost t hat said Wire bridge - l.inqenau,
This at least confir med th at th e br idge st ill existed and was passable,
so th e walk th ere car r ying a heavy camer a was not going t o be complet e-
lv in vain . alt hough you never know whether it is going to be worth th e
effort unt il you act uall y get t o th e bridge. Only th en do you sec, if it is an
old brid ge , how much of it has survived and in what cond it ion - and how
mu ch it st ill has in common with th e or iginal design . Warning signs ad-
yising ped estri ans t o cross one at a time can be an ind icat ion th at th e
br idge is in its or igin al st ate, but this is not necessaril y so. All th at is
cer t ain, in t hat case , is th at it has not been spoi led by insensiti ve
re inforceme nt or ren ovati on . The Kettenst eg in Nuremberg , for examp-
lc, Illay appc ar t o hang fro m its chains, but it is now suppo r t ed in a
different way. The faint -of-hear t would nevertheless be well advised not
to t read heavilv when th ey cr oss this parti cul ar bridge. Th at could set it
swaying and oscill ating badl y - not dangerously so any more, but not
ever y sto mach can cope with it. Aft er a t aking a fir st look around, I
check out th e bri dge . Go on it ; look down. Walk across. Get down off it
at t he ot her side , if possibl e. See what is suppo r t ing it and how - t hen
where and how th e loads ar e di stributed and ult imat ely t ransferred t o
t he abutme nts . Fir st I look , th en I t ake t he photos. The weat her and th e
light arc important fact or s, without a doubt. Only on ce, in Maid st one,
did I have to st ifle th e pangs of conscience and set tl e for phot ographs
t aken in bad weather. Th er e was no sign of an improyemen t and I had a
plane to cat ch at Heathrow air por t . Even in r ain , the bridge it self makes
a goo d impression , as can be seen on page 76 .
Wh at ever one phot ogr aph s, it can only be "sho wn in th e best light "
if t he weat her cooper ate s. This is clear to see in two expos ures, t aken
only one hour apart, of Riccard o Morand i' s bridge in Vagli di Sot to ,
wh ich is set exquisit el y in th e land scap e . Th e fir st , whi ch I took shor tl y
befor e a stor m, shows shimme r ing green wat er th at is as smooth as a
mirror, wher eas in th e seco nd , t aken as it began, th e surface has become
matte, cr iss-cr ossed by fine ripples.
O ne of th e last journeys th at I mad e for th is bo ok took me to Bilbao
in June 20 07 . Upon ente r ing my hotel ro om, I har dl y beli eve my eyes.
Above th e bed hu ng a dr awing of an old, asymmet ri cal footbr idge : one
th at I had never see n before , alt hough I had t ravelled to over 20 0 bridges
in th e previou s three yea rs. Did it perh aps cross th e Ncrvion r iver ? In
Bilbao ? When ? Where? I could see , as it wer e, th e wri t ing on th e wall :
obviously, even if severa l phot ograph ers wer e to spend a further three
years on t his qu est, t hey woul d st ill encounter unknown st ru ct ures . Th e
next sur pr ise came hard on it s heels, when I t racked down th e pl ace in
Bilbao where , acco rdi ng to t he hot el sta ff, th e bridge had once st ood.
What I found was an ar ched concre te br idge (which up t o th en had bee n
completely unknown t o us) that connecte d t o t wo differ ent level s on th e
higher bank of th e river in an except ionally clever way (see p. H) . Of
course , we had met a bridge of this t ype before : it see ms likel y th at th e
Bilbao bridge was known to Marc Mimram, t o whom we owe th e Pont
de Solfer ino in Pari s. Wilfried Dechau , 2007
Cha racterization
Voce quis salter? Did you want to jump? Pascal Mercier. v ght Tram to Lisbon
Looking at the history of bridgebuilding as part of architectural
history, we see that today's comparatively distinct and unquestioned
differentiation between footbridges and other types of bridge came about
slowly at first, and by no means constantly. The history of footbridges is
linked to that of bridgebuilding in general- sometimes more so, some-
times less - and this is one of the aspects that make it so interesting to
study the footbridge on its own, as a type of bridge in its own right. In
order to define the characteristics of the footbridge, which of course has
a longer history than the road bridge, we need to look at when its typology
began to differ from that of large-scale bridges. This occurred towards
the end of the r Sth century, when Enlightenment thought, science, early
industrialization and the increasing importance of the economy
stimulated rapid technological and social change, together with a growth
in mobility and traffic. In the 19th century, advances in transport
technology began to exert a fundamental influence on bridgebuilding,
with ever-higher standards required for road and rail. These new, high-
performance modes of transport made fresh demands on bridge
construction, in response to which a specially qualified expert in bridge-
building appeared on the scene the structural engineer - whose
profession quickly acquired a coherent profile.
Footbridges were only indirectly affected by these technological
changes and from this point onwards their development took a course of
its own. After all, trains today may reach speeds of 400 km/h or more
and the volume of road traffic may require six, eight, or even ten lanes
(with all of the consequences that this involves for large-scale bridge
construction), but a human being, whether standing, walking or jumping,
remains a constant factor in the equation. To this extent, the interplay of
technical progress, imagination and functional variety in the case of
footbridges is open to other influences, which bring forth an inexhaustible
variety of distinctive designs. It is a brief that again and again allows
more to be done than providing a mere footbridge - the degree to which
credit for this is due to architects, or structural engineers, or both,
becomes clear only upon examination of individual cases.
What happens on a footbridge, anyway? Not feeling firm ground
underfoot usually indicates a precarious situation. At the same time, a
swaying surface, or a narrow pathway, can also produce a shiver of
excitement when we have to let ourselves in for more or less perceptible
oscillations, or glimpses into a yawning abyss. Bridgebuilders have to
live with the awkward fact that people react to oscillations and heights in
very different ways: some may become dizzy with euphoria, while others
may find their knees turning to jelly.
Footbridges are generally built to satisfy a tendency to laziness, a
love of convenience, or a joy in contemplation; whether they cross rivers,
streets or valleys, their main purpose is still to shorten the route from
one place to another. Only in very rare cases is it the thrill of danger, or
the temptation to be free of the ground, that motivates people to build
12 Characterization Tarr Steps, Exmoor, earlier than 1000BC
Maki ng th ese shor tc uts not onl y safe enough even for sleepwalkers,
but also pleasant to walk across , is an important part of the bri ef when
designing a footbridge. Of course, th e basic principle applies : a bridge
should be st r uct urally sound, easy to maintain and cheap. All th e same, a
lot more can be achi eved by paying attention to cr ite r ia such as an appro-
priate route , attractive views, a comfor t able environment and a memo-
rable appearance. A footbr idge' s balustrades , parapets , hand rails , surfac-
ing, niches and balconies should take into account that people will not
onl y walk across it, but would also like to stop for a moment, lean against
it, rest on it, sit down and look around, or just be alon e - and tha t what-
ever th ey do, they will touch it . Thus, a footbridge does not remain just a
bridge, but matures int o a jogging track, a boulevard, a promenade, a
place for a rendezvous and , finally, a landmark. Last but not least, light-
ing design has a prominent part to play, as pedestrians exper ience night-
t ime illumination in a completely differ ent way from a car driver concen-
trating on the road. With such a variety of tasks, standard solutions seldom
prov e satisfa ctory. The basic types of structure as such ar e in no way ade-
quate to meet all of th e differ ent requirements. In order to achi eve a de-
sign that is more than just the shortest way of connecti ng two points, it is
best to vary th em, combine them and develop th em exper iment ally. This
naturally stimulates the design ambitions of the structural engineer, but
the ar chitect and the landscape designer also feel called upon to take over
engi nee ring's choicest task. In matters relating to atmosphere, significant
forms and the sensory effect s of material properties, mo st structural
enginee r s find themselves out of their depth, inasmuch as th ey have
received far to o little exposure to design-related topics of this sor t
during their st udies. Mer ely calling upon the repeatedly quot ed Vitruvian
t erms utilitas, firm itas and venustas is not of the slight est help in enriching
t he world of cont emporary building. Anyone who seriously demands that
a structure be useful and stable and beautiful mak es themselve s as
laughable as a politician who , quoting Goethe, says that Man is nobl e,
helpful and good. Even when th ey do not appear banal , Vitruvius' t erms
no longer have a definite substance to offer . The ar chitects' situation
mirrors that of the engineers : th ey are given a basi c understanding of
structural th eory as st udents , but rarely devel op it into an ability to design
structures. Of all things , th en, it is th e mod est footbridge, a class of
structure comparable in st atus t o the semi-det ached hous e, whi ch on
account of its complex characteris t ics puts th e much-vaunted cooperat ion
between ar chitect s and engineers to the test . One of the professions is
defend ing a source of income; the other is hungry for new one s.
For us (an architecture cr it ic and a st r uct ural engineer) the most
impor t ant thing is the result ; we examine each case to sec wher e credit is
due and we can recommend, both from our own exper ience and in gen-
eral, aiming for amity and lively debate. The fact that the footbridge, such
an unpret entious structure, is still capable of exper iment al and imagina-
tive development , in spite of all of the standards and regulations, makes
up much of its charm. This applies throughout Europe, wher e a jungle of
rules and red tap e makes building a complicat ed and expensive business.
A simplesuspension bridge (c. 1890) near Ardez inSwitzerland. It can be crossed by only one person at a t ime. 13
Paramete rs and Structural Design
14 Characten anon
Usersexperiencefootbridges much more
directly than road or railway bridges. Aswe crossa
footbridge, we cantouch t he structure and study
the details, thereby allowing usto grasp the struc-
turefully in every sense of the word. These are
bridgesto betouched. Thedesign freedom for the
st ructural engineer ismuch more pronounced t han
for roador rail bridges in spite of someparameters
particularto footbridge structures. Thisdesign
freedomisa welcomeand exhilarating challenge.
In this section, the issuesuniqueto footbridge de-
signwill besummarized brief ly. Additional infor-
mation canbe found in the technical overviews
and the references, whi ch provide an int roduct ion
to thetechnical literature.
TheThird Dimension
Pedestrian bridgesallow the designto break
free of the linearity of high-speed traff ic, whose
bridge decksgenerally attempt to j oin two points
separated by an obstacle asdirectly as possi ble.
Thegeometry of the bridge deck in the horizon-
tal planecanbechosen freely and maybe quite
curved. A spatial experience may beachieved by
the suspension of the bridge deck, by a move-
ablebridge, or by the intersecti on of multiple
Thegeometryof the gradient of the bridge
deck mayalsobe relat ively freely chosen, which
alsoopensup new possibilit iesfor emphasizing
the spatial geometry of t he structure. Walkable
arches and stress ribbon bridgesaretherefore
possible design alternat ives for footbridges,
alt hough it should benoted that deckgradients
greater than 6 percent present problems for
wheelchair users. It is not simplythe maximum
slopethat presentsa problem, but the potential
energy required to overcome the slope. Thismay
be expressed asthe inverse of the product of the
length and slope. Alternativepathways must be
offered for wheelchair users wheretherearesteep
deck gradientsor stairways.
Most pedestrian bridgesare narrow, wit h
decks between of 3 and4 m. Asa ruleof thumb,
30 pedestriansper minute for every metreof deck
widt h can cross the bridgewit hout impeding one
another. Even wit h the largestcrowds, thisfigure
rarelyreaches 100 pedestrians per minute. Most
European codescall for a minimumdeck widt h of
2 mfor bridgesopento pedestrian and cycle
Giventhese pedestrian densities, it issurpri-
sing that t he pedest rian liveload of 5 kN/m
for in most European codes isroughly equal to the
loadingof the mainlane of a roadwaybridge.
In many countries, this load may be reduced for
longer bridges. Stat istics showthat suchcrowding
(5 kN/m
isequivalentto 6 peopleper square
met re) isvery improbableon a long bridgedeck.
Aspedestriansare muchlesssensitive to deflections
than road or railway traffi c, foot bridgesmay be
much moreslender and lightweight than road or
railway bridges. Becauseof t his, footbr idgesare
often lively, and dynamic analysis of the structure
shouldbecarried out in the early phases of the
Load testing - where numerical calculationscannot replace the intuition and experience of the engineer, here on site for theconstruction of the footbridge in Sassnitz
16 Charactenzanon
Materials and struct ure
In addition to asphalt and concrete, many
other materialscanbe used asdecksurfacing. For
timber surfacing, the danger of slipping should be
considered, especially if the wood planksfollow
the longitudinal direction of thestructure. The
moisture expansion of the wood must alsobe
takeninto account. Grating surfaces are cheap,
allow light to pass t hrough the deck and do not
require drainage. They are, however, difficult
surfaces to cross for pedestrianswho arebarefoot
or wearing high heels. Laminated glass surfaces
must have a high level of opacity to prevent people
below from viewing through the deck. Glass
surfacing is primarily found in interior spacesor for
covered footbridges.
Railings require particular attention and
must be at least 1.2 mfor bridgesopen to cyclists.
The railing should bedesignedto withstand a
transverse load of 1kN/mapplied at the height of
the handrail. Because of t he height of the guard-
rails, they areoft en incorporated into the global
structural systemof t he bridge. Thedesign of the
handrail hasan important impact on the visual
impression of the bridge. The railing may appear
either opaque or transparent from afar and must
givethe usera sense of safety. It often seems
appropriate to integrate the lighting system into
t he handrailsor railing posts, just asthe shadows
cast from the railing effect the visual impressionof
t he deck during the day. Newmaterialsand
innovative struct ural systemsare often more readily
approved by the ownersand local administrations
than largebridgeswhere t hetotal risk and costs
aremuch higher.
Freedom of design
Bridge design has long been regarded ast he
most rigorousin the challenging field of civil
engineering. Wit h thesmaller scale of footbridges,
bridgedesignerscan finally let t heir hair down and
t ruly indulge their creative side. Sel f-critical engi-
neersoft en seek advicefrom architects, industrial
designers, and landscapearchitectsfor design
issuessuch asthe integration of the st ructureinto
the surrounding environment, t he light, colour,
and feel of t hest ruct ure. In caseswhere t he
engineersand architectsin t hedesign have a good
history of cooperation between one another, t he
traditional roles of architect and engineer become
blurredto the benefit of the overall project.
It isoften said of large bridgesthat "a bridge
St Gallen-Haggen, Bridgeover the Sitter, Rudolf Dick, 1937'
isno destination". Thisishowever not at all true
for the designof footbridges. Thepedestrian
shouldrememberhisor her experience crossing
the structureasbeingparticularlypleasant. The
footbridge designs of the last few years have
shownjust how muchispossible in bridgedesign.
Theincreasingly largenumber of designcompeti-
tions hasshown how seriously the design of these
structures istaken. Thechallenge of structural in-
novation, the audacityof competition, and the
owner's desire to createa landmarkstructure
often overshootthe goal. Bridges that aredesigned
to impress often breakwith rational technical
designtenets. We haveto admit that thesetech-
nicallyunreasonable structuresmaybecomequite
impressive giventhe right lighting and spatial per-
spectives but must not betakenasdesignideal.
Thedesignteamshouldnot overlookthe
roleof the structural system asa catalystfor the
diversityof footbridge design. Moreover, the
developmentof the appropriatestructure, given
the surroundingenvironment, functional require-
ments, or the additional requirements of the
owner, must beseen asthe central challenge of
the project.
1 Dick, Rudolf. Von der Sitter-
brikke Haggen-Stein bei SI.
Gall en, in: 5chweizerische Bau-
zeitung, 118, 1941, pp 122-123
Truly, opposing what is customary is a thankless task. Heinrich Heine
Any general history of bridge construction inevitably begins with
footbridges. The search for the origins of bridgebuilding has so far taken
us back to early civilizations in China, Mesopotamia and South America.
There is archaeological evidence of simple suspension bridges for those
with a steady head for heights, small timber beam bridges and stone slab
walkways for people and animals, like those at Tarr, Exmoor, or in Post-
bridge on Dartmoor, and Lavertezzo in Switzerland (see p. 20). It may
well be that globally accessible Internet data banks, such as Structurae,
Bridgemeister and Briickenweb, are creating a riew basis for writing a
more reliable history of early bridgebuilding. That is neither within the
capacity of this book, nor is it our intention.
Our interest begins explicitly with the time in which traffic-related
requirements resulted in quantum leaps in bridgebuilding and also in the
birth of structural engineering as a definable profession -- one that has
dominated the construction of footbridges, too, to this day. It soon
becomes clear that the qualifications and professional ethos of the
structural engineer were determined to a great degree by each new
means of transport: first the railway train, with bridges and vast station
sheds, then the car, with gigantic motorway bridges. Cost-effectiveness,
too, played an increasingly important part, which limited the structural
engineer's freedom to play with forms in order to achieve a particular,
contemporary design. Looking back over the development of the foot-
bridge in comparison, we see that the relationship between construction,
material, form and cost-effectiveness allowed much greater room for
manoeuvre. Because people experience the built environment much
more slowly and with greater immediacy on foot than they do in cars or
trains, this freedom was used, then as now, in a cultural, time-dependent
sense: intuition and experience, experimentation and science; displays
of magnificence; gracefulness and bareness - these are the themes that,
in retrospect, are of specific relevance to the history of footbridges.
They do not replace each other in sequence, but rather add to a growing
wealth of design and structural concepts, which the present age can
draw upon and continue to work with.
20 Retrospective Themediaeval stone bridge at Lavertezzo inthe Verzascavalley, Switzerland
Bigger, faster, further - traffic, architect and engineer
Ever since traffic and its t echnical requirements began to drive
innovation in large-scale bridge constr uct ion, the footb rid ge has devel oped
along a re cognizably separat e path. The small-scale structure for human
beings and animal s gradually became something special. Building it
remained nonetheless the responsibility of struct ural engineers . Their
professional identity change d repeatedl y from the mid-rsth century
onwards, as exper ience was arranged in a syste mat ic framework,
theoreti cal knowledge grew exponent ially and economics put pr essure
on t he construction industry. This becomes evident if we outline how
things st ood towards th e end of th e isth cent ur y.
Economy in bridgebui lding
On 14 February 1747, Jean- Rodolphe Perronet was appointe d head
of th e newly founded Ecole Nat ionale des Ponts et Chaussees (National
School of Bridges and Roads) in Pari s. He was not merely an engineer, but
also an ext raordi nar ily tal ented organizer and an important contributor
to an ambitiously planned compe ndi um of knowl edge: the encyclopaedia
edite d by d 'Alembert und Diderot . Per ron et took th e ar t of building
(wh ich even now we keep want ing to see as an inviolate who le) and split it
with an axe that has continued in use to this day: economics. Admitted ly,
he did so on orders from above: Jean -Baptiste Colbert , the finance
minister of the Sun King, Loui s XIV, had decided to wre st cont rol of road,
canal and bridgebuilding from the hands of the ari sto cracy, tradesmen' s
associ ations and religious orders . His aim was to make it better and,
above all , efficient , as part of a poli cy of cent r alizat ion under the absolute
monarchy. Once again, politi cs was driving developments in th e
construct ion industry. The process had begun in 1716 with the est ablish-
ment of an engineer ing corps, from which t he l:cole National e des Ponts
et Chaussees was lat er cre ate d. Many part s of th e country became mor e
accessibl e : at the beginning of the i Sth cent ur y, t he stone bridges in
France had number ed ar ound 600 , but by 1790, 400 more had been built,
whil e the number of wooden bridges do ubl ed during the same period.'
Th e militar y had alr eady started cr uci al initiatives to advance knowledge
of ro adbui lding and for t ress construct ion in the 17th century; these
resulted in th e founding of a military engineering school in Mezier es in
1736.2Colbert then drew a fateful conclusion: he postulated that eco nomy
is essent ial for an infrastructure to be built up efficiently - and Perronet ,
of all people, rai sed economy of mate ri al to th e stat us of an aesthetic
principl e. Towards the end of his working life, he pr ided himself on
having been the first t o give works of ar t a form "qui ti re de I' economic
de mati ere un moyen de dccoration'l.r The efficie nt use of material it self
became an aest het ic cr it erion, the fir st st ep on a path that was to have
immeasurable consequences for (engineering) bridge construction and
lat er for ar chit ecture as a whole .
I Berrey, Bern ard: l.cs Pout s
Mod crncs, , 8(' - ' 9(' siccles,
Paris, ' 990, p. ~ f ;
Grclo n. Stuck, 1994 , p. 84
2 Kur t -or; 2003, p.39;
Stra ub, 1992, p. 163f.
3 Picon, Anto ine: Pcr ronct ,
in : L' ar-t de I'i ngenicur, Par is
1997, p ~ 6 4 ; Mar -rev, ' 990,
pp. 39 and 6of.
Tarr Steps, Exmoor, 1000BC Clapper Bridge, Postbridge, Dartmoor 21
(;rdon , Stu ck, 1994, p. 171'.
ibid. , p. X5"
6 Laugicr, Mar c Antoi ne, Essai
sur l'architcct urc , 170 /86;
Mcmmo, And rea (cd .}; Andre a
lodol i
7 Sc-hu t te. Ul rich, Baumei ster
in Krieg und Friede n ,
Woll'enhiitt d,1984
Thus th e Q!1erell e des Anciens et des Modernes, a peculiar di sagreement
oyer reverenc e for Antiquity and the modern spir it of innovation th at
had broken out in liter ary cir cles half a cent ur y earl ier, was join ed by
anot her issue. No sooner had enginee rs liber at ed th emsel ves fr om th e
dogma of clas sicism, th an design bec ame pervaded by th e concept of
economy. Thi s did not change with th e degradation of th e ENPC t o a
practi ce-oriented school and th e re-establi shment of th e Ecole Pol yte ch -
niqu e for more acad emi c st ud ies. On th e cont ra ry: th e th eoret ical and
pra cti cal branches of th e new profession , t he enginee r, drift ed eyer
further apart. 4
Truth of Construction
Thriftiness was a concern not just of th e Fren ch , but of th e Engli sh
to o. \ It is also worth r emembering that a Jesuit significan tly influen ced
th e formation of opini on in th e ar chitectural deb at es th at began in the
mid-rxth century. In 17B, Marc Antoine Laugi er, who was livin g in Pari s
as cour t chaplain, published hi s Essai sur I'architect ure, on e of th e most
important texts on arc hitect ura l th eory of it s time. In it , Laugi er
fulminat es against pomp and di splay and, t aking as an exa mple a
tou chingly primitive hut consist ing of four tree trunks , a pit ched roo f and
a bit of wattl e-and-daub, ex po unds on tru th ofconstruction . Thi s marks
th e fir st app earance of a te rm that has r emained hotly di sputed in th e
assessment of archi tecture in gen er al (and of bridges in particular) up to
thi s day. Ther e is, aft er all , no agreement about what a true const ruct ion
mi ght be and whether , if it were taken t o mean some t hing like a right
const ruct ion , it would always also be beautiful.
The aes t het ics of economy and th e truth of const r uct ion were
ultimatel y join ed at ar ound th e same time by a further aspect , th at of
esteem for t he fun ctional. This was th e work of an Itali an Fr anciscan
monk, Carl o Lodoli (1690 -1761), who promoted th e opinion that arc hi-
te cture (which when referred to th en always included what we now
t hi nk of separ ate ly as engineer ing constr uct ion) should be func t ional. In
his writings, Lodoli relates fun ct ion less to th e ar rangement of spaces th an
to th e material di splay of pu rposes.6 Th ese topics belonging t o arc hite c-
tural theory pe netrated far into ar eas in whi ch th e image of th e nascent
st r uct ural engineer ing profession (in a narrow sense) was becoming
more sharply foc use d: intuition and ex pe r ience ; scienc e and economy.
It should not be forgott en th at, for bridgebuilding espe cia lly,
cr ucial impul ses came from th e military sph er e. Matters r el at ing in any
way to visual appearance had no part to play th ere, fun ctionalit y and
efficiency being th e sole criteria for a way of building that event ually
develo ped a long and inventive tradition."
22 Retrospective Cambridge, reconstruction of the bridge of 1749 OldWalton Bridge, oil painting by Canaletto, 1754
Intuition and Experience
In England and, above all , France , the t echnical and scient ific
aspects of construction played an ever great er part in defining the pr ofil e
of the engineer, who in principl e was also thinking economically. In Eng-
land, wher e ther e was no institution comparabl e to the Ecole Nationale
des Ponts et Chaussees, an attempt to educat e st udent s specifically in
const r ucti on was made by John Soane (1753-1837) , th e best -known
architect in the country, who became a professor at th e Royal Academy
in London in 1806. He was alre ady greatly interested in bridgebuilding
when he set off on the Grand Tour for the first time in 1778. On th e way
to Rome, he stopped off in Paris to visit Perronet and see hi s brand new
stone bridge, t he Pont de Ncuilly, built in 1768-74.' It was wooden bridges ,
however , that Soane encount ered on his return through Swit zerland. The
history of wooden br idge const r uct ion has many cele brate d st r uct ures:
Julius Caesar's rather vaguely described bridge across the Rhine, built
du ring his successful advance northwards through Europe;' the Danube
bridges th at are carved on Trajan's column in Rome and the bridges
described by Alberti: and Palladio- respectively - the latter inspiring
count less footbridges throughout Europ e.
Wooden bridge const r uct ion in England might best be represented by a
small footbridge designed by William Et her idge (1707-1776) and built by
James Essex in Cambridge in 1749. Known as the "mathematical bridge",
it also serv ed as a mod el for Garret Hostel Bridge in Trinity Coll ege
(1769) and th e bridge at Iffley Lock in Oxford (1924) .
I :\ \aggi, Navonc, zooj , P: II
2 Galus Julius Caesar, De hello
3 Alber ti, Leon Battista, Zdm
Bucher tiber die Baukunst , cd.
MaxThcuer, Dar mstadt ' 975,
p. 202fT.
4 Palladia, Andrea, Die vier
Bucher zur Architekt ur, eds .
Andreas Beyer and Ulr ich
Schutte , Zuri ch/ Muni ch
19'+( ') , P' 219fT.
Hittisau. Kummabridge, 1720 Wett ingen, 1795 Schaffhausen, 1795 23
Et her idge foll owed it soon aft er wa rds with a lar ger wood en br idge : Old
Walt on Br idge, which sur vives on ly' in th e wcll-kn own pai nting of it by
Ca nalet to from IH4. It was a lar ger vers ion of th e "mathemati cal bridge"
in Ca mbr idge, which was reconst ru ct ed in 18(,(, and The design did
not gi ye th e wood en eleme nt s sufficient prot ecti on for a bri dge of thi s
sor t t o sur vive,
quote-d Killer, Jmcf:
[ l ie dcr Haum c-i-tcr
ruuhonmann, l ell'\" , P: V,
l' 1 1I 1" tln- v.u-icd n-an [c-r
,>1 dr'1\\ ing" or hridg, {rom
' I I itNrl.lnd t o fn glalld,
"T :" ,H el l h' , :\ i, olJ.:Th, "
\ igh l" , nth l '{'nt ur .\ l.urop c.m
r"]Hlt'lt ioll oj t he (irubc-nman n
1' I", ltl h T S. ill : John "';O,HH' , ?OOI.
p. )d.
, Hum", 11\1\\ .1["( 1: lrom Julius
l ',W";,l r t o 111('
ln-ot hc-rs: Soanc- an d th e hixtorv
, .1\ \ C\l u!l: lI IH'idgt"", i ll : John
\q,lJl t' , zoo j , p. 19
... Bu rn ..., p. ?o
'I 'cra.k-l man u , We rner:
I iol/hr iilkcn de l' Schwe LI
t-in lnvvntar. Chur 1'1'10 :
Kille-r, [o-cf: I ) jt ' \ Vnkv dcr
Hnunc-i-tc-r ( ; r u!J, ' tl lll ,HHl ,
vn-imuann, Lugcn: 11. 1Il" Ulrich
l ;rUh "Il Ill.lllll. I q1\4 ;
10 Kille-r. 19 "'+ . p.n
The Grubenmanns' Wooden Bridges
What Soa ne saw in Swit zerl and amazed him: up in t he Alps, wooden
br idge construct ion had mat ured to a sur pr ising degree in t he hands of
th e Gr ubenmann br others, without th e ben efit of any' academic
infrastruct ure of th e sor t ex ist ing in London and Pari s, Their lack of
t heoretical kn owl edge was more t ha n co mpensat ed lor by t heir love of
expe r ime nt at ion and their st ore of exper ience . Thi s caused a sensat ion.
\ Villiam Coxc, anot her Eng lishm an, in hi s sket ches a/ t he ;\' aC1I ra I, Poli t ical
and Civil Stat e a/ SWitzerland (si c) , writes of t he bri dge in Schaffhausen:
"If one considers t he size of th e plan and th e bold ness of th e st r uct ure,
one is ast ounde d th at t he builder was a co mmon ca r pe nte r without any
science, without th e slight est kn owl edge of mechani cs and wholl y
unversed in t he t heory of mechani cs. Thi s ext r aord inary man is named
Ul ri ch Grubenma nn , a common count r yman fr om Tii ffen , a sma ll
\' ill age in the ca nt on of Appenzell , who is \"Cr y tond of hi s drink. He has
uncommonl y gr eat natu r al skilfulne ss and an astoni shing apt it ude for
t he pract ical par t of mechani cs; he has progr essed so exce pt ionally far in
hi s ar t by himsel f that he is j ustl y counted among t he innovat ive mast er
bu ilders of the ccnt ur v."
Soa ne and hi s assist ant s painst aki ngly drew th e covere d wood en
br idges in Schaff haus en (1757) , Wettingen (17(,0) and many others t hat ,
in spit e of spans of oyer m, fitt ed into t he land scape well. Because
mo st of the Grubenma nns' woode n brid ges wer e dest r oyed by 1800,
these drawings would have been of gre at valu e , but in Basel , John Soa ne
lost almost all of th em along with his drawing equipment. h As well as
th eir refi ned co nst r uct ion, Soa ne pr aised t he pictu resqu e qu alit y of th e
Swiss wood en bridges and logicall y, in his lectures, exa mined th e
inter play bet wee n t he struct ure and appeara nce of a br idge and t he
landscape ." He cons idere d Perronet, who wa s of Swiss origin , t o be a
goo d enginee r, but a bad ar chi t ect , saying t hat th e Pont de Ne uilly
bridge , in parti cul ar , lacked th e "beaut y of elegance". '
Indeed , th e Alpi ne region was home to an out sta nding , cont inually
growing t radit ion of woo den br idge co nst r uction, whi ch reac hed a peak
of ex perimenta l daring and accu mulat ed expe r ience in the work of Hans
Ulr ich Grubenm ann (17 9- 1783) and Joh ann es Gr ube nmann ( 1707 -1771). 9
Even before t he Grubenm ann brot hers , th e ar t of building wood en
br idges was certain ly adva nced. The fir st hangin g t russ brid ge had been
built in 1468 oyer th e Go ldac h near St Ga lle n, wi th a span of 30 m, This
t ype of br idge spr ead rapidl y in th e i sth cent ury, with spa ns r angi ng
mostly fro m 20 t o m; the lon gest , at 38 m, was the br idge oyer t he
Limmat at t he Land vopt ci schloss in Baden, Swit zerla nd, built in 157 2. ' 0
24 Retrospective Urnasch, Kubel, 1780
Also worthy of note ar e th e Kumma bridge of 1720 in Hittisau and th e Ro-
sanna bridge of 1765 in Strengen . Hans Ulrich Grubenmann, in parti cu-
lar, became astonishingly ambitious in spanning great distances with tim-
ber structures, be cause bridges with foundations in the water were re -
peatedly wash ed away by floods . Only t wo of his bridges have survived in
the Appcnzcll cant on: the Urnasch bridge of 1778 , between Hundwil and
Herisau, and the Urnasch bridge of 1780 , between Herisau and Stein im
Kubel. Both of them ar e narrow, covered bridges with a span of around
30 m and ar e designed to carry horse-drawn traffic as well.' The structu-
re of both consist s of a hanging truss with st r ut s arranged in a
five-sided polygon and four pairs of susp ension posts. Above all, though,
it was the aforementioned bridges in Wettingen and Schaffhausen that
aroused fame and admiration. Two points should be conside red her e.
The first is that although these wer e vehicular bridges, they might well
not be perceived as such today, in view of the remarks made by William
Cox e when he visit ed Switzerland again aft er t en years: "The bridge
stret ches and gives, as though it wer e hanging on enor mously thi ck elast ic
rop es; it trembles and quakes und er the tread of any pedestrian, and
under the laden car t s that drive over it, th e swaying becomes so great
that the inexperi enced fear th e collapse of th e same .'" Grubenmann first
wanted the Schaffhausen bridge to span the full "9 m from bank to bank,
but his clients insisted that the middl e pier of the pr evious bridge be used
as a support . Grubenmann's impressive models (among them one of th e
Schaffhausen bridge) can be found today in the Grubenmann Collec t ion
in Teufen.: The lin e between footbridge and road bridge is drawn
differ ently nowadays, of course, and swaying is not tol erated. Although
t imb er construction in Switzerland was also refined by Jos ef Ritter
(174-5-1809) and Blasius Baldischwiler (1752-1831), th e baton for large-scale
wooden bridges passed to th e American bridgebuilders. 4
Th e second point conce rn s the aesthetic effect of the bridges .
A look at th em reveals nothing about th eir const r uct ion: they are mostly
clad, making them appear like long timber hous es, and , as the contem-
porary view of the Wettingen bridge shows, th ey wer e even painted with
architectural forms . The visual int egration of this bridge as a long building
into its village conte xt and the way in whi ch th e pit ched roofs over the
long arches of the bridge in Schaffhausen fit into the surrounding roof-
scape both confi rm that the contemporary understanding of beauty is to
be measured in t erms of the picturesque treatment of the bridges and not
of their st r uct ure, which could only be seen from within - and then only
with diffi culty in the dim light . To this day, it is precisely as footbridges
that covered wooden bridges continue to be built in the unicjue st yles of
their respe ctive periods (page 14-8 onwards).
I Stade lmann, ' 990, IV 8 and 9
2 Coxc 1786, quoted in Kill er,
1984.". )6
J The or iginal model of the
Schaffhausen Bridge is in
the Allerhciligenmuscum,
in Schaffhausen, and there
is a reproduction in the
Grubenmann Co llection, in
Teuf en .
4 After c. 18 0 0 , large-span
timber br idges are developed
above all in the USAby
Th eodore Bur r; as truss
str ucture s, Kurrcr, 2 ~ p. 47
View lnsidethe urnasch bridgein Kubel; structural model (below) 25
26 Retrospective Coalbrookdale Bridge, 1779
Science, Economy, Experimentation
The effect on th e rxt h cen t ur y of impro veme nts in ironwork ing,
early calc ulat ing methods and th e approaching Indust ri al Revolution
cannot be underest imat ed . Until t he end of th e [7th centu ry, t he bl ast
furnaces in whi ch pig ir on was smelte d wer e fired with woo d. They
r eached a maximum t emper ature of 1200"C, producing iron of a qu alit y
and ma lleability th at did not permit large components to be formed.
Then , in 1709 , Abr aham Darby (1678- 1717) had th e idea of firing t he
furnaces with low- sulphur coke, wh ich all owe d t emper atures of up to
1500 "C to be obtaine d. This produ ced r unny, mall eable iron for cas ti ng -
a mil estone for br idgebuilding, t oo , alt hough th e iron thus manu factured
early on was brittle and could only be subjec te d to load s in co mpression.
In 1779, a design by arc hi tect Thomas Farnol Pritcha rd ([723-1777)
for a wooden bridge span ning 30 m was built using cas t -iron compo nents
as an experi ment . Thi s became th e celebrate d iron brid ge of Coalbrook-
dale, erected by John Wilkinson (1728-1808) and an ir on foundr y owner,
Abra ham Darby 1II (1750- [789). It was t he first of a li ne of cast -iron
ar ched br idges, wh ich ende d, however, as early as [81 9 with th e
co nstruction ofSout hwar k Bri dge in London , by John Renn ie the elder . At
73.20 m, it st ill has th e longest spans of any cast- iro n br idge in th e wo rld.'
The t ypes of steel manufactured nowadays for m st ro ng joints wh en
welded and are available as tubes, ro lled sec tions, sheet and cast par t s.
Such compo nents can be weld ed together to create br idges wit h huge
spans, wh ich th anks to th e high strengt h of steel can be made Significa ntly
more slender th an concrete bridges.
Cast Iron and Wrought Iron
The firs t cast -iron bridge t o be built in Fra nce, however, was a foot -
bridge. It crossed th e Ri ver Sei ne wi th an overall length of [66.5 m. Louis
Alexandre de Cessar t, Inspector Ge neral of th e Ecole des Ponts et
Chaussees , and Jacqu es Dillon built th e Pont des Arts in 1802-04 with nine
arches, eac h spanning 18.5 m. In [984 , it was repl aced wi t h a reconstr uc -
tion in steel, whi ch had seven arches ins t ead of nine. ' The Pont des Ar ts
is never theless sti ll much loved by Parisians on account of its function as a
footbr idge ; it is also a place t o me et, or spe nd an evening (or even t he
whole day) , r ath er like a public square. Site d between two sto ne bridges,
Pont Neuf and Pont du Ca rrousel , th e deli cat e structure appea rs to skip
gracefully and eas ily over th e Seine. Along wit h the Passe re lle Debill y
and t he new footbridges near Solferi no (see p. (42) and Bercy (see p. 144)
th e Pont des Ar ts displays th e his t or ical di mension of th e Seine 's re lati on-
ship t o th e city.
It was anoth er project for a pe des t r ian bri dge th at gave Antoine
Rerny Polonceau an op po rt unity t o explore the limit s of feasibilit y in
[829: hi s br idge across th e Seine near ru e de Bellechass e uses cast ir on
and wrought iro n in a combin ation of arc hes and susp ensio n bridge, wi th
a fr ee spa n of [00 m. J
Th e develop ment of i ron pro duct ion was definitel y mot ivat ed by a
desir e for t echn ologi cal progress, co upled with t he economic pro spect s
dep endent upon it. Perhaps surpr isinglv, t hese int erest s pl ayed along
with th e arc hitect ural ex pectations of abso lut ist r ul ers up t o t he end of
th e t St h cent ury and, in some cases, int o th e age of Euro pean Restorati on.
This placed th e main emphasis on th e picturesqu e qu ality of buildings
and oth er st r uct ures, as t heir settings in Engli sh and Ge r ma n landscape
garde ns demon st rat e per fectl y. Before th e efficie ncy of iro n (and lat er on ,
steel) was consis te ntly and method ically improved, every kn own ty pe of
bridge had been incorp orat ed int o th e ran ge of availabl e design s for foot -
bridges and t ast efull y inst all ed in th e parks and garde ns of Europe .
I Pclkc, Eberhard, 20oS", P: 24
2 Lemoine, Bertrand, Pont
des Arts, in: Lcs Pc nts de Par is,
Pari s 2000, P: 211
l Paris, Archives nanonalcs.
Cart es ct plans ; ilustration in:
Dcswat tc, Lemoi ne, 19 97, P: ~
t he Polonceau t ru ss system was
Invent ed by his son, Bart helemy
Camille Polon ccau .
Pont des Arts, built 1802-04 wit h ninearches; reconstructed in 1984 with seven arches, each spanning 22 m 27

Avington Park, around 5 kmnortheast of Winchester - iron bridqe, built c. 1845, repaired in 1996
Bridges as Design Features for Parks
Stone and wood continued to dominate bridgebuilding into the
early 19th century. The maximum free spans that could be achieved with
structures of these materials gradually became clear. Cast iron offered
only a moderately improved performance in respect of span lengths and
stability. All the same, bridges such as the Coalbrookdale Bridge were of
such importance as models of technical innovation that they were incor-
porated as standard design features in parks and landscaped gardens. In
this context , footbridges played an astonishing role, being used as models
to illustrate everything of importance in bridgebuilding in general. They
demonstrate in miniature what distinguishes mere bridgebuilding from
the art of bridge deSign; there is a focus on aesthetic issues, which were
unfortunately to become neglected in large-scale bridgebuilding. Today it
is still - or rather, onc e again - possible to see one of the best examples
of this fashion for footbridges : the Gartenreich ar ea bet ween Dessau and
Worlitz, the first landscaped park to be laid out in a German state.' This
model agricultural area and the landscaped garden at its heart were laid
out on a grand scale by Leopold III Friedrich Franz von Anhalt- Dessau,
who came of age in 175"8, and his ar chitect Friedrich Wilhelm von
Erdmannsdorff, beginning in 1764. Prior to that, they had travelled in
England, among other countries, familiarizing th emselves with th e latest
ideas in places such as West Wycombe Park, belonging to Sir Francis
Dashwood-, Kew Gardens by William Chambers, and Henry Hoare's
estate at Stourhead, in Wiltshire. t Worlitz, however, stands out for the
sheer number of bridges and var iety of bridges in its design programme.
Almost 5"0 bridges wer e built in the Gartenreich area as a whole, 19of
which stood in Worl tt z Park . The picturesque, scenic treatment of the
bridges and, above all, of their settings may well have been influenced by
Willi am Chambers . Chambers had travelled to China, where he had
become acquainted with the Chinese approach to designing buildings and
gardens; in 1749he had begun studying under Jacques Francois Blondel at
the Ecole des Arts in Paris, lat er visiting Rome to see its Classi cal and
Renai ssanc e architecture. Back in England, Chambers began planning
Kew Gardens in 175"5. Nothing is left to chance in these picturesque and
carefully composed gardens : visitors are led along a "beaut y line" from
one enchant ing view to another - and small bridges ar e an integral part
of these scenic compositions. Th e bridge programme at Worlit z also
includes an educational element with its roots in Enlightenment thinking.
Types of bridge from different eras and cultures with different methods
of construction appear like stage sets as one walks among its many
wat erways. The topography of the former flood plain has been artificially
varied in the park to create different landscapes in miniature, for which
matching footbridges have been chos en - or vice versa: the chain bridge
needs a rocky chasm; the miniature version of the iron bridge of
Coalbrookdale is given a gradually rising embankment; an overgrown
I Bechtholdt , Prank -Andreas.
and Thomas \Vci ss (eels}:
wc lt btld \Vorlit z. Entwurf cincr
Kult urlandschaft , St uttgart 1996 ;
Sperlich, Mar tin , in: Daidalos
\7, ' 997, p. 741";
Llnendlich schon. Das
Gartcnrcich Dcssau-Worlit z,
2 Trauzette l, Ludwig:
Bru ckcnbaukunst , in : Llncndlich
schon , n.p.
3 Spe rlich, ' 997, p. 76
4 Burkhard t , Ber t old : Das
Bruckcnprogramm in W6r1itz,
in : \Veltbild Worlitz, 1996 ,
pr. 27 - 218
Wbrlltz Coalbrookdale Bridgein miniature, 1791 Chain bridge, suspended betweentwo artificial cliffs
path leads t o th e swi ng bridge and so on. T his ri ch and var ied design pro-
gramme has been described in detail by Berthold Burckhardt , wh o was
in charge of t he r ecent rep ai r an d reconst ruction of t he Wiirl it z br idges. 4
Landscaped garde ns li ke thi s on e co uld well be th ou ght of as a
pr efiguring some of the ideas in Di sneyland . O n th e ot her hand , it is also
clear t hat t he sma ll -sca le br idge wa s ga ining a deg re c of autonomy, albei t
pr imarily in th e sens e of ornament and edu cation and less because of it s
pot en ti al for st r uct ural cxpe r imc ntat ion.
Regrettably, no t all of t hc park ' s moveabl e br idges have sur vived ,
alt ho ugh the Agne s Bri dgc, a Dutch swing br idgc, may st ill perhaps be
r ccons t r ucted . It is also rema rkable that alt hough , besides Chinoiseri e, it
was Swi ss sce nes that were conside red t o be part icul arl y picturesqu e,
wooden bridges of the Swi ss t ype and even Alpine-stvlc, covered, wood en
bridges ar e mi ssing in Worlitz.
30 Retrospective The HighBridge White Bridge, 1773
I Hegel , Georg
Wi lhelm Priedr'ich,
I, trans. TM. Knox,
Ox ford, 1998, vol . 2,
pp. 699-70
The bridges and t he land scape t ypology in Worlitz complement
each other to create a consiste ntly at mos pheric and often magnificent
whol e. Her e, once again, ther e is an invocation of somet hing that is already
implici t in th e ide a itself, less ut opi an th an unworldly: th e harmoniou s
unity of natu re and t echnology; th e accord in th e souls of th e arti st and
the te chni cian ; th e simultaneity of the ideal of beauty and fulfilment of
funct ion . What footbridges can achi eve with almost magical ease becomes
proportionately mor e diffi cult for br idges at th e larger scales demanded
by modern t ra ffic flow s. A single generation later, cri t icism was voiced of
the picturesque approach t aken at Worlit z, of whi ch footbri dges wer e an
esse nt ial part. The philosoph er Geor g Fri edrich Wilhelm Hegel
(1770 -1831) wrote, "Wher eas a huge park , espec ially if rigged out with
Chinese pagodas, Turkish mo sques, Swiss chalets , bridges, hermitages,
and goodness knows what other curios iti es , claims our attention on its
own account ; it pr et end s to be and t o mean something in it sel f. But our
allure ment vanish es as soon as it is sati sfied , and we can hardl y look at
this sor t of thing tw ice, because the se t rimmings offer to th e eye nothing
infinite, no indwell ing soul, and beside s th ey are only weari some and
burdensome when we want rec reat ion and a st roll in conver sat ion with a
fri end .'" From a histori cal point of view, th is crit icism ignores th e holi sti c
significance oflate rxth -ccntury landscaped parks, in whi ch br idges also
demonstrated struct ura l knowl edge.
Drawbridgeat the swan pool Sun Bridge, 1796, spanning 8 m; the rolled iron of the springingscame from England 31
32 Retrospective
Bridge in the parkof Charlottenburg Palace, Berlin, 1801
Int er est in scenic land scapes, whi ch should not be without br idges,
revived per iod ically. In th e 19t h cent ury, Fri edrich Ludwig von Sckell
(1750-1823), Pet er Joseph Lenne (1789-1866) and Herrmann von Piickl er-
Muskau (1785-1871) designed gardens that delight in eclect icism to an
ast onishi ng degree, with a t end ency t o give the "nat ural" its due. Although
footbridges no longer played the rol e that t hey had in Dessau-Worlitz.
they wer e not negl ected as a design feature in parks, as is illu strated here
by Ferdinand von Tri est 's 12 m span, cast-iron bridge of 1801 in Char-
lottenburg Park, Berlin, and the Devil 's Bridge of 1852 in Kassel, t o name
but two. In England, the home of the landscaped park, th er e ar e countl ess
examples of bridges being used as t he cent re pieces of sceni c compos it ions.
The national garde n festivals held at regular interval s in different
places, have thei r roots in a different tradition: that of the rxth- century
botanical collec t ion. They too sometimes provide opportunit ies to build
high -quality footbr idges as part of urban improvement schemes, as is
shown on page 196.
The Devil's Bridge, Wilhelmshbhe Park, Kassel, 1792-93, byHeinrich Christoph Jussow 33
34 Faustus Verantius, 1615 Fischer von Erlach, bridgeinSina, 1721 WinchBridge - second version of the bridgefirst built in 1741 , sketch by Cumming, 1824, fromPeters
I Werner, ' 973;
\ Vagner, Egermann , 1987;
Pet er s, 198]
Suspension Bridges - Experiments in Ironand Steel
As we mentioned earlier, from the lat e 18th cent ur y onwards, engi-
neers found themselves confronte d with new tasks as a result of develop-
ments in iron technology and th e ons et of indust r ializat ion. At first , cast
iron had been used structurally in th e same way as timber ; the iron was
brittle and could not be subj ected to any t en sile load. Improving the
tensile st rengt h of this material went hand in hand with the development
of chain, wire rop e and wi re cable suspe nsion bridges. It quickly became
clear that th e limits of what was possible had not yet been reached, by any
means. ' In connection with th e earliest chain, wire rope and wire cable
suspension bridges, the footbridge acquired a rol e t hat earned it incr easing
attention: that of the exper imenta l prototype, serving in trial runs of
new structures based on theory or res earch.
To a consider able degree, stimuli came from other cult ures . It is
particularly inter esting, for example, how Johann Bernhard Fischer von
Erlach, writing in 1721, treats bridges in the first -ever outline of ar chitec-
tural history as such. In his second book, which concerns th e art of build-
ing in Roman times, he mentions Augustus' bridge across th e Tib er (a
monumental stone bridge with dimensions suitabl e for a herd of elephants)
and Hadrian's bridge to the Castel Sant 'Angelo, which is somewhat more
modest. Fischer von Erla ch is mu ch mor e deepl y impressed, however, by
bridges made in other ways and by other cult ures, which he considers in
his third book. This is ded icat ed to th e architecture of the Ar abs and
Turks , the Persians , the Chinese and Japanese. One t ype of bridge moves
Fischer von Erlach to expre ss sheer astonishment, when he reports on
one of "the wonderful chain bridges in China, built from the peak of one
mountain to another with boards on twenty iron chains near the town of
Kingtung.'" The stories told by Euro pean travell ers of rop e and chain
bridges in far -off China certainly expre ss admiration. Fischer von Erlach 's
source of infor mat ion for the Chinese chain hridge was a work published
in 1667 by a Jesuit , Athanasius Kir cher , China Monumenti s lllustrat a - the
depictions are similar in every respect.
The development of the suspen sion bridge did not really hegin to
tak e off in Europe until the 19th cent ur y, when it became technologicall y
and economically attract ive to produce iron and steel for the manufacture
of chains , cable and wire rop e. Th e most important bridges were built in
ar eas of rapid industriali zation, where the spirits of comme rce and
invention came t ogether. In the following secti ons, we will tak e a look at
th e early chain susp ension hridges, then the wire cabl e and wire rope
susp ension bridges. In England and Germany, it was mostly chain
suspension hridges that wer e built, wher eas wire rope was experimented
with in other count r ies.
Chain bridges
The Scholl encn ravine on th e St Gotthard pass in Swit zerland was
supposedl y the site of a chain bridge built as early as the rjth century.
Better known, because th ey are th e oldest surviving illustrations in this
2 Hscher von Erlach, 1] 21,
Zwei tcs Buch
Winch bridge in Midd leton, 1830, repaired 1974
fiel d, ar c th ree suspe nsio n br idge designs described in a boo k on mec han-
ics by Faustus Vcranti us in 1615-17. Hi s chain br idge is more like an eye -
bar br idge, hanging fro m massive t owers, and in par ts it ant icipat es t he
chain-stayed br idge . Vcranti us' Maclunae Novae was soon translate d into
many langu ages, whic h was consist ent in view of Verant ius' (1551-1617)
person a as a mult ilingu al polymath and aut hor of dict ionar ies.
Incidentall y, th e word th at he used for cast iron translat es as "bell food" . 1
The next oldes t bridge became surpris ingly well known . It was th e
legendar y ped estri an cha in suspension bridge th at spa nned 21 m across
t he Ri ver Tees ncar Middleton, in Cu mbr ia. It was built in 1741 t o shorte n
the jou rn ey for workers go ing to Midd leton fr om Hol wi ck , on t he ot her
side of t he rive r. 4 Th e wa lkway, wh ich consiste d of timber boards lyin g
on chai ns, was apparently given a modicu m of stabil ity by four tensi le
chains anchored down in t he valley ; onl y on one side was t here a hand r ail
lor safety. The br idge att rac te d visit ors from far and wide, many of
whom were greatly alar me d by th e degr ee t o whi ch it swaye d. A poet
[rom Newcastle described it as a "da nci ng br idge". \ In 1802, t he chai ns
par ted under t he weight of ni ne people and alt ho ugh it was subsequently
re pa ire d , it was replace d in 1830 by a new bridge sited a littl e farther
upstream , whi ch again requ ire d a spa n Of21 m. This second br idge was
completely restored in 1974. The span t hat could be achieve d with chains
had been demon strat ed by t he Chinese muc h earl ier, in 1706, wit h t he
hangin g Tatu bridge in Lutingchao; st ill standing t oday, it has ni ne evebar
chains and it spans aro und 100 m.h
Meh r t en s, 19 0 0, p.
l'c u-rs. ' 987, P: 2]
Marrcv, 19 9 0 , P: 116
[ wer t , 20 0 3, p. P
36 Retrospective Melrose, 1828; below: collapseof the bridge in Brighton
I Ewer-t , 2003. P' S8
J Pe ter s , 198] . p. 17
1 Building work on the Cli fton
Bridge was interrupted for
political reasons from 1842-60 .
Pugslty, SirAlfred ('{I.). The
\ Vorks of Isamhard Kingdom
Bruncl , an Engineer ing
ApprC'ciation, Bristol , 1976
4 Peter s , 1987. P' 95
Th e fascin ati on of suspension bridges and the oppor t unit ies th ey
offered for imp roving transport gave a new imp etu s to bridgebuilding,
initially in the United St ates of Amer ica: pat ent s wer e sec ured and re-
cords broken . James Finley (1756- 1828) built th e first chain br idge wit h a
ri gid deck over St Jacob 's Creek in 1801; it had a span of2 1m. ' He had th is
design of bri dge pat ented immedi ately - un fortunat el y, none of Finl ey's
bridges have sur vived . The st iffeni ng of the deck was decisive in gaining
accepta nce of thi s t ype of bridge in Europe and the USA - however fond
peopl e may ot her wise have been of "dancing bridges".
In the UK, the chain sus pension bridge spread very qui ckl y and
again, the footbridge took on an exper imenta l funct ion . In [8[7, a chain
bridge was built across the River Tweed near Dryburgh by th e brothers
John and Willi am Smith; while in the same year Redp ath & Brown built
Kings Meadow Bridge, which spanned 33.5 m, also over th e River Tweed
near Peebl es. ' Th e chain bridge at Dryburgh collapsed afte r a short time
in 1818; th e cur rent bridge (a cable suspensio n bridge) dat es from 1872.
Thomas Tel ford ([757-1834) and Isamb ard Kingdom BruneI (1806-59)
dared st ra ight away to build, on a mu ch larger scale, bridges that wer e no
longer exclusively for pedestrians: th e Menai St rai t Bridge (1826) ; t he
chain brid ge at Conway Castl e (1822 -26), and th e Clifton Suspension
Bridge ([864) . 1A span longer th an th e 100 m had already been achieved in
[820 by Sir Samue l Brown's Uni on Bri dge near Berwick, also across the
Tweed. Brown had been expe r ime nt ing wit h chain bridges since [808,
braving repeat ed set backs such as th e sever e damage caused by high
winds to his chain bridge for Bright on pier in [836. 4
Alt hough brid ge portals wer e st ill frequentl y built of st one , as at
Melro se in [828 and Glasgow in 1855, they were increasingly being con-
st r ucted as st eel trusses (es pecially for cable suspension bridges), as at
Dumfri es in 1875 and Peebl es in 1905 - the latt er ri chly orna mente d (see
illust rat ion s on p. 46) . Portland St ree t Br idge in Glasgow, designed by
ar chitect Alexander Kirkland and engineer Geor ge Martin with a respect -
able span of 126 m, is a good example of how stone portals help t o int egrate
bridges int o the urban cont ext of the city and pr event them appearing as
an all too sel f-conta ined t echnical const r uct. The stone portals seem to
be part of the urban fabri c, wher eas the steel frame portal s, such as those
of the bridge in Peebl es, belong completely t o the bridge as a unit .
The Glasgow br idge, parts of wh ich had to be renewed in 1871, is highl y
regarded nowadays and is illuminat ed as a city landmark . The bridge in
Melrose was rest or ed in [991, befor e which it had been limited to car rying
no mor e th an eight peopl e at a t ime.
Port landStreet Bridgein Glasgow, 1855
The fat es of these earl y cases make it quite clear that th e main
structural problem for suspension bridges was oscillation. Pr act it ioners
well versed in chai n bridges, such as James Dredge (1794-1863) and
Rol and Mason Audish certainly built countless chain bridges, but most
of th em coll apsed aft er a fairl y short time.
38 Retrospect e Chain bridge, "Kettensteg", Nuremberg, 1824
I Meh r ten s, ' 9 0 , p. 7r;
2 Vcr handlungc n des Vcrei ns zur
Bcfordcrun g des Gcwcr bcfleillcs
in Prcussen, Berlin, 1822 , p. 127
3 Petri , Kreutz, Stahlbau,
}. 2004, pp.
4 Pclkc, p. JJ
In 1900, Georg Mehrtens (1843-1917), professor of engineer ing at
th e Technische Hochschule in Dresden, r efl ect ed soberly that "Wholly in
cont r ast to arched bridgebuilding, the building of suspension bridges has
at no time r eally got going in Germany.'" In Mehrtens' opinion, only a
few early chain bridges were of importance. As far as is known today, th e
old est surviving chain suspension br idge in Germany is th e "Kettensteg", a
footbridge built across th e Pegnitz in Nuremberg by Johann Georg Kupplcr
in 1824-25", which spans a respectable 80 m. According to a Prussian
publication of 1822, th e idea of suspending bridges was first proposed by
Carl Immanuel Loscher in 1784; piers and trestles could be dispens ed
with if the bridge deck were to be suspended, for whi ch Loscher re com-
mended bars or chains.2 Of th e chain bridge in Nuremberg, th e four main
suspension chains , hangers and railings remain. The suspension chains
consist of t ension rods with hooked ends and eyelets . Its original oak
pylons were replaced in 1909 by st eel truss mast s - a change that caused
problems with dynamic loads : pin joints and riv ets worked loose, not
least because it had become a popular amusement to set th e deck os-
cillating. In [931, both secti ons of th e bridge were stabil ized with two
ti mber trestl es each, fixed to foundations in th e riverbed . Since th en ,
private groups have repeatedly attempted to have th e Kettensteg r estored
to its original st at e .: Al so built in 1824 was Christian Gottfri ed Heinri ch
Bandhauer's (1790 -1837) pedestrian bridge across th e river Saale in Nien-
burg: a chain-stayed bridge on timber pylons, whi ch tragically collapsed
in th e following year under th e load of a large number of townsfolk at a
public celebration. 4
In spite of the occasional bad expe r ience, German engineers were
soon con structing chain bridges of larger dimensions that could also car r y
carts and coaches: a chain suspension bridge spanning 31 m th at was built
in Malapane (a cent re of iron production) in Upper Silesia in 1825" had 75"
cat tl e herded onto it as a test of its loadbearing capacit y - hardly something
that would be done for a mere footbridge .s In 1828, another chain
suspen sion bridge de signed for larger loads was built in Bamberg, with
towers design ed by Leo von Klenze. Fourteen years later, a traffic
restriction was introduced for reasons of safety and in 1891 this br idge
was demolished. One of th e bridges that has survived, ho wever, is th e
early, small footbridge in the 11mpark in Weimar, dating from 1833,
which is suspended from three parallel chains on each side and spans
a mere 14.8 m.
The t ale of th e small pedestrian bridge spanning 28.1 m across the
upper Ruhr in the park of Laer manor in Mesched e is an interesting on e.
It was r ediscovered towards th e end of the [990S. In 1998, a researcher
studying the archives of the manor' s owner found a manuscript by Johann
August Robling, cont aining a detailed de scription and calculat ions for
a 75" m suspension bridge across the Ruhr near Freicnohl. 6 Robling had
placed great emphasis on stiffening his br idge adequately, in addition to
which he had proposed an alt ernative des ign with lengths of wire cabl e
instead of chains. The manuscript, from 1828, gives th e young Robling's
position as "Conducteur", roughly equivalent to a construction manager.
His solution was lat er adopted by a coll eague, A. Bruns, wh en designing
the much smaller chain suspension bridge at Laer manor, completed in
1839 . It stood unnoticed on th e privately owned property for many years
until its significance was reali zed in 1998, when it was given listed monu-
ment status. " This did not prevent a tree from falling on one of its pylons
during a st or m in 2007. Although temporary measures were immediately
5 Hauausfiihrungen des
Prcussischen Staatc s, vel . I ,
Berlin, 1842, p. 67 (note by
Andreas Kahlow]
6 Schmitz, Chri stoph,
Di e Ruhrbrii cken , Munster,
2004, P: 126
7 Gr unsky, Eberhard,
Von den Anfangen des
Il angchriickenb aus in \Vestfalen,
in: Zci tschrift wcstfalcn, vol.
] 6, Munich, 1998, pp. 100-159;
Schmitz, 2004, p. 163f.
Laer, 1838-39
tak en to st abilize it and pr e\ 'ent it from collapsing, the bridge was a pitiful
sight. Half of a pylon had to be repl aced with a t empora ry structure of
st eel bea ms, while frei ght ti c-down straps t ook th e pl ace of broken or
endanger ed hanger s.
Th e oldest suspe nsion bridge in BelBilJm is thought to be a small
footbridge in th e park of Wi ssckcrke manor, whi ch was built in 1824, th e
same year as Nure mberg's Kett en steg. Spanning 23rn , it was design ed in
th e English chai n bridge t radi ti on by Jean -Bapti st e Vilquai n, an engineer
from Bru ssel s who had travell ed around Eng land. The same year saw
th e foundati on of th e Gesellsclliiftfiir Kettenbriickenbau (chain bridge
cons t r uct ion co mpa ny) in Vienna by Ign az yon Miti s, wh ich built th e
city 's fir st cha in sus pe nsion bridge fou r years lat er - thi s was th e fir st
br idge to have chains made of steel, but unfortunately it was di smantled
in 1880 to make way for a lar ger bridge. y
Th e oldes t sun i\' ing chain sus pe nsion bridge in Switzerland is
probabl y t he Alt enbergst eg in Berne, built in 18p by a nat ive of t hat ci ty,
chief engineer Gu st av Gr.inic hcr (1820-1879). With a width of 2.1m and a
length of p m, t hi s foot br idge, now a list ed monument, connects the old
city ce ntre (aft er making th e steep descent to th e river Aare) with th e
Alt enbe rg qua rt er. It is st iffened by lat ti ce gir ders that simult aneo usly
fun ction as its parape ts ; th e superstr uc t ure has cross -brac ing to pre yent
lat er al deformati on . Th e fl at chains arc made up of members 3 m long,
each of whi ch consist s of four parallel ribs measuring 9 cm wid e and 1.7cm
thi ck . Th ese cha ins r un oyer roc king pier s and are anchored in th e rive r
embankme nt at t he sout hern end and in th e ground at th e northern end.
Altenbergsteg, Berne, 1857
X de Bouw, ;\1., I. Wo uters.
Im-estigat ion of t he restor ation
of the iro n suspension hr idgt'
at t he cast le of Wissckcr kc-,in:
\VITTransactions on t he Built
Envi ro nment , \ 0 1. Rl, 200S
') Mehr tens , 1900 , p. 6
40 Retrospective
St Petersburg, Post OfficeBridge across the Moyka, 1824, span 35 m
Paris, Buttes-Chaumont, 1867
In France, the focus of int er est was mor e on cable and wire bridges,
but of course chain bridges were built as well. The country's first chain
bridge was the Drac river bridge near Gr enobl e, built by Crozet and
Jourdan in 1827.1 In 1839, Berdoly and Dupouy built a chain bridge across
the Agen with a span of 174 m, but t ests showed that it would be un able to
car ry the planned loads, so it had t o be rein forced, finally being reopened
in 1841. Even so, it fail ed to last long, and in 1882 th e chains wer e repla ced
by four steel cabl es on each side. At first , no more than 60 people were
permitted on the bridge at anyone t ime , but in 1906 thi s was reduced to
then in 1936the main susp ension cables had to be repl aced . In the early
high wat er level s in th e Garonne damaged th e bridge, which had
been in need of repair in any case , leading t o incr easing doubts about it s
long-term stability. In 2001-2002, the complete bridge was reconstructed.'
The challenge of br idgebuilding naturally appeal ed to one particular en-
gin eer with an apt it ude for business : Gustave Eiffcl (1832-1923). In 1867,
he built a 63.86 m span chain suspension bridge in the park of Buttes -
Chaumont. However, he never favoured thi s t ype of bridge, preferring to
exploit th e pos sibilities offered by steel truss structures. The chains of
this bridge have, in th e meantime, been replaced by wi re cables.:
Th e first two decades ofthe 19th century were r emarkable for an
unprecedentedl y rapid transfer of knowledge and t echnology across
national and language barriers, as far as Russia. When it came to solving
t ricky te chnical probl ems, the court in St Pet ersburg readily called on
th e servi ces of French or German experts. Notable names in the field of
bridge bUilding include a Spaniard, Augus tin Betancourt a
Frenchman, Pierre-Dominique Bazain e (1786-1836), and two Germans,
Wilhelm von Traitteur and Carl Fr iedrich von Wiebeking
(1762-1842) - th e latter working from Munich . Traitteur had little success
as an enginee r in his native Baden, but in 1813 he was introduced to the
Tsar of Russia , who was married to a princess of Baden . In th e following
year, he began work in St Pet ersburg und er th e Spaniard Betancourt,
taking over as super int endent of bridges in 1821. 4 Pierre-Dominique
Bazaine, who had come to St Petersburg before Traitteur, exper ime nte d
with cable suspension bridges as early as 1823. The bridge built in th e park
of Catherine Palac e in th e same year was, however, a chain susp ension
bridge, because the production of wire was not as far advanced in Russia
as it was in France.s Although it was probably the first of its t ype to be built
in Russia, chain susp ension bridges had not been unknown ther e before
that : Nikolaus Fuss from Swit zerland (Euler 's succ esso r at the St Pet ers -
bu rg Academy of Sciences) had deSigned a susp ension bridge spanning
300 m across th e r iver Neva many years earlier. Traitteur worked on
chain bridges on a large and a small scal e simult aneously. His three pe-
destrian bridges have survived : the Post Office Bridge of 1824across the
I Peter s, 1987, P' 68
2 La Passcr cll c d ' Agen.
Lc sauvctage d ' un ouvrage
histor ique, in: Freyssinet
Magazine, Jan-April 20 0 3;
Lccinq. Benoit, and Sebastian
Petit, Renovation of the
footh ridge over the Garonnc
in .\ gen, in: foothridge 20 0 2,
proceedings, Pl'. 120 - 121
3 Lcfrcsnc.Y,, La
reconstru cti on de la passerel] e
suspcnduc des Butt es
Chaumont, in: Travaux, 482,
May 197), p. 50
4 Fcdorov, 20 0 0 , P' 80
5 ibid. P' 184
6 ibid. P' 197
Lion Bridge, 1825-26, span 23.5 m Bank Bridqe, 1825-26, span 21 .5 m
Moyka r iver and th e Lion and Bank br idges of 182, - 26 over Catheri ne
(now Griboyedov) Canal. For t he br idge across th e Moyka, t he Swiss en-
gineer Henri Gu illa ume Du fou r had sent pl ans to St Pet er sburg - t hese
can no longer be found, but it shou ld be noted that a model of his St An -
toin e bri dge did ex ist in t he teachin g collect ion in St Petersburg.
In 1823, Trait t eu r began designi ng this small bridge, span ning 35 m; in
order to r educe osci llat ions, t he main suspension cha ins were to be fixed
t o th e deck in t he mi ddle of the bri dge (sag-to-spa n rat io I : 16). Two
chains consisti ng of 19 eyebars each sup port t he br idge via 36 hangers,
t hey run over 2., m high cast -iron obelisks and cur ved, spo ked fr ames
dow n t o cast -iron ground plat es. For t he two ot her br idges, Tr aitteu r
abandoned th e obelisks in favour of animal figures , namel y lions and
grypho ns - th e latter bei ng an heraldic beast on t he coa t of arms of
Alexander von Wii rttemb erg, who ran th e Russian hi ghways aut hori t y in
St Pete rsburg. This design innovati on gives t hese brid ges t heir special
char m - animal figures as anchorages for chains or wire ro pes do appea r
agai n at a lat er date on th e Lion Bridge in Berlin (see p. 48) , but apart
fro m thi s th ey did not enjoy success in engine er ing cir cles . Tr aitt eu r
returned t o Germany in 1830, afte r which he built lit t le . All t hree foot -
bri dges wer e list ed as prot ect ed monuments in 1935, since when t hey have
all been renovated, gen erally overhauled or recons tructed .6
Foot bridge construction certainly served as a fiel d of exper ime nt a-
t ion in t his early phase of the new construction t ypology, al bei t one in
whi ch t here were init iall y ma ny fail ur es. While t he engine ers did not
hesit at e to attempt large, high -maintenance cha in bri dges, som e of
whi ch are st ill in use to day, the chain suspension bri dge was not des t ined
for a glor ious fut ure . The fata l collaps e of a chain br idge in Angers in
[8, 0 , designed by th e highl y exper ienced engineers Joseph Chaley and
Th eodore Bordillon , was a serious set back. Better prospects were offered
by the development of wire cable and wire rope brid ges, in which advances
were made by t he Segu in broth ers and Henri Gui llaume Dufour in France
and Switzerland, and by Bri x and (lat er) Roblin g in Ge rmany - alt hough
th e latter emigrated to th e USA in 1831.
The challenges faced by t he engineers of the early wire cable and
wire ro pe br idges are descr ibed br iefl y on th e following pages.
Pont St Antoine, Geneva, 1823
42 Retrospective Suspension bridge over the Cance in Annonay, 1822
T Verreet , Roland, Etn kur ze
Gcschichte des Drahtscils, 20 0 2
2 Peter s, 19 87, p. 171
3 Gabriel, Knut, Hochfeste
Zuggliede r, Manuskript ,
Uni ver sit y of Stuttgar t , 1991- 92;
\ Vagncr, Eger mann, 198)
Cable and Wire Rope Bridges
Chains proved to be too susceptible to failure - if a link in th e chain
were to snap, th is would immediately have dire consequences for the
st abilit y of th e whole structure. It was therefore important to de velop an
alt ernative, in the form of flexible and durable rope of wrought iron wires .
This was of particular interest to th e mining industry, whi ch needed a
more efficient means of ext ract ion at th e pithead. The probl em was
addressed by Wilhelm August Julius Albert, director of mines in Clausthal
in Germany, who invented what is supposed to have be en the first ever
wire rope in [834. It had a diameter of 18mm and consisted of three
strands of four wires each.' In the construction industry, the aerial
spinning process patented by Roebling, who had emigrat ed in 1831 to the
USA, met with success where long (and thus heavy) cabl es were needed,
because it allowed lightweight Single wires to be "spun in place without
support" into a thick cabl e of parallel wires.' By the second half of th e
19th cent ur y, the most important t ypes of cable or wire rope were already
known and subsequent progress wa s limited to making improvements in
the material s, th e cross-sect ional geometry of th e wires, and th eir
arrangement in the strands and rope. l
In th e USA, Josiah Ha zard and Erskine White, manufacturers of
wire cable, began with (yet again) a footbridge : the first-ever cable
suspension bridge, built in 1816 over the Schuylkill Falls in Philadelphia.
Its impressive span of 124m would not be exceeded for decades , alt hough
it did coll apse shortly after being built, under the weight of a snowfall.
In Europe, it was French engineers wh o pioneered the development
of cabl e suspension bridges, with th e help of theoreticians whose calcula-
tion methods opened up new perspe ctives for what had, until then, been
a risky type of construction. Bruno Plagniol and Claude Henri Navier,
both of whom wer e bridge and road engineers , be came interested in th e
idea of suspension bridges in general, and worked out a th eoretical basis
for building with wire ropes. 4
Encouragement also came from an un expected qua rter: th e banker
and industrialist Benjamin Delessert , who was appointed pr esident of the
Banque de France in 1802at the age of 29. Shortly before that, he had set
up a sugar factory in Passy ; it was there that he later decided to build a
link between his house and th e factory premises . In [824, work went
ahead: Delessert pragmatically chose a combinat ion of chains and wire
cable bundles for th e 1.2m wide footbridge, which spanned p m. The
main suspension elements we re four bundl es of 100 wires each, alongside
two chains made up of iron bars 4 m long and 2cm thick. They ran over the
top of two wooden towers, behind which t hey wer e anchored in massive
masonry blocks. The hangers were attached to them at intervals of t m.!
Del essert, however, did not want to become a bridge builder and he
counsell ed anyone with an interest in suspension bridges to seek advice
from Navier, Seguin, Dufour, Dupin and Cordier - with good r eason:
after r ead ing an article about cabl e suspe nsion bridges published in the
official gazette Le Moniteur in 1821, th e brothers Marc (1786-1875) and Jul es
Seguin (1796-1868) had embarked on an audacious project to build a cable
4 Navier, Claude Henri,
Rapport et Mcmoire sur les
Pont s Suspendus, 1823;
Ewer t , 2003 . p. )8
) Marrey, 1990, P: 121 ;
Pet er s, 1987, P:68
6 Casciat o, Mar istc lla: Le
Pont dc'I ournon , in: L'arr des
ingenieur s, p. 510
7 Marrey, 19 90 , P: 121; Pet er s,
' 987. p. 68 f.
8 Pet ers, 1987, p. 124 r.
9 Marre y, 1990, p. 122
Photographs taken in summer 2007
sus pension brid ge across th e River Rhon e between Tain and Tournon . h
Onc agai n, th e new t ype of cons t r uction was fir st t r ied out on a foot -
bridge: in 1822, Seguin and Navicr built a sma ll bridge across t he Cancc,
ncar Vcrnosc lcs Annonay, on a propert y belonging to Mar c Seguin off
what is now th e [) 27 0 road. Over a metre wid e, th e bridge ma naged a
span of 18 m.? It was car r ied by six cable bundles of eight wires eac h,
\\ ith t lu- deck resting on four of th em and th e ot he r t wo serYing
addit ion all x as hand rail s. In th e middle, it was guyed down t o lar ge ro cks
in th e ri vcr to pr e\ ent it fro m sway ing badl y. Today th e brid ge , whi ch
wax later st re ngt hened wi th t wiste d wire rop es, is a sorry sight : it is fall ing
apar t, as arc th e buildi ngs of th e former paper facto r y. It is, however,
st ill possible to make out th e rudiment s of th e wire assembly. Furt her
ex per ience lor the Tain -Tournon bridge was gained with th e const r uct ion
of a nar r ow footbrid ge spanning 30 m acro ss the Gal aure at St Vallier,
\\ hich st ood until 1844 , S and a bridge acro ss th e Eyr ieux between
St Fort unat and St Laure nt , th e st one portals of whi ch sti ll exist.
Another It)()tbridge with an expe r ime nt al cha rac ter was built
rou ghl\ at th e same time by Bruno Plagniol. His son Fran coi s lat er wrote
th at it had been 18 m long and 9 0 em wide and had crosse d th e Ri ver
Pavr c ncar Chorncr ac. He omit te d t o mention th at hi s fath er' s bridge had
been dcst ro vcd by a high wi nd soon afte r const r uct ion. "
Doubt s were indeed voiced about th e safety of thi s ty pe of br idge .
Seguin, who was a technician t hrough and through, as well as a mechani cal
"ngine"r and transport organi ser, did not lack practi cal proofs, whi ch he
44 Retrospective
Passerelle Saint Vincent, 1832, 75 mspan
I Marrey. 19 9 0 . p. 122; Pet ers,
'9 87, p. 70 f.
2 L'Art de l'ingeni eur, p. p 8;
Pelk c, '98 7, p. 69
3 For a co mpilation of the first
articles since 1807. sec Peters,
' 987, p. 69
4 Pelletier, Jean, Ponts et Quais
de Lyon, Lyon, 20 02 , P' 21 f.
publi shed in 1824 in Des ponts enfi l defer [On iron wire bridges J. That
summer , work began on the Pont de Tournon across t he River Rhone, for
whi ch th e Seguins bore t he full costs and ri sk. To st iffen the deck, th ey
used the railings, designing them as trussed gi rde rs . Complet ed in 1825,
th e bridge was unfortunately demoli shed in 19 65.
The fir st cable suspension br idge for public use, however , was built
in Switze rl and, by Seguin in cooperat ion wit h Henri Dufour. Seguin's
ideas and exper iences inspired and encouraged Guillaume-Henri Dufour
(1787-1875) sufficiently to awaken his int er est in th e wire cable br idge. '
On I Augu st 1823, the world's fir st public br idge t o be suppor t ed only by
wire cables, th e Pont St Antoine, was inaugurat ed by Dufour and Seguin
in Geneva . With a width of 2 m and a length of 84 rn, this foot br idge was
suspended from six wire cables across two bays of approximately 4 0 m
each; it was calculate d for a load of approximately 160 peop le and was
guyed in several places to count er act deformati on .
Ther e wer e ris ks involved in build ing larger bridges for great er
loads, becaus e no tradition had yet been built up: no body of knowledge
based on accumulat ed expe rience. For thi s reason, it is impossible to
underest imat e th e importance of th e publi cati ons, above all t hose by
Claud e Henri Navier (1780 -1836) , t hat ceme nte d confidence in the new
t ypes of st r uct ure .2 Articles about t his t ype of bridge ar e few and far
between , but t o thi s day it is st ill producing beautiful footbridges in
ever- new var iatio ns .sJoseph Chaley, a pupil of th e Seguins , achieved a
span of 273 m at an early dat e with his bridge across the Saane in Fribourg.
He owed much t o Louis Joseph Vicat's idea of weaving th e suspension
member s from single wires in their final positi on on site , with the load
di stributed equally t o each of t his br idge's 1,056 wires. The importance of
Vicat's cont r ibut ion to the quality of wire cable production is undisputed .
Throughout Europ e, suspension bridges spre ad very qui ckly in th e
second half of t he cent ury. Giving examples here can only convey a small
part of t he histor y of bridgebuilding as we sketch it out country by count ry.
To sta r t with, we focus on Lyon, because th e city at th e confluence of the
Rhone and Saone river s was endowed wi th several hist orically signi ficant
footbridges over a shor t period . They incl ude the Passer ell e Saint Vince nt
of 1832, the Passer ell e du College of 1844, and t he Passer ell e Saint Geor ges
of 1852. Th e latter two suspensio n br idges were blown up by German t ro-
ops on 1and 2 September 1944 , but they wer e reconstruct ed under th e
directi on of Andre Mogar ay aft er th e war.
The 2.8 m wid e Passer elle Saint Vince nt has connect ed the old part
of Lyon wit h today's cit y cent re across the River Saone since 25 Oct ober
1832, and it may be accepted as bei ng the or iginal structure. To the sout h
of it are t he Passer elle du Palais de Just ice, a cable- st ayed bridge fr om
1983- 84 , and furth er south th e Passer elle Saint Georges , whi ch delights
the visitor wi t h it s beaut iful proporti ons and its walled st eps leading up
to t he columns on which t he steel pylons stand. The Passer elle du College,
whi ch is suspended from two stone pylon s t hat st and in the river bcd ,
crosses t he Rho ne in the east of th e inner cit y. Renovated in 199 6, it has
benefit ed greatly from vehicle ban on th e banks of the Rhone, whi ch have
been landscaped as a pedestrian zone .
Lyon host s a world-famous festi val of light an so, as part of th e
revit alisat ion programme, light ar t ists wer e commissioned t o beautify
th e enti re cent ral di strict. Among ot her th ings, they design ed dramat ic
night- ti me lighting schemes for t he three aforeme nt ioned bridges, keeping
in harmony with their famil iar appear ance by day. They have also man aged
brilliantly t o avoid dazzling passer s-by, or forci ng them to inch t heir way
forward in the dark, or otherwi se di sorienting them in the slightes t .
Passerelle Saint Georges, 1852, 87.5 m f ree span
Passerelle du College, 1844 , main span 109 m, t otal 198 m
46 Retrospective
Peebles, 1905 IIkley, 1934
The reason s why so many of th e first cable br idges collapsed wer e
(bes ides th e as yet imp erfect method s of static and dynamic analysis) th at
t he iron wire produced at th e t ime developed fatig ue under alte rnating
st res s and was susce pt ible to brittle frac t ure s, as well as being difficult to
anchor. Furthermore, t he comparat ively flexibl e and light weight super-
struct ures wer e susce pti ble t o vibra tions . These problems wer e br ought
und er control once t ough and fati gue-resist ant ste els became available
and th e superst r uctures were suffi ciently braced by t ru ss frames, heavy
deck gir ders , or addit ional guy cables. For t he firs t hal f of the [9th cent ury,
however, t he scept icism shown towards th e new ty pe of str uct ure was
not unjustifi ed .
The leadin g country in the early years of cable bridge const r uctio n,
after [S22, is considered t o be France : esti mates of t he number built t here
vary from 300 to 500. In Ens land, indust r y cer tai nly develop ed t o meet a
wi de range of appl icat ion s, even th ough engineeri ng received not hing like
as much support t her e as it did in France. ' The approach t aken by Briti sh
engineers can be describ ed as pr act ical and pr agmatic; for building bri dges,
t hey placed t heir trust in chai n systems rather t han in novel wi re cable.
Charles St uart Drewry ([ S05-I SS[) maintained tha t wire was impractical
for anything th at excee ded t he scale of a footbridge.2
Of the early cable br idges known in Britain, mos t were in Scotland,
wher e Richard Lee built an exper imenta l wir e cable bridge wit h a span of
34 m acr oss th e River Gala in IS[6. This was foll owed by br idges across
I Amouroux, l.cmoine, 1981,
p. Pet er s, ' 987, P' ' 44
2 Drewr y, Charles Stuart ,
cite-d in Pet er s, 1987. P:
146; Kemp, Emory L., Samuel
Brown : Brit ain's Pioneer
Suspe nsion Bridg<' Builder , 1977.
cited in Pet ers, 1987, p. 37
3 Humc, John R. , Scott ish
Suspension Br idg<'s, Edi nhurgh
19 77. cited in Peters, 1987, P: J8
4 Mehrt ens, '9 0 0 , P:
Dumfnes, 1875 Invercauld, 1924 47
th e Ri ver Etteri ck and , in 1817 , Kingsmeadows Bridge, whi ch spanned
ll . \" m across th e Tweed near Peebles, as well as t he fir st Drybu rgh
Abbey Bridge, by John and William Smith. At t his poin t , th e development
of wire cable bridge const ruct ion ceased abruptly, only resuming after
188 0 . l However , th e arc hitect ural vocabular y of t he simple chain or
cable-suppo r te d brid ge t hen underwent a number of utterl y incongru ou s
vari ati on s. England and Scotl and lacked a st ro ngly rooted acade mic
traditi on in enginee r ing - in contrast to th e sit uat ion in Fra nce, wher e
t he enginee r ing pr ofession had t he self-confidence to develop an aestheti c
approach of it s ow n. Th e arc hety pal suspe nsion bridge with a st iffened
dcck girder was giyen an indi vidual characte r by pylon s wi th a hist orical
to uch, such as th e columns and ar ch itraves adde d t o th e bridge of 187 \"
across th e Ri ver Nit h in Dumfri es, nco- Gothic fili gree work at Peebl es
in 190 \" and I1kley in 1934 (David Rowell Engineers), and cast el lated tower s
on th e bridge ove r th e Ri ver Dee at Invercauld in 1924 (James Abe rn et hy
Enginee rs). Here, it becomes evident th at th e approach t o design ing
bridges was yer y mu ch an architectural on e .
The rela tionship between (en gi neering) st r uc t ure and (ar chitec-
tural ) det ail s was a cont rovers ial subjec t that led to violent di sputes
int ernati on all y, as it st ill does. The design of portals was subjec t t o some
ler;' odd fli ght s offa ncy ind eed , whi ch , in th e case of larger br idges
es pec ialI;, attrac te d deri sive co mme nts from far and wide .4
48 Retrospective The Lion Bridge in Berlin'sTiergarten, 1838, 17.3 mspan
I Meh rtens, '90, P' j r
, ibid., p-r
J lbid. , p. 76
Suspe nsion br idge constr uctio n in Ger ma ny progressed haltingly,
as we me nt ioned earlier in connection with chain bridges. Th e sceptical
attit ude t aken ther e towards suspension bridges was described clearl y in
' 900 by Mehrtens, who wrot e that they wer e not able to carry th e heavy
railway trains of modern t imes safely, as th e cabl e-supported br idge over
t he Ni agar a had shown. I All th e same, th e potential of iron wire, for
example, was cer t ainly recognized. Adolph Ferdinand Wen zeslaus Br ix
(1780-1870) was offi ciall y commi ssioned to car ry out exper ime nt s using
iron wire, the result of which was a small footbr idge in Berlin's Ti ergarten,
the Lion Bridge (Lowenbrucke) of 1838. ' Designed by Ludwig Ferdinand
Hesse (1795-1876) and manufactured by the Borsig-Werke, it was a 2m
wid e suspension bridge with a wooden deck, spanning 17.3m. In 1958, it
was rest or ed and given pr ot ect ed monument st at us. Whether it was based
on the Lion Bridge (Lavov most) in St Pet ersburg is not known for cer tain.
It was not un til th e end of th e 19th century tha t th e suspe nsion
bridge played a significant part in large- scale bridge const r uct ion in Ger -
many. The deSign s ente re d for compet it ions incre asingly featured sus-
pension bridges and finall y it was acknowl edged th at for di st ances of 200
to 300 m, suspen sion bridges could successfully compet e with girder or
arched bridges, "name ly, when th e site being consider ed is one at wh ich
(. ..) the beautiful appearance of the bridge is the main consideration.";
In 1898, Kubler and Lcibbrand bui lt a cable br idge 6. 2m wide, spanning
Wet t er, 1893, 38 m span Achberg, 1885,48.6 m span 49
72 m, at Langenar gen on Lake Constance. T his shore-anchored suspension
hrid ge was rest ri cted to car ry ing ped est ri an t raffic in [982-83. One of
the peop le who or igin all y worked on it was Ot hmar Hermann Ammann ,
th en a trainee : th e man to whom we owe th e George Wash ingt on Brid ge
across t he Hudson River. Earl ier , in [885, a cable f()()t bri dge wi th a spa n
of 48.h m had been built acro ss the River Ar gen in Achbe rg.
In man v places, th e value of old footbridges was not r ecogni zed -
es pecial" when t hey stood on privat e pr op ert y, where ga in ing access
was di ffi cult or impossible . O ne of th e ear lie st ped est ri an suspension
hr idges, for example, wh ich crossed th e Ri ver Ruhr in it s middle reaches,
\\as built in [87\" on land hel onging to a screw manu facturer near Hengst ey.
It \\as dem oli shed bet ween [926 and [928, wh en th e prop ert ) was so ld to
th e reg iona l \\..1(('1' uti lit y co mpany. \
Ano t he r exa mple is Am Kaltcnborn footbridge in Wet t er , No rt h
Rhine -Westphali a: a cable-sup po rted bridge built in [893across th e
Ruh I' \ \ ith a spa n of ,8 m.h The deck truss is suspended via han gers at
int or va ls of I.\" m fro m t wo wire ro pes. T he t wo pylons are truss frames
6 rn in hei ght, sta nding on recta ng u lar masonry abut me nts . Alt ho ugh the
bridge has been a prot ect ed monumen t since Octob er 1985, it has not
been looked afte r, and since [990 it has been close d . In any case, t his
beaut iful st r uc t ure sta nds in a water catc hme nt area, wh ich it has been
forb idde n t o ente r since 19p . It seems that whe never somebody st ud ies a
waterway syst e matically, t hey come across ped est rian br idges that have
langui shed in oblivion for reasons ne ver to be known .
O ur ea r lie r co mme nt about the diffic u lt ies faced by cha in bridges
also applies to wi re cable and wire ro pe bridges: thi s t ype of st ruct ure
made li ttl e head way in Germany, wh ere bridgebuilding was dominat ed
by arche d or girder bridges made of iro n and concrete.
It was not un til th e second half of th e 20t h ce nt ury t hat Fritz
Leon ha rdt, Fr ei Otto and Jiirg Schlaich made outstandi ng advances in
lightweight co nst r uction, including t he use of cables . Jiirg Sch laich, in
parti cul ar, succeede d in building ped estrian bri dges of a unique lightness
th at have been recognized as mast er pi eces throughout th e world.
4 Mehrt ens, 1900, l': 7S;
Schl atch, Schuller, 1999, p. 11 4
Schmitz, 2004 , p.
6 Schmi tz, 2004, p. B7 r.,
Grunsky, E., Ein Dcnkmal
dvr Ingc nkurkumt Dvr
Schuhn 'gstdg in IIamm
unci die Ent wicklung <in
Hangchruckcll im fruhcn 20 .
[ahrhundcrt in Ix-utschla ud , in:
B,:lUi ng\'n il: ur , pp.
50 Retrospective Stams, 1935, spanning 93.7 macross the Inn Lingenau, 1876,37.20 mspan
Wher eas in England, France and Germany, th e motivat ion for
using iron and , lat er, st eel to maximum effect in bridge building was
pr ovid ed by industrialization, th e Al pin e region was dominated by a cer ta in
pr agmati sm. Valleys and ravines had t o be bridged for rural society to
fun cti on , so effor ts wer e concent rate d on perfect ing wood en bridge
const r uc t ion. Things changed in th e lat t er hal f of th e 19th cent ury, when
many fascin ating small suspens ion bridges wer e built. A journey up
remot e valleys in search of footbridges will usuall y produce result s - it is
no acci de nt that Swit zerl and views its land scape and cult ura l identity
partly in terms of road and bridge building.
Regrettably, on ly a few of th e many pedestrian bridges st ill in
existe nce can be shown her e. Many of th em lie off th e beat en track, where
th ey are cer t ainly shown off to advant age by their beautiful surroundings,
with br eathtaking panorama s and dr amati c chasms . Moreover, a virtue
was oft en made of the need to build simply, resulting in ingeniously
concei ved structures such as Kanzler -Dollfuss Footbridge in th e Austrian
vill age of Starns. At one time, it was th reat ened with demolition to make
way for a motorway, but the local community successfully pr evented
thi s.' The br idge, which spans 93.7 m and is onl y I. I m wid e, is suspe nded
from two wire ropes; its wooden cross beams proj ect from the deck to a
vary ing exte nt , th eir tip s foll owing a cur ve on plan from th e bearings t o
the ce nt re of the bridge. Int o their ends are screwed U- shaped iron
profiles, t hrough wh ich a tension cable is t hrea ded, cleverl y stabilizi ng
th e st r uct ure .
Only one per son at a time was origi nally permitted t o cross the
82 cm wide cat wa lk across th e Subersach in Bregenzerwald near Egg and
Lingenau. Init ially suspe nde d from four wire ropes, with bra cing in each
I Lang. Maria-Rose, Geschlchtc
cle f Briickenb aut cchnik,
dargestdlt am Bei spiel
von Hangehriickcn aus
Vorarlberg undTirol , in:
Industrit. archaol ogic, lnnshruck,
19 9 2, pp. 16 1-1]1
2 ibid., p. 16J
1 ibid., p.16,
Doren, 1914,76 m span Hitti sau, after 1885, 30.6 m span
hay bet ween th e hanger s, it did not exactl y perform " ell in a loading t est
th at was carried out in 1908 with 30 sheep and, after th at , up to nin e
peopl e. Since then , th e main suspe ns ion ropes have been repl aced , and in
'9 88 th e hridge was r enovat ed in an exemplary manner. '
Another small foothridge dat ing r oughly from th e second half of
th e 19th ce nt ury cr osses th e Ri ver Bolge nach between th e \ill age of th at
name and Hit ti sau . With a span of 30.6 m and a width of 86 ern, it ca n be
classed as an ar chaicall y simple st r uct ure , as the det ail of th e ver t ical
sus pende r bar shows all too clearl y. Thi s simplic ity was care fully retaine d
when th e par ish of Hitti sau had th e bridge repaired in -- nowadays it
is co nstant ly in usc, as it lie s on a trekking rout e. {
The hridges arc maint ain ed hv th e regional gOH>rn me nt s of Vorarl -
herg and Tyrol. The appreciat ion of bridge cult ure in lmver-I yin g r egi on s
is demonst r at ed by other exa mples , suc h as th e Dorcn-Albcr schwcndc
wire rope f(lOtbridge of 1914 and th e Langen-Buch wire rop e l(lOthridge
of 1905 - both across t he Bregen zerach . Some of t he det ail s arc st unningly
simple, alt hough it wo uld be highl y inadvisabl e to imit at e th em and not
all of t he m would sat isfy current reg ulat ions. They dcscr v hi gh pr ai se
non ethel ess - and not just on account of th eir hist ori cal valu e. Local
indigen ou s building prefi gu red man) inventio ns th at suppose d ly dat e
fr om mor e recent times. In an ast onis hing number of cl assic footbridpes,
on e is impressed hy th e use of chain-link railings, whi ch improve th e
t ra nspa re ncy and th e damping of a brid ge , light weight translucent
gr at ings for flooring, and th e consiste ntly mi nimi zed use of mat eri al in
lightweight cons truct ion. The eng ineers of today, equippe d wi th
powerful co mput ers and th e best ana lysis me t hods, ca n on ly t ake t he ir
hat s off t o th eir forerunner s in admirat ion.
52 Retrospective
Ardez, bridgeover the Hinterrhein, c. 1890
Simplicit y is also to be found in Swiss suspension bridges. Char ming
sma ll br idges along todav's hiking routes may not be an und ilut ed pleasure
for th ose with out a head for height s, but of course th ey ar e all completely
safe. One of Switzerland 's fir st wir e rop e br idges was th e Gwaggelibr ugg
in Neuenhof, near Wettingen Abbey, complete d in 1863. Its suggestive
name ( Wobbly Bridge) was no coincide nce, and when it was rest ored in
1981 clearl y recogn izable measures wer e t aken t o strengthen it . '
Engineering st udents in Zuri ch benefit ed from t he pr esence of Karl
Culma nn (1821-8 1), th e founder of graphic sta t ics, and his successor
Karl Wil helm Ritter (1847- 19 6) , also a brill iant teacher . Graphic stat ics,
which made it possib le to visualize basic st ruct ural behaviour, t hus formed
the basis of struct ura l design in Switzerland , producing br idges that wer e
unequa lled anywhere in the world.' This fort unate academic constellat ion
seems t o have borne fr uit almost everywhere in pract ice, especially
because enginee r ing work (for example, on the Gotthard and Rhaeti an
railways) was genera lly recognized as being important for Swiss identity
and was ult imat ely in line with t he aims of th e Swiss heritage movement.
Beside the ver y simple walkways, like th e one in Ardez acr oss the
River Inn , and th e re fined ones, like th at across the Hint errhein at
Thusis, ther e wer e suspension brid ges built to a relatively high sta ndard,
as at Co rcapolo, Frasco and man y ot her places. The Sils footbridge, near
Thusis, was built by Richard Coray (1869 -1946), who was not an engineer
at all, but an exper ience d car pente r. He constructe d and even designed
falsework for the many of th e most imp ortant bridges, such as th e
I Inventar Histot ischc r
Vcrk ehr swcpe lief Schweiz, AG
cd . Cornel Doswald
2 Lehmann, Christi ne , and
Ber -tram Maurer, Karl Culmann
und die graphische Statfk
- Zei chncn, die Sprachc des
Ingt:nieurs, Berlin, 2006
Thusis, 1925, suspension bridge over the Hinterrhein
Salginatobel Bridge . Th e st r uc t ure of th e bridge near Thusis, from
was design ed in such a way th at individual compone nt s could be repl aced
wit hout mu ch difficult y over th e years - an ide a that was picked up by
jlirg Co nzet t when designing hi s fir st Trav er siner bridge (see p. 122) .
Two new proj ect s prove th at th e ran ge of possibiliti es ope n to
de sign er s of suspe nsion bridges has by no means been ex hauste d, even in
Swit zerland . One of t hem is Jii rg Co nze tt's Tr avcr siner bridge II ncar
Rongellcn (sec p. 212) and th e other is Walter Bieler 's long-span sus pe nsi -
on br idge in the Gr isons , whi ch has, however , yet to he built .
Coreapolo, bridgeover the Melezzo in Switzerland 53
54 Retrospective
Offenbach, Dreieichpark bridge, 1879 Dusseldorf, exhibition bridge, 1880, 12m Toulouse, Passerelledessoupirs, 1902, 42 m
Chazelet, 51. Benoit, 1875
Bremen, bridgeby G. Wayss, 1890, 40 m 5aintes, Charente-Maritime, Poitou, 1926-27
Alt hough th e early chain and cable -suppo r te d bridges coped equally
well with long spans and hi gh loads, ded icated ama teurs (ye t again) were
bu sying them selves with the possibiliti es offere d by anot he r mat eri al.
The sea rch for mortars that would set underwat er had int ensified as ea rly
as th e nud-rsth ce nt ury , owing largel y t o John Sme ato n, wh o was
building th e Eddysto ne lighthou se off Plymouth. After 1810, explanations
of how and why different binders work as th ey do were found rough ly at
the same t ime by a Ge r man che mist , J . F. Joh n, and a Fren ch engine er,
Loui s Joseph Vicat, working ind ep endently of one another. In 1818, Vicat
published th e practical knowledge of this subject that he had gained whil e
building a bridge acro ss t he Dordogne in Souillac. ' Pat ents for new binders
wer e taken out very qui ckly: by John Aspdin for Portland ce ment in 1824;
by Joseph Louis Lambot for ferroceme nt in 1848 and by Fra ncois COignet
for beton aBB/ornere(a compact conc ret e) in 1847. The gr eat drawback was
that thi s promi sing const r uct ion mat erial possessed negli gible tensile
st re ngt h. Lambot tri ed embedding iron mesh in conc re t e early on, but
when he showe d th e results at the 185"5" Wor ld 's Fair in Pari s, th ey attract ed
little attent ion.' O f gre ate r consequence were the expe r ime nt s car ri ed
out by Joseph Mo nier (1823-19 6) , a gar den er, wh o was grante d hi s fir st
pat ent in 1867 for plant pots made of co nc re te with iro n wires laid inside
it . This was exte nde d in 1873 t o cover bridges, wal kways and vaulting. In
1875" , Mon ier built the world's fir st r ein forced concr ete bridge on the
est ate of the Marquis de Tiltere at Chazel et. Spa nni ng 16.5" m across the
castle moat with a 4 m width, it was suppor te d by narrow conc re t e
beam s rei nforced with thin , round iro n rods. s St r ictl y spea king, it was
not mer ely a footbridge.
The pot ent ial of combini ng iron and co nc re te was soon r ecogni zed ,
and in th e decade fro m 1880 to 1890, pat ent s follo wed one another in
qui ck succession. Brid gebuildi ng played an expe r iment al and - in view of
the fact th at devel opment was coupled with comme rc ial success - a new,
demon strativ e ro le . In 1879, an arc he d footbridge with a 16 m span was
built in O ffenbac h ' s Drci eichpark by a local Portland cement fact or y,
Feege & Go t t har dt. Thi s had been conceive d as a t emporar y st ruct ure for
adver t ising purposes, but it was left sta nding anyway. In th e 1970s, it s
foundation s and prestressed bands were repaired , and in 2007 it underwent
a complet e renovation. For t unat ely, it has been r estored to it s original
stat e, without railings, so th e el ega nce of th e small arch is once more
evide nt. 4 One year aft er th e Offenbach bridge , Dyckerhoff & Widmann
built a small , ste pped bridge at the 1880 t r ade and ar t fair in Du sseldor f.
Spa nning 12 m with a ri se of 2. 25" m, it s arch was lavishl y decorat ed in a
hi st orici st style , with a bal dachin-like st r uct ure at the ce nt re . ' Anot her
temporary, exper ime nt al st r uct ure was built for th e Swiss Nat iona l Ex-
hib iti on of 1883 in Zurich: the Devil 's Brid ge, wh ich spa nne d just 6 m and
was only 10em thick at the cro wn. " It was followed in 1890 by a protot ype
brid ge in Bremen wit h a 40 m span and a cro wn th ickness of 25" crn.?
Mathias Koenen 's (1849 -1924) brochure on Mon ier' s syst em,
published by Gu st av Adol fWayss (185" 1-1917) in 1886, provid ed a th eoretical
I Stiglat, 200). p_t;7
2 ,,"1ar rey, p. 18
J Stiglat . 200) . p. ) 8;
4 Kuffner, Georg. in:
FAZ, 6.2.2007
, StigJat . ' 99, . p. ,.
6 Schindler -Yui. (9 9 ) . p. 182
7 Troyano, 2QOJ. p. 318f. ;
St raub, 1992, p. 2S,)f.
Girona. Pont d'en Gomez 0 de la Princesa, 1916 Bilbao, Ponte da Ribera, 1939 55
('i p. )1;
Ihiam il c-r/M cnn, 200{ . l' : !";
lrovano. P:
') IQY5. p. l 4
t c Marrc-v . [9'H. p. ':14
basis for using reinforced co nc rete, but thi s was st ill far from a br eak-
through in construction practice . " Le bcton rest ait un rnat eri au suspect "
(Concrete remained a sus pec t material) was th e sobe r ing conclusion
noted down about a sma ll con cr et e bridge, 3.5 m wide with a span of
j9 m and a crown thickness of just 2j cm, that was built in th e gro unds of
th e Wildegg cement fact ory in 1890. Si n 1893, Francoi s Hcnnebiquc (1843-
1921) was grant ed th e first pat ent for hi s Tvbeam syste m, whi ch Gu stave
Quintin use d in 1902t o build th e Passerell e des soupirs (span 4 2 m) across
th e Cana l du Midi in Toul ou se .'! T he new co nstr uc t ion mat erial need ed
cont inued promotion and r esearch , which led Hcnncbiquc to found
Le Beton arme in 1898. T he journal cont r ibute d to the int ernat ional
di sseminat ion of idea s and knowled ge about concrete . In Germany, the
main focu s of interest was on method s of ca lculat ion. One mi lest one was
th e calculati on method publi shed in ' 902 by Emil Morsch . A sma ll foot -
bridge was built for t he [905 world fair in Liege, follo wed by the
Schwarzenberg bridge in Leip zig in [913. Saintes (C ha rcnt e-Ma r it imc ,
Poi tou) in Fran ce acquired a new concret e footbridge in [926, whil e in
1929 Cholet (Ma ine-et -Loi rc) was giv'en a concrete foot br idge in th e
form of a Vierendeel girde r spa nning 16.4 x 30.7 x 30 .7 x 19 .2 m . :>
Also worth mentioning is an arched co ncre t e bridge from [939 in
Bilbao, on e of th e fi rst wh er e the ar ch it self is used as a Iootwav to access
a second , lower level at the bearing of the bridge .
56 Retrospective
I osssteq in WCi lflingen nearWinterthur, 1934
Nessental, 1931
Robert Maillart
Nowher e were form and structure combined with such unique
elegan ce as in th e bridges of Robert Maillart (1872- 194 ) in Swit zerl and .
Maill art' s t eacher at th e Eidgenossi sche Polyt echnische Schule in Zurich ,
Wilhelm Ritter, awakened hi s st udent s' inter est not only in fun cti on ,
st r uct ural stabilit y and economy, but also in form.' Aft er receiving hi s
dipl oma in 1894, Maill art worked in ot her pr act ices for eight years , before
setti ng up hi s own business in 1902 in ord er t o specialize in reinforced
conc re te const r uct ion. He closed th e business in 1919, but found ot her
out st andi ng const r uct ion companies, with which he worked well.
Maill ar t beca me the fath er of a particu lar bri dgebuilding tradit ion and,
th anks to the Salginatobe l bridge , he enjoyed worldwide acclaim as an
enginee r. The und erl ying re ason why th is relati vely mod est proj ect
produced such an infl uent ial result was th e logical way in whi ch
Maill art' s design took into account all of th e bridge' s component s. Thi s
approach was evide nt beforehand in a sma ll , un assuming beam footbridge,
the Triftwasser st eg of 1931in Nessental near Gadmen: a simple T-bcam of
reinforced conc re te, 1.5 m wi de, with a span of 21m.
With th e Tossst eg of 1934 near Wiilflingen , Mai llart succeeded,
together with W. Pfeiffer, in creating a monolithic concret e st r uct ure
that was, moreover , without "abutment s t hat frame th e loadbearing
struct ur e and separate it from th e t errain . Leaving th em out see me d just
as revolutionary as building a house wit hout a plinth.": Inst ead , they built
a slender polygon al arch br idge (r ise- to -span rati o = I: 10.84) with a st iff
deck girder th at also for me d a base for t he iron railings. The elegance of
th e 38 m arch impr essed Max Bill , who wrot e: "The st r uct ure is of a
lightness of appearance and an appea ling nat uralness, as th ough it had
grown her e by itsel f and had sought a way across t he r iver ."4The ar ch slab
and th e cross wall s ar e each 14 em th ick and th e st iffening girde r is 54 ern
th ick . Thanks to a slight rever se curvat ure at bot h ends, the transit ion t o
th e shore is especially elegant . In compar ison to t he footbr idge of 1931
in Ladh olz. ! whi ch sadly has been destroyed , th e Toss st eg seems like a
quantum leap: t he scu lptural energy t hat wa s so important t o Maill art
is st r ikingly evident. In 2004 , the bridge wa s renovat ed , unfortunat ely
using an opaque paint that conce als th e mat eri al natu re of the concre te
arch, whil e barrier s wer e inserted at bot h ends, making a mocker y of
Maill art 's effor t s t o achieve a smoot h transiti on bet ween th e brid ge and
fir m ground. At one end, whi ch leads to a busy roa d, th e need for some sor t
of safety measure is under st andable , but at th e ot her end it is not ; in any
case , it is clear t hat more attract ive designs for barri er s need t o be fou nd.
Maill art 's small pedestri an br idges ar e exce llent early examples of
hi s cont r ibut ion to finding forms for concre te (reinforced with iro n or
steel) that ar e appropri at e to th e mat eri al. One decisive ste p toward s
improving st r uct ural performance was yet to come: pr estressing.
Towards the end of th e 1920S, Eugene Fr evssinet received hi s first pat ent
for t his principle, whi ch he made known in t he 1935 lect ure Une revoluti on
dans les techniques du bet on,6 The possibiliti es that pr estressing opened up
for const r uct ing large bridges were exploite d in earnest after the Second
World War by Ulrich Finsterwalder and Fritz Leonhardt. The next
sect ion of thi s book, whi ch focuses on individual proj ects, begin s at thi s
point in time.
A!though th is revi ew of th e hi st ory of th e footbridge has been a
br ief one, a lar ge part of th e st r uct ura l, for mal and fun cti onal var iet y of
th is t ype of struct ure is already evide nt. Above all, th e fact th at enginee rs
and archit ect s have repeat edl y used thi s bri ef as an oppor t unit y t o
expe riment explains the shee r range of examples - one th at exte nds yet
further aft er th e mi d-zoth cent ury, as is ill ust rat ed by footbr idges fro m
all over Europe.
I Mcnn, Christian, Pre- fan'
Billington. 1990 , p. IX
1 Hill. Max, ' 955, pp. ] 6-77
\ Maillart , Rober t , Einige
neue Eisenbcto nbriickcn, in:
Schwcizertschc Bauzci tung. I I .
April' 9l 6. P: ,p f.
5 Hill . '9 55. pp. ] ' -71
6 Briihwilcr , M enn, 201. p. 14
Tbsssteg, photosfrom 2006
Construction as an Ethical Maxim
Enough of Action We want promises. Eduardo Galeano, In Praise of Courage
The two world wars certainly created a caesura in architectural
history, but the theory that things began entirely from scratch in Germa-
ny after the Second World War has long been discredited among
architectural historians. In structural engineering, the question seems
hardly to have been addressed. While the architects not just in Germa-
ny - were debating political entanglements and the architectural expres-
sion of totalitarianism, the structural engineers maintained a steadfast
silence. After the war, many German engineers carried on working in
much the same way as they had beforehand. Franz Dischinger (1897-1953)
died comparatively young, but others, such as Ulrich Finsterwalder
(1897-1988), Hubert Rusch (193-1979), Gotthard Franz (194-1991),
Hellmut Homberg (1909-1990) and Willi Baur (1913-1978) unquestion-
ably provided continuity in the world of structural engineering as it
became increasingly internationalized. For Anton Tedesko (193-1994),
who worked for many years in the USA, Ove Arup (1895-1988) and Fritz
Leonhardt (199-1999), it became a matter of course to build in other
However, form and expression, functional structural criticism and
the political aspects of engineering construction were seldom debated in
the 1950Sand 1960s. These were the years of Germany's economic
miracle, in which large bridges, especially, embodied technical progress
and the triumph of mobility as a consequence of freedom and affluence,
which, for the time being, was not called into question. The argument
that engineers had a responsibility to society was put forward at length
by Fritz Leonhardt, in particular, who like Fritz Todt had already seen
cooperation with architects (Tamms, Bonatz) as self-evident in earlier
times, under the National Socialists. Leonhardt liked using terms such
as "beauty" and "elegance" and with these two categories (which were
never precisely defined) he combined a general ethical approach that had
a rationally argued commitment to the wellbeing of the community.
Individualism did not have a dominant role. A masterful sureness of touch
in choosing the right construction was supposed to result in a good, at-
tractive form, as if of its own accord.
Formal restraint was considered to be a virtue; monumentality
(which Paul Bonatz still thought right on occasion) was avoided as far as
possible, while formal quality was expected to result from working
closely with the architect. Designing loadbearing structures according to
the logic of statics and construction seemed to be an ethical requirement.
Their aesthetic evaluation was not considered systematically for quite
some time. A panel discussion about the Olympic buildings in Montreal,
which concluded a congress of the lASS in July 1976 and is documented
in Civil Engineering-ASCE 12h976, mentioned a fatal development,
namely, that insecurity was leading engineers to slip ever more frequently
into the role of mere constructors, serving architects who designed
however they liked. The relationship between architects and engineers
still remains controversial. As far as footbridges are concerned, however,
all was still more or less well in the engineer's world, as the following
pages show.
60 Construction as an Ethical Maxim
Bridge in Vagli di Sotto near Lucca, Italy, 1954
Boaga, Giog rio, Riccardo
Mor andi, Bol ogna 1984,
Troyano, 2003, p. 290;
Str utt ure di calccstruzzo arma ta
c di calccst r uzzo pr ecomprcsso,
Du r ing a discus sion of Maillart , Nervi and Morand i, Philip
Johnson r emarked that Ner vi cert ainly created th e most beautiful roofing
st r uct ures in the world, but Riccardo Morandi deserved the gr eat er
respect as he applied more care t o the fund amentals of design and had
thereby create d wonderful bridges with t he most beautiful structures.
Riccard o Morandi (1902-19 89) founded his own offi ce at th e age of 29 and
began to work clos ely with const r uct ion companies . Morandi st rove t o
learn th e practical aspects of const ruction and t echn ology of concre t ing
as efficie ntly as possible. These issues were at th e heart of design at that
t ime. It is these two primar y int er est s that t r uly come together in th e
pedestrian bridge in Vagli di Sotto. Both halves of th e bridge wer e
const r ucte d with-out supporting scaffoldi ng but wer e const r ucte d
ver t ically and rotated int o place. The arch haves ar e joined t ogether at
keystone of the ar ch with a pinned connec t ion. The elegant bridge is 40 m
high and spans a narrow sect ion of a re servoir. The arch span is 70 m. The
keystone joi nt is almost capr iciously staged; the deck gir ders become
thinner and thinner as they approach the bearing and lie like pick-up
stic ks on point supports. This, alon g with the alr eady ext re mely slender
structure, cre ates an almost fr agile visual imp act . At almost the same t ime
and with th e same spe ct acular erect ion procedure, Riccardo Morandi
built a st iffened pol ygona l ar ch bri dge with a 100 m span over the Storms
River in South Afr ica. The high Vagli di Sotto footbridge has a fanta st ic
setting in the Tuscan landscape, and its refl ection in th e st ill wat er s of
th e reservoir is fascinat ing.
An classicarch bridgeof timelesselegance
62 Construction as an Ethical Maxim
Enzsteg in Vaihingen, Germany, 1962
The narrow, 2.6 m wide concrete arch footbridge spans 4 6.2 m and
was originally designed as a pipe bridge. To link utility with beaut y, the
city administration decided to cover t he waterpipes with a deck for
pedest rian and bicycle traffic. Fr itz Leonhardt , one of th e mo st exper i-
ence d exper t s in reinfor ced concrete , was commi ssioned to design it, in
cooperat ion with th e architect Paul Bonatz, and lat er Gerd Lohmer; t hey
produced a reasonabl e st r uct ural desi gn while respecting the aesth eti c
demands of the br idge.
Ent hralled by Eugene Freyssinet's article "Une revolution de I'art
de batir", Leonhardt visite d him in 1943 and qu ickly recognized th e
potential of th e composite material, which had not yet been exploite d.
Whil e the scientific and t echnical work with reinforc ed and pr estressed
concre te was being carried out in France and Swit zerland, Leonhardt's
book Spannbet onJiir die Praxi s became a work of "t owe ring imp ortance"
(Christian Menn) .
During th e con struction of the Enzsteg, Leonhardt 's ambitions lie
in designing a slender arc h br idge - a small struct ure of impressive
elegance. The cross secti on is a plat e girder with two webs and flanges for
the pipes. Th e slab is only 50 cm thi ck at th e keyst one. With th e deck
cant ilever ing 75 cm to th e side , t he first visual impression is of the 12 cm
thick corn ice as a wafer-thin arch over th e Enz . At the left abutment,
three prestressed anchors transfer the arch thrust to the und erl ying rock,
6 m bel ow the t errain. The opposite abutment is a "bac k pack bearing"
found ed directly on th e rock and providing a walking surface.
Th e bridge has remained complete ly undamaged . The steel railings
- which wer e originally red - have occasionally been painted, and an
abrasive coat ing was re cently added to the walking sur face . Leonhardt
had ori ginally smoot hed the con crete walking surface and refused th e
addit ional sur facing. Apart from thi s, the footbridge is unchanged to thi s
day and bears wit ness t o Fritz Leonhardt' s original design int ention s: to
create te chn icall y appropriate const r ucti on as elegantly as possible.
Leonhardt' s small footb ridge is th e incarnation of hi s understanding of
his career , with th e reali zat ion of th e et hical re sponsibi lit ies of th e design
enginee r.
In the meantime, trees and vegetation have grown along both
ri verbanks , so that th e lengths of the abutments ar e hidden . Thi s leaves
the visual impression that the footbridge is floating in the surro unding
enviro nme nt . This change re mains in harmony with th e design .
With a 50 emgirder and a slabof only 12 em, t he 46.2 m Enzsteg islight asgossamer 63
/ \ / \ 1 /
, ;.-
26 m
0.5 m
64 Construction as an Ethical Maxim Dyckerhoff & Widmann test lightweight concrete in bridgebuilding
Schiersteiner Footbridge, Wiesbaden, Germany, 1961
In 1964, as Dyckerhoff Ce ment Works celebrate d th eir 100th anni-
versary in Wiesbaden- Amoncburg, th e company offered to const r uct a
pedestrian bridge over th e entrance t o th e port of Wiesbaden-Schi er st ein
as a gift to the cit y of Wiesbaden. Th e bridge was conceived to complete
a pathway th at had been interrupted for decades and leave the Rhin e river-
banks even more sceni c than ever: the bridge should become a landmark .
The Schi erstein er Footbridge may be considere d a pion eer ing
accomplishme nt fr om a structural sta ndpoint , wh ich began an er a of
br idge design history in th e mid 1960s. Th e footbr idge is a produ ct of
industrial development during Germany' s economic boom years, when
t echnical advances wer e necessary to keep ahead of t he compet it ion.
Although the t echnical advan ces of the st r uct ure were not classified , the y
were not fr eely adverti sed . The only informat ive publicat ion on th e
structure appeared in a 1967 int ernal Dywidag report .
Th e first designs for the bridge were concei ved in the Wi esbaden
branch of th e company in 1964. In the Munich office of Dyckerhoff &
Widmann, Ulrich Finstc r walder - one of the leadin g engineers of the
t ime along with Fr itz Leonhardt - learned of th e ambit ious plans and the
marketing impor t ance of th e proj ect . As it was intended be something
extraor di nar y and formall y challenging, Finst cr walder sought the coun-
sel of hi s friend, the Cologne architect Gerd Lohmer, as he often had
before. Meanwhile, th e challenges had multiplied . The cement works
hop ed t o demonstrate the advant ages of lightweight concre te in bridge
const r uct ion - a devel opment that was al ready fur t her advanced in the
USA. Finst erwalder (1897-1988) led th e const r uct ion office of Dyckerhoff
& Widman n in Muni ch, a position he took over fro m Franz Dischi nger in
1932. He would usc the opport unity to develop free cant ileveri ng
const r uct ion in lightweight concrete, so as not t o di srupt ship t raffi c
during constructi on. Finst erwalder enjoyed worldwide recognition for
his bridges in Balduinst ein and Worms, const r ucte d in th e using
the free cant ilever method . Lohme r had studi ed ar chitecture in St uttgar t
and worked from 1936 to 1942 with Paul Bon atz ; he conce nt rate d on t he
emblemat ic, at t racti ve form and pr obably designed t he layout of the
pathways and cant ilevering ramps and spiral land ings.
For th e fir st t ime, white, high st re ngt h lightweight concrete LB300
would be used for pr est ressing conc re te in free cant ilever const r uct ion.
Nor mal-weight concre te was chose n for the ramps and lower arches. The
arch itsel f did not need to be pr estressed , but the cant ilever ing ramp s and
podiums requ ir ed pr estressing. They sit piggyback on th e ar ch as
triangular t rus ses. The upp er ramp acts as a t ension memb er, whil e th e
ramp pair below acts as compression st r uts . The deck slab is around 3m
wide and ri ses to a height of 16 m above t he wat erline. Th e arch ri se is 12m

Spiral landingsbecomeviewing platforms Experiment in canti leveringconstruction
- -;/
28.2 m 96.4 m 28.2 m
wit h a span of 96 .4 m. The wind for ces ar e transferred to the abu tment s
by a 50 ern thick lower flan ge , with a width of 1.5 m at t he midspan and
3.0 m at t he supports .
Lightweight con cret e see med a logical solut ion, as it s weight was
only a th ird of that of normal concrete . Th e tonnage of prestressing st eel
was 20 percent lower than for normal concrete. The LB 300 concrete
qui ckl y reached sufficient st re ngt h to allow t wo segment s to be concret ed
per week . Special at te nt ion was paid to th e anc hor ages of th e pr estressing
st eel and th e cre ep and shr inkage pr op erties of lightweight concrete.
Experi ment s showed tha t th ese prop erti es differed littl e fr om norm al
concre te. But th e Young's modulus of t he concretes vari ed grea tly, with
17 , 0 00 N/mm
for LB300 and 30,000 N/ mm
for normal concre te . Thi s
res ulte d in differing deform ations of t he mat erial. Th e dynamic behaviour
of th e st r uct ure du r ing const r uct ion was al so st udied; in service , th e
three pin-jointed arc h st r uct ure is very st able.
In 1967, th e Schi er st ein er Foot br idge, wit h a span of 100 m and a
64 m long segme nt in lightweight co ncre t e, was th e longest lightweight
concret e bridge in th e worl d. Com pet it ion pu shed ri vals to further
t echnical development s - ma rket shakeo ut as it is called today - but t hey
wer e unable to find a more economic syste m. The Schi erstein er Brid ge
provided th e fir st ex pe r ience with new mat erial s from whi ch th e
Dyckerhoff Ce me nt Works and th e co nst r uct ion offi ce of Dyckerhoff &
Widmann in Muni ch benefit ed. Larg er spans in lightweight co ncret e were
fir st possible in th e 1970s , with th e ped estrian bridge over Lake Fiihling
in Co logne , followed by th e second Deutz cr Br idge over th e Rhine in
1979, a pr estressed lightweight concre t e roadbridge with a span of 184m.
Alsen, Klaus, Di e I)y{'kn hon
Bruckc in Wic sb.uh-n-
Sc-hic rstci n, in : I ) y \\ id,lg-
Bct-icht c, 196 7, pp. l -h
Wittfoht , 1984 , pp. 262- 264
Baus, Ur sul a, Dc-r z\\'ci tc
Blick: Schier-steiner Stcg in
Wicsbadc n, in: DAB, 12,
pr .
66 Construction as an Ethical Maxim
Kingsgate Bridge over the Wear in Durham, UK, 1966
Aft er deciding to change fiel d of st udy from philosophy t o civil
engine ering, Ove Nyquist Arup (1895-1988) chose reinfor ced concre t e
design as his specializat ion at the Polyt ekni ske Lerean stalt in Copenhagen.
Reinfor ced concre te , the preferred mat erial for the classical modern, is
also used in thi s footbridge, th e Kingsgat e Bri dge over the Wear. The
bridge would be th e last structure that Ove Arup would design himself.
Arup found ed his own offi ce in 1946 and developed his multifaceted t alent
to become the most successful eng ineer of hi s generat ion. Arup was born
in 1895 and was not much younger th an Di schinger or Finst erwalder.
Arup benefited greatly from his sophistic at ion, comprehensive skills, and
his early reali zati on of the fruitfulness of cooperat ion with arc hitect s.
Ove Arup considered this bridge to be one of his favourit e st ruct u-
re s, as he later managed of th e daily work of hi s offi ce and was seldom
able to design himself. Hi s tal ent lay in his ability to lead his t eam as he
recogni zed that good architect ure is only possible when th e owner 's,
engineer' s, archit ect' s and cont rac tor's interests are coo rdinated. Hi s
work was - t ypi call y or almost stereotypically for hi s generation - given
an et hical connat ion: design should be "logic al", true and honest, natu ral,
economical and efficient . Ove Arup, like Fritz Leonhardt, did not
at t empt to explain th e motto "Truth and honest y in design", but his well
thought-out designs were appropriat e t o the mat erials and for ces , and
seeme d t o suffi ce as explanat ion.
The 31 m long bridge is impressive not for its span , but for it s coura-
geous form that makes us appreciate th e rol e of t ruth, goodness and
beaut y in design . The doubl e V-formed supports cant ilever high above
the riverbed t o redu ce the span of the bridge effect ively. The capricious
detail of t he joint between th e suppor ts and the deck girder almost
re sembl es a butler's hand car ry ing a t ray. The path layout is parti cularl y
interesting; a pedestri an appro aching from th e cit y is offered a view of
the und er side of the structure . Thi s would be impossibl e for the straight
approach, so that it was necessar y to cr eat e a kink in the path. In addition,
a light descent at th e bridgehead t heat r ically exaggerates the pathway.
The erect ion procedu re was unique and differ ed from Ri ccardo
Mor andi 's const r uct ion methods for Vagli di Sotto footbridge in th at the
t wo bridge halves wer e fabri cat ed on land parallel to the riverbank and
then lifted onto the suppor ts .
On.' Ar up and Part ners 1946-
19H6 , London, 1986 , rp. 1{8-161
Troyano, zoo j , p. F 9 and p. 472
68 Construction as an Ethical Maxim
Arch bridge over the M30 motorway in Madrid, Spain, 1979
Most Euro pean cit ies ex pande d at an incredible r at e during th e
po st- war economic boom in Europe . The r esulting increase traffic has
led to highways in urban ar eas that can be called unfriendly at best for
pedest rians . On example of thi s is th e M30 mot orway in Madrid , whi ch
has cut a gash in th e urban texture to th e west of th e city cent re . Only
aft er completion of t he motorway was it decided to build two pedestrian
bridges over it . The footbridges were to span 80 m without inte r me diate
support in order t o join the neighbouring r esidential ar eas . The bridges
were to be built qui ckly while minimizing the di srupt ion t o motorway
traffic, but had great aesthet ic r equirements , as th e cit y wante d to cre ate
a good impression from th e motorway. Jose Antonio Tor roja, son and
successor to Eduardo Torroja, analysed a cable-st ayed bridge with a span
of 86 m as well as a low ar ch with a span of 13 m and two pinned joints.
He wrote at th e time th at he decided on th e arch solut ion for aesthetic
reasons. An it erative comput er- dr iven form-finding procedure minimized
th e depth of th e structure . The result is a structur e with a form defined
by optimization, and impress ive in its slenderness and elegance. With it s
reinforcement in th e quarter point s of th e spa n, t he struct ure recalls th e
works of Rob ert Maillart.
Steel trestl es provided support for th e structure du r ing erect ion.
Prefabricat ed prestressed con cr ete segments with a length of 19 m and a
weight of 80 t were placed upon th e t emporary suppo rt s. The 40 ern wid e
joints between segme nt s wer e concr ete d in sit u. A sliding support was
provided at one side of th e bridge t o allow th e installation of jacks. The
jacks wer e used to press th e structure together and initiate th e ar ch
behaviour. The pressure from the 700 t jacks lift ed th e bridge from it s
formwork with a supere levat ion to compe nsate for th e anticipated deform-
at ion du e to creep and shr in kage of th e concret e.
'Ior r oja, J.Antonio, "Dos
pasarclos sab re laAvcnida de
1a Paz", in: ATEI', Hormig6n y
Acero, j r d t r -i mes te r, ' 979
A purestructurewith a simple railing: in 2007 it was painted blue 69
I 16.3 m I 78.66 m I 16.3m I
I 3m I
Taking Lightness to the Limit
It was as though he had nothingness In his hands. Alessandro Baricco. Silk
After the heady economic upturn of the post-war decades, the oil
crisis of 1973 brought the Western world back to reality in a series of
almost unreal experiences: houses lit only by candlelight in some coun-
tries; car-free Sundays in others, the tarmac empty of all but curious
pedestrians and gleeful cyclists. The limits of growth and the finite
nature of resources were forcefully brought home to people; throughout
the world, economy and efficiency took over as the main production
criteria. In architecture and, to an even greater degree, in engineering
construction, slenderness was a signal that the ethics-based criteria of
so -called honest construction and truthfulness to materials could be
developed further. Lightweight construction, which exploited loadbearing
capacity to the full, suited an age in which behaving responsibly towards
the environment became popular as a political goal.
With the construction of the pavilion in Montreal and the roof above
the Olympic buildings in Munich, lightweight construction methods in
the tradition of Buckminster Fuller and other pioneers showed that they
could give architecture new momentum. In bridgebuilding, the desire to
conserve resources and the increased pressure to reduce costs compelled
engineers to take lightness to the limit. Structural systems such as stress
ribbon bridges and cable-supported bridges were refined and calculation
methods were adapted to optimize the use of material. The design voca-
bulary, unfortunately, was reduced to slenderness, which acquired an
almost unquestioned status as a quality of design.
After all, it is not really enough to equate lightness with slenderness
with beauty as the justification of an aesthetic judgement.
Cable-supported bridges, which can be built in a great variety of forms
and with considerable elegance, have undisputed potential. The implicit
reliability of wire rope can be illustrated by thinking of tightrope artis-
tes: our fear is not that the cable could snap, but that the performers (or,
in a metaphorical sense, the designers) might lose their footing. In this
sense, the lightweight, gracefully curving pedestrian bridges designed
by Jorg Schlaich' s practice can be seen as outstanding performances.
They achieve their effect less by powerful massing than by a confident,
almost poetic, sense of line.
Stress ribbon bridges gain individual design quality whenever the
structural principle is thought out and tested in different materials. Both
types of bridge require uncompromising attention to detail - and not
just structural detail. They also both bring with them one unwelcome
problem: many pedestrians are unwilling to accept walkways that sway
even slightly, even though the structures concerned (often flexible ones)
have by no means reached the limits of their loadbearing capacity.
Vibrations and oscillations start to make pedestrians feel uncomfortable
long before they jeopardize the stability of the bridge. Bracing and stif-
fening therefore become less of a structural problem than a matter of
design, because stabilizing components of any sort tend to obscure the
Simplicity of line that gives such delicate structures their poetic air.
72 Taking Lightness to the Limit
The first of itskind: with itsgradient of about 15percent, the stressribbonbridge overthe N3at Pfaffikon, 2006
Stress Ribbon Bridge in Bircherweid, Switzerland, 1965
The first con cr et e st re ss ribbon br idge for pedestrians was built in
Bircherweid, Switzerl and, in t he mid -I96 0s. Rene Walther and Han s
Mor y had founded th eir own office in Basel just two years before, and
thi s st ructure confronted them with an aesthet ic probl em, which they
were able to solve with a t echnical approach. The photos show that the
traffic lanes of the N3 motorway have ver y different elevations . Int er-
mediate piers were not permitted . Rene Walther fir st designed a skewed
t russ structure but the aesthet ics of th e st r uct ure did not suit the
surrounding landscape, whi ch has a view desc ending to th e lake below.
Rene Walther remembered Ulrich Finst er walder' s repeated rec ommen-
dat ions for stress ribbon structures for br idges, and decided to propose a
slend er stress ribbon bridge to the Swiss authorities . If the authorities
had th e courage, the first -ever pedestrian stress ribbon bridge would be
built in Bircherweid . An ar chitect was not consulte d on the project .
The engineer s would exploit the strength of the material. The deck
slab is merely 12 em deep at the edges and 18cm deep in the middle of the
deck . The sag of the ribbon is mer ely 40 em for a span of 48 m. The high
anchorage forc es are redir ected over a saddl e at the abutment and
anchor ed into the underlying soil. Five ro ck anchors were used at the
upp er abutment (V = 800 t), and six at the lower (V = 810t) . Six st eel
tendons are encased in the thin deck slab. The bridge has been in service
for decades, even though th e st r uct ure is consider ed ver y lively. Rene
Walther 's fri end and colleague Christian Menn referred to the structure
irreverently as a "t rampoline". But such vibrations do littl e to di sturb the
"robust mountain men" of the ar ea. As the recent Swiss code has requ ired
that 20 percent of the anchors be able to be insp ected and replaced, t he
bridge was refitted . Electric monitoring devices wer e install ed and
cont inually measure the tension for ces in the st eel t endons.
Rene Walther has cont inued to propose stress ribbon structures,
notably in a compet it ion with a multi-span stress ribbon pedestrian
bridge over th e Rhone, unfortunately without succ ess . Project cost is
becoming more and mor e the deciding factor in competitions stress
ribbon st r uct ure s are not th e cheape st option due to the large foundation
anchorages they require for the tension forces in the structure.
The Bircnerweid foot bridge in a photo from 1965
74 Taking Lightness to the Limit
Stress Ribbon Bridge in Geneva, Lignon-Loex, Switzerland, 1971
As part of a pipelin e from Mar seilles via Lyons and Gr enoble to
Geneva, a structure was needed to cross t he Rhone between Lignon and
Loex near Geneva. The Rhone divides th e ver y differ ent worlds: multi-
storey buildings dominat e t o the north, while the sout hern side is an
idyllic count ry land scape. In 1962 , the city of Ge neva decided t o build a
new subur b with three-st orey buildings t o house approximate ly t en
th ousand inh abitants in Lignon; it was fin ished in 197'- It was th erefor e
obvious to link t he const r uct ion of the pipel ine st r uct ure with a
foot bridge to join Lignon wit h t he recreat ional area of Loex t o th e south.
For th e free-spanning st r uct ure, t he enginee rs of H. Weisz from
Geneva and Otto Wenaweser + Rudol fWolfensber ger from Zurich
designed a stress ribbon structure, suppor te d by four pr estressed cables
(d = 92 mm) . With a cable sag of .s- .3 m, t he maximum slope of the deck is
around 16 per cent . Slopes of the br idge deck in conte mporary st ress
ribbons ar e limited to 6 per cent , producing much grea ter te nsion for ces.
Th e deck is made fro m 74 prefabricated slab segment s, each 3. 1m wide,
which were laid on the suppor ti ng cables. This process took .s- days, aft er
whi ch the joint s between t he segme nts wer e concre t ed in sit u t o crea te a
cont inuous slab. Afte r the concre te had hardened , t he supporting cables
wer e again st re ssed . Alt oget her, th e bridge create s a ver y robust impres -
sion; it is not easily exci ted to dynamic osc ill ations. Childre n are thrilled
t o descend the ste ep gradient of the deck on their bicycles.
The pipelin e runs alongside the west ern railing. For maint enance
reason s, placing the pipel ine below the deck - as in Fr it z Leonhardt's
Miihl acker Bridge - was not considere d. It is unfortunate t hat t he pipe-
lin e blocks th e view over the we stern ra ili ng. It is placed so high as wind
tunnel t est ing showed th at the opening between the pipelin e and the
deck would need to be roughly l. .s- times the diameter of the pipeline t o
avoid dynami c osci llatio ns. Th e two abut ment s are broken down into
compress ion and ten sion member s. The footings arc anchored with 2.s- m
long roc k anchors due to the inferior quality of the overlyi ng soils.
Wolfensberger considered th e abut me nts and anchors to be th e cr itic al
elements of the const r uct ion. As the anchorage for ces are inver sely
pr oportional t o the sag of the st ress ribbon , Wolfen sberger chose the
ma xi mum possible sag and decided to con st ruct stress ribbon bridges in
ar eas with good-quality soil s.
After 30 years, t he br idge's formal rese rve conti nues to be convincing.
The undi sturbed r iver bank is a pr ot ect ed area , wher e local ro wers do not
disturb t he beaver s - The Rhone vall ey has re maine d almos t completely
undi sturbed .
The maximum gradient is 16 percent.
136 rn
3.1 m
. 1 J
76 Taking Lightness to the Limit The flamboyant central stair at the changeof direction
Stress Ribbon Bridge in Maidstone, UK, 2001
great local bendi ng moments near the abut ments . The decks ar e t herefore
haunched near th e abutments and at the int ermediate pier. The stainless
ste el raili ng wi th sta inless cablene t infill ing aid cont r ibute to t he light
app earance of t he st ru ct ur e, de spit e England 's t ypicall y ra iny weat her .
Drainage is provided by st eel grati ng, whic h allows water and sunlight to
pass directl y through the deck . Jiri St ras ky is one of th e gre at exper t s on
stress r ibbon bridges: in 1985" near Pragu e, Strasky built a multi -span
st ress r ibbon with spans of 85" .5" m - 96 m - 67.1) m. In th e Maid st one
Footbr idge , th e t echnical challenge is the directional change of th e deck.
The extraordinary aspect of t he struct ure designed by St rasky
Hust y and Partners t ogether wit h t he ar chitects fro m Stu dio Bednar ski
in Maidsto ne, sout h east of London jumps out at th e viewer : a st ress
ribbon bri dge with a change of direct ion at midspan. The Kent Messenger
Mill ennium Bridge and expande d park connect s the area between the
railway and ri ver, which had been diffi cult to access. A natural enviro n-
ment can be found her e not far fr om the cit y cent re . The design idea was
to free up th e pedest rians' view from th e br idge deck complet ely, so th at
st r uc t ura l syst ems using pylons , ma st and cables wer e out of th e que sti on.
A thin st ress ribbon bridge where th e han gin g deck act s as the main
st ruct ure was the obvi ous choice. The t otal length of the const r uct ion is
101.5" m is divided into two halves, one 4-9 .5" m and th e ot her 37. 5" m, by a
kink creati ng a 25" change of direct ion in plan . The pr obl em of th e great
hori zontal for ces resulting from th e dir ect ional change is elegantly solved.
These hori zon t al forces are suppor te d by compre ssion forces in a solid
conc rete st ai r way. In orde r to pr event the deck fro m lifting upward due
to th e incl ine of th e st air way, a slende r st eel column is added. The super-
st ruct ure consist s of 3 m long prefabr icat ed segme nt s hu ng on st eel cables .
The joi nts between the segme nts were conc rete d in sit u and pr etcnsioned
with addi tion pr est ressing tendons. This stress ri bbon design is t ypi cal of
Jir i Strasky. The adva ntage of th e st iff deck is it s rel at ively small dynamic
response. The trade-off is that th e high stiffness of th e deck produces 3.1 m
/ /
1.4 m
Bednarski , Cczary M. , Kent
me ssenger Millenium Bridge .
Maidst onc, UK, in: Footb ridge,
2002 , pr . 1I 0 -] 1I
Unusual for a stress ribbon bridge - the oppos ite bridgehead is not in sight 77
-c-, "-
" "'"
37.5 m 49.5 m
" "
78 Taking Lightness to the Limit With afreespan of 52 m, the bridgesags by only 80 em
Footbridge in Enzauen Park, Pforzheim, Germany, 1991
On ce again, a provincial garden show was an occasion t o do
somet hi ng for the pedestrians in a city defil ed by t raffi c. As th e land scape
along th e Enz ri verbank was to be newl y groomed, it was easy to blend
th e robust abut me nts of the stress ribbon bridge int o th e r iver side
embankme nts. Grea te r simplici ty in a st r uct ure is hard t o imagine; a
hallmark of Schlaich Bergermann and Par t ner 's work. Two thin metal
plat es (4 80/40 mm, St 52-3) ar e hun g between the abutments. Lightweight
concre te plat es are then bolted onto th e ribbons (d = 17 mm) . The bridge
has a sag of merely 80 ern in order to respect the maximum slope of
6 per cent for wheelcha ir user s. Each plat e ribbon was transported to the
site in three segments, which wer e then welded together on site . The
r aili ngs, consisti ng of steel tubes with a chain link fill ing, contri bute t he
dynamic damping of the st ruct ure. Th e transparent rail ing makes littl e
visual impac t. As the curvat ure of the deck incr eases near the abut me nts,
the concre te plates become shorter. The cr it ical area of a stress ri bbon
bridge is near the abutment. Live loads create bending moment s in th e
t ension me mbers if they ar e ri gidl y connecte d to t he abut me nt , causing
fati gue t o become an issue. To avoid th is, th e ribbons are suppor ted by a
saddle with a large enough radius to limit the cyclica l loading t o below
the fatig ue limit . In total , four new pedes trian bridges tha t re animate the
at t rac t ive riverbanks wer e built for t he garde n show.
67.7 m
2.9 m
Leicht, wcit , 1003.
Concrete sl absare bolted to steel ribbons
North Bridge in Rostock, Germany, 2003
To harmonise natural land scapes - or t o put it mor e mod estl y,
land scaped count r yside - wi th cur ious and act ive peopl e ma kes th e
garden shows pot ent occasions for unit ing hcautv and utilit y. In genera l,
th e hri ef garde n shows leave an extended recreati onal areas and create
more of an impact th an th e ph rases "ext raordinary gardening" or "t he
Ol ymp ics of gardening" would have us beli eve. It was at such an occas ion,
th e 2003 Int ernat iona l Garden Sho w in Rostock , Ger ma ny, th at several
foothridges wer e built over th e wat erways that t raver se th e sit e. Sch laich
Bergermann and Partner design ed a multi -span st re ss r ibbon st ru ctu re
for t he Nort h Bridge over a t r ibu t ar y of the l.lnterwar now near Schmarl.
Each of t he three spans has a lengt h Of 27m. Two plat e ribbons are hu ng
between t he abut me nt s and over t wo int ermediat e bridge pi ers. Th ese
int ermedi at e piers co nsist of ar t iculated columns with a car r iage spr ing
elast ic saddle. Concrete slabs, 12em t hi ck, are holtcd t o th e ribbons. The
effect s of span cont inuit y must he t aken int o account for such a st ress
r ihhon : as on e span is load ed , t ension increases in th e adjacent spans t o
resi st the deformat ion . Sch laich Bergerm ann and Partner agai n proved
themselves exper ienced mast er s of st ress ribbon st r uct ures.
Sc-hlak-h, Mikc, Die
FuBg.lngerhruckcn auf dcr
intcrn ationale n Gar rcn schau
J(; A 2001 in Rost ock , in:
HJuingcnicu r, 10, 200J
Russel , H., Fin' modest
hr idges make eco no mic sense
for show, in: Bridgl'
Ik sign and Eng inl'l..' ri ng.
4 . 1o OJ
27m 38m
80 Taking Lightness to the Limit Western abutment
I 6.3m I 40 m
Punt da Suransuns, Viamala, Swit zerland, 1999
The exceptionally beautiful hiki ng path in Via ma la is accompan ied
by severa l bridges fro m t he office of Conzett Bronzini Gart ma n in Chur.
One of these struc t ures ca n be found no r t h of th e crossing of the AI3
road and t he Hinter Rhine in a deep valley wi t h a wandering river. The
4-0m spa n of th e pedestri an bridge is long , but it s posit ion is we ll chosen:
it is easy to access and not di rectly under t he roadway. Given th e site, a
stress ribbon struc ture had several adva ntages; th e abut ments are at
different elevations - as in Rene Walther's Bircherwei d Br idges ; and to
the steeper abutment, the slope is 20 percent. Ano t her re ason is th at the
hiking route was t o be a sto ne pat h to mat ch th e surroundi ng landscape.
Jiirg Conze t t suggested a st ress r ibb on st r uc t ure wi t h a granite deck,
remembe ri ng Heinz Hos sdorf's design of a prestressed gra ni t e bridge for
the reconst r uc t ion of the Devil ' s Br idge in the 19S"0S. Jiirg Conzett
employed gne iss from the nei ghbouring town of Andeer for the deck,
and V4-Achrome-nickel steel or duplex stai nless steel for all steel compo n-
ent s. These steels resist the co rrosive effec ts of the salt spray from the
adjacent hi gh way. The joints bet ween the granite slabs are fill ed wit h
3 mm thick aluminium bands.
Er ection procedure : first , the abut me nts were pr eci sel y con cret ed ,
and the nat pegs to whic h the ste el bands wo uld anc ho r we re conc re ted
directly into th e abut ments . The gra nite slabs were successively laid on
th e steel plates beginning fro m the lowest point. The trick is that th e
Structu re as Space . 200 6 ,
pp. ''4-
Conzcn, Jiirg. Punt da
Surans uns Pcdesn-ianBri( lg(".
in: St r uctural Enginc.'c. ring
Int er nati on al , May, 200 0 , 2. 10
Schweizer An.:hitekt und
Ingc.nic.ur. I , 20 00
The steel bands' attachment to the vertical members of the railing can be clearly seen from below
1 1 ru
granite slabs were attached to the ribbons using the vertical members of
the railing. The bands wedge against one another during tensioning and
the vertical railing attachments are tightened and the handrails is
precisely installed.
The dynamic behaviour of the 4-0m long bridge could not be
predicted, for vertical oscillations in particular. Hikers however enjoy
the raw attractions of the rocky landscape and are not fearful when the
bridge vibrates, although it does so much less that the slender silhouette
would lead one to expect. Near the abutments, carriage spring saddles
soften the transition to the anchorage. The horizontal oscillations of the
structure, which can be excited by a single hiker, are naturally larger
than the lateral vibrations of Foster and Arup's Millennium Bridge in
London. This small bridge unites the finest aesthetic elements: the raw
rocks in the Hinter Rhine, the flat, glittering gneiss slabs, and the
shining chrome steel suit each other. The overall visual impression of the
bridge leads one to believe that the structure has bypassed all limits of
slenderness - even though its surface is of stone. Altogether, the stress
ribbon bridge is a masterpiece of minimal art.
82 Taking Lightness to the Limit
Bridge in Vent (A) Bridge made of grass in Himalaya
Stress Ribbon Bridges Thestress ribbon st ructureisone of the
oldest bridgearchetypes. Primitivebridge builders
attempted to span distanceswi der than the length
of an existing t ree trunk by throwi ng a line acrossa
ravineand tying it on both sidesto a large rock or
tree. In thissimple and natural st ruct ural system,
cablesare stressed between the two abutments
and serve asthe walkway. It isdifficult to imagine
a simplerstructural system: walkway surfaceand
supporting cable, often from natural fibres, are
one. The cables of modern European stress ribbon
foot bridgesconsist in prestressingtendonsor a
system of at least two adjacent steel bandsor
cables laid out at the edgesof t hedeck. The walk-
way isthen provided by either a concrete deck slab
encasing the prestressi ng tendons, or by individual
concrete or stoneplanksfixedatop the steel ribbons
or cables. Such stress ribbon structures have
become possible only by the invent ion of high-
strength steel. The advantagesof the high yield
strength of this steel arebeing exploited in con-
temporary structures(see beginning of thischap-
ter: Ulrich Fi nsterwalder 1970, and in Switzerland
ReneWalther, 1967 and Otto Wenaweser, 1971).
Some stress ribbon bridgeshave beende-
signedasroadway bridges, the most famous
example of which ist he conceptual design of a
bridge over the Bosphorus by the engineer Ulrich
Finsterwalder. However, most arefoot bridges, as
pedestrian traffi c is better suited to counteract the
oscillationsof theselively structures or overcome
the slope of stress ribbon structuresnear the abut-
mentsthan roador railway traffi c. Bridgesfor
which the deck issuspended from the handrails
act ing asthe main supporti ng tension element
may alsobe considered stressribbon bridges.
High-st rength materialsfind their ideal
applicationin stressribbon structures. In most
st ructures, t he strength of construction materials
cannot befully exploited, asproblemsof stability
or deflection through elastic st rain control the
design. Stability, however, isnot an issue for a pure
tension stress ribbon structure. With respect to de-
flections of the stress ribbon, the effects of elastic
strain aremuchless inf luential than geometric or
second-order effects. In addition, by exploit ing its
material strength, the depth of thetension member
canbe great ly reduced. Thisin t urn decreases local
Posit ions of t he st ress ribbon
Stress ribbon bri dge wit h I, q. f, and H 83
bending st resses at t he abut ments and saddles,
which signif icant ly aff ect the design.
Analysi s, Forces
St ress ribbons are quit e simple to calculate if
we exclude local effects near the abutments. The
tension force (S) in t he stress ribbo n is dependent
on the length of the span (I), the loading (here a
distributed load, q), and t he sag (f) of the ribbon
and is calculated as follows:
s= H= q1
The horizontal component (H) of t he st ress
ribbon remains constant along its lengt h, whil e
t he t ension force (S) increases with the slope of
t he ribbon t owards the abut ment s. Wee can see
t hat t he horizon tal component (H) of the tension
force is equal to the maximum bendi ng momen t
of a simply support ed beam under distrib ut ed
load (q.J2l 8) divided by the maximum sag f. We
can also see that t he ribbon cannot be stressed
flat: the hor izontal component H approaches infin-
ity as the sag, f, approaches zero. Ribbon sag is
therefore necessary, even if t his causes unwanted
slopes at t he abutments. The designer must there-
fore find a balance between cost and pedest rian
comfort, between t he fo undat ion costs of anchor-
ing high-t ension forces and the pedest rian's
diff icult y in overcoming the slope of t he bridge.
For footbridges, a common rat io of the struc ture's
sag under self-weight to span is 1/50. This limits
t he slope of t he deck to 8 percent at it s steepest ,
assuming an approximate parabolic form for t he
gradient of the deck, rather than t he exact
hyperboli c for m.
The apparent simplicity of t he st ressribbon
relies on t he great tension forces in the deck,
whi ch require comp lex anchorages. The abutmen ts
and the transmission of the hor izontal anchorage
forces to the underlying soil are the greatest
challenge in t he design and construct ion of these
bri dges. Apar t from the abutme nts and
foundati ons, erect ion of st ressribbons st ructures
is qurte simple. The cables of stressribbon struc-
tures arrive on site at their f inal lengt h on spool s.
For struct ures using stiff plates, the plat es are
t ransporte d to the site in segments that must be
welded to for m the f inal ribbon. Befor e f inal
anchoring, the ribbon or cable is short er than in
it s fi nal stat e. The t ension members must there-
fore be st retched or stressed befo re anchoring at
the abutment s. The deck surface is then eit her
placed upon t he t ension members or concreted
around them . For bridges with indivi dual slab
segments placed upon steel bands, t he band
should be t hinner near a saddle or abutment than
over the free span. Precision is requi red in
det ermining the ribbon lengt h as even minute
errors in t he length of t he cable produces great
differ ences in the ribbon sag. During erect ion, the
anchorage should be made to allow for adjust -
ments, should an error in lengt h occur.
For long, mult i-span st ress ribbons st ruc-
tur es, the t ension force of the deck continues over
the intermediate piers and need only be anchored
at t he abutments. Arches are oft en used as int er-
mediate suppo rts for multi -span stress ribbons. If
the right geomet ry is chosen, the hor izontal t hrust
of t he arch can cancel the anchorage force of t he
st ressribbon.
84 Taking lightness to the limit
Multispanstress ribbon bridge
Elast ic and geometric def lection
2 r
CFKflL: 1170
Arch with stress ribbon
,/ . .. .
-.. .... .
- .
Stahlftl= 1no
5tahllll =lt50
UK fl1:1120
Deflection, strain
The funicular formof a cable under constant
self-weight ist he hyperbolic sine while the funicu-
lar formfor a constant distributed load ist he para-
bola. The differencebetween thesetwo functions
is minimal for small sag to span ratiosof around
1/50. Asan approximat ion, t hecableformcan be
taken asa simple parabola in such cases. Equilibri-
um occursast he stress ribbon takesthe funicular
formfor t he respective loading condition. For an
increase in a constant distributed load over t he
span, t hetensionforce will increase, producing an
increasein sag and st rain in the ribbon. Thepara-
bolic formwi ll however remain. Should the load-
ing have a different distribut ion, the deck will seek
equilibriumby taking t he f unicular form for t his
load case. For such deflections, where there is no
st rain at the midspanbut rather a change in the
formof the deck, t he st rain isroughly equal to t hat
of t hedistributed load. Asthe elast ic strainof the
stress ribbonsplays litt le role in the defl ect ions,
thin and f lexible ribbonsof high strength materials
maybe used.
Bending and redirect ion
Part icular attention must be paid to the
zonesof abrupt redirectionof ribbon geometry
such ast he near the anchorages or abovet heinter-
mediate piersof multi-span stress ribbon structures.
Thetension member cannot havea rigidly fixed
connection in these regions, ast he combinat ion of
high bending stresses from cyclic live loadsand
high tension st resswould leadto fatigue failure.
The tension member in these zones must be rein-
forced to minimize the bending stresses. For stress
ribbons madeof steel bands, the bendingstress
may be reduced by usinga round saddle that
allowscontrolled deflection of the bands in these
zones. Thisallowsthe bandto deflect to find its
opt imumformwith respect to the variable loading.
Thesaddle radiuscanbechosen to ensuret hat the
variation in ribbon st ress stays below t he fatigue
limits, or t hat the stresses remain below t heyield
Above the saddle, the puretension stress Os
(as isfound at the midspan)iscombined with bend-
ing st ress OMdueto the redirect ion of the ribbon.
The total st ress of a stress ribbon with t hewidth b
and depth h at the saddle ist herefore
wi th
0 H =S/A", H/bh =q12/ and OM=MIW
The bending stressOMisdue to the bending
moment t hat results fromt he curvat ure of the
ribbon at the saddle. The curvat ure is indirectly
proporti onal to the saddle radius. Thecurvat ureof
the ribbon may be expressed
K = M/EI = l /R
The bending stress istherefore
A Cross-sectional area
E Young's modulusfor the ribbon
I Inertia of t he crosssect ion
Saddle of the multi-span stressribbon bridge in Rostock wit h carriage springs
Bending stress as a function of saddle radius
L h :Ol1 mm
3000 f
2000 \
1500 -,


h: t .a mm
h = 1 2mm
250 200 '50 100 50
Radius Imrn]
Concrete slabs
Art iculated
W Elast ic modulus of t he section (= 2' l/h)
R Radiusof t he saddle
As shown in the equation above, the bend-
ing st ress is indirectly proportional to the saddle
radiusand directly proportional to the ribbon
depth. In order to reduce the bending stress, the
saddle radius should be as great aspossible wi th
t he thinnest possible ribbon depth. The required
saddle radiuscan be determined for a material
wi th a yield strength of f
depending on the sag,
ribbon dept h and width, loading and span as
The saddle length must be chosen so that
the band never reachesthe edge of the saddle
under variable loading to avoid folding. There-
quired lengt h for a saddle above an intermediate
pier isgiven asfollows:
L=2 it Ra/360
a =adeadload+ 2lw. =arctan (4f/ I) + 2t:.a
2t:. a = The changein angle of the ribbon at the
saddle due to live loading and erecti on tolerances.
Stress nbbon
Theadvantageof high-st rength materialsis
evident in the equation above. Not only can bands
of high-strength materialswithstand higher
stresses, theyare also thinner. Thisleadsto a
reduction of bending stresses and saddle size.
The image below left showsthe required saddle
size with respect to type of band and magnitude
of t he bending st ress.
Lateral bracing
All stress ribbonsare suscept ible to dynamic
excitat ion due to their light weight. The ribbons
t hemselves exhibit very low material damping
characteristics, which can result in t he structure
oscillat ing wi dely. Thebridge's dynamic behaviour
can be improved by creating a prestressed con-
crete ribbon t hat isrigid in bending, or by adding
massto the st ructure. For thisreason, heavy
concrete slabs are usedfor t he bridge deck in the
Saddle size
86 Taking Lightness to the Limit Anchoring of the ribbons
Cable Stiffening
Reductionof sag
Additional cables
Pforzheimand Rostock bridgesto add massand
decreasethe deflections of thest ructure under
variable loading. Fort unately, t he natural damping
characteristicsof non-structural membersmay be
exploited to add damping. Chain link guardrails
have been proveneffectiveby dissi pating the
dynamic energy of the structure into heat energy
through friction in the guardrail filling. TheGlacis
Bridge hasshown that a chain link guardrail can
doublethe damping of the structure [fib guidelines
2005] The imagesto the left show the fivemost
important methodsfor reducing t he deflectionsof
suspended ribbons. By adding additional structural
elements that arenot part of the suspended
ribbon, bridgeswith cable girdersand stiff ening
t russescan be considered separate st ruct ural typo-
Carbon f ibre ribbons
The advantagesof high-st rength materials
mentioned abovewould inclinea designer to
choosethe highest-strength material currently
available, carbonfibre. Carbon fibre iscurrently
used in the aviation indust ryand racing carsdueto
its high strength- 10t imeshigher than normal
st ructural steel - and its low weight - onefift h of
that for steel. In st ructural engineering, carbon
fibre hasst rangely enough found litt le application
or applicat ion asreinforcementof existing
reinforced concrete st ructures.
A test bridge project using carbon fibre
ribbonswasthereforecarried out at t heTechnical
University Berlin. Thestructurewasdesigned
accordingto the current codes and standards. The
struct uredemonstratesthat a ribbon t hicknessof
only 1 mmissuff icient to support a span of 15 m.
In order to reduce t he dynamic oscillations
of thisext remely lightweight bridge, additional
mass isadded to the bridge in theformof 10 cm
deepconcrete slabs. This isthe starti ng point for
further research at t heTUBerlin, on " intelligent"
damping systemsthat would allow very lightly
decked, and therefore lively struct ures, to be
efficiently "quieted" - wit hout the additional mass.
Carbon fibrematerialscouldthen be used optimally
in the st ruct ural design.
Test bridge at the Technical University Berlin
Eibl, Josef and Klemens Pel le, Zur Bcrcchnung von Spannba nd-
hruckcn . Hache I hinge-band er , Dusseldorf,
Ost er, Han s, Fu13gangerhrucketl von Jiir g Sc-hlaich lind Rud ol f BlT-
ger mann, Exhibiti on catalogue, 199 2
Schl aic-h, Jorgand Stephan Engt'!smann , St ress Ribbon Co nc-ret e
Bridgt. ' s, Str uct ura l Fnginecring lntcrna tion al, 4, Novem ber 1996
Schlaich, f\.\ ikc ct ai. , Gu ide line s for the (k sign of foot br idges, lib,
federat ion int crn ati on alc du bcton , bullet in p , l ausanne, Nove mber
Stras kv, Jir i, Str ess r-ibbon and cable-supporte d pedes tr ian br idges,
TbornasI clford, London,
88 Taking Lightnessto the Limit
The footbridge connects two very different parksover a highway
Schiller Footbridge in Stuttgart, Germany, 1961
68.6m 24 m
Leo nhardt , Fritz and Wolfhart
Andr a, FuBgangersteg tiberdie
SchillerstraBe in Stuttgar t, in:
Bautechnik , 1962
Schlaich, Schuller, ' 999,
pp. 17)- 174
Aft er th e Second World War, Fritz Leonhardt's attempts to create
light and slender structures quickly set a high standard for structural
design . Th e rel evance of the ideals of lightness and slend erness to German
cult ure were explicitly laid out, but these ideals th e opposit e the Nati onal
Socialist monumental aestheti c. Steel , and later pre stressed concrete ,
enabled th e engineers to embody the lightweight ideal in structural
design. The Enz Footbridge is a wonder ful example ofthis (see P: 62) .
Th e engineers in the office of Leonhardt & Andra would not rest until
they had reduced th e depth of the deck slab from )2 to )0 em. The
structural syst em of th e cable-stayed bridge is well suited to this desire:
by decreasing th e distance between cable suppor ts, the deck can be made
more slender as the bending moments ar e redu ced . Fritz Leonhardt' s
greatest goal was to make the deck as slender as possible, although he
never explicitl y discu ssed the aesthetic rationale of th e ideal of slenderness
in design . The angular cont our s of the cable-st ayed structure did not,
however, guarantee respect for Leonhardt's second design maxim: elegance.
Ther e are two types of cable-stayed bridges. In the "har p" arrange-
ment, the stay cable s ar e parallel t o one another. Fritz Leonhardt built
th e first cable-stayed bridge with a harp arr angement in (9)2 in th e
Diisseldorf family of bridges . The architect Fri edrich Tamms insisted on
th is cable arrangement, which cont inues to shape the skyline of Diisseldorf,
in particular th e Ob erkasseler , th e Theodor-Heuss, and the Rheinknie
Bridges. Fritz Leonhardt referred to the fan arrangeme nt as the most
"nat ural and technically effect ive" cable arrangement , as can be seen in
th e footbridges in Stuttgart and Mannheim.
I S5m I

Typical 1970s blocks of flats required pedestrian accessto the city centre . The deck widens around the pylons. 89
56.5 rn
6.4 rn
Dornecker, Ar tur; Eberhard
vollc.cI and Wilhelm Zelln er, Die
Schriigkahclbriicke fUr FuOganger
iiber den Neckar in Mannheim, in:
Beton- und Stehlbau, 2 and 3. 1977.
pp. 29 -35 and
Keller, Giorgio, Ponte pedonalc
strallato suI Necker a Mannhcirn . in:
L'industria haliana del Cemento,
11,1982 , pp. 817-82S"
1390 m 56.5 rn
Neckar Footbridge at the Collini Centre in Mannheim, Germany, 1973
The structure consists of a nat deck girder suspended from two
stay cable planes to each edge. The stay cables (parallel wire strand) are
individually anchored at the top of the steel pylons. The longitudinal
distance of 9 to 10 m between stays, enables the deck girder con consist
of a trapezoidal section only 60 cm deep in reinforced concrete. The
stiffening girder is haunched in the longitudinal and transverse
directions. The girder has a depth of 1.2 m at the pylons. An expansion
joint is provided at the midspan, and the bearings at the base of the
pylons are fixed in translation by free to rotate. The joint in the midspan
allows the bridge deck to expand but nevertheless transfers shear forces
and torsional moments. The cross section of the st eel pylon is merely Ixl m
at the base. The depth of the pylon cross section increases in longitudinal
direction to 1.4 m at the head of the pylon to make room for the cable
anchorages. The wide Flood plane of the Neckar and main span of 139.6 m
may have contributed to Leonhardt's choice of a fan arrangement for the
stay cables, but the brittle, linear appearance of the bridge does not
bring elegance to mind. The Neckar footbridge does not have a modelled
appearance, despite the widening of the deck at the base of the pylon.
The visual impression remains linear, comparable to a line drawing.
Taking Lightness to the Limit
51. 1 m
27.2 m
Footbridge in Rosenstein Park, Stuttgart, Germany, 1977
Jorg Schl aich worked as a you ng engineer in th e office of Leonhardt
and Andra, t he bi rthplace of lightweight const r uctio n. In t he early 1970 S,
th e offi ce was working on th e constructi on of a t ent roof for the Ol ympi c
spor ts halls in Munich. Jor g Schlaich - a partner in the office since 1970 -
devel oped int o a structural engi nee r with except ional curiosit y, fant asy
and disrespec t for th e conventi onal wi sdom. As part of a provincial garden
show, a redevelopment of a cit y zone , left barren by traffi c planning, was
ordered . Pedestrians we re to be able to cross over a multi-lane mot or way
and t ramline from a park to the popular spa. This led to the creat ion of
t he fir st contemporary self-anchored susp ension bridge. The deck gi rder,
a concre te slab, is fixed at one abut me nt but fre e in hori zontal transl at ion
at t he opposite abutment. A lifting of the deck is blocked at thi s abut me nt .
The main cabl es (fully locked coil st rand d = 75 mm) ar e anchored at each
ofthe deck 's corner points. A continuous saddle is provided at the head
of th e pylon without clamping. The anchorages of the cables ar e merged
into th e deck, making insp ection and maintenance diffi cult . The mast is a
simple square cross section of four welded plat es to avoid high costs. This
footbridge was built as a cable truss bridge, with th e surface slabs laid
di rectl y on the st r uct ural cables .
Schleich, Jiirg and H. Bcichc.
Ful1gangerhriicken tiber die
Bundesgartenschau 1977 in
Stuttgart, in: Beton - und Stahl-
bctonbau , ' , 1979 , pp. IH6
Two in one: cable trussandsuspension bridge 91
92 Taking Lightness to the Limit
Bridge at Max Eyth Lake near Stuttgart, Germany, 1989

3.1 m
The const r uct ion of the cable suspension bridge marked t he parting
of Fritz Leonhardt and Jorg Schlaich, who founded an offi ce with Rudolf
Bergermann in 1980. The bridge crosses high above the Neckar and con-
nects a residential zone near the river with the Max Eyth Lake recr eational
area. At one bank, a narrow path conti nues up a st eep hillside vineyar d.
The wide floodplains of the Neckar extend to the other bank. Jorg Schlai ch
designed a suspension bridge with 20 to 25 m high mast s (round hollow
ste el , d= 7" mm, t = 40 -50 mm) th e deck passes in front of th e mast and
joins the vineyard path. To the other side, th e deck splits just before th e
mast . To th e left th e approach spirals down to a path parall el to t he river -
bank, to the right directly to th e lake. Leonhardt felt that th e mast should
stand to the side of the deck. The light cur vat ure of the bridge can easily
be viewed from atop the deck and engrains the visual appearance of the
structure. With a span of "4 m, th e deck is merely 30 em deep. The mast
to th e side of th e flood plain supports half of th e br idge as well as the
appr oach; to the Vineyard side , the mast onl y supports one half of the
bridge and it passes directly t o an abutment . The mast to th e vineyard side
is back-st ayed with two cables anchored to th e hill side. The hangers are
incl ined along the length of the deck, which helps to stiffen the deck
girder . The railing consists of a wire net simply clamped to cabl es run-
ning parallel to the edge of th e deck, one of whi ch serves as the handrail.
The main cabl es and backstays are full y locked coil strand (d = 106 mm)
and the hanger s ar e thin st ainless helical st rand
(d = 16 mm) . Prefabricated deck elements wer e susp end ed from the main
cables starting at the mid span during erect ion. These segments were in
th e form of aU. Aft er the rebar of the ind ividual segments was welded
tog ether, the remainder of th e deck was concrete d in situ to crea te a
continuous slab. This procedure mad e it possible to erec t the structure
without the use of formwork but required a very high level of geometric
and te chnical pr ecision.
Schlatch, Jorg and E. Schurr.
FuBgangcrbruckebei Stuttgart,
in: Beton- und Stahlbetonhau,
8, '990 , pp. 191-198
The first suspension bridgewith a curved deck-Ji qhtweiqht and logical lydesigned to the lastdetai l 93
94 Taking Lightness to the Limit
A main spanof 252 m- oneof the longest suspension footbridgesin Europe
The res ervoi r in Vranov, near the 1930 border between Austria and
t he Cze ch Repu bli c, is a popular vacat ion area in t he summer. Th e br idge
repl aces a ferry and supports wate r and gas lines bet ween the t own
centre with it s hot el s and rest aurants and the beach the ot her side of the
river. The deck is a slende r slab with a 2)2 m main span and two 30 m
approach spans .
]iri St rasky is an ext re mely exper ienced pedestri an bridge designer.
Hi s first st ress ribbons appe are d in the 1970S in the former Czec ho-
slovakia, made of pr efabri cat ed concre te segme nts and pr estressed
t end ons as th e ten sion eleme nt. Seven of these DS-L Bridges were built
between 197 9 and 19 85. His susp en sion bridge over the Vranov Reservoi r
in southern Mor avia is pot ent evide nce th at suspension bridges ar e
rel evant st r uct ures for spans less than 1000 m. With a main span of 2)2 m,
th is footbrid ge slende r footbridge is one of the longest in th e world. The
deck of th e st r uct ure is 3. 4 m wid e and only 40 cm deep. Th e technical
curiosity of thi s br idge: part of th e hor izont al component of the
suspension cable is anchored in the deck, thereby reducing t he costs of
Strasky , '00, the abut ment anchorage .
30m I 2S2 m
Suspension Bridge in Vranov, Czech Republic, 1993
9.6 m
Solid anchorblocks 95
\ "
96 Taking Lightness to the limit Steel cables combined with a reinforced plasti c deck
Halgavor Bridge in Bodmin, Cornwall , UK, 2001
The Halgavor Bridge sout h of Bodmin in Cornwall is one of the fir st
bridges made from fibr e-reinforced plastic s in the UK. The bridge was
required to cross a heavily used highway and was to cause minimal
di sruption t o the traffic below and need minimal maintenance. In addition,
the bridge would be used as a bridlewa y, the wast e from whi ch cre ates a
highl y cor ros ive environment. These requirements led the engineers of
Flint & Neill from London, known for their exper ime nt at ion, to suggest
a carbon fibr e-r einforced plasti c as the mat eri al for the superstructure
due to its lightweight , cor rosion resistance and durability.
Th e suspension cabl es and mast of the st r uct ure with its 47 m span
ar e in st eel. The hanger cables have a radial arrangement . They and the
1.8 m high wire net railings are in stainless steel. The railings are so high
due to th e bridleway. At the bottom of th e railing, wood en blinders ar e
provided. Th e 3.) m wide fibr e-reinforced deck consist s of two channel-
shaped, )0 cm deep edge beams and a 37 mm deep composite sandwich
plat e. The plat e is suppor te d by secondary transver se and longitudinal
girders . The st iffness of the deck is det ermined by the lower Young's
modulus of the handmade edge beams (E =12 , 8 0 0 Nzrnrn") . The machine
produced sandwich pan els have higher st iffness (E = 22 , 0 0 0 Nzrnm") . Th e
deck is flexible enough to be monolithically connecte d t o the side
abut me nts without cre at ing high st ress fro m const raining forces und er
t emper ature loading.
Th er e ar e no codes and ver y few guidelines for the design of fibr e-
rein for ced plasti cs, so t esting was required t o ver ify th e st r uct ural
integ r ity. The bearing st re ngt h of th e bolt ed anchor age of the hanger int o
the deck was confir med by testing. The dynamic respon se of the st r uct ure
was closely monitored befor e its inauguration. Th e damping effects of the
wooden blinder s, the flexible sur facing of recycled tyres, and the chain
link railin g wer e suffici ent to hamper dynami c oscill at ions.
The erec t ion of the deck was car r ied out in one night with th e 31m
long mids ection of the bridge was hung fr om the susp ension cables . The
bridge was opened to the public in July 2001. Shou ld t hese plastic bridges
truly have lower maintenance cost s and erec t ion time, we will surely see
mor e of them in the future.
Fir th I. . Cooper D. ,
Material s for New hrid ges
- li alga\'Or Bride UK, in:
Str uctura l Engineerin g
Intern at ional , May 20 0 2, SEl12:2
579 m
47 m
3.7 m
Pedestrian, cyclist, horsesand their riders
98 Taking Lightness to the Limit
Bridge over the Rhone in Sierre, lies Fal con, Switzerland, 1998
In the Rhone valley, th e convers ion of the industrial society is just
as diffi cult as it is anywh er e el se, in spite of a more ver satile eco nomy.
Abandoned indu strial zones must be r ehab ilit at ed and conver te d to
counter act th eir det eri orat ion . In Sicrre, t he lies Falcon are just such an
indust r ial zone t hat is being revert ed piece by piece to a more natural
environme nt, wit h a hik ing trail that crosses t he Rhone and join s a st eep
hi llside. An asymmet r ically suspended, 3.6 m wide bridge ent ices hik er s
to cross. The incl ined , 26.36 m high pylons make a power ful architect ural
gest ure. Over th e next few years , th e hiking path will be completed up
the hill side - until t hen th e br idge seems unmot ivat ed and without a rol e.
It is st r iking t hat t he enginee rs of Daun er , Joli at & associes usc t he
nort hern abut me nt as cent ral design const ra int and int egrat e it into t he
hiking trail. The sole problem of th e anchorages' pot ent ially over power ing
visual impact is elega ntly solved . Well -conceived detai ls for t he railing
and t he change in dec k surfacing at t he br idgehead along wit h t he precise
exec ut ion produce a coherent st r uct ure with a span of 68 m and a t ota l
lengt h of 88. 45 m. The t ensioning of t he suspe nsion cable crea tes light
arching of t he deck. Du e to changes in temper ature, t he bri dge is st iffer
in wint er and more flexible in summer - but always sufficiently stable.
One unique feature is th e black beam that join s and st abi lizes the two
mast s. Hop efully the hiking t rail will soo n be complete d and the bridge
will soon car ry pedestrians afte r nin e years as a ghost bridge.
Fromanindustrial area to natural environment
The bridge currently ends in no man'sland, a hiking trail will beadded shortly
21 m
100 Taking Lightness to the Limit Load test ing of the foot bridge in Sassnitz
Dynami cs, vibrations In the German language, the termfor struc-
t ural engineersisStatiker, and the structural analy-
sis and calculationsof a project are referredto as
the Statik. These expressions refer to the field of
static mechanics, the dominant field of mechanics
that structural engineershandle. In the analysisof
most st ruct ures, t he loading that actson the struc-
ture isconsideredto bestationary, which means
that the structure isconsidered to deform only
slight ly, and not to vibrate. Increasingly lightweight
and slender structuresare being built as high-
strength materialsbecome more readi ly available.
Thisoft en produces more aesthetic designswhile
conserving resources. Lightweight structures, how-
ever, arelivelystruct urest hat exhibit larger deflec-
t ionst han heavystruct ures, and are generally
susceptibleto dynamic excitation.
While staticsare largelysuff icient for analy-
sing a heavystone arch, t hedynamic behaviour of
a lightweight footbridge must beconsideredcare-
fully. Not all phenomena in t he dynamicsof st ruc-
turesare completely understood. Recently, several
landmark pedestrianbridgeshaveexhibited spirited
dynamic oscillations, resul ting in much press
coverageand the subsequentinstallation of
damping devices. It isno surprise that the dynamic
behaviour of pedestrian bridges hasbecome the
maintopic of many bridge conferences. A chapter
of t his book istherefore devotedto t he dynamics
of pedestrianbridges.
Generally speaking, it isthe loading of the
pedestrian themselves, and more rarely wind
loading, that excites bridgestructuresto large
oscillations, or sometimesto collapse. Two
spectacular bridge collapses in England (Broughton
Bridge near Manchester, 1831)andFrance (Angers,
1850) due to synchronized marching of soldiers
haveled to t he common practiceof soldiersto
break step while crossing a bridge. Thiscan be
seenon the notice on the Albert Bridgein London
("All troops must break step when marching over
t his bridge"), and in the current German road
t raff ic regulations.
Thedesignof the structuredependson the
resonance (fromthe Latin, resonare:to echo) of
the structure. A good example of thisisa swing.
Step frequencies of pedest rians Loading behaviour
FplG IkN]
Deckwit h inclined hangers 101
15 vs Is
[Hz] [rn/s] [m]
slow pace 1.7 1.0 0.60
normal pace 20 1.5 0.75 as
fast pace 2.3 2.3 1.00
normal running 2.5 3. 1 125
t [kNI
spnntmg > 3.2 5.5 1.75
02 0.4 0.6 08

Like a pendulum, the swing hasone natural

frequencythat isdependent on the lengt h of the
swing but independent of the mass. Regardlessof
t he init ial force that actsto pusht he swing, it
alwaysoscillatesat the same frequency, measured
in oscillationsper second with the unit Hertz (Hz).
If t he swing is pushed regularly at the right
moment, i.e. wit h the same frequency asthe
swing, the amplitude of the swing displacement
canbe greatly increased with litt le force. The
swing is now resonat ing with the frequency of
excitat ion exact ly equal to the natural frequency
of the structure. Unlike the swi ng, each pedestrian
bridge has many natural frequencies, and if one of
them lies near the stepfrequencyof pedestrians,
resonance canoccur.
The stepfrequency dependson the speed
of the pedestrian. It shouldbe noted t hat by
hopping or jumping, t he pedestriancan bring the
bridgeto great oscillat ionsmore quickly t han by
walking. This isbecause t he excitation forceof
someone hopping isseveral timest he weight of
t he individual. This can be illust rated with the help
of a plastic 1 I bott le filledwit h water and a scale.
First, the bott le is released suddenly at the top of
t he weighing surface, and then from 50 cmabove
t he scale. The bott le of water weights 1kg, but
will show 2 kg if suddenly released at the weight
surface. Thescalewill show 30 kgwhen t he bottle
is released 50 cm abovethe scale.
The pedestrian doesnot simply introduce
vertical loadsinto the structure. During the transfer
of force from one foot to t he other, horizontal
forcesaretransferred to the deckt hat can
producehorizontal oscillat ionsof the struct ure.
Pedest rians areextremely sensitiveto horizontal
vibrat ionsast hey easi ly disturbour balance.
Unconsciously, the pedestrian increasest he
horizontal oscillation by automatically walking
with a "sailor' s roll". This impliessynchronizing the
step frequencywith the horizontal frequency of
t he st ructureto walk more safel y along the deck.
Thiseffect isoft en referred to in technical literatu-
re ast helock-in effect. Even large bridges are
susceptibleto the phenomenon if suff icient
pedestriansare present. It isreported that the
Brooklyn Bridgewasbrought to oscillate noticeably
during the August 2003 New YorkCity blackout,
asthousandsof commuterswere forcedto cross
the structure by foot. At its inauguration, the
MillenniumBridge in Londonvibrated under a
heavy pedestrian density wit h such amplitude that
it wasclosed shortly thereafter. TheMillennium
Bridge was reopened after the installation of a
complicateddamping system. Theinclined hangers
of the deck alsoledto the additional horizontal
forcesexciting the bridgeoscillation.
Footbridgeswit h vertical natural frequencies
between 1.3 and 2.3 Hz, or wit h horizontal
frequencies between 0.5 Hzand 1.2 Hz, must be
consideredasbeingsusceptible to dynamic
excitat ion. It is precisely in these frequency ranges
that many lightweight bridgeshavenatural
Damping helpsto limit t he dynamic
responseof t he structure. The energy of motion of
the st ructure isdissipated asthermal energy
t hrough friction in the material or between struc-
tural components. Thedamping of the structure is
often large enough to prohibit unacceptable
102 Taking Lightness to the Limit
Chain link guardrails in Pforzheim
Acceleration limits(Synpex)
CL 1
Degree of comfort
Vertical Horizontal
acceleration acceleration
< 0.5 rn/s? <0. 1 rn/s ?
0.5 - 1 mis' 0.1 - 0.3 mis'
1 - 2.5 m/s> 0.3 - 0.8 rrvs >
> 2.5 m/s
> O.8 m/s
levelsof vibration. In addition, the pedestrian
often expects lightweight st ruct uresto vibrate and
t herefore doesnot perceivethe vibration as
Theacceleration of t hestructureiscommonly
used to measure the comfort of a pedest rian.
Roughly 10 percent of gravitat ional acceleration or
1m/s>isconsidered asbeing easily perceived by
t he pedestrian. Accelerationsgreater than 2.5 rn/s?
areconsidered unacceptable. In order to determine
whet her a struct ure issuscepti ble to pedestrian-
inducedoscillation, the natural frequencies must
bedetermined. This iseasy using current software.
It shouldbe noted that for very lightweight
structures, the weight of the pedestriansmay have
a significant effect on t he systemmassand the
struct ure's natural frequencies.
Should the natural f requenciesof the struc-
turelie in a critical band of frequencies, the bridge
designer and owner must determinean appropri-
ate level of comfort. Thistranslatesinto the estab-
lishmentof appropriate acceleration limits. A nar-
row foot bridge on a hiking trail may haveverydif-
ferent comfort criteria froma footbridgewith high
pedestrian density, such asat a convention cent re
or an urbanpedestrian overpass. In thesecases,
dynamiccalculationsarerequiredto verifythat
the expectedvertical acceleration under
normal servicecondit ionslie below the accelera-
t ion limits,
t here is no lock-in effect or horizontal
oscillat ion,
intentional excitation such asjumping or
hopping do not causethe bridge to collapse. The
comfort criteriaarenaturally not consideredfor
this type of loading.
Theresults of the calculat ionsmust betaken
with a grain of salt, asthe damping of the structure
can only be roughly estimated. Thetrue dynamic
behaviour of the bridge canonly be determined by
testing after erection. These resultstoo only provide
a momentaryinsight into thedynamic behaviour of
the struct ure, asthe material propertiesare often
t ime-dependent. Experienceand caution should
guidethe calculation, and it shouldbe noted that
the damping dependson the material and structu-
ral typology. In addition, the complexity of the
details, the particular natural frequency st udied,
the number of pedestrians, the decksurfacing and
furnishings, and even t he type of railing affect the
damping of the structure. Thechainlink guardrails
of the Pforzheim Bridge wereshown to have
doubledthe dampingof thestress ribbon structure.
If calculationsshowthat the dynamiclimits
may be exceeded, provisions for t he possible in-
stallation of dampersshould betaken into account
in the st ruct ural design. Thisallowsfor the subse-
quent installation of a damping systemshould
unacceptable accelerations beobservedon t he
finished st ruct ure. Viscoelast ic dampers require
relatively largedeflectionsto beeffective. Tuned
massdampersareeffectivefor somefrequenci es
only and require a rather largemass, typically
1 percent to 5 percent of the total bridge mass.
Wind loading should also beconsidered in
the dynamic analysisof t he structure, aswind may
alsoexcite a dynamicresponse from a lightweight
structure. At low wind speeds, the wind flow can
beassumed to be laminar, breaking off at the lee-
ward edgeof the deck. This cancause a periodic
detachment of vort icesat the leewardedge, oft en
referred to asvortex shedding. Thesevortices
Viscoelasti c dampers Karman vort ex sheddin g Model of nat ural and t or sional f requencies
cause a periodic excit at ion of t he structur e and
may lead t o the dynamic excitation of the st ruc-
tur e. These oscillat ions will generally not cause t he
structure t o coll apse, but may be uncomfort able
for pedest rians. As struct ural engineers say, th is is
a serviceabil ity problem.
It IS only at high win d speeds and turbu lent
air flows that a str uct ure may be pushed t o col-
lapse. The most famous example of t his is the
Tacoma Narrows Bridge. This was an 850 m long
suspension road bridge. Four mont hs aft er it s inau-
guration, the bridge collapsed due t o an aero-
dynamic Instability that was unknown at the t ime.
This instability was such t hat the energy of excit a-
non f rom the win d was always great er than t he
energy dissipat ed by t he damping, t hereby lead-
Ing to collapse. In oraer t o avoid f lutt er, bridge
decks are designed to be thi n, aerodynamic cross
sections for which the to rsional nat ural frequ ency
is very far f rom the natural f requency in bending.
The crit ical win d speeds above which f lutt er
occurs can be determined by wind tunnel test ing.
It must be shown t hat the crit ical wind speed lies
above the highest wind speed expect ed at the site.
Cables f rom cable-stayed and suspension
bridges may also oscillate due to rain. This
phenomenon occurs only for large bridges, as t he
long, heavy cables necessary for large br idges
exhibit low natu ral f requencies and low dampi ng.
Cable oscillat ions have not yet been observed in
foot bridge st ruct ures.
European Comission, Research Programme of the Research fu nd
for Coal and Su-e! HTD, Technical t ;roup S, RFS- CR-o i OI9 (oooe.},
Advanced load models fo r svnch ro nous pedest r-ian exc-itat ion and
optimised dt'sign guideli nes for steel root lwidgcs ( Svn pc x} .
final n:port , Augu:-. t 2006
Sct ra, Foo tbridges, Assessment of vobra ti onal beh aviour for
footbridges under pedestrian loading. Sct ra - Reference 0644A, Paris
htt p:/ /\n \ ,, .sctra. c(luipt'mcnt, Oktobcr 2:006
Experiments in Construction
Equilibrium IS most beautiful shortly before It collapses Peter Fischt. David Weiss
In the second half of the zoth century, bridgebuilders chased one
record after another. Free spans of 2 km and more were easily bridged
with classic suspension bridges in Storebelt and Japan. Few designers
diverged from the standard solutions as owners feared that the unusual
structures would incur higher construction and maintenance costs. The
innovative spirit of engineers and architects - thankfully - could not be
silenced, as smaller, more manageable footbridges began to be the focus
of their creative energy. For example, did bridges have to be straight?
Could the newly developed plastics improve bridge construction? Could
different structural systems be rationally paired with other materials?
The geometry of the designs becomes more playful as one might expect
for a structure on a human scale. The great possibilities opened by com-
puter-aided design and calculation are truly being exploited by the de-
signer. But it has been shown that only experienced, ambitious architects
and engineers who have learned the fundamentals of construction and
design can carry out such computer-aided innovations. The computer
must never become more than a tool in such design experiments.
We have found successful examples of each of the above-mentioned
themes. We emphasize curved bridges and the combination or
deconstruction of different structural systems. The development of new
materials also belongs to the domain of construction experiments.
The creative impulse in structural design knows no bounds.
106 Experiments in Construction
Las Glorias Bridgein Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain 1974
116ml 43.5 m 54 m
The bridge built at t he Plaza Glor ias Cata lana in 1974 by Leonar do
Fernandez Troyano is anot her exa mple of the adaptabi lity of footbri dges
in di fficult terrain and complicate d traffic rel at ions. Two cu rve d r amp s
are suspe nded to one edge and mee t at t he steel mast of a cable-st ayed
footbridge . They t hen merge into one slen der box gir der wit h a span of
68 m over a highwa y.
The bri dge was originally r ed and had t o make way for th e [992
Olympic games in Barcelona. The st r uc t ure is just nor th of t he For um ,
a newl y conceived cult ural cent re for t he cit y. As t he cables could not be
dismantle d, th e ent ire br idge was li fte d by jacks so th at th e cables could
be cut . For th e r econstr uct ion, t he steel box gi rder was placed on t em-
por ar y t r estl es as it had been in 1974 . The cables were th en inst all ed and
stressed. Ca ble -staye d structures are nor mall y installed by fr ee cant i-
levering. This met hod could not be used du e to th e unilat eral suspe nsion
and curve d r amp s. Leon ardo Fern ande z Troyano design ed symmetrical
ramps in re inforced con cret e for th e transit ion t o t he st raig ht bridge
segment and the new site .
A visit to th e bridge shows th at th e str uct ure, alt hough perfectl y
mainta ine d and paint ed , is hardly used due t o it s posit ion in t he urb an
environme nt and diffi cult r el at ion s with t he surrounding pat hways.
In spite of t his and its age , we can only hop e t hat t his elegant bri dge will
soon ente r t ain a greate r number of users.
Trovano, Leonardo Fern andez,
Tier ra sobrc cl agua, in;
Colic-gin de IngcnC'Tios do
cami nos, canales y puc-rtus,
Madr id, [9 9 9
3.7 m
0.7 m
Translocated: at it snewsite the bridgealsochanged colour lQ7
108 Experiments In Construction
Bridge in Kehlheim, Germany, 1987
Leicht , weit , 2004, p. 246
Oster, 1992, pp. .38-39
The pedestrian bridge in Kehlheim can r ightly be call ed an experi -
mental const r uct ion. This is the fir st st r uct ure based on th e r eali zati on
that a ring girder could be unilaterally suspended along it s ent ire lengt h
without torsional moments.
The idyllic ri ver land scape suffere d as th e Altrnuhl River was
exte nded and became part of t he Main-Danub e Can al. Shipping lanes
required it. Kehlhcim is an hi stor ic place with a well-preserv ed city
cent re and, high on a hill overl ooking th e city, th e Bifrciun8shall c th at
King Ludwig I of Bavari a had Leo von Klenze build (18,P-63) t o
comme mo rate the war of independ ence from Napoleon.
Schlaich Bergermann and Partner , with th e architect Kur t Acker-
mann, design ed a suspensi on bridge in the histo r icall y and environmen-
tally important area near the Tor hausplat z. The st r uct ur al syste m is a
suspension bridge anchored partly in the deck and partly in the abut-
ments wi th th e plan of t he deck in an arc and long approach ramps. The
structure spans a distance of 60 m and th e deck is longer because of it s
cur vat ure. The ring girder prov ed it self as an efficient structural syste m.
A mast at each rive rbank supports the main suspension cable and the
hanger s run along th e inner edge of t he deck. The masts wer e required
to be lower than th e tower of an historic building in Kehlheim . The
result is a somewhat compact pylon anchorage, but th e curvature of th e
suspended deck high over t he water leaves a lasting visual imp ression .
4.2 m
Pylonwith main cable and anchorage
6184 rn
Bridge in Swansea, Wales, UK, 2003
Sande rs, P. , I'irth, I. , Design
and Construction of the Sail
Bridge , Swansea, UK, Bridge
Engineering Issue BE4, 20oS-
Experiments In Construction
Wilkinson Eyr e worked on this structure in cooperation with the
engineers Fli nt & Neill. The archit ect ural intention was to creat e a mast
that reflected the surrounding masts of th e saili ng boats whil e st ill
creating an impressive visual landmark. The footbridge is a unilaterally
supported cable-st ayed bridge with a kink in the deck, and joins the port
area with a newer cit y zone .
The 140 m long superstructure has a kink in the horizontal plane at
the mast . Each portion of th e deck is unilaterally suppor te d, leading t o
high torsional moments. The structural advantages of a ring girder were
not exploit ed.
Instead, the deck girder is fixed in torsion at the abutments and
th e mast . At th e mast, a bearing and an eccentrically positioned cable
can support an eccentric pair of forc es, i.e . a torsional moment. Th e
st eel box section is surfaced with a cantil evering aluminium walkway to
minimi ze weight and the t orsional moment acting on the deck . The mast
is fixed at the base and inclined to minimized bending.
4.5 - 5.5 m

5.1 m
Pasarela del Malecon in Murcia, Spain, 1996
Javier Mant erola from th e offic e of Carlos Fernandez Casado is
cur re ntl y th e most experience d bridge engineer in Spain . His 1983 Bar -
rios de Luna Bridge, a motorway bridge over a reservoir, was th e longest
cable- st ayed bridge in th e world at th e time of it s con struction . Mante-
rola plays with th e space s cre ate d by th e fanning cables of th e bridge . Af-
t er th e famou s Sancho El Mayor Bridge over the Ebro de Castcjon in 1978
and th e Ler ez Bridge in Pontevedra in '995, he cr eate d another example
her e in 1995 . The Pasarela de Male con is a 59 m span cable-stayed bridge
with a curved deck and an ecce nt r ic mas t. Thi s creates a very beautiful
fan form but leads to th e nece ssit y of back-stayed cable s to bring the hori -
zontal component of th e deck cables into equil ibr ium at th e head of the
pylon . Th ese forc es must be t ransferred to the foundations and further
to th e soils below. In order to minimi ze th e anchorage for ces , the deck
was con ceived as a lightweight st eel box girder. During erect ion, three
prefabri cated segme nt s of the deck girder were support ed on t emporary
trestles founded in th e riverbed, and welded together. The unilaterally
supported ring beam can support th e overturning moment by offset
compression and tension for ces in th e girder completel y without torsion
(see p. II6) .
112 Experiments In Construction
West Park Bridge in Bochum, Germany, 2003
For a century, the Ruh r was considered t he nou rishing economic
centre of t he German coa l and st eel industries. The envi ronment suf-
fered and th e internat ional competition for ste el and for ot her energy
sources grew. The transition of t he Ruhr to a centre of the service
indust ry began wit h th e IBA Ems cher Park, and will conti nue for deca -
des. Bochum is in the mi ddl e of this t ransition, t he remn ants of indust ry
ar e bei ng converted, renovat ed and give n new life. Good con nections
bet ween residentia l and recreat iona l areas ar e necessary. To crea t e one
such connection, th e engineers ofSchlaich Bergermann and Par tner
designed a do uble-curved bri dge in a ver y difficult enviro nment . The
S-for med 3 m wide pedestrian and cycle br idge consists of two 66 m long
arc segmen ts above t he Gahlensche Stralic and t he rai lway below.
The deck is suspended from two mast s. The br idge deck of each segme nt
is suspende d from a susp ension cable at t he inside of the arc. The cross
sect ion of th e superstructure var ies wi th th e direct ion of t he hanger
cables. Unlike a st raig ht girder, wh ich must be fixed by t wo bear ing axes,
t he ri ng girder need on ly be suppor te d along one axis, simplifying t he
reinfor cement of t he sect ion. While t he ring gir der of the Kehlheim
Brid ge is a monolithi c prest ressed concre t e gir der (see p. 108) , lat er ring
girde rs are broken down int o compressio n and t en sion for ces, in cables
and tubes. The mast s of th e Bochum struct ure do not require back stays
or fixed footings. As t he foot ings of the masts are lower th an the
anchorages of th e suspension cables, th e cables stab ilize t he mast .
However, th e defl ect ion of th e structure changes wi t h each load case ,
so an articulate d connectio n is requ ir ed at th e footing t o avoid bendi ng
in th e pylon. The form of th e brid ge provides not only an efficient
connectio n t o th e neighbouri ng pathways, but creates a symbol of the
urban renewal.
Ge ppert. Klaus, A. Krat z
and P Pfoscr. Enrwu rf und
Kon str uktion ci ncr S-formigen
FuBgangcrhrucke in Bochum ,
in: Stahlhau, 2, pp. 126 - 133
120 m
114 Experiments in Construction Anunusually transparent railing expresses the bridge'sfunction as a balcony
Bridge overlooking the Baltic Sea in Sassnitz, Germany, 2007
From Sassnitz, at the northernmost end of Rugen Island, great
ships onc e passed on their way east and west. The quay is now the home
of a glazed railway station, a beautiful historic hall , and portions of the
city that overlook the Balt ic from a high hillside. The island of Rugen has
become a popular vacation destination. A ped estrian and cycle bridge
was built in 2006 to make Sassnitz more accessible to these visitors and
link the city cent re with the port. The bridge would have to overcome a
difference of 25m in elevat ion and respect the protected railway building
and the various streets at the sit e. With the curvature of the bridge deck,
all of these requirements wer e met, and th e increase in bridge length
permits the deck to bridge th e change in elevation with a more manage-
able slope. Nevertheless, much longer ramps would be necessary to
maintain a tolerable slop e, had th e structure not been able to land above
the port. A 7 m high portion of ramp proj ects from the railway st at ion,
as a bridge for transit traffic was demolished after German reunification.
Connecting with the transit station was not only a gesture of forgiveness,
but also allowed the bridge t o exploit the exist ing railway station ramps
and, with a length of "only" 240 m, limit the gradient to 7 percent.
The 3 m wide deck sweeps across the port in a long arc to cr eate a
balcony over the sea, op ening up new perspectives and views. These
views ar e unimpeded as the unilateral suspension lies at the interior of
th e arc . Th e balcony is a [30 m long suspension bridge that transitions
into a continuous beam on multipl e support s as th e cur vat ure and slope
of the t errain decr ease.
The structure's distinctive feature is that the hanger cabl es are at -
tached to cantilevers projecting from the inside edge of the bridge deck .
The height of the cant ilevers was chosen so th at the re sulting force of the
hang ers passes through the cent re of gravity of the deck . With this prin-
ciple, there ar e no overturning moments in th e structure due t o deck
load and uniformly distributed load on the deck . This reduces th e st res -
ses in th e deck girder (see Techni cal Overview Curved Br idges) . Nor-
mally, it would have been poss ible to leave th e 40 m high mast without
backstays, as in the West Park Bridge in Bochum (see P: 112) . In order to
minimize the deflections of the deck under live load s, four backstays
wer e install ed . The backstays ar e the same cabl e as the suspension cable ,
a Galfan-coated full y locked coil with a diamet er of 95 mm. For pedestri -
ans in a hurry, a stairway was built at the end of th e susp ension bridge
that also serves as an abutment for the horizontal for ces from the deck.
Dechau, Wilfncd , Secbruckc.
I:otografischesTagebuch, Berlin !
Tiibingcn, 20 0 7
What appearsIn perspectiveas acable carousel isasafe pathway to the sea 115
353m 118.2 m
- =--- =------ -
lOx 12 37m
116 Experiments In Construction
Curved Bridges
Footbridgein Sassnitz, 2007
Incontrastto roadand rail bridges subject
to high-speed traffic, the footbridge designer is
literallyallowed to design some pretty crooked
structures. Thelow speed of the user opens up a
spatial dimension anda multiplicityof forms. The
deckcanelegantly flow into the existingpathways
and closely follow the adjacentelevations. The
structuremayalso contain multipleapproaches or
decks in order to connect a network of pathways.
If approach ramps areparallel to the central obsta-
clebeingbridged, acurveddeckwit h a seamless
transitionfrom oneapproach to the other seems a
natural solution. In some instances, the curvature
of the deckandthe resulting increase in length
may be exploited to minimize the steepness of the
bridgegradient, similarl y to a spiral staircase. This
opens a completely new level of design freedom,
asthe deckisnot simply curved, but pylons be-
comeinclined, arches become tilted, andsuspen-
sioncables create spatial silhouettes. Thecomplex
structural behaviour of these threedimensional
structures isdiscussed here.
Bridge in Deutsches Museum, Munich
Glass surfacing
Tension member
Compression chord
Circular ring girders
Thecircular ring girders areof particularin-
terestto the structural engineer. Here, the bridge
deckiscircular in the horizontal plane. These struc-
turesmaybesuspended at only one edgeby a sus-
pension cableor cable-stay system, which presents
an especially interesting technical challenge. This is
alsoan example of the necessity of a holisticap-
proachtowardsthe technical challenge, wherethe
structural design, behaviour, deflections, fabri-
cation anderectionaresoclosely linked that all
aspects of the design must beinvestigated simul-
Thedesigner canexploit the fact that a
curvedbridgemaybesupported bya single lineof
columns while a straight bridgerequires two lines
of support. Onecaneasil y imaginethat the
straight girder at the bottom left of the planviews
supported bya single row of supports would cause
the bridgedeckto overturn, whereas the curved
girder would remain stable. Whilea central
support of the deckispossible at the underside of
the deck, anyhangers attachedcentrally above it
would interferewith the walking surface. Circular
Plan viewsof curved bridges
Straight girder and circular ring girderswith central and eccentric supports
Compression ring, tension ring, circular ring girder
ring girdersallow the deckto besupported at one
edge without the deck overturning.
Thest ructural behaviour of the edge-
supported circular ring girder isat first difficult to
comprehend, aswe areused t o thinking in two
dimensions. In thiscase, however, t he structural
behaviour istruly spatial. In order to understand
the concept, let usfirst look at the boiler f ormula,
which allows usto calculate thetension force Ina
cable subject to radial loading. The tension force,
Z, can be calculated according to t he formulaZ=
P. r with the radial distributed load, p, and radius
of the centreline of the cable, r. The formula got
its name from being used to determinet he ten-
sion force in the boilersof early steam locomo-
t ives. The same principle appliesto an arch in
compression. The compression force, D, can be
calculated using the formula D=P. r wit h the
radial dist ributed load, p, and radiusof the centre-
line of t he arch, r. If a compression ring and ten-
sion ring arelaid atop oneanother, the two rings
create a pair of equal and opposing forces, p, in
every radial vertical section. Wit h the distance, h,
between rings, a moment equal to m= p . h may
besupported by the structure. If the circular ring
girder issupported eccentric to itscentreline, an
overturning moment of m=g . e iscreated, wit h
dead load, g, and eccentri city, e. Onecan imagine
support ing t his moment wit h the pair of forces
created by the compression and tension rings
ment ioned above. The overturning moment is in
equilibriumwit h the radial forces of the ring pair,
which canbedeterminedaccording to the
formula p = g . e/h. Using the boiler formula, we
cancalculate t hecompression and tension forces
D= Z= g . e . r/h. The overturning moment due to
t he eccent ric support of the circular ring girder
subject to vert ical loading producesno torsion1,
but simply compression and tension forcesthat
result in the moment M = D. h = Z. h about the
horizontal axis.
The deadweight of t he deckand uniformly
distributed dead load, or loadcaseswith geomet-
ric affinity, may besupported in thismanner. Point
loadsand unbalanced live loadsarenot geometri-
callyaff ined, and cause bendingin the tension
and compression rings. This requiresthe appropri-
ate bending st iff ness in the horizontal axis.
1 Inthiscase, thereisno
St Venant'storsion, even for
circular curvedgirderswith
closed boxsections. The pair
of forcesmayhowever be
interpreted aswarpingtorsion
118 Experiments in Construction Greenville, South Carol ina, USA, 2004
Combinat ions of mast, cables, super structure Structu ral behaviour of a stayed mast

Instable stable
L i
",. . .. .. / ..- . ...

" -L
backstayed mast freemast
A certain level of rigidity is also required to limit
the rot at ion of t he deck due to t he overt urni ng
moment. Compression is created in the lower ring
and tension in t he upper ring should the ring be
support ed at the inner edge. The logic outl ined
above makes it clear t hat t he lower ring is in ten-
sion and the upper ring in compression wit h an
exterior edge support .
The st ruct ural behaviour of t he circular ring
gi rder ISvery clearly illustr ated in the 27 m long
circular ring bri dge in the Deutsches Museum in
Munich . The struct ure is the cent re of attract ion
of t he bridge engineering sect ion of the Museum.
The t ension ring is created from cables and the
compression ring is created f rom a solid round
sect ion. The West Park Bridge in Bochum (2003,
p. 112) wit h it s lower compression ring made of
a round hollow sect ion also clearly illustrates the
struct ural behaviour of the bridge. In Bochum,
t he two rings of the bridge deck are connected by
diagonals to provide addit ional stiffness. It is of
course possible t o exploit the struct ural behaviour
of t he compression and tension rings wi t hout
bringing emphasizing their separation. In the
Pedest rian Bridge in Sassnitz shown on p. 114,
the bridge ring girder is created from a single steel
box sect ion. We can fi nd compression in the un-
derside of the girder and tension at t he t op of t he
girder. The earliest suspension bridge with a circu-
lar ring girder is t he Foot bridge over the Rhine-
Main-Danube Canal in Kehlheim (1988), which
has a concrete deck. In Kehlheim, t he tension
forces are taken up by high strengt h prestressing
steel at t he top of t he sect ion. The f irst circular
ring girder bridge, Glorias Catalana in Barcelona
(1974; see p. 106) is a cable-stayed st ructu re,
a deck f rom a steel box sect ion.
All t he bridges ment ioned above are sup-
ported by inclined hanger cables. The inclinat ion
of the hangers int roduces hori zonta l loads into
t he bridge deck. It creates additional compression
ring forces in t he deck when support ed at t he
inner edge and addit ional t ension ring forces
wh en support at t he out er edge. The cable ar-
rangements shown in the foll owing f igure show
only a small portion of t he design options avail-
able, but demonstrate t he mul t itude of design
possibilities that t his plan form can open up.
A self-anchored suspension bridge wit h an
interior mast is a part icularly eff icient solut ion:
wi t h the corr ect choice of hanger and suspension
cable inclinati on, t he anchorage force of the cable
and the compression for ce of the deck can be
designed to be in equilibrium. This appl ies only to
uniforml y distributed loads and anchorage of the
suspension cable t angent to the ring gi rder. As
non-uniform loadi ng patterns are unavoidable,
forces to t he moments about t he verti cal axis and
horizontal for ces must nevert helessbe taken into
account when designing t he abut ment s. A self-
anchorage suspension syst em is not possible wi t h
the hanger anchored t o at the exterior of t he ring,
as tension forces are created in the ring gi rder.
If a very lively structure is tolerated and the mast
footi ng can be positi oned in t he centre of gravity
of deck in the hor izont al plane, an interior pylon
can be completely wit hout backstays.
The structure will always remain stable if the mast
footi ng is below t he deck.
Spatial Arches
Just as the suspension bridge supported by
a main cable can be int erpret ed as the inversion of
the f unicular arch bridge, suspension bridges with
curved decks can also be invert ed. The main cable
of the curved bri dge creates in interesting st ruct u-
ral component, a three di mensional f unicular t en-
sion member. The inversion of this t ension mem-
ber creates a spatial arch. The 77 m long bridge
over t he Rhine-Herne Canal near Oberhausen is
the achievement of this st ruct ural principle, a steel
arch supporti ng a curved deck and subject t o
compression forces, see p. 120.
120 Expenments In Construction Bridge overthe Neckar in MettingennearEsslingen, 2006 Oberhausen-Ripshorst, bridge overthe Rhine-Herne Canal ,1997
Design f or a br idge in Deizisau
Such structura l solutions may not be the most
economica l solut ion, but they demonstrat e that
t his engineering approac h can produce very
interesting solut ions wi thout exorb itant cost.
We can also comb ine struct ural concepts,
such as an edge supported circular girder br idge
suspended f rom a spat ial arch, The ring girder is
most preferably suppor ted at to t he exterior to
compensate for at least a por t ion of the arch
t hrust.
Kcil , Andreas, The design of curved cable-support ed footb ridges,
Venice footbridge conference, 20 0 5
St r-askv, [ h-i, Stress ribbon and cable-suppo r ted pedestrian bridges,
Schleich, Jorg and A. Seidel, Di e FuHgangerbruch' in Kchlh ci ru, in:
Bauingcnicur , 1988
Schlaich, Jorg, Der kontinuierlich gelagc rtc Kreisring unter
ant tme tr-ischc r Bel astung, in: Bet on und Stahlbeto nbau, January 1967
122 Experiments In Construction The view into the depths of the canyon is eased by the intermediate view of the bridge structure
Traversiner Footbridge I, Rongellen, Switzerland, 1996
The old hiking trail through Viamala is one of the most beautiful in
the Swiss Alps. In order to r eanimate the hiking trail, the Cultural Asso-
ciation of Viamala connected one of the last gaps in the trail with a small
bridge. Unfortunately, the footbridge met with its unfortunate destiny
and fell in 1999 to the valley below due to the impact of a falling boulder.
A replacement was built several years later a bit higher up the valley, see
The first bridge is one to remember. A stiff supporting structure
below the deck was flown by helicopter and placed in its final position.
This erection procedure determined the maximum weight of the suspen-
sion system, 4- .3 t . ]iirg Conzett designed an exceptionally lightweight
fishbelly truss from timber and steel, and a comparatively robust 1.2 m
wide deck with massive railings. The bridge is a truss structure with up-
per compression chord. The suspension cables are splayed by up to 4- m to
stabilize the compression member for side wind forces. To prevent the
suspension structure from swinging laterally from its point supports, the
railing was created as a massive railing, which can transfer torsional mo-
ments to the abutments. The two structural systems are thus overlaid.
Larchwood and chrome nickel steel would stand up to weathering condi-
tions on site. Individual compression struts could be replaced on the un-
load structure due to a high level of redundancy that created multiple
load paths.
The footbridge would have sur ely fulfilled it s purpose for many
decades, but nothing can be done against act s of nature such as falIing
boulders. The structure wiII re st in the memory of hik ers and in photo-
graphs for th e experts so that its hi storical importance is not forgotten.
Str uct ure as Span ', 2006,
pp.120 - 12S-
dbdcutscbc hauzdlUng,
S" , 1998 , pp. 62 -6 9
Detail, 8, 19 99, pp. 1481-14 86
I; ,
124 Experiments in Construction
Plastic Footbridge inWinterthur, Switzerland, 2001
Th e use of new materials, in particular t he use of high per for mance
plast ics, is also one of t he exper iments in constr uction. There is always a
bit of uncert aint y in t he first examples, as des igners learn to apply t he ap-
propriate construct ion meth ods and st ruct ura l systems . A suspension
bridge made of plasti cs, an arc h br idge, or a t russ bridge - these are ex-
amples t hat show how di fficult it is t o det er mine t he optimum use of a
const ruct ion material is not simple to determined. The first plasti c
bridges are small pedest r ian bridges - in Aberfeldy 19 92, Pontres ina 1995",
Kold ing 1997, Leri da 2001, and Winterthur 200 I.
Th e advantages of fibre-r ei nforc ed plast ics - high strength, light
weight and good corros ion resist ance - ma ke t hem ver y inte rest ing ma -
terials for bri dge constructio n. These mate ria ls are ver y well suited to
temporar y and moveable br idges, but unfortunat ely the const r uct ion of
most of the built examples is not par ti cul arl y suite d to th e material. The
fr eely for me d plast ics ar e pressed into a st eel for m and bolted simi lar ly to
a me ta llic str ucture, alt hough plasti cs can easily be glued or welded .
Most of these fibr e- reinfor ced plast ic st r uct ures do not even appear to be
plast ic. Rober t Maill ar t not only recognized the potential of t he new
construct ion mat eri al of hi s t ime, rein forced concret e, but also at -
t empt ed t o develop a str uctural approach suited to it . This led t o the
development of new structura l syste ms, new const r uction approaches,
and even a whole new scul pt ural vocabulary. The high pr ice and low fir e
res ista nce ar e surely t he reason t hat a mat erial-specific st r uct ural and
const r uct ion approach has not yet been found for plast ics in br idge
construction. In ot her areas of const r uct ion, such as long-span roofs ,
struct ura l forms suite d to t he fibr e- reinfor ced plast ic membranes have
been found. We should not give up so easily.
The small, 16m long footbri dge over the River Kernpt near Winte r -
thur is 9 0 percent fibreglass and weight s on ly 85"0 kg. Only t he bolts and
t en sion ing rods are in steel. The inte res ti ng aspect of t he structure - in
cont ras t to t he above -me nt ioned examples - is t hat it s form is particul ar -
ly sui te d to t he charact er ist ics of t he mat erial. The engi nee rs at Stau bli,
Kur ath & Part ner wor ked in cooperation with t he Fede ra l Institute of
Technology ( ETH Zurich) and t he manufacturers on t his experimenta l
pr oject to gain exper ience for the Expo Bridge in Yverdon . The foot-
bri dge re quir es only four st ressing rod s, two at the top of t he gir de r and
t wo at the bottom. These are mostl y necessar y for erect ion ; fibr e-rein-
for ced plasti c slat s lat er suppor t the bend ing forc es. The plast ic element s
ar e connected at cir cular di aphragms. Shea r is transferred wit h lugs and
slot s. Concr et e foundations were not necessar y. It was possible simply to
Kruppers, Park, rooj;
Sobrinc, 2002
On Abcrfcldv, Pont rcsma,
Kolding: Struct ural Engineer ing
International , Volume 9, SEI
4 . 19 99
On Let-ida: Structural
Engineering Inte rn ational,
Volume 12, SEI 2, 20 02
Fi berglassbridgewit h a 16mspanand total weight of 850 kg 125
bury a portion of the girder in th e soil at t he approach, since Hbreglass
do cs not rot. Acer t ain pati na has developed on th e br idge, complement -
ing th e struct ure . Th e sound of foot st eps on the deck is slightly peculiar
but not unpl easant.
126 Experiments in Construction
Lighting from the interior madepossible with plastics
Moveable Bridge in Fredikstad, Norway, 2006
This plastic moveabl e footbridge , with a span of 5"6 m, is an exam-
ple of a design approach that particularly suits th e mat erial. The bridge
crosses th e Vesterelven River. Hydraulic cylinders lift and lower the two
halves of th e bridge. Each of th e 28 m long bridge halves weighs 20 t and is
so light that it can be moved without counte r weight . Steel is used onl y at
th e moveabl e bearing, to transfer high local stresses into th e girder . Th e
deck girder is a box sect ion with doubly cur ved sides and inner longitudi -
nal girders with trans vers e di aphragms. The undersid e of the box section
consists of one layer of 10 to 38 mm thick laminate. The deck surface is
sandwich panel filled with an int erlayer of balsa wood. These panels can
support vehicl es with up to 2 t axl e load . Heating wires ar e incorporated
into the sandwich panels, t o prevent ice formation in the winter. The ex-
t erior of the girder is translucent, whi ch mean s it can be lit from the in-
side of th e sect ion.
This br idge demonstrat es th e possibilities of cont inued develop-
ment in fibr e-reinforced plastic bridges.
Lightweight plasticsareeasily moved. 127
City Expansion and Renovation
Ca h I lUI S
The car has not completely chased away all pedestrians in our cities,
but since the Second World War, they have chased them into depressing
pathways and dark underpasses. City planning has been designed to suit
traffic flows since the beginning of the 20th century, an approach that
was pursued aggresively following the world wars. The shortcomings of
this approach to urban planning were recognized early on but too late to
be corrected. Cities were maimed, made inhospitable and lost their ori-
ginal spirit. As highways began to divide the landscape, there was no
choice other than to build footbridges to allow pedestrians to pass from
one side to the other. The problem was more complex in city centres, as
six- to ten-lane roads divided once-united neighbourhoods. Since the
1970s, pedestrian bridges have been preferred to underpasses, as claus-
trophobic users find it more difficult underground than in a structure
above the roadway. No one would expect traffic to decline - rather the
opposite. Any opportunity to keep cars and pedestrians at the same level
is to be welcomed, but with rising traffic, this is almost impossible to
maintain. This difficulty has however provided architects and engineers
opportunities to design pedestrian structures.
Many cities have neglected their rivers. Fallow industrial areas and
shipping ways and canals are beginning to be transformed into residen-
tial and service centres. In order to improve the quality of the environ-
ment along the riverbanks, pedestrians should be offered the most direct
routes possible. City expansion and renovation should bring improve-
ment. In this development, footbridges not only create pathways, but can
become attractive public spaces.
130 City Expansion and Renovation

11 m 33 m 39.5 m 42 m 11 m
Barsch, \Volfdict er and Hei nz
Hchsc, Spannbandbrucke als
ruBgangcrsteg in Frcihurg
im Breisgau, in: Beton- und
Stahlhetonhau, March 1972,
pp 49"
Stress Ribbon Bridge in Freiburg, Germany, 1970
Shortly after Rene Wa lther proved th e efficiency of a st ress r ibbon
structure for footbridges, Ul r ich Fins terwalder, who had worked on
st ress r ibbon bridge concepts pr ior t o Walther, had a chance t o bui ld his
fir st in Fre iburg, Germany. The city centre was t o be connected with a
park over a heavily used roa dway. A br idge wit h mast or pylo ns would be
unt hi nk able in its setting in fro nt of t he Fr eiburg Cathedra l, and a fl at
multi -spa n stress ri bbon struct ure seemed ideal. While th e app roach
from th e park remai ns a beaut iful area, th e cit y-side approach is rather
depr essi ng: parking for buses and a low-quality sub ur ban development
dest roy th e ar ea's atmospher e, thus losing th e bridge' s potentia l in th e
urb an fabr ic of t he city. The design is by Dyckerhoff & Widmann : "This
alternat ive deSign was commissioned du e t o t he slenderness and elegance
of th e st r ucture and it s integration in th e diffi cult urban enviro nment ".
Whil e to day, many owners see m focused on project cost , at t hat t ime th e
cult ural r esponsibly of civic wor ks was well underst ood. The stress rib-
bon st r uc tu re consi st s of a 25 em deep conc rete ri bbo n, pr est ressed wi th
t hr eaded Dywidag ro ds . The ri bbon r est s on a layer of foil over th e sadd-
les at th e inte r mediate piers and at th e abut ments , allowing th e ribbon t o
li ft above th e sadd les dur ing st r essing. This allows t he bridge t o rest on
th e saddle under increased load ing with ou t creat ing a ki nk in th e deck ,
du e t o th e co mpe nsation of t he slend er deck . The spans are 25.5 m 30 m
- 34.5 m. The pier footi ngs are ar ticulat ed wit h a co ncre t e joint so t hat
th e piers can rota t e under variable loads.
Footbridge in St uttgart, Germany, 1977
As in Fr eiburg, many inner-city roa ds are danger ous for pedest r i-
ans t o cross . This is also t he case in Stuttgart . A provincial gardening ex-
hib it ion pr ovided an opportunity to connect t he mi ddle and lower Palace
Gardens. The land scape arc hitect's inte nt ion was t hat t he pedest ria n
would not even r eali ze t hat he or she was on a connect ing st r uct ure. Veg-
etation was to line the pat h. The engineers at Schlaich Berger man n and
Part ner designed a 5 1.2 m long ar ch hr idge t hat widens at th e approaches ,
almo st sucking th e user in . The park cont inues t o th e brid ge st r uct ure
and th e ,-egetat ion is plant ed on t he br idge. The flat and slender arch has
a light curl at t he edge so th at it works as an arch shell . Only aft er t he soil
for t he ,-egeta t ion was plant ed on th e br idge did th e st ru ctu re t ake it s fi-
nal form; t his weight help s to st abilize th e st r uct ure.
Afte r sever al years, th e brid ge d isapp ear ed under it s vegetation
and many driver s below do not rea lize t hat t hey are pass ing unde r a
st ruct ure, but percei" e it as a hanging gar den or nat ur al bridge . The veg-
et at ion of course does not fully reduce t he noise of traffic, but it creates
a ki nd of barri er bet ween humans and vehi cles. This is no ant idote for all
traffic sit uat ions, as such lush vegetat ion in urban cent re s may be a bit
much. The Ca nstat t er Foot br idge can be appreciat ed as part of t he
Palace Gardens -- a t ype of br idge th at the user often docs not recogn ize
as a st ructure. At th e op ening of th e garden ing exhibit ion in 1977, t he
H'get ation had grown lush, hut was cut hack bv worker s prep ari ng for
t he ex hibitio n, who thought it was merely weeds.
51.2 m
132 City Expansion and Renovation View towards the shopping centre
Seraina, Carl, Schlossmiihlesteg
in Frauenfeld. Fragile Korper-
haftigkeit , in: archit ektur aktuell ,
10 . 20 3. pp. 122- 129
Engler, Daniel . Briicke und Bal-
ken, in: tee 21, 33-34. 200 3. pp. 7-9
Footbridge in Frauenfeld, Switzerland, 2003
This small footbridge is part of an effective and pedestrian-friendly
city planning strategy. Next to a new shopping centre, the structure sits
on an impressive site below the town castle that sits high over the River
Murg. The design by timber construction expert Walter Bieler connects
the historical city-centre tradition with the modern consumer -or iented
centre using elegant and refined design. The footbridge has an asymmet-
ric cross section with the railing at a height of 1.30 m to the edge away
from the city. The railing is lower for the view towards the castle and
covered with a steel section so that the user can lean over as if looking
over a windowsill. The railings and surfacing are made oflarchwood slats
( [ 20 x 60 mm) , serrated at a small distance so that the view of the
floWing river below does not di sturb the user. Walther Bieler heeds the
fundamental rules of timber construction and follows a holistic design
approach. The footbridge is supported by girders that are protected from
the weather that attacks on all sides: six 6S- cm high laminated spruce
beams are pressed together using prestressing bolts to form one ern
wide, compact girder, which spans 20 m. The steel cladding with a slope
of 2 percent covers the top of the girder. The sur faci ng segments consist
of steel and timber components and placed on the main girder. The foot -
bridge is elegantly lit at night.
1.2 m
[ ]

134 City Expansion and Renovation

Structure and ornament are seldom so unified
Bridge in GrolSenhain, Germany, 2002
The sma ller the design challenge , th e cleverer t he solu tion ? Walk-
ways in sma ll villages should also be made as di r ect as possibl e - as is see n
here in Gr ossenhain, wh ere several footbri dges we re const r uct ed for a
gar den ex hibit ion over th e Grosse Rod er River . Th e archi tect Martin
Sauerzapfe, to gether with t he engineers of ifb Berlin, designed a small
footbridge with a span of 9.) m, whi ch could car ry eme rge ncy vehicles of
up t o ) t . The st r uct ural syste m consists of t wo truss gi rders t hat also
form the ra ilin gs. These girde rs are made fr om 8 plat es. The plate seg -
ments are alm ost square, wi t h a side length of aro und 1.1 ) m. The edge s
of th e plates wer e bevell ed t wice at th e factory. Plat es formi ng th e upper
chord ( U 10 0) and lower chord ( U 160) are bolted t o th e plate segmen ts.
The ver ticals and di agon als of th e t russ are cre ated and incorporated in
an at t ract ive ornamentation made using an auto matic CAD-con trolle d
laser cut ter in t he 4 mm thi ck pl at e . The plat es ar e galvanized. The orna-
mentation follows th e shea r diagram of the structure and t he di agon al s
become th icker near t he suppor ts .
An upside-down chann el secti on acting as a handrail is bol ted to
t he upp er chor d of th e gir der. The bridge playfully unites ornament ati on
and st r uct ure . The design is convinci ng and th e t ot al visual effect, includ-
ing th e int erplay of light and shade , benefit s fro m th e combi nati on .
o 0
o 0
136 City Expansion and Renovation
Asymbol of the revitalization of the derelict land Asmooth approach ratherthananabrupt transition
Merchants Bridge in Manchester, UK, 1995
Wi th by & Bird offer architecture and structure in one firm. In
Manchest er, th e former indust r ial zone of Cas tleficld was to be rejuven-
ate d. As part of thi s rejuven ati on , Wi thby & Bird design ed a swee ping
arch bridge th at won a des ign competi tion for th e sit e with its powerful
ges ture. The struc t ure crosses the ri ver and quays with a swe ep ing, can-
til ever ing arc. The bridge' s elevat ion is suc h th at th e struct ure would be
continua lly viewe d from below, so th e design of its underside was a parti-
cular focus. The abut ment s are elegantl y place d and matc h t he for mal
langu age of th e design . A symbol of rebi rth of the indust r ial zone, th e
st r ucture is paint ed whi te.
We should not e th at t he incli nati on of t he arches in many recent
bridges has been made for aes t het ic r easons. The incline of th e hanger ca-
hIes increases wh ile t he loading st ays th e same.
The dead load of th e arc h no longer lies in th e plane of th e arch and
has an eccentricity at t he apex, thereby requiring the arch to be fixed at
t he footi ng to suppo r t a moment . Another way t o co mpe nsate for th is
moment is to give t he arc h a spatial curvat ure to foll ow its funicular lin e .
One -side d arches are par t icul arly problematic. The inclina tion of
th e hangers creates hori zont al forces and bending abo ut t he vert ical axis
in t he deck girder. In additi on, th e eccentric support creates torsion in
t he deck . In t he example of th e Mercha nt s Bridge, th e to rsion is
supported by a st eel tub and t r ansferred t o t he abutments. Alt ho ugh
th ese structures are not t he most efficient , they oft en create excit ing
solut ions and almost ever y con tempo rary foot br idge-buil der has
design ed one. Thi s book shows incli ned arches by Santiago Ca latrava,
Jir i Strasky, Wilki nso n Eyr e wi t h Flint & Nei l and Javier Mant erol a.
Bridge at the Royal Victoria Dock, London, UK, 1998
I Plowden, David, Bridges,
Nort on & Company, 1974.
pp. 6J-6i
Detail , 8. 1999. pp. 1474-1478
Architect ural Review, !i. 1999.
vel. CCVII , No. 1239
City Expansion and Renovation 138
Anyone who knew the dockland area of London in the 1980s or ear-
lier would not recognize it today: a light railway has been constructed
that connects the port area. To the north and south, the quality of life has
greatly improved. At Royal Victoria Dock, the question was raised as to
how to allow pedestrians to cross the harbour while respecting very high
clearance requirement for the masts of yachts from a neighbouring sail-
ing club. The architects from Lifschutz Davidson and the structural
designer Techniker Ltd won the competition with an idea from the 19th
century: a gondola with a 4o-passenger capacity would be suspended
from the underside of a high open deck. The whole design is impressive ,
with its slender structure perfectly suited to the Victoria Docks site.
The upside-down fink truss with a 128 m span gi ves the bridge its identity.
Albert Fink was a German immigrant to the United States and presented
his truss to the US market. Numerous fink trusses were built in the US
before his death in 1897, only one of which survives. '
The great difference in ele vation is bridged by stairways and eleva-
tions. The box section is deeper at the midspan between ver t icals. This
haunch interrupts the wooden deck. The visual image from the deck
reminds one of an overturned ship.
An upside down Finktrusswith a 128 mspan
In Coimbra, Portugal, a footbr idge connects th e historic cit y cen-
tre with a new residential ar ea, wit h parks lyi ng scattered in between .
The st r uct ure' s unusual geomet ry, choice of mat er ials and colour create
an ext ravagant, unique image, which can easily be can be called emblem-
atic . The t wo halves of t he bridge are offset at t he midspa n - those who
are fami liar wi t h th e t ragic love story of King Pedro and Ines who never
fou nd one anot her wou ld find resonance in th e structure. The offset at
t he midspan cr eat es a small platform in th e bri dge . The foot br idge is a
composit e plate made of rein forced concret e and steel decki ng. Acent ral
paraboli c arch and two half-arcs at each approach support th e superstruc-
t ure . Offs etting the arch and allowi ng the dec k to cant ilever out over t he
arc h creates torsion and do es not make much st r uct ural sens e, but do es
not appear to affect th e structura l behaviour much. The br idge is 274 m
long overall and the central arc h has a span of 11 0 m. Cecil Balmond and
his advance d Geometry Unit at Ar up designed th e structure t ogeth er
wit h t he st ructural designer s Antonio Adao da Fon seca wi t h AFAssocia-
dos. The most not able aspect of th e st ructure is the railin g. The mult i-
coloure d, ti lted glass panels are a t ype of folded const r uct ion in ste el and
play wi t h the refl ect ion of light - at night the railings appea r crys ta lline.
The handrail is in wood, as is t he deck surfacing. The care with wh ich th e
det ail is execute d demonstrates that th e pedest ri an is bei ng considered as
an increasingly impo rtant participa nt in city traffic . The border between
archite ct ure and design is bl ur red .
Bridgeover the Rio Mondego in Coimbra, Portugal , 2006
140 City Expansion and Renovation
64m 110 m 64m
Ada" de Fonseca, Antonio, Ceci l
Balmont , Concept ual design of
the new Coimbra foothr idge,
foot bridges, 20011, md
International Confere nce,
The archoffset at the midspan cuts theoptical impression of the length of the bridgein half 141
142 City Expansion and Renovation
Passerelle Solferinoover the Seine in Paris, France, 1999
No other cit y has th e same sens e of beauty along its riverbanks as
Paris, where legends sur round the bridges. Its bridges are also the subject
of films - Leos Carax's 1991 film Les Amants du Pont Nerif, for example. In
the story, th e Pont Neuf is closed for renovation and the bridges becomes
a refuge for a penniless circus performer and a painter who is going blind.
In the story, the Pont Neufbecomes a footbridge, and a br eathtaking one
at that . The theme of urban renovation is a compl ex one. To the east of
th e Pont Neuf follows the pedestrian bridge Pont des Arts, the road
bridges Pont du Carrousel and Pont Royal, followed by the Passerelle
Solferino spanning between the Tuil eries and the Quay Anatole France,
connecting to the street of the same name. Marc Mimram, an engineer
and ar chitect educat ed in France and th e United States with a pro-
nounced ambition for quality in design. Mimram designed an arch bridge,
echoing the structural form nativ e to th e city as in th e Pont d'Arcole and
th e Pont Alexandre III . It sounds easy, no intermediate piers in the Seine,
effect ive connections to walkways at differ ent elevat ions on both sides of
the Seine, and creating a light structure so as to minimize the disruption
of the view of the Seine. The execut ion is a bit more diffi cult : one route
at street level, two walkways at quay level that should meet at the mid-
span this follows the contours of the arch to perfection. The merging
of the quay walkways and th e street level is particularly el egant. The
challenge of urban renovation is taken on and conquered, with a foot-
bridge that perfectly continues the historic traffic routes. The construc-
tion of the bridge is another beautiful example of how the linearity of
a bridge that simply connects one point to another can be playfully
abandoned. With his light steel arch bridge of almost 110 m span, Mar c
Mimram created a st r uct ure wher e both the arch and the deck ar e
pedestrian walkways . In order to keep the arch for ces within reason and
to respect boat clearances belong, a certain ris e of the arch is necessary.
The necessary r ise leads to a slope of over 10 percent, making steps nee -
ded on the ar ch walkway. The deck walkway is II to 15 m wide and prac-
tically horizontal. The timber surfaci ng of the superstructure reminds
one of a ship deck. Interesting interactions between pathways and the
play bet ween light and shadow are the result of merging the arch and
deck walkways. The deck at st reet level act s as a roofing for the ar ch
walkway. Th e bridge had the same fat e as the Mill ennium Bridge in
London, wh ich was also closed shortly after its inauguration due to
dynamic vibrations, and reopened only aft er th e installation of damping
devices . This event is long forgotten and pedestrians now use th e bridge
cont inuously.
Fromonot, Francoise, Marc
Mimr am/Passerelle So!fer ino,
Basel , 2001
La pessercllc Solferi no, in:
Ouvragcs Mctalliques, N I ,
OTUA , Paris, 20 01
The approx 100 m bridgespans the Seine on two levels 143
106 m
144 City Expansion and Renovation Grand Bibli otheque. the FinanceMinistry, the Pal aisOmni sport, andthe new bridge- symbolsof urban transformation
Passerelle Simone de Beauvoir, Pari s, France, 2007
Ber cy: thc quar ter sout h of t he Seine where wine was cellared for
cent uries, ferm ent ing th e myth of France as the Grande Nation du Vin.
By the t ime the Fre nch Mini stry of Fina nce had moved fro m th e Louvr e
t o it s new home in Ber cy in the 19 90S, a large spor ts hall had been built
for spec ta cular event s, the Pare de Bercy had been creat ed , and finall y
t he four t ower s of t he Gr and e Bibliot heque Nat ionale had been con-
st r ucte d, the quart er had lost some t hi ng of it s old tranquill it y. A new
world of heavy publi c traffic emer ged to the left and ri ght of th e Sei ne ,
leading t o t he construct ion of th e Passer ell e Simone de Beau voir. The
commission was awarded to an Aust r ian arc hitect practi sing in france,
f eichtinger Arc hite kten, working with the engineers of RFR - Ri ce
f ra ncis Ritchie. Urban re novat ion in Ber cy ent ails a complete change
of neighbourhood at mos phere .
The con nectio n of t hre e ele vations at each side is unusual : quay,
street and parking or library level. Th e struct ure is worthwhile as it
allows pedest r ians t o pass from the libr ar y to t he park without crossing
a major roadway. The free span of t he st ructure is 194 m long and a ver y
slender combinat ion of arch and st ress ribbon. The struct ure lies in two
parall el ver tical planes at a di st ance of ) . 2 m on cen tre. An arc h in com-
pr ession and a t ension chord lie in these planes. The arch is made of a
welded box sect ion co to 70 cm dee p and 1 m wide. The te nsion chord is
a I m wi de st eel plat e wi th a depth var ying between 10 and I) cm The arch
and t en sion chords are join ed wi t h a column of four stee l rod s every 7 m.
The arc h and t en sion chord cross one anot her ar ound th e quarter point s
of th e span, dividing th e bri dge into three main sections: a 106 m long
lenticul ar beam in the mi ddl e, a 47 m long cant ilever to th e north, and a
41 m long cant ilever to the sout h. This is how th e br idge was constr uct ed.
First , th e cant ilevers wer e anchored t o th e abutments. The H Ot mid dle
girder was fabr icated in Alsace and t ransported by barge fr om the Rhine
via the Nor t h Sea to the Seine and hung from th e t wo cant ilever ti ps.
f eichtinger Architectes,
Passcr cll c Simone de Bcauvoir,
with tex ts or Arrncl lc Lavalcu ,
Francoise Lamarre and
[can -Paul Roher t, Par is, 20 0 6
La passer cllc Simone de Beau-
voir, in: Tr avaux , 813, September
Kier an, Rice, La passcr cllc
Simone de Bcau voir , in: Co n-
st r uct ion Mctalliquc, 4, 200h
The bridgerespondsthe threelevelsof the quay
41 m
11.7 m
106m 47 m
146 City Expansion and Renovation
Port Bridge in Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain, 2004
Like may other cit ies, Barcelona neglect ed its privileged position
near th e sea for decades . The 1992 Ol ympic Games and the Forum 20 0 4
wer e the catalysts to connect the city centre with the coast in a pedestrian-
fr iendly manner . An urban mast er plan was devel op ed, cre at ing a marina
with around 1000 slips in order to bring some life to the harbour. The
main building of th e yacht harbour and the pedestrian bridge linking the
Esplanada with the Parque Litoral Nor este were designed by Mamen
Domingo and Ern est Ferre and the engineer Angel C. Apari cio .
Th e bridge has a total length of 197 m and consists of a Warren truss
with a free span of 148 m. The structure cr eate s an envelope , whi ch whil e
not providing a roof, creates the visual impression of being in int er ior
space. The var ying depth, with an aver age of 6 m, pr events the structure
from appearing as a strict tubular gangway. Offset balconi es and seating
make the structure an attractive place to pass the time. As the develop-
ment continues, th ere will be more and more to see from th e bridge bal -
conies, making the bridge a destination in itself.
197 m
Apari cio, Angel C. and
G. Ramos, Footh ridge OH'r the
Sant Adr ia Marina in Barcelona,
Spain, in: Proceedings of the
Institution of Ci vil Enginecr s
Bridge Engint' erin g, 20 0 ) .
pr 19 3-20 0
With itssolid portal, thebridge isdesigned asa dominating structure in the new harbor area
The Bridge as Interior Space
The seriousness of the loadbearinq truss IS evident within. Paul Bonatz, Fritz Leonhardt
Bridges built in the same manner as housing, with a roof and side-
walls, originally served as structural timber protection. It was and still is
prudent to protect connections of sensitive material from weather. It is
no wonder that the covered bridge developed into a classical bridge
archetype in the raw mountainous settings.
Covered bridges are often also necessary in densely p..opulated cities:
When buildings are to be joined above a roadway, the bridge becomes a
de facto continuation of building space: to the foyer, corridor, conference
room. The dizzying heights of the Petronas Towers in Kuala Lumpur,
with a covered pedestrian bridge joining two 90-storey high-rises
roughly at the level of the 40th floor, have not yet been matched in Europe.
Last but not least, air traffic requires elaborate swinging, telescoping
motorized walkways so that passengers reach their seat with dry feet.
The criterion for the structure and form of such a bridge is the
interior space. The structure can create and interior space, but the user's
experience also depends on the views and on lighting. It is much more
the work of architects than engineers to set the scene of such a covered
structure. In certain settings, footbridges may be asked to house shops
and multiple pathways, as was the case for Zaha Hadid's extravagant
design direction for the 2008 Expo in Zaragoza. The line between a
complete building structure ala Rialto and a covered footbridge is
becoming more fluid.
150 The Bridge as Interior Space
Baus, Ursul a, Vcrdi chtctcr
\ V('g. Brucke ubcr die Areuse
bci Boudry, in: dhdeut schc
bauvcitung, 5. 2003 ,
Bridge over the Areuse, Boudry, Switzerland, 2002
The Ar cus c gorge in th e Jura sout h of Neu chatel presen t s numer -
ou s ent hrall ing spectacles of nature - but caut ion is advised in winter,
"hen many paths become completely covere d in ice and impassable. This
small co vere d bridge over th e Areus e can be found where the hiking trail
through th e high , narrow canyon merges with the wider, op en vall ey.
A light in th e plan of th e deck as well as the changes in elevat ion
create an elegantly design ed transit ion . Thi s is anot her example of th e
coope ra t ive effor t between architect s and en gineers: Geninasca Dele-
fortri e of Nc uc hatc ] wer e the ar chitects of the project, and Chablais et
Pollet olEst avaver -Ic-Lac th e engineers .
Exceptional pilot s in a Russian helicopter fl ew th e pr efabri cat ed
truss girde r into th e vall ey, wh er e th e bridge spanning 2] .r; m wa s built
within two days. At t achme nts for the wooden slat s were incorporated
into th e ver t ica l steel frames.
The variation of t he cros s sect ion - with a depth of between 2.r; and
J. o m and a w idt h of bet ween I.I r; and 3.r; m - ar e oft en imper ceptible to
the user. Curiosity pulls on e t owards the end of the tunnel of th e bridge
e nc los ure , whi ch is hidden by the horizontal curvature of th e deck until
on e has ventured a few ste ps along th e deck . Thi s perspective do cs not
appear un canny, however , as the wo od en slat s allow views outside of th e
encl os ure to ori ent th e pedestrian. The bridge offe rs no protection from
rain the design of th e bridge space is solely to affect th e user ' s
tion .
Theother end of the bridgeisnot insight, but t heview to theexterior isconstant 151
152 The Bridge as Int erior Space
The structure iseven visiblefromthe inside of the covered structure
Covered Footbridge in Gaissau, Austria, 1999
44 m
Timber const ruc t ion expe r t Hermann Kaufmann used th e br idge
enclosure , th e original rol e of which was to protect th e struc t ure , to im-
prove th e quality of th e interior space . Almost t he ent ire spa n is op en so
that th e user has fr ee views, creat ing an asto nis hingly light int erior. Th e
bridge' s compact volume uses th e modern archi t ectural var iant of th e fl at
roof as th e gabl e roofs of old er covered bridges (see p. 24-) as an integral
part of th e arc hitect ure - th e product of th e coope rat ion between ar -
chitect Hermann Kaufmann and engineer Fra nk Dickbauer .
With a span of 4-4- m and a width of 4- ., m, th e bridge crosses t he
border between Austria and Switzerland. Although th e Swiss embank-
ment is lower than the Austri an on e, th e roof remains horizontal, giving
th e st r uct ure a conical elevation. The two main girders made of glued
timber sect ions create th e sides of th e enclosure. The steel t ension mem-
ber from four flat steel plates complete s the suspended girder syst em .
Edge gluedtimber andsteel arecombined in optimal manner with respect to structural demands
Covered Footbridge in Frojach, Austria, 1992
This new ped estri an brid ge, design ed by Johann Riebenbauer and
plane rs Lignum Consult Angerer & Par t ner, re places an obso lete road
brid ge between Froj ach and Kat sch . Th e t hree 20 m long bridge dcck
and roofing eleme nts ar e stressed toget her with di agon al te nsion mem -
ber s of high-st rength steel. Using th e "plank pack lamination method",
th e mor e inexp ensivc ex terior sections of th e t ree may be used . The
resulting st iff, strong wooden plat es can be simply nail ed toget her.
Thc st r uc t ure can be classified as a Fin k truss. Both main truss
member s th er efor e lack a lower chore . Tr ansverse girde rs connec t th e
bridge deck or t o th e vertical member s of th e fink t ru ss by steel pl ates
th at do no penetrat e any part of t he vert ical sect ion dir cctl y ex posed
to th e weath er. The loading of all st r uct ur al members increases as on c
approaches th e mid span. Th e di agonal s are pr estressed at th c abut me nts
to add stiffness to th e system. Addition al pr estressi ng oft he syste m
counteracts snow load s, as th e t ension members contract du e to lower
temperatures during th e wi nter month s.
154 The Bridge as Interior Space
Firth , lan, New Mater ials
for Modern f ootbridges, in:
Foot br idge 2001 , Proceedings,
OTU:\, Pl': 174 - 186
db dcut schc bauzeitun g, 6, 2004 ,
pp. S28 l
Royal Ballet School Bridge, London, UK, 2003
The new Royal Ball et Schoo l and th e list ed Opera House building
in Cove nt Garde n, London, are separate d by only a few metres. The
pr ospect ive dancer s and ball er inas were t o be spared t he exterior cros -
sing at street level. This led to t he constructio n of a sma ll bridge, high
above Flor al Street , to make t he t r ip more comfor table . The challenge
of th e br idge compe t it ion in whi ch five t eams t ook part was t o create a
structure as an ex pression of dance.
The seemi ngly har ml ess 9 m span was complicated by th e fact the
buildi ng suppor ts at bot h ends were offset in elevation and plan . Wilkin -
son Eyre con vinced th e jur y with a Simple light brid ge wit h a spectacular
enclo sure : 23square frames ar e each rot at ed 4" along the length of t he
structure, creati ng a t ot al rotati on of 90. The frames are ver t ical at bot h
buildin g supports . Glass panel s between the frames create a light t rans-
pare nt appea rance, the sweeping for m of whi ch is reminiscent of th e
movement of a dancer. The geometry of t he enclosure gives t he bri dge it s
char ming visual aspec t form both int ernally and exte rn ally - t he str uct ure
plays an almost secondary role and is hardly noti ced in th e int eract ion
bet ween int er ior and ex terior.
Refined geomet ry and a minimal structure mergeto create an exceptional space 155
156 The Bridge as Interior Space
ScienceMuseumBridge, London, UK, 1997
Strictly spea ki ng, this is not a covered br idge, but it is a product of
th e int erior space in whi ch it is sit uated . A footbridge was built in th e
London Science Museu m, pr ot ect ed by wi nd and weath er. The struct ure
is lightly sus pended from heavy surrounding arc hitec t ure. In t he gallery
s, Wilkinson Eyre creat ed t heir first museum proj ect. The br idge, whic h
t raverses a cent ra l atrium as if a spid er had spun its a glis tening net ,
symbo lizes th e th eme of the gallery. The st rength of glass and steel were
pushed to the limit - this materi al -speci fic design approac h comes form
the t eam of Wilkinson Eyre in coo pera t ion with t he engi neers Whit by
Bird . In or der to int ensify th e relationship bet ween th e pedest r ian and
t he st r uct ure, the audio artist Ron Geesi n developed a compute r com-
posit ion that react s to the movement s of the bridge and its pedestrians.
Th e struct ure has a span of 16 m and is suppor te d by 186 except ion-
ally t hin sta inless steel wires (d = I..s-8 mm) that overlap along th e deck.
Th e deck consists of a tota l of 828 glass strips . Every fift h glass st r ip is
glued t o a strip running parallel to th e edge . A downward backst ay
syste m stabilizes the st r uct ure sufficiently against dynami c osci llat ions.
The form of th e stai nless stee l wires expands th roughout t he int er ior
spac e and provides a fabul ous connec t ion between the br idge and the
sur rounding space .
Detail, 8, 1999;
Pearce, 20 02, pp. 204- 20 9
16 m
Thethin ca bles create a delicatespatial net that however solidly supports thewalkway
158 The Bridge as Interior Space
Zaraqoza, Bridqe pavilion at the Expo, Zaha Hadid, 2008
Covered and Enclosed Bridges Thissect ion will show that the spectrum of
coveredgreatly exceeds the traditional Alpine
covered bridges and residential bridges. These
bridgescontinueto find new application, in parti-
cular for structures in which the envelope- con-
sisting of the deck, roofing, and wall - support
loadsby acting asa tube. This creates a much
larger depth-to-spanratio than for other bridges.
Residential and Encl osed
Some of t he earliest bridges were not simply
coveredwit h roofing or providedwit h a small toll-
house, but were completely covered wit h housing.
LondonBridge, built between 1176and 1209,
crossed t heThameswit h 19 arches and developed
into its own city district. The reason thesestruc-
tureswere used ashousing wasthe lack of avail-
able real estatein the medieval citiesand t he
hygienicadvantagesof houses above water, with
their natural sewer systems. Some particularly
beautiful examplesremain, such asthe Kramer
Bridge in Erfurt, built in 1293, t he Ponte Vecchio
in Florence, and the Rialto Bridge in Venice. This
structureshows high competition for these
prestigious early structures. The competition was
held in 1587wit h Michelangelo and Pal ladio
taking part. Antonio da Ponte won the competiti-
on wit h a 27 marchbridge.
Funct ions
Theclassic wooden bridgeswere covered
mainly to protect t he structurefrom environmental
effects. Theshingled roofsof t hewooden alpine
bridgesprotect the structure from high snow
loads, assnow wil l slide off of a steeproof. The
roofing also protectsthe structurefrom rain. Wit h
the protection provided by the roofing and lateral
shinglecovering, the timber has beenpreserved
for centuries. Avery early and picturesque example
isthe Chapel Bridge in Lucerne, a simple conti-
nuousgirder bridge supported by numeroustim-
ber pile piers. The structurewasf irst built in 1333
and hasbeen rebuilt several timesafter numerous
Luckily, two bridgesremain f romt he Swiss
carpenter Hans Ulrich Grubenmann(see page 24).
He wasableto span up to 11 8 mwith hismulti-
Secti on t hrough a typ ical bridge
Maximum roof slope of 45
Roof overhang with an angle
st rut ted tr uss and arch structures 350 years ago.
In typhoon-prone areas, road and railway
bridge superstructures and girders are of ten de-
signed wit h suff icient structu ral dept h t o provi de
protected lanes for emergency vehicles at the
int erior of the struct ure. Noise pollut ion require-
ments somet imes call for side roof ing and cov-
ering of urban road bridges (one example is the
Nesenbacht al Bridge in Stuttgart). Other than
these examples, covered bridges are practically
only found for foo tbr idges st ruct ures. Covered
pedestr ian bridges may f ulf il a mult itude of uses.
The most common of such structures are bridges
connect ing bui ldi ngs, where t he enclosure provi-
des protection f rom t he elements. The pedestr ian
should be able to pass between a parking garage
and a stadium, between one shoppi ng mall or
office building to anot her wi t hout getti ng his or
her feet wet. In most cases, the enclosure does
not simply provide prot ect ion f rom rain and wi nd
but is often provided insulat ed. The level of
pedestr ian comfo rt should fulf il t he requirements
of t he owne r and the expectat ions of the user.
One can seethat the level of comfort provided
Kumma Bridge in Hitt isau, 1720
to sighing prisoners on the Pont e dei Sospiri in
t he Doge's palace of Venice is much diff erent t han
that provided to t he skimpily dressed ballerina
crossing t he Bridge of Aspiration in London
(see p. 154).
Passenger bridges such as the "Airport fi n-
ger" also belong t o t his family of bridges. These
struc tures bridge t he distance bet ween t he airport
gat e waiti ng area and the plane. In addit ion t o
weat her protect ion, t hese struc tures must provide
noise insulati on. The non-moveable port ions of
these struc t ures are often glazed t o provide int er-
esting views of t he airstrip t o the boarding pas-
sengers. In hotter climates, such as t he Madrid
airpor t , t he port ions of the enclosure subject to
solar exposure are opaque t o avoid a greenhous e
effect in t he interior of t he bridge. Passenger
bridges f or large ships are often completely
enclosed, or at least provided with roof ing to
protect the passengers f rom wind and rain.
Unfortunately, as often seen in t he US, t he
pedestr ians using an overpass may pose a threat
t o the t raffi c below or even t o t hemselves. In
t hese cases, bridges resemble cages wit h chain
160 The Bridqe as Ir tenor Space Typical st ructuresthat integrate t he st ructure into t he formal desi gn of t he bridge
lZ:= I LKl
link enclosuresthat prevent users from throwing
largeobjects from t he bridgeor jumping off.
Covered bridgeshavemuchto support.
Conventional bridges arenot designedfor snow
loading, asthis load case isin general much lower
than liveload and it isinconceivable that the maxi-
mum snowload and live load occur at the same
ti me. For coveredbridges, theseload cases can co-
exist and the st ruct ure must support the additional
weight of the enclosure. In addition, the enclosure
createsan addit ional surfacefor the wind. The
BritishStandard BO 29/03 calls for and minimum
clearance of 2.3 mat t he interior of covered foot-
bridges, increasing t he depth of the st ruct ureand
t hereby increasing thewind loading acting upon it.
For covered bridgesconnecting buildings, the
loadstransferred to t he building must betaken
into account in the earliest stagesof the building
design and the effects of the deformation of the
buildingson the bridge structure must beana-
Structural archetypes
Taking into account all that ismentioned
above, we might expect the bridgeenclosure to be
a burdenon the structure. Not all covered bridges
areasbeautiful asthe classical examplesmentio-
nedabove. In bridges for which t heenclosureand
support ing st ructureareindependent. t hestruct u-
re supportsthe additional ballast of the enclosure
and oft en seemsclumsy. Coveredbridges, how-
ever, become part icularly interest ing to the de-
signer who triesto makevirtueof necessity and
integratethe enclosure into the global loadbearing
st ruct ure of the bridge. When the roof takes part
in the st ruct ural behaviour, the struct ural depth is
greatly increased, allowing the designer to create
very transparent solutions. Lateral wallscan
providethe diagonalsof a trusswith the roofi ng
structure act ing asthe compression boom and the
deckastension chord. When cables replace ten-
sionmembers, a multitude of variationsbecomes
Structural tubes, which simultaneously pro-
videstructure and enclosure, haveoften beencon-
sideredasa solution. The French engineer and
architect Robert Le Ricolaisexperimentedin 1962
wit h tubular cablenet structures in which bands
were wrapped around stiff compression rings,
creatinga rigid st ruct ure. Theadjacent buildings
must however beableto support the high anchor
forces requiredfor thesecablestructures. In 1992
Jbrg Schlaich proposed a structuremade of a glass
tubewrapped in cables"so t hat the cables follow
the geometric st ress trajectoriesa tube in bending"
[Oster]. The adjacent buildingst hat the bridge was
to join served ast heanchors for the prestressed
cables. A further innovation would beto anchor
the cablesto thetube, creatingcompression in the
glass. The recent advances in structural glazing
make such a structurealmost wit hin reach. A more
conventional solution would beto replacethe
cableswith rigid elements or anchor themwit h
horizontal steel members. Thissolution was
appliedat the Corporat ion StreetFootbridge in
Manchester, which produced a relat ively heavy
Onevery beautiful exampleof a successful
mergingof enclosure and structurewas built by
the Artists of the Eventstructure Research Group in
LeRicolas's gi rder Pneumat ic br idge, 1970 161
1970. A 250 m long, f loating, pneumat ically
support ed tube bridged t he Masch Lake in
Hanover. The t ransparent t ube had a diameter of
4 m. The PVCfo il t ube had walls only 0.4 mm
t hick. Prot ecti ve f ibre reinf orcement provided t he
walking surface. A wat er-fill ed hose was attached
to the underside of the structur e to prevent rot a-
t ion and stabilize the struct ure [Herzog].
This t emporary st ruct ure was rebuilt in 1970
once again by t he same t eam for t he symposium
" Pneumat ic Structu res" . The air pressure
necessary t o maint ain the stabilit y of t he tube can
be calculated using t he boiler formul a given in the
techn ical overview" Curved Bridges".
Ikrzog, Thomas, Pncumatischc Kon struktioncn , Stuttgart , 1976 ,
p . l1<)
Mc-Clcar v, Pe-t er, Rob er t Lc Ricol ai auf dcr Suchc nach del'
unvc- rstorb arcn Idee , in; Archplu x, pp. f,4- 6 oS
Mur t-av, Peter and Ma r v Anne StcH'IlS, LiYing Bridges, Munich, 1996
Oster, Hans. FuBgangn hruckt.'11 von Jorg SchlaichlindRudolf
Be rgcr mann , ex hibiti on catalogue, 19 9 2
Ott o, Frci and Bodo Rasch, Gestalt findcn , Fcllb ach , 1995
Sc-hlaic-h, Mike ct al., Guidelines for the deSign of footbridges , fib,
fede rat ion intor nanonalc du bct on , bul let in Lausanne , November

Wor-n er, Svcn. Olwnbchtt Briic-kcn, Diplomarbcit , lick, l.Inivcrsit v
of Stutt gart , Sep te mber 200 1
The Call for Symbols
Hable can ella. Talk to her. Pedro Almodovar, 2002, Film
This chapter deals with an international phenomenon: almost every
city attempted to mark the turn of the century with a special event,
constructing Millennium parks, towers and bridges to handle them. The
attempt to mark important events with symbolic structures is nothing
new: in particular, the World's Fairs beginning in the nineteenth centu-
ry are among the best examples of this. Footbridges were some of the
coveted construction projects of the new millennium.
Every structural form can be made a symbolic gesture when
dramatically staged and spectacularly marketed. It is notable that high
arches have recently taken centre stage, whether they be moveable,
inclined or sculpted - the arch is linked with positive spiritual conno-
tations and is a structural form that is relatively easy to control. The
master of the new arch is doubtless Santiago Calatrava: beginning as a
controversial figure among international engineers, his work incontest-
ably deserves merit for breathing new wind into bridge construction
since the 1970s. His approach, to create constructions that are
experienced as sculpture, always to find a form particular to the site,
and to value the structure's lighting as an integral part of the project,
has since gained worldwide recognition. In England, the architects of
Wilkinson Eyre in cooperation with various engineers have created
extravagant and emblematic bridges. For footbridges, the emblematic
component of these structures also celebrates the pedestrian reconquest
of the city. Bridges with unique designs can create great local identity
and become the subject of postcards or make an area attractive for
tourists. A competition develops between financial cost and the increase
in local symbolism, which is essential for European cities.
164 The Call for Symbols
La Devesa Bridge over the Ter in Ripoll, Catalonia, Spain, 1991
As in all of Calatrava's proj ects , th e differ ent banks justify the soli-
tary figure of the snow-white bridge over the ri ver . The differ ence of 5 m
in elevation inspired th e conspicuous st air way, whi ch is further empha-
sized by a platform serving as a type of balcony. Th e inclined arch makes
less visual impact - in the model, th e cant ileve re d arch dominated the
design while in th e built st r uct ure, th e abutment at the lower bank plays
a greater role. Th e eccentric arch has a ris e of 6.5 m and a span of 44 m.
Th e weather ed gr ey t imb er surfacing is laid upon st eel girder s in the
long itudinal direction at an angl e of 65 to the ar ch.
The unilaterally inclined ar ch is ri gidl y fixed to the deck both at th e
abutment , and also at each cant ilever ing hanger that transfers torsional
mom ents in the box sect ion of th e deck. The deck is br aced with di a-
gonals to support the horizontal for ces due to the inclination of the arch
(for mor e on incl ined arches, see p. 136) .
Calat rava, Santiago, Des bow-
st rings ori gin au x, in : Bullet in
annucl de l'AFGC, 1999. I
Fram pton , 1996, pp. 122-13'
The bridgecreates impressiveforms frommany perspectives 165
166 The Call for Symbols No fear of grand gestures: the symbolic requirescourage indesi gn witha span of 75m
Campo de Volantin Bridge in Bilbao, Spain, 1997
Frank O. Gehry's so-called "Bilbao effect " on archi tec t ure was
revisi te d by Santi ago Calatrava, wi t h the effect hi s bridge str uctu re
opposi te the museum had on frighte ned engineers . The Cata lan archit ect
and civil enginee r - born in 19S1 - st udie d in Valencia and at t he Swis s
Federal Inst itute of Technology ( ETH Zur ich) . A better conste llat ion
could not be found t o breat he new wind int o the consciousness of
est ablished engineer ing
Calatrava is familiar wi t h t he Spanish bridgebu ilding traditi on -
from Jose Eugenio Riber a to Eduar do Torroja and Carlos Fernand ez
Casado - as well as the Swiss tradi tio n where struct ure and form are not
as separate d as in Germa ny. Calat rava - a great draught sman - founded
hi s own offic e in th e 1980s. Par is became a second or thi rd home; no
probl em for the versatil e engineer, who was mu ch in demand. Cosmo-
poli t an ism is mor e ofte n found in engi neering th an ar chit ecture.
In br idge construct ion, the incl ined arc h domi nat es Calat rava's
wor k - as seen her e in Bilbao wher e a li vely ri ver promenade over t he
Nervion would be connected to a war ehous e zone - in an attempt, as
seen so oft en, t o rev ita lize and rejuvenate an indust r ial are a. Bilbao
requ ir ed a symb oli c gest ure t o cr eat e an at mosphere of change in the
country, and Sant iago Calat rava was able to deliver it . The expre ssive
arc h, th e dazzling white colour, and t he th eatri cal lighti ng t ogether offer
ever yt hing necessar y t o creat e a symb ol from its power ful visual image.
One essentia l point makes th e struct ure unique : the arc h and
curved deck plat e do not lie above one anot her in one plane, but eross
each ot her. Hal f of the hanger s run above t he deck and seem t o offer
some pr ot ect ion for the pedestrians. The incli ned par abol ic arch spans
over 7S m and cre at es a stable spatia l st r uct ure t ogether wi th it s hanger
cables. The slenderness of t he arch indi cat es that it s form is not random,
but is th e resul t of a complicate d form-findi ng pro cedure to minimize
bendi ng moment s in the arc h.
The fact tha t sufficient room was pr ovided at each side for approach
ramps and abutment s greatly helped the sculpt ura l approach of t he de -
sign. It should be not ed that th e br idge cannot simply stop at the abut-
ment . The transit ion from th e promenade t o t he st r uct ure must be
theatrical and echo the movement of t he struct ure in the urban environ-
ment. An exhaust ing planning process may have been the res ult . Sant iago
Calatrava seems not t o fear such th ings.
Framp ton , 1996, pr. 20, - 213;
Torres Arcila, 2002, pp. 2,6-2 67;
\-Vells, Pear man, 2002, Pl' : 58-63
Art if icial lighting is part of urban renewal, Calatrava' s white bridges are predest ined for their role

4m I
75 m
Millennium Bridge, London, UK, 2001
168 The Call for Symbols
r-----------.,..",.-,'' O''-- -,.._- __
"Pedestrians only. No motorcycles, pedal cycles, scooters, roll er -
skates, roll erblades or skateboards" - so reads the sign at the ent rance to
th e Mill ennium Bridge in London. The list of those who may not use the
st r uct ure is long, which provokes th e question of why this may be. The
bridge was closed just a few hours after its spectacular opening in Jun e
2000 due to vibrations. However, th e structure was the product of adept
design: the change in the ent ire urban zone charact er ized by Herzog &
de Meuron' s conversion of the old power plant into th e Tate Mod ern is
further symbolized by a footbridge . The new millennium brought a con -
nection between the south side of the river and the city centre ; the pic-
tures above demonstrate the chall enge facing many footbridges as part of
its rol e as a landmark and in urban renewal: they must provide a response
to compl et ely differ ent urban situation s at each shore. The offices of
Fost er Associat es and Arup were able to meet this challenge with their
competition laureat e, slend er structure.
The first bridge built in London since Tower Bridge in 1894 - and
the first pedestrian bridge - was requi red to be techni cally refined in the
pr esence of th e new millennium. The bridge is 330 m long with a cent ral
span of 144 m and a deck width of 4 m. It has been referred to as "prob-
ably the most delicate susp ension bridge of our time". The shallow cable
sag accentuates this effect . The ratio of span to sag is here 60, wher eas
for a normal ratio for suspension bridge is IO! This gr eatly affects its cost,
due to the much higher cabl e forc es . The inclination of th e hangers
makes the bridge suscept ible to lateral oscillations . Th e bridge was
closed, as mentioned above, due to high lat eral vibration through
pedestrian excitation (see "sailor's roll", P: 101) . The problem dis -
appeared only after th e installation of numerous damper s.
Connections and vibration dampers
Wells, Pearman , 2002, pp. 86-89;
Millennium Br idge, London:
problems and solutions, in: The
Structural Engineer. 17 April
200 1, 11. 8 vol . 79
The viewfromtheTate Modern, theapproach ramps becomean observation deck - span 144 rn, total length 370 m, cablesag 2.30 m 169
170 The Call for Symbols
The contrasting formof each side of the bridge isanessential part of the design
36 4m
5.4 m
db dcutsche bauzeitung. 20 0 3,
pp. )8-45
1.1 m
0.7 m
Memorial Bridge in Rijeka, Croatia, 2003
In Rijeka, some 50 km sout h of Tri este, Ital y, this bridge serve s as
memorial to the recent viol ent hi story of th e Balkans. The reserved sym-
boli sm of th e br idge shapes a piece of th e urban environment without be-
coming too visually brazen . The approach that begins in th e historic cit y
centre cont inues over the river to th e former port, whi ch has been mad e
into a cit y park. The structure is 47 m long with a free span of 35.7 m.
The vertical 3.15 m and 1.15 m wid e upright con cr et e slabs proj ect to a
height of 12m. The deck consists of a closed box section in steel , an alu-
minium plat e surfacing, and railings from safety glass with wood en hand-
rails . A specially designed cr ane was used to place th e 150 t deck; th e ebb
of the tid e help ed to allow th e deck to pass below two exist ing st r uct ures .
The concre te pil es below th e abutments exte nd 17m int o th e soil. Parti -
cular attenti on was paid to the details and surfacing.
The structure reminds one of the small but famous st one br idge
from 1566 in Mostar, whi ch was sens elessl y destroyed during the 1993
Balkan War; it was re constructed for symbolic reasons and inaugurated
in 2004.
Symbolic bridgescan almost only beimagined wit htheatrical lighting systems
172 The Call for Symbols
3.2 m
Footbridge over Lake Zurich near Rapperswil , Switzerland, 2000
Walther Bieler is a timber const r ucti on specialist ; without intimate
knowledge of th e mat eri al , one should not attempt to build such a br idge.
The 84 1m long wooden footbri dge over Lake Zurich was inte nded t o re-
vit alize the cent ur ies old pilg r image Route of St James. It should be said
thi s goal has been met given th e sometimes t en thousand daily visit ors,
most of whom are not pilgrims. The path is an event , th e bridge is not
expressive, simply a reserved sign of the extraordinary path. Seati ng and
viewing sills denote th at ped estrians mu st stop and look ar ound: th e sur -
roundings ar e simply beautiful. 233 oak piles support th e 2.4 m wid e deck.
The pil es wer e driven into t he lakeb ed and then cut to th e appropriate
height ; the lengths vary between 9 and 16 m, with diameters of 36 to 70
ern, and they ar e spaced 7.,) m apart . The deck lies approximatel y I. ') m
above the lake and consists of steel secti ons that ar e hot -dip galvaniz ed
and powd er coate d with a mi caceous iron or e. The sections lie transver se
to the deck on th e pil es. Continuous t imber beams lie 1 em apart from
one another and ar e stabilized every 2.,) m by st eel bra cket s. With its
asymmetric profile, th e footbridge causes the user to take a more suit-
able, slower pace . No lighting is provided for t he footbridge, as wildlife
ar e protect ed in this nature re serve .
The pilgrim'spathway with a high wall toward theprotected natural sanctuary
174 The Call for Symbols Arches - 1888vertical, 1997 inclined
Butterfly Bridge in Bedford, UK, 1997
Cr eating a symbolic gesture with a footbr idge is not limited to ur-
ban situations, where a fun ctional improveme nt of an urban zone is t o be
expressed. A footbridge can send a symbolic message even in th e most
beautiful natural or garden enviro nment. The ar chitect s of Wilki nson
Eyre and the engineers of Jan Bobrowski and Partner s won the 199 .S" com-
petition for thi s footbr idge, beating 78 competi t ors. A park and a festival
site re quired that 32m of the Ouse be bridged ; it could have been done
more simply, but that's not t he point . The two inclined arches t r uly re -
semble insec t wings from afar. As one app roa ches, the arches seem to
lure passers -by with an invit ing, sympat hetic gesture. They are not
connec te d overhead , leaving t he sky open above the deck. The design is
complet ely arbitrary, and refl ects the adjac ent brid ge by J.J. Webster ,
built in 1888. Both ar ches ar e st able due to th eir rig id fixati on at the abut-
ments. The bending moments transferred t o the abutments from each
side cance l one another out and do not load the superstructure. The hori-
zonta l for ces from the hangers at each side are also equal and opposed.
Th e presence of the bridge is further accentuated by th e professionally
developed lighting design, a requir ement for all such symbolic bridges . Pearce, 20 02, pp. 200- 20 3
32 m
176 The Call for Symbols View towards Weil am Rhein
Rhine Bridge inWeil amRhein, Germany, and Huningue, France, 2007
Stairsand rampsonthe Weil amRhein sidewith aviewt oward Huningue 177
A st r uc t ure bridging a border between t wo co untries is by nature
symbolic. In Europ e, st ill searching for politi cal identit y, suc h struc -
t ures are co nsi dered par ti cul arl y important and wor t h any additional
effor t to make t he m suita ble for their ro les. T he Rhine Bridge in Kchl -
hcirn (see p. lOS) demon strat es the diffic ulti es t hat ar ise wh en func t iona l
re quirements are pr ior iti sed above design . In Weil am Rh ein , a co mpe -
tition was held to a footbridge between Fra nce and Germany to prov ide
acc ess to a sho pping centre and re place fer r y t r affi c across t he r iver.
Feichtinger Architects with Leon hard t , Andra an d Par t ner we re awar-
de d t he commission. T heir project was a steel arc h bri dge wi t h a span of
230 m over t he Rhi ne. The bridge deck acts as a t ension member, so t hat
ess ent ially on ly ver t ical forc es wo uld be t ran sferred t o th e abut me nts.
Th e position oft he st r uc t ure is set fr ee by the visual ax is of the asy mme-
tric arc h st r uct ure. The asy mmetry is obvious : the northern arch is
recogn izabl y heavier and co nsis ts of t wo hexagon al t ub e sec t ions; the
circ ular t ub e of the sout hern arc h leans on the northern one. The form
of t he arch was corrected according t o aes t hetic criteria. T he origina l
parab ol ic form was consi de red too steep, so t he quar ter point s of th e
arch wer e r ai sed by 40 ern -- it now appears rounder and softer, and more
steady and qu iet when viewe d at an angle. The abut ment s of most such
lar ge bridges ar e ext raordina r ily solid : th e design pr esent ed by Di etmar
Feicht inger and Wol fgang Strobl from Leonh ar dt , Andra and Partner
ca lled t he arc h to be set upon a spat ial truss where t he piers di sapp ear in
t he wat er below. This sys te m solved the sole pr ob lem of find ing a
balance riverbank path ways and bear ings. The approach on the French
side has a lift for whe elc hair user s.
T he span of 230 m makes t his bri dge t he current wo rld r ecord -
holder for arch footbridges, and the ri se of only 23 m was a co nsiderable
engineer ing cha lle nge. The bridge was built in a manner similar to the
Passerell e Simone de Beauvoir in Par is (see p. (44) . The sections of the
br idge nea r t he abutments were built as cant ile ver s, and the 10 0 0 t
ce ntral segment was lifted int o pl ace and suspende d from the cantilevers .
The Rhine was cl osed on II November 2006 for a single ni ght for t he
ere ct ion of t he ce ntral secti on.
The bridge is a symbol of cross-border coexistence ; the r equire-
men t s of both t he Ge rman and Fr en ch co des and standa rds had to be
r espected in the plan ning . The par t icipant s suffe re d under the di scord
of bu reaucr acy.
178 The Call for Symbols
Destroyed Church, Kassel, 1987
Tadashi Kawamata, Bridge and
Archives, Bielefeld, 200J
Temporary Bridge in Mayland, Germany, 2003
At the request of the Moyland Palace Museum, where brothers
Franz Joseph and Hans van der Grinten keep their important collection
of works by their friend Joseph Beuys, Tadashi Kawamata designed the
temporary footbridge for the exhibition Bridoeand Archil-es, which ran
from II May to 26 October, 2003. In cooperation with the engineer
Werner Wiegand and the students of the Dusseldorf Art Academy,
Tadashi Kawamata built a bridge connecting the first floor of the palace
with the gate fortification building that housed the exhibition. The result
was a fascinating, transparent but voluminous footbridge, supported by
a steel structure with suspension system clad in timber. As the structure
only existed for the summer and early autumn of 2003 , the project was
documented in drawings and a series of photographs by Leo van der Kleij,
who has photographed Kawamata's work for years.
The Japanese artist Tadashi Kawamata continues to examine interi-
or and exterior spaces with his forms from timber planks - similar to
pick-up sticks, they seem random, but of course are not . The structure
echoes his project Destroyed Churchin Kassel 1987 . Kawamata's bridges
perform their obvious function while expanding the spatial experience.
The influences of Walter Benjamin's passage works are noticeable.
Thered arch wasalso spectacularly set in scene at night
1 m
23.5 m
The fir st Archit ela urwoche was held in Munich 12- 21 Jul y 2002 : th e
publi c was t o be made awar e t hat th e examinat ion of ar chit ecture is im-
por t ant for e\ 'er yone , It was clear t hat some t hing mu st he st aged in th e
publ ic space in t he ce nt ra l ex hibit ion ar ea . Ar chite ct Pet er Hai merl and
engineers Biel meier & Wenzl create d a fir e-r ed arch footbri dge based on
a con cept hv Matthi as Cast orph, r ising from street level to t he fir st floor
of t he cx hihit ion hal l.
Glued t imh er beams - si milar to a bow - we re used for t he sup-
porti ng spine of t he st r uct ure . The cross sect ion (lI Ox 30 em) is constant
along th e tota l length and can be shor t ene d t o any length . This is impor-
t ant as, after th e Archit ekt urwoch e , t he hr idge was to provide a cr oss ing
wit h a span some 7 m shorter over t he Ri edb ach cree k in Viechtach.
A suppor t ing st r uct ure wit h galvan ized rectangular profil es made t hi s
Temporary Bridge for Archit ekt urwoche A1, Munich, Germany, 2002
Play Stations
Man is only wholly a man when he is playinq. Friedrich Schiller, Letters Upon the Aesthetic Education of Man
Moveable bridges are not modern inventions. Already long before
Van Gogh, traffic systems and routes had to be bridged so that neither
traffic flow interfered with the other. Building bridges at an elevation
that allowed clearance for ship masts would be absurd. A second reason
would be the fear of attackers: the ancients already had drawbridges for
their fortresses.
Faustus Verantius (1551-1617) was also naturally familiar with the
problem of moveable bridges (see p. 34). Trade boycotts and military
strategy led Napoleon to go an easily reversible route at the end of the
r Sth century: during the construction of the Grand Canal du Nord that
was to connect the Rhine and Maas between Venlo and Neuss, and then
in the direction of Antwerp, Napoleon had II moveable bridges con-
structed. However, he then annexed and controlled the Dutch ports,
making the bridges unnecessary. The Pont Transbordeur in Marseilles
is legendary, a transporter bridge from 1905.
There are many situations in which there is no other choice than to
lift, rotate or flip a bridge. These days, this cannot really be accom-
plished without the aid of a mechanical engineer, when public bridges
have to be moveable, and preferably by remote control. The movement
becomes a spectacle, but comes with a certain technical investment and
normally costs more than a fixed bridge. There seems to be no limit to
the inventiveness of the mechanical engineers, especially when they are
working in cooperation with structural engineers and architects.
The selected projects considered here are only a fraction of the design
possibilities of small footbridges.
One aspect that a book can unfortunately demonstrate only indi-
rectly, and that plays an important but often overlooked roll in the de-
sign of moveable bridges: their noise. They clap, grind, squeak, crack,
snap, buzz - as with barking dogs, the loudest bridge is usually the
smallest. The noise and movement are an allure for the designer. The
bridge becomes a type of toy - as everything that moves and makes noise
creates enjoyment and wakes the child in anyone.
182 PlayStations
Many shipspass through t he bridge portal daily.
Folding bridgeat Firth of Kiel, Germany, 1997
It is a pri vilege for a city t o be on th e wat er and be th e site of int er -
nat ionally recogni zed saili ng events . On the ot her hand, wat erways sub-
ject t o high traffic can be as mu ch as a swat h through th e urban fabri c as
a highway or railway. The challenge is to make a vir tu e of necessit y. Kiel ,
a beautiful cit y on the Balti c Sea, is divided into east and west by t he
Fir t h of Kiel. I n the early ' 990S, the Scandi navian ferries wanted t o move
to th e less sought-afte r easte rn area, they firs t waited for a bridge t o be
const ru cte d [ 2 0 m over th e wat er leading west. To allow fer r ies and
yachts t o pass, the br idge was required t o be effor tl essly moveable. The
head of th e plann ing offi ce sugges t ed a folding br idge wi th three sect ions.
This was const r uct ed by the engineers ofSchlaich Bergerma nn and Par t -
ner and the ar chi tec ts von Gerkan Marg und Partner. In the closed posi-
tion, th e bridge is a classic, one-sided cable- st ayed br idge with a 26 m
span and a wi dt h of" m, suppor te d t o each side by two cables . Th e deck
has ar t iculat ions at the t hird points of t he deck and can th er efore fold
t ogether as th e cables are tensioned upward . This not only makes the mo-
vement of the bridge int er esting, but also decr eases the surface ar ea for
wind loading. To ensure a robust, low-maintenance syste m - the bridge
must open about ten times a day - a simple pull ey syste m was devel oped
rather th an a complex hydraulic or elect romec hanical syste m. During
opening, all th e moveable cables , th e main stay cables and an add iti onal
cable for t he movement of the front of th e superst r uct ure, are cont rolled
by one cable reel turning at a consta nt rat e. This does not need to be syn-
chronized wi t h ot her systems. The rest of t he movement is cont ro lled by
a second cable roll r unning at a constan t torque, whi ch pulls both pylons
back so th at the folded br idge has enough clearance. It is an astonis hingly
simple system for such a complex foldi ng mot ion. Openi ng or closing of
t he br idge ta kes about two minutes.
Leicht, wei t , 2004 . pp. 26o- 26J;
Knippers. Jan andSchleich,
Jorg. FoldingMechanism of
the Kiel Horn Footbridge,
Germany, in: Structura l
Enginl'ering lntcr national ,
1, 20 0 0 , p. ) 0
Mechanical engineers are necessary for the design of such structures 183
Fro m th e beginning, th e const r ucti on of the bridge was acc ompanied by
local politi cal ar guments th at are always detriment al to th e work of de-
sign engineers. The innovation th at is at t he heart of th e str uct ure unl or-
tunat ely played littl e role in th e debate .
85m 8.3 m 8.9m 9.7m 124 ml
184 Play Stations The suspension cable liftsthe deck upward, the shipping clearance isthereby increased by 8.1 m
Katzbuckel Bridge in Duisburg, Germany, 1999
Europe's largest inland port consists of a wid e, ent angled network
of harbour bas ins that exte nd into industrial zones. As part of the conver -
sion of an industrial zone, an interior harbour was to be bridged to con-
nect the park of the historic cit y cent re with a new park ar ea. The foot -
bridge was to be 3.5 m with a span of 74 m, and be able to be lifted to
allow large ships to pass. A suspension bridge, designed by Schlai ch
Bergermann and Partner, is suspend ed from four 20 m high st eel tube
masts (d=419 mm). The movement of the deck takes advant age of th e
principl e th at the vertical sag of a taut cable decreases gr eatly as a result
of a small horizontal displacement of its bearings . Shortening of the back-
stay cabl es by 3m with hydraulic cyli nders causes the top of the masts to
tilt 1.7 m to the out side . This in turn causes the bridge deck to ri se 8.10 m,
creati ng a Katzbuckel - the German t erm refers to the bowing of a eat 's
spin e. The increased cur vat ure of the deck would normally produce
large bending moments - so the deck is conceived as a seri es of shor t ar t i-
culate d members acting similarly t o chai n links. The deck becomes 3.65
m longer as it is pulled upward. Additional deck eleme nt s are pulled from
a chamber in th e abutment as the structure ris es. The movement appears
spec t acular, as it should. A lighting syst em was developed t o emphasize
the motion of the deck - unfortunately th is has been out of operation for
some t ime .
73.7 m
Leicht , wei t, 2004, pp. 264-267
Articulation requires appropriatedetailing 185
186 Play Stations
The bridge can beinclined within seven minutesto allow shipsto pass
Millennium Bridge in Gateshead, UK, 2001
This spectacu lar st r uct ure complet es a series of bridges construc-
t ed over th e cent ur ies over t he Tyne between Gat eshead and Newcastl e.
The Millennium Bridge was to be somet hing speci al and to st and out
again st t he det erior ati on of th e r iverbank area. A cur ved bridge deck
with par aboli c arch creates an impressive form. The fact that th is form
is moveab le cre ates th e true spectacle : th e m span, m pair of
arches ro t ate about a common abutment . The 30 m wid e shipping lane
has a clearance of m.
The architect s of W ilki nson Eyr e and t he engineers of Gifford &
Partners beat ot her compet it ors with t hei r idea of two ar ches - one
forming th e deck, t he other th e supporting arch - rot ating about t he
suppo r t to provide th e necessary ship clearance . Th e opening is cer t ainly
a spect acle , but th e closed bridge is also impressively beautiful. The
erect ion of t he bridge can be viewed on th e Int ernet. A 90 m long Asian
Hercu les II swimming crane transported th e st r uct ure 8 km from it s
manu fact urer to th e const r uct ion site, where it was pl aced preci sely t o
th e mi llimetre. The st r uc t ure is not exactl y economi cal: due to t he
expe nses of t ranspor t , t he engi ne of rotat ion and th e bearing, th is bridge
becom es the most expe nsive of all expe nsive bridges.
Cont r ar y to a balanced bridge wit h a count er weight , which is easy
t o move, th e Millennium Bridge required heavy mot ors that were able t o
push as well as pull, as t he cent re of gravity of t he struct ure moves over
t he axi s of ro t at ion. The hydraulic jacks at both abutments can each
cr eate a compr ession for ce of 10, 000 KN and a t ension force KN,
all owing th e st ru ct ure to ope n even under heavy wind.
Such an incre dible mach ine , whi ch is cons t antl y in serv ice, cannot
simply be hidden in th e dark of night . From th e beginn ing, th e engines
we re th erefore part of th e light ing system that th eatrica lly accentuates
t he arch st r uct ure and its refl ecti ons in th e wat er below.
Curran. Peter , Gat cshccd
MUll-onium Bridge, UK,
in: St r uctural Enginc(' ring
International, 4.. 2001, pp. 214 -2 16
The bridgemovement isanevent; the abutment, an engine room
8.2 m
188 Play Stations The bridge girder islifted by 32cables
Coupure Bridge in Bruges, Belgium, 2002
For onc e, it was not th e new millennium th at called for a reno va-
tion of an urban zone. Bruges was el ect ed th e 2002 Cultural Capital of
Europe and used th e opportunity to cr eat e a continuous network of paths
for cyclists and pedestrians throughout the city of canals . As part of thi s
proj ect , a bridge was necessary over th e Coupure Canal. The structure
was to be moveab le to allow ships from the city to cro ss to the Ghent-
Ost end Canal via the Coupure Can al. The Swiss engi nee r Jiirg Con zett
design ed a vertical lift bridge with a lightweight 2.5 m wide deck for pe-
destrians and cyclists . The deck plat e is suspended from two stationary
steel tubes 6 m above the deck, wh ich can rot at e about their axes. In
order to lift the superstructure, the 17hanger cables to each side are wound
around the steel tubes like to a coil. The bridge can be opened with little
for ce, as the deck onl y moves up and down and stays in place. The sup-
ports for the tubes at the top of th e plate-shaped pillars have an elasti c
pr ecamber at the midspan. Two bearings are th erefore necessary parallel
to t he longitudinal axis of th e deck at the head of each pilla r. The outside
bearing pulls the tube downward th er eby creating the precamber. To ro-
tate th e tube, it had to be complet ely straight . Th e elastic restraint at the
capit als of the pillars was the on ly way to avoid defl ections of the tubes.
The sleeves that hous e the hanger cables during rotation ar e welded with
double fillet welds to both sides and a wat ertight connection to th e sup -
porting tube. The motors ar e hous ed in the two southern pillars and are
hidd en under moveable cover ings. This bridge form seems primal , with
th e mechanics of it s movement . The material chos en for the pilla r s and
th e surfacing is remini scent of th e Flemish building t radition. The
Coupurc Bridge shows its yout h mostly in the fine execut ion of detail.
4.75 m
Struct ur e as Space, 2006 ,
P: 24 1and p. 298
dh deutschc bauzeitung. !l. rooj,
The bridge acts like a ratati on switch and rotates along wi t h the pedestrians on the deck. 189
Ryck Bridge in Greifswald, Germany, 2004
Volkwin Marg and Schl aich Ber germann and Partner design ed th e
Ryck Bridge in th e mus eum por t as a sma ll swing bridge. The marit ime
charac te r of t he st r uct ure, wi th it s high mast and two dia gon al st iffeni ng
spa rs, is inconspi cuou sly inco r po rate d int o it s sur ro und ings. The ce nt r al
m, moveable portion of th e bridge is st iffene d by two incl ined t ension
stays - t o pr ovid e th e necessar y st rengt h when open and subjec t t o
cant ilever ing moment s. T he tension me mbe rs are design ed so th at no
bearing forces du e to sel f-weight ar e transferred t o th e fixed brid ge
approach. Only aft er t he applicat ion of suppleme ntary live loads do ver t i-
cal beari ng forces appea r at t his int erface . The tension rod s are sus pe n-
ded from a ste el tube mast , which is fixed t o th e deck and create s an ax is
of rot ati on . The deck, mast and ten sion rod s rot at e abo ut t he foo t ing and
are suppor te d by a rotati ng assembly. Thi s asse mbly t r ansfers all forces
in op en and closed sta tes to th e st eel re inforce me nt at th e head of th e
pier and onwa r d t o th e pil es below. Two incli ned spars anc hore d int o t he
qua y wall sta bili ze th e head of th e mast. Th e spars act as th e backst avs of
a cable -st ayed brid ge when close d. When th e bridge is open and t he deck
swung to th e side, t he spa rs and mast crea te a sta ble t r ipod - and on e of
t he spars is subject to compression . A hyd rauli c cyli nde r with elect ro nic
cont ro l pro vides th e moto r.
a i'8fS
190 Play Stations
Rolling Bridge in London, UK, 2006
At noon ever y Friday, t his small bridge is unroll ed in th e middle of
London but in a hidden site . On Nort h Wharf St reet in Paddington, a
gentlema n arr ives with a compute r cont ro l and sets th e bridge in motion
with a simple touch of a button. It is th e work of arc hite ct s Heatherwick
Studio and th e enginee rs SKM Anthony Hu nt s. In a geome trically ingen-
iou s moti on, sta r t ed by very qui et hydrauli cs, th e bridge roll s out over
like a small cate r pilla r over a span of 12 m. To ope n the bridge, a sma ll
pi ece of th e handrail is elevate d over each of th e seven suppo r t ing ele-
ments. Th e arti st ic ide a, knowledge of civil engi neer ing and st r uctura l
design are re markably united in th e project.
The bridge is used often, but for which pap er ships th e br idge is
op en ed every Fr iday at noon rem ain s a myst ery. Decad ent ? No, th e child
in all of us loves to pl ay and such ext r avagance is a welcome diversion .
The motion of th e bridge remains in th e memor y as some t hing extraordi -
nary. The designer obviously spared no pains for such a st r uct ure .
Smooth bridge motion requiresanexcessiveattention to detail
192 Play Stations
Leer, Bascule bridge, D, 2006
Moveable Bridges Moveable bridgesarenow much morethan
the military drawbridgesof the past. Themedieval
drawbridgesthat protected castles and fortresses
havebeenreplaced by bridgesthat performthe
more peaceful function of enablingdifferent flows
of traffi c to cross.
Moveable bridgesareoften over waterways,
andarethe typical solutionwhen providing the
necessary clearance for traffic passing below
would meana very expensi ve high bridgewit h
complicated ramps, stairwaysor lifts. In these
cases, moveable bridges may be moreeconomical,
in spiteof increased constructionand maintenance
costs, which areoften twicethosefor a fixed
bridgewit h the same geometry.
Moveable bridgesareone of the most fasci-
nating fieldsof construction, asstructural and
mechanical engineering isnecessary for the system
changes during opening. This leads to an inter-
disciplinary design process. Asfootbridgesare often
lighter than their roadand railwaycounterparts,
they areeasier to move. This section discusses the
many typesof movement for the structuresand
the challenges involvedin designingsuch bridges.
Bascule bridge wit h armof balance Bascule bridge Greifswald, Wiecker Bridge, 1887 193

I [
The classic moveable bridgesarethe draw-
bridge and bascule bridges. A drawbridge will
often bedesignedwit h an armof balance.
A counterweight isused for thisaswell asfor t he
bascule bridgesystem, sothat the bridge'scentre
of gravity coincideswith the axisof rotation for all
positions of the structure. The mechanism of rota-
tion thus hasonly frictional forcesto overcome, so
that t hese bridgesmay even be moved by hand.
The superstructureof t he drawbridgewith
an armof balanceisa simply supported beam. In
theclosed state, the bridge deck restson t hefar
abutment and in the open stateislifted fromthe
abutment by tension membersat eachside of the
deck. Asa function of the dominant traffic flow, a
light overbalance isprovided so that the struct ure
wi ll automatically open or close if necessary.
A locking mechanism isthereby necessary for
every stateof rotation. The Dutch drawbridgewas
made famousby Van Gogh's painting. The Wieker
Bridge in Greifswald, Germany isopened by hand.
The structurewas built and 1886and isstill in ser-
vice. A morecontemporary exampleist he Amts-
grabenBridge built in 1997 in Berlin K6penick.
Bascule bridgesalsorotate about a horizon-
tal axis. This horizontal axis liesnearthe bridge's
cent reof gravity, thereby dividing the bridge into
a fore and an aft arm. Basculebridgesareoften
moved by a downward motion of the aft span.
The fore span isoften longer t han the aft, which is
often designedwith a counterweight to minimize
the energy of rotation. The moment of rotat ion
from t heaft span under full liveload cannot ex-
ceed the dead load moment of the fore spa n so
that t he bridge will not suddenly open. Theabut-
ments must be quite wide and deep to provide
enough space for t he rotation of the counter-
weight. Theflood protection of t hecounter-
weight chamber must betaken into account in
the design. The opening of t he bascule bridge
doesnot interfere wit h any neighbouring surface
in plan.
Descriptionsof the many variat ionsof bas-
culebridges can befound in the lit erature. The
many ot her types of moveable bridge can only be
cursorily described here.
- Swing bridge: Rotation about a vertical
axiscreatessymmetrical loading of the foundat i-
on. Thisadvantage must beweighed up against
the additional surfacenecessary for the st ruct ure
(see p. 189).
- Vert ical lift bridge: Thissystem does not
require a change in structural system, simplifying
the design of the foundations. A simply supported
girder is lift ed up. Theoret ically, pedestrianscan
stay on the bridgewhile it opens. Thegreat disad-
vantage of t hisst ructure is itslimited vertical clea-
rance. Thiscan beavoided by having the bridge
lowered to t he keel depth of the ship, asopposed
to lifting the structure. Thissolut ion isuncommon
due to increased corrosion protection and polluti-
on of the deck. TheKatzbuckel Bridge in Duisburg
(see p. 184) isthistypeof structure.
- Rolledand sliding bridges: These are
seldomused due to large space requirements.
- Folding bridges: These structures require
little additional space. Due to the complicated
mechanical mechanicsnecessary, they are seldom
used (see p. 182).
194 Play Stations Swing
- ---

-- -
VerticaI lift
Transporter Pontoon Folding
- Telescoping bridges: These aresimilar to
thefolding bridges. These aremostly seen asair-
port fingers. Theengineersat Atelier Oneplanned
a43 mlong telescoping bridgefor the Rolling
Stones' 1997Bridges to Babylontour (see p. 243).
Passenger bridges: These are used for
the passage from the quay to a ship. These canbe
verti cally movedat the free end to adjust to the
water level.
Portable bridges: These areoft en pon-
toons used for temporarystructures, oft en military,
in areaswit h poor soils. To allow shipspass, a sec-
tion of the bridge must be detached and floated to
the side. Temporary bridgescanbe made solightly
with moderncomposite materials that they can be
flown in by helicopter. A curiousexample isthe
Back Pack Bridge (see p. 231)
Transporter bridges: Seldom useddue to
their limited capacity.
Thechoice of moveable bridge typeisdeter-
mined by the local framework condit ions. The re-
quiredclearance dictateshow much the opened
bridge must keep free in the vertical direction as
well asthe horizontal distanceto the banks. The
frequencyof opening will havean influenceon the
typeof motor. Some bridgesarerequired to be
opened several timesdaily under full wind loads
and in anyweat her situation, while many are
opened only a few timesa year. In situations
wherecorrosivesaltwater maycomeinto contact
with the bridge, it maybeadvantageousto sitethe
motor compartment well abovethewater level.
Secondary responsibilitiesmust alsobetaken into
account: If the bridge's movement isto be
dramaticallyset in scene, the planner isfree to
demonstrate technical advances in the control,
mechanical and material technology, andtryout
new bridge forms. Thebridgeson the pages 182
to 191 areexamplesof this.
Thedesigner isgenerallyfree in the choice
of building materials, alt hough most decks areof
lightweight material in order to save the demands
on the motor and t he counterweight. Grid decks
have the advantage of providing natural drainage
and allow t he wait ing pedestriansto view through
the deck while opened.
Steel ismost oft en used asa counterweight due
to shortageof space, assteel requireslessvolume
t han the moreeconomical concrete, t he density of
which isa third of that of steel.
Design (Motor, Loads)
Moveablebridgesmust of course bede-
signed for all st rengt h and service requirements in
all positions: open, closed, and in transition. Wind
loading isoften high on the structurewhile it is
open. Swingandvertical transport bridgesmay be
subject to live loadswhile in motion. The driveme-
chanism, locking mechanism and controlsmust be
designed, aswell asmechanical bearingsor pulley
ropes. These components are outside of the realm
of experience for the designer of a fixed bridge.
Dynamics, mechanical tolerances, and phenomena
such asplay and wear makethedesignof a move-
able bridge a highly challenging experience.
Several drivemechani smsareoften installed
in large bridges: a main drivesystem, a supplemen-
tary drive systemfor rare casesof capacity over-
load, and a manual drive systemfor repairsand
emergencies. Usually, the mechanismisdesigned
only for the movement of the bridge, and is not
loaded in the closed position when the bridge sits
on fixed bearings. The locking devices alsorequire
a drivesystem. Asmentioned for bascule bridges,
changes in struct ural system occur during motion.
For systemswith two cantileversmeetingat the
centre of the deck, pins may be used to transfer
shear between cant ileversand avoid off set of the
deck sections.
All early bridgeswere moved by hand.
Hydraulicdriveappeared in the beginning of the
19t h century. Electric motors have beenused since
the beginning of t he20th century. Pneumatic or
combustion enginesare not known to be used.
Hydraulic drivestoday work wit h oil pressure cylin-
ders, ascanbe seen in bucket excavators. The
hydraulicpower unit canbesafely sitedon landin
a machine room. The bridge merely housesthe
hydraulic cylindersand piping. Itsmotion iscon-
t inuousand noiseless. A similar spatial separation
between drive unit and motor isnot possiblefor
electrically driven systems. Theelectric drive unit is
housed on the bridgeand t ransfers power by
cables, gears, belts, cog-railsor shafts. Thisallows
a greater distance of motion. With an elect ric drive
system, thereis no danger of leakage in the
Arching Telescopi ng Tilt ing bascule Passenger br idge Swing bridge 195
1-----------\ \

<J-- -(>

hydraulic t ubing. Precision landing of t he deck is
ext remely difficu lt due to temperature expansion,
wi nd and dynamic loading. The to lerances of the
st ructure must be chosen generously enough to
prevent Jamming. At t -ie same t ime, t he bridge
must be locked in the closed state so that there
is no play, and to avoid impact s at t he bearings
leading t o increased wear. A distinction must be
made between standing and floating cables.
By the regularly moved and dynami cally loaded
floating cables, fat igue leads to cable failure at
loads well below the stat ic breaking st rength .
The mechanical engineer ing standa rds require
t hat cables be replaced according t o service life,
type and level of loading, diameter cable and
bending radius.
There is a danger of t he user becoming
caught in the bridge or falling from t he deck
during opening and closing. It is for these reasons
t hat ow ners and codes often require barriers,
gates, and optica l and audio warn ings. These
necessary elements can great ly aff ect the visual
impact of the structu re and must be taken int o
account at the earliest stages of design. It must
also be determ ined who wi ll operate t he bridge .
Boat captains may t hemselves disembark and
operat e smaller, seldom frequen ted bridges above
canals. A bridge keeper is necessaryin crit ical
The planner and owner should consider
allowing the cont ractor to opt imize the drive sys-
t em, and to invit e tende rs f or the design of t he
mechanical system. This allows Important det ails
to be worked out toge t her wi t h a mechanical
consultant in the const ruct ion documents phase.
It must however clearly be laid out in the specif i-
cations t hat not only t he mechanical aspects of
t he contracts be f ulfi lled but also t he formal -
opt ical and acoustic - requirements . In any case,
wit h the mult itude of challenges ment ioned
above, t he struct ural engineer may quickly f ind
his or her limits, and wo uld be advised to Invite a
mechanical engineer int o t he design t eam. This
previously rare coope rat ion opens up a great
poten t ial fo r innovatio n.
Fischer, Manfred, Stahlhau-Handbuch, Band2, Stahlkonst r uktioncn,
Dietz, Wilhelm, Dcr Bruckcnbau, Handbu ch der
Ingenicurwissenschaftcn, II. vol. , 4. Abteilung Bewcglichc Bruckcn.
Ld pzig, 1907
Schatz, Lllrike, Bcwcglichc Fuf3gangcrbrut'k('n, Dipl omarbcit , lick,
University of Stuttgart, September 200 1
Schlaich, Mike ct al.. Guidel ines for the design of foothri dges, fib,
federation internationalc du bct on , bullet in p , Lausanne ,
November 20 0 5'
Landscape, Gardens
If this isn't nice, what is? Kurt Vonnegut, Timequake
Gardens, parks and landscapes remain the reserve of pedestrians,
where motorized traffic has no place. But not all pedestrians are the
same: strollers enjoy ambling along beautiful flowers, walkers escape
the city, and hikers audaciously explore the most removed areas. Every
now and again, a footbridge creates a moment of personal reflection.
The demands on such structures could not be more different. Bridges in
parks are seen as manmade ornaments that should theatrically emphasize
the surrounding natural beauty a tradition continuing since the r Sth
century. In an open landscape, more reserve is required to avoid
dominating the surrounding environment. In high-altitude regions, the
bridge plays a role of assistance to the experienced climber. One must be
free from a fear of heights to cross a deep mountain canyon as the deck
slats clatter under one's feet and a sole cable at chest height provides
safety. As in many high alpine regions, this should only be recommended
for experienced climbers.
Patent remedies should be avoided for bridges in beautiful natural
environments just as for more urban structures. Every site wants to
have its material, topographic and atmosphere qualities analysed and not
have the spirit of the place degraded. All materials timber, stone, con-
crete, steel, glass can be appropriate on their own or in combination.
Every structural form wants to be accounted for -- in its pure form or as
a hybrid. The erection of such structures far from traffic is generally
spectacular, whether they are built using a cableway or a helicopter.
The choice of materials can depend on what can be locally found and is
therefore least expensive.
The seasonal change can more readily affect such structures. Some
bridges are closed in the winter or placed in storage. It is therefore re-
commended to gather information on the structure before any bridge visit.
198 Landscape, Gardens The detailing here also deserves noti ce
Bridge over the River Esk, Scotland, UK, 20th Century
Trails off th e beat en track , normally only visite d by th e occasional
sheep, are a dime a dozen in Engl and and Scotland. The River Esk is in a
region that seems to have evade d building regulations. This sma ll bridge
is in an idyll ic setting, which many nature lovers would defend agains t
th e int r usion of modern civilizat ion or large numbers of tourist s. How
our phot ographer ca me across th e st r uc t ure in these surro unding is a
myst ery, and sho uld st ay one.
Simple, quickl y co ns t r uc te d bridges are life-saver s in areas subj ect
t o natural cat ast ro phes. Toni Ruttimann, "Toni EI Sui zo", has ded icat ed
the last 20 years to th ese st ruct ures. Wi t h the hel p oflocal workers, he
has co ns tr uc te d more than 3 00 bridges wit h spa ns of up to 260 m in areas
suc h as Ecu ad or and Ca mbo dia. Hi s sus pe nsion bridges are built almost
co mpletely wit h don at ed mat erial s, suc h as tubes fro m pip elines given by
oil drilling co mpa nies and r ecycled cables fro m Swiss cable ca rs .
TheRiver Esk near Invermark in Angus, Scotland 199
200 Landscape, Gardens
Glass Bridge in a Private Garden near Nice, France, 2003
A m high canyon was to be br idged on pri vat ely own ed pr operty
in the Haut e Pr ovence. Th e st r uct ure was not to be mor e than just a li ne
in the land scape; the English owner found his arc hi tec t whil e reading a
glass magazin e. The structure was required t o bridge m in a zone ver y
diffi cult to access . Ar chitect Renat e Fehling and engineer Johannes Liess
thought of a footbridge in glass wit h a coherent form crea te d with small ,
easy-t o- t ranspor t elements. Th e res ult: a steel box sect ion curve d in a
radius of 33 m, with a suspension st r uct ure below th e deck that is in one
line in the hori zontal plan. Glass plat es ( 830 x 24 10 mm) cant ilever out
from th e box sect ion consist ing of t hree pan es of glass, one 20 mm TSG
and t wo 12 mm HSG. Should the main pan e fail, th e two remaining ones
would gua rantee the stability of the st ru cture. Asimple sta inless steel
rod with a diamet er of 16 mm serves as a railing. Th e theatri cal approach
to th e deli cat e glass crossi ng is create d wit h the roughl y hewn stone
sur facing at the abut me nts.
Str ucturally, th e footbridge is a par tially fixed , suspen ded torsional
beam on two support s. The beam is st abi lized be th e spatial suspension
syste m below the deck . Th e cant ilever ing beams cause a rotation in one
dir ection and th e suspension syst em crea tes rotation in th e opposit e
direction. Th e construct ion of the abutments was diffi cult . The str uct ura l
design was not carried out under th e normal standards and codes, as it
was considere d an ar twork rath er than a bridge t o suppor t pedestrian
traffic .
Abridgeas a workof art: glasswalkwaywithunilateral railing 201
15 m
202 Landscape, Gardens
Bridge andpark benchcombined into one
Park Bridge in Baruth, Germany, 2004
The small Mark Brandenburg t own Baruth lies abo ut 50 km sout h of
Berli n. The zu Solms famil y had Pet er -Joseph Len ne build th e park ther e
in 1838 . The famil y fled to Sout h Afri ca fro m the Nazis, and since then
the local farmer s have suffere d from land drainage and the Park has r un
t o seed. In 204 , design competi t ions wer e held for five new 6 to 8 m long
bridges on th e site as part of a cultural proj ect. The timber bridge showed
here was th e fir st of th ese st r uct ures.
The idea behind thi s wooden sculpture is sur pr isingly simple. For m
and st r uct ure ar e not directl y related to one anot her, as it seems t o have
been mad e from a lightweight formabl e foil pull ed up from th e deck .
This form is cre ated by rigid oak slat s, making the st r uct ure very stable.
The slats are create d from 48 mm thi ck oak planks that wer e sawed using
a t empl at e and fixed t o the st r uct ure below with st ainless ste el bolt s.
Ever v t enth plank is anchore d down. The wood has qui ckl y t aken on a
silver -grey patina, but thi s change in colour docs not affect its st r uct ural
sta bilit y.
Ther e is a wonderful view of th e park from th e seat ing area on the
br idge. This st r uct ure signifies the begi nni ng of small, draping park
br idges that lat ch on to th e traditi on of Kew or W6rlit z with th eir
theatricality and rel at ion to nature.
Thesilver grey wooden boards become part of the parklandscape 203
204 Landscape, Gardens
Park Bridge in Sophienholm, Denmark, 1993
The Soph ienholm Park north of Co pe nhagen plays a unique rol e in
th e hi story of Dani sh gar dens . The park began in the ixth centur y as a
romantic garden in th e st yle of Ramee, but th e park has had many owner s
since and has see n many changes . Sophienholm was built as th e count ry
seat ofTheodor Holmskjold in 1] 69, and ser ves today as an exhibit ion
hall for modern art . The arti st s I-1 ein Hei nsen and th e arc hitect Torben
Schonherr creat ed a new obser vati on pl atform for the park in 1993. This
small br idge was created as part of this ex pansion in coope rat ion with
th e engi nee r Eri k Reit zel. It connects th e main path with t he obs ervation
platform, where one can enjoy a lovely view of th e sea and obser ve a ste el
sculpt ure from many differ ent angl es .
The bridge has a spiral of mo re than 1400: all for ces and tension,
compre ssion, shear, bending and torsion moment s mu st be taken int o
account in th e design . It is debatable whether th e st r uc t ure is a bridge or
a sta ir way - as with Jii rg Co nzet t's Second Tr aver siner Footbrid ge, we
will classify it as a bridge.
Takenouchi, Kyo, The Aesthetics
of Dani sh Bridges, Kopcnhagcn,
Ring girder andstairway Inone- the bridging of the embankment protectsthe vegetation and sets the stairway in scene
206 Landscape, Gardens Not a ski-jump, but rather a secure pathway to the observation point
Observation Bridge in Aurland, Bergen, Norway, 2006
Visit or s t o the Gra nd Canyon ar e led aro und a horseshoe -shap ed
observat ion plat for m br idge cant ilever ing 22 m out above t he canyon. It
can be conside red a failure in t erms of efficient st r uct ural design , as it
ignores the fundamenta ls of ring girder mechanics (as explained in th e
t echn ical overview on p. II6). In Bergen in sout hweste rn Norway, the
number of t ourist s may not be comparable to t he Gra nd Canyon, but th e
view of the fjords are simply t erri fic. Todd Saunders and Tommie
Wilhel msen won t he compet it ion for th is observat ion platform 600 m
above the Sognefjord. The 4-m wid e footbr idge leads 30 m out from solid
ground and could not be more dramati c. The massive railings to th e side
give the user a sense of tot al security; but one may feel a sense of vertigo
as the view st raight ahead lead s t o a void. The swee p of th e bridge is
reminisce nt of a ski jump, and the visitor has to recogn ize the bar ely
notic eable glass barrier at th e end befor e feeling safe and enjoying the
view. Th e bra vest visi tors lean over the glass bar ri er and enjoy th e view to
the bott om . The struct ure is deSigned for heavy wi nds and a snow load of
7 m - Nod e Engi neers from Ber gen wer e th e engineers.
Sovereign interplay between security andabyss
4.3 m
208 Landscape, Gardens Steel trusswit h timber cladding
Resting Station in Lillefjord, Norway, 2006
The Germa n expression for the sayi ng "t he grass is always greener
on th e ot her side" lite rally t ran slat es t o "happiness always lies on th e
ot her side of the ri ver ". As if the t her e were not sufficien t beaut y on th is
side , the st ruct ure br idges a r iver not for a pure joy of hiking, but so th at
the visitors can reach an attract ive wate rfall. The park station is a combi-
nati on of seat ing, brid ge, t oil et s, litter bi ns and protecti ve st r uct ure built
by th e Nor wegian Highway Author it y, Pushak ar kite kter merged all of
th ese clements int o a complete st ru ctural sculpt ure , stretc hing over th e
wat er like a lizard . Th e building, br idge and seati ng banks seem as if t hey
ar e product of one holi sti c model , even though the exte r ior ste el truss
dominat es the visual image. The spat ial un it y is create d as the wooden
surface th at covers the building and acts as cladding for the ste el t r uss,
The bank s are not treat ed as furniture and are par t of t he br idge pathway.
The depth of th e recta ngular st eel tubes making up th e st eel t ru ss varies
between 80 and 260 em.
It is striki ng t hat the separat ion between struct ure and envelope
can be useful even for simple t ypes of foot brid ges t hat appear t o be a sing-
le st r uct ure .
A small paradise- still to befound in Europe. Lillefjord 209
210 Landscape, Gardens The endof the bridge can hardly beseen - the pathleads to the unknown
Bridge in the protected landscape MaggiaValley, Switzerland, 1997
Th e Maggia Valley is still an insid ers' tip for hikers - but you are no
longer completely alone in this Swiss valley. The bridge in Giumaglio
spans 230 m over the entire floodplain of the river, so that hikers do not
di sturb th e enviro nment below. The transparency of the structure is
imperative, so as disturb the view through the valley as little disturbed as
The inh erently simple structure, by Fabio Torti I Andreotti &
Partners, Locarno, was conceived in three sections each with a fre e span
of 82.8 m. A long suspension bridge with a sufficiently braced walking
surface, three thin cabl es as railing and handrails to protect pede strians
from the worst, and ever y now and again a bracing guy - that's it. This is
pr ecisely the allure of the bridge: it does not dress itself up in an attempt
to compete with the beauty of the landscape. The bridge swings of
course, so you can' t be squeamish. Hopping and jumping create move-
ment in the st ructure, but the bridge' s flexibility makes it very stable .
The view downward steers one's attention to different sections of
th e floodplain. The structure is similar to the walkways above archaeo-
logical sites; it protects the natural surroundings whil e offering views of
the beauty and complexity of the environme nt. One cannot see both
ends of the bridge from any point of th e deck, so that one idyllic surprise
after another awaits the user.
Vegetation and landscapechange constantly below the bridge, theview below alow the hiker to experiencethis 211
212 Landscape, Gardens
Second Traversiner Footbridge, Viamala, Switzerland, 2005
Aft er th e first Tr aver siner Foot br idge was dest r oyed by a falli ng
boulder (see p. 122 ) a second bri dge was built only two years lat er with
help of communal and privat e investment : the Viamala hiking t rail is too
beauti ful to st op her e. The new sta irway bridge, with a free span of 56.6 m,
connec ts the trail. Th e diagonal length of t he bridge is 61.2m and t he
main suspension cable is 95 m long.
Inspired by th e t opography, the Jiirg Conze t t and Rolf Bachofner
decided on a pr estressed cable truss in two parallel and vertical plan es.
The challenge : the two cable anchorages are at different height s and the
deck leads from a lower approach upwards to th e oppos ite cli ff. Diagonal
cables ar e st ressed between the main suspension cables and th e deck. To
find t he form of the cable, th e positi on of the cable clamps, and th e
lengt h of th e secondary cables , we require the help of graphic str uct ural
analysis and a Cre mona diagr am . Jiirg Co nzett is well ver sed in these
matt er s, in the t radition of Swiss enginee r ing. Erec t ion procedures: a
t emporary cableway was const r ucted t o transport con cr et e for th e abut -
ments , t he cable and the pr efabr icat ed br idge deck segments from a
for est trail to t he const r ucti on site 50 m above. The lower abutment to
the sout h was concrete d fir st , afte r whi ch t he northern abutment was
complete d to ser ve as anchorages for the main suspension cables. The
mass of the abut me nt s, incr eased wit h soil ballast , works as a counte r-
weight to the cable forces . A sect ion of rock was used at the nor thern
abutment t o aid in anchor ing t he cables . The t hird abutment at the
sout hern end of the bri dge deck was on ly required to transfer ver tical
compression forces to t he soil below.
The two main suspensio n cables (Galfan-coate d spira l st rand,
d=36 mm diameter) ar e anchored in the abutments. A spelte r soc ket is
provided at each end of the cables, whi ch are st ressed with stee l plat es
Structure as Space, 2006 ,
p. ree f
Dechau, Wtlfr tcd,
Traversinersteg. Fot ografisches
Tagebuch, BerlinlTiibingcn, 2006
A not to berecreated, magical stage- the cablestructure before loading inJuly 2005 213
56.6 m
and shi ms to t he abutment using hydr auli c oil jacks. Two expe rie nced
cable exper ts carefully insta lled t he cable clamp s t hat join th e diagonal
cables (d=lo mm) t o th e suspension cables . Precision is requ ired here, as
any differ ence bet wee n calc ulat ed cable forc es and site execut ion would
change th e final geo me try. Trans verse girders in st eel, 3.6 m long, are
suspended from t he diagonal cables. Ten parall el lami nat ed larchwood
beams ( 14 0 x 220 mm) are laid longitudinally betwee n t he transverse
gir ders . These beams provide sufficient st iffness to prev ent unpleasant
dynamic osci llations . Th e main cables ar e also prest ressed t o create
addi t iona l compression forces in t he woo den deck. Bracing from diagonal
steel t ension rods in conjunct ion wit h t he wooden beams guarantee t he
lat eral sti ffeni ng effects of th e deck. Also not iceable in t he sectio n: t wo
sma ll bea ms are also bolt ed to t he two inner laminat ed beams to serve as
attachments for th e sta irs.
The positi on, height and design of the railings greatly affect t he
overa ll design of a foot bri dge of thi s scale. The handrail is at a height of
on ly I m, but the compressed longitudinal girders at both edges of t he
deck block an immediate view of t he depths below.
This is ] iirg Conzctr's t hird br idge in t he Viamala - after the Pu nt
da Sura nsu ns and t he Travers iner Footbri dge I. The structures could
hardl y be more different ; it is almost as if hi s command of so many st r uc-
t ura l systems is like th at of a gifte d linguist's command of seven langu a-
ges. Most bridge designers stay true t o one struct ura l form th roughout
t heir career. This is not t he case wit h ]ii rg Co nzett, who has no fear of
t he spectac ular. His readi ness to st udy th e complex ity of seemi ngly
simple challenge of a footbr idge has, in t he Viamala, led the design of a
scarcely reprod ucible work of struct ural ar t .
214 Footbridges
It is good to collect things, but It IS better to take walks. 1-1I,01Olt France
Nothing - no picture, no description - can replace personal obser-
vation. The abundance of footbridges we have been able to see in the last
several years can no longer be stuffed between two book covers to invite
you to visit. But we want to deprive the reader of as few of these beauti-
ful bridges as possible. The bridges described here briefly have been se-
lected subjectively - as has the rest of the book - and are arranged alpha-
betically according to country, and then sorted by city name. The index
of names and places on page 250 should ease the search for the structures
and travel arrangements.
216 Footbridges
III Footbridgein Feldkirch, Vorarlberg
A, 1989
Engineer : Bollinger + Grohmann, Fra nkfur t
Arc hitect : Mar tin Hauslc, Feldki rch
Gi rd er bridge fro m a spat ial tr uss with a
triangul ar sec t ion, lighting int egrated into th e
handr ail
Total lengt h: 44 m
Maximum spa n: 36 m
Width: 4m
Mat erial : st eel
Lit erature : Wettbewerbe , 90 /9 1, pp . 41-44
Schma l, Pet er C. (ed.) , workflow: St r ukt ur -
Archite kt ur, Basel, 2002, pp . 98-101
Kapfinger, Otto, Briicke iiber di e Ill, in : Bau-
kunst in Vor ar lberg seit 1980. Ein Fiihrer zu 260
sehenswer ten Baute n, Ost fild ern , 2003
Erich Edegger Footbridge in Graz
A, 1992
Pedestrian and cycle bri dge over t he Mur
River between Schloss be rg - and Mariahilfer-
pl at z
Engineer : Harald Egge r, Obelbach
Architect : Domenig & Wallner, Gr az
Simple girder with suspe nsio n syste m below
deck and cant ilever ing ends , integrated light ing
Free span: .H. 8 m
Wi dt h: 4 .4 m
Mat erial: steel, Railing: fully t empered glass
with sta inl ess steel handrails
Lit erature : Brichaut, Fiona , Graz, Er ich
Edegger Steg, in: Innovat ions in St eel. Bridges
around th e world, 1997, p. 13
We lls , Mat th ew and Hugh Pearman,
30 Brucken, Munich , 2002, pp. 104-107
Pear ce , Mar t in , Br idge Builders, London, 2002,
pp. 72-77
Mur Footbridge near Murau in Styria
A, 1995
Covere d timber bridge between ra ilway sta t ion
and th e city cent re over t he River Mur
Engineer : Co nzet t Bron zini Ga r t ma nn, Chur
Ar chitect : Marcel Meili , Markus Pet er
Ar chitekten , Zurich
Cove re d timber bridge with a cent ra l laminated
Tot al length : 89.3 m
Free span: 47. 2m
Width: 3. 4 m
Mat erial : spr uce, lar ch
Lit era ture : Schlaich, Mike (ed.) , Murst eg
Mura u, Austri a (199,) , in : Guidel ines for th e
de Sign of footbridges, fib, Lausanne, Nove mber
200" p. 11,
Ar ch it ektur Akt uel l, 12, 199,
wcrk, bauen + wohn en, 12, 199,
Pearce, Martin, Bridge Bui lders, London, 2002
Moh sen, Most afavi (ed .), St r uct ure as Space,
London, 2006, p.70
Altfinstermunz Bridge in Nauders
A, 1472, destroyed 1875, rebuilt 1949
Bridge in th e upp er Inn valley, th e temporar y
reconstruction lies +m higher than th e or igina l,
a re con struction of th e or iginal bridge was car -
ri ed out in ' 9+9
Two bridges wit h a cent ra l fortifi cation tower ,
drawbridge to th e left , and cove re d suspension
bridge to th e ri ght
Tot al length: 37 m
Maximum span: Ostbruckc : 19 m
Maximum width : Ostb ru ckc: 3 m
Mat eri al : timber , Fortifi cation t ower : Masonr y er ature : Caramelle , Franz, Hi stori sche
Briickenbauten in Nord- und Osttirol , in :
lndusrr icar chaoloyi c Nord -, Ost -, Siidtirol und
Vorarlber g, Innsbru ck, ' 992 , P: 82
Bridge over River Rosanna, Strengen
Brid ge in th e St anz er Valley, or iginally used to
con nec t farms on th e r ight bank of th e River
Rosanna, r enovat ed in ' 975
Covered wo od en bridge with doubl e trapezoi -
dal kin g post truss, con structed without iron
connec ti on element s with timber shingling at
th e west ern side
Tot al length: , 8 m
Maximum span: ' 3. 5 m
Width: I .sm
Mat erial: timber
Lit erat ur e : Cara me lle , Fr anz , Hi storische
Brii ckenbaut en in Nord- und Osttirol, in :
Industricarchaologi e Nord-, Ost -, Siidtirol und
Vorarlberg, Inn sbruck , '992, p. 89
Mucha , Aloi s, Hol zbruckcn , Wi esbaden , 1995
Ziesel, Wolfdi et ri ch , Dream Bridges/Traum-
brucken, Vienna, 200 +, pp . '3 2-'+'
Fr6disch Bridge in Sulz, Vorarlberg
Brid ge connec t ing th e communit ies of Sulz and
Zwi schen wasser (Muntlix) for ped estrians and
cycl ists
Engineer: M + G Ingen ieure , Feldki rch
Arch itect : Marte.Marte Architekten , Weiler
Steel trough bridge from ste el plate, exte nsion
of an ex ist ing mason ry bridge
Tot al length: +6 m
Fr ee span: +' m
Width : Pedestrian lane 2.3 m, Road way 3.2 m
Mat erial : wea t hering st eel (Z shape from 30
mm thi ck plat e), Railing: weathering st eel (ver-
ti cal plat e of Z shape d profil e ser ves as
balu strade)
Zollamt Bridge in Vienna
A, 1900
Footbridge over a r ailway bridge and th e Wien-
flu ss
Enginee r : Martin Paul, A. Biro
Ar chitect : Jos ef Hackhofer, Fri edrich
Ohman n
Ar ch bridge
Free span: 31.3 m
Width: 7.6 m
Mat eri al: steel
Lit erature: Pauser , Alfr ed, Bru ckcn in Wi cn .
Ein Fuhre r durch di e Baugeschi chte, Vienna/
New York, 2005
218 " l r t res
Hackinger Footbridge in Vienna
A, 1994
Footbr idge over multi -lane arteri al road and
the Wi enfluss canal near the Hiitteldorf tram
stat ion. Th e st r uct ure br idges the Wi enfluss
canal and connec ts t he rjth and 14th di strict s in
Engineer : Wolfdi etrich Zi esel , Vienna
Archite ct : Henk e-Schreieck Architekten,
Lightweight st eel structure, mostl y t ension-
load ed member s
Total length: 64 m
Maximum span: 26 m
Width: 4.5 m
Mat erial: steel, glass
Literature: Zi esel , Wolfdietrich, Dr eam
Bridges/Traumbriicken , Vienna, 2004,
pp.142- 155
Erdberger Footbridge in Vienna
A, 2003
Bridge over the Danube Canal near th e Erdber-
ger Linde
Engineer : Alfred Pauser , Vien na
Archi t ect : Zeininger Ar chitekten , Vienna
Frame st r uct ure fro m indi vidu al compre ssion
and t en sion clement s
Total length: 85 m
Maximum span: 53 m
Width: 3.7 m
Mat erial: t imber
Literature: St einmetz , Mark , Architektur
neues Wi en , Berl in , 2000
Bridge over the Ourthe in Hatton
Bridge between Hotton Island and th e cit y
cent re
Engineer: Ney & Partner s, Brussels
Archi t ect : Zi ane, Liege
Shallow ar ch bridge
Total length: 30 m
Free span: 26 m
Width: brid ge deck: 2m
Mat erial: Ar ch: ste el , Deck girder : ste el grid
Lit erature: Conco urs Const r uct ion Acier 2004 ,
in: Staal -Acier , 5, 2004, p. 200
Bridge in Woluwe Saint-Pierre
Footbridge over th e Avenu e de Ter vure n
Engineer: Ney & Partner s, Brussels
Architect: Pierre Blondel , Brussels
Deck ar ch hri dge with the deck int egr ated to
the side of the arch, walk abl e arch, asymmet r ic
cross sect ion
Free span: 70 m
Width: 2x 3 m
Mat erial : ste el, Sur faci ng: timber
Literature: Moritz, Benoit, Passer ell e Avenue
de Tcr vuren. Woluwe Saint Pierre, in: A+, I,
2002, pp . 74-75
Concours Co nstr uct ion Aci er 2002, in: Staal -
Acier, 2002, p. 198
Footbridge in Basel -Bi rsigtal
CH, 1865
Foothridge in th e Birsig vallev under th e Doren
bach Viaduct , one of th e oldest remaining st eel
foothridges in Switzerland
Lattice st r uct ur e
Mat eri al: iron
Lit erat ur e : Fed eral Roads Office (pub. ) ,
Hist or ische Vcr keh rswege, Bern, 2004 , p. 6
Chapel Bridge in Lucerne
CH, c. 1365
Bridge in th e cit y cent re of Lucern e ,
or iginally part of t he ci t y fortificati on
Co vered frame gir der, major fire i n 1993, rehu-
ilt acco rding t o origina l design
Tot al length : originally 285 m, shor te ned sever -
al times in th e 19th cent ur y t o 202m
Maxi mu m span : 9.3 m
Width: 3.2 m
Mat er ial : Piers: sands to ne, Frame and longitu -
dinal girders : oak, Roof: silver fir and spruce
Lit er at ure : Pantli, Hein z, Kapellbr iicke und
Wasserturm, in : Den kmalpfl ege im Kanton
Luzern 1994, [ ah rbuch der Hist ori schen
Gesellschaft Luzern, 1995, pp . 70-74
Flur y-Rova, Mori t z et al. , Kapellbr uckc
und Wassert urm. Dcr Wi ederaufbau einc s
Wahrzeichens im Spiegel der Restauri er ung
und For schung, Lucerne, 1998
Graf, Bernhard, Of Swi ss Heroi c Deed s. The
KapellBridge in Lucern e, in: Bridges t hat
Cha nged th e World, Miin chen, 2002, pp . 34-35
220 Footbridges
Bhutan Bridge near Ovronnaz
Bridge over t he Illgraben between upp er and
lower Valai s, ent rance to pfynwald nat ure
reser ve
Suspe nded dec k st r uct ure modell ed aft er
Bhutanese br idges
Fr ee span: lJ4 m
Wi dt h: 1 m
Mat er ial : st eel, Deck: t imber ,
Abut ment : concrete
Fibre-reinforced Plast ic Footbridge
in Pontresi na
CH, 1997
Footbridge over th e River Flaz
Enginee r : Otto Kiinzle, Zurich
Truss bridge, with bolt ed connec t ions at one
span and glued connec t ions at t he adjacent span
Total length: 2) m
Moveable sec t ion: 2 x 12. ) m
Width: 1. 9 m
Material: fibr e-reinforced plast ic
Lit erature: Kell er, Thomas and Otto Kiinzle ,
Ur s Wyss, Ful3gange r br iicke Pontresina in
GFK, in: SI+A Schwei zer Ingen ieur und Ar chi -
tekt , 12, 1998
Kell er, Thomas, Toward s Struct ural Forms for
Co mposite Fibr e Mat er ials, in : Struct ura l
Engi neer ing Int er nat ional , vol. 9 , November
1999, pp. 297-30 0
Ganggel ibrugg in 51. Gallen
CH, 1882
Footbr idge in Rcchen , earl ier footbridges con-
tinually destroyed by flooding, renovat ed in
192) and 1936
Suspe nsion bri dge
Fr ee spa n: 6). 7 m
Widt h: 1. 2 m
Mat eri al : iron
Lit erat ure: Stad elma nn, Wern er, St . Galler
Brii cken, S1. Gallen , 1987, pp. 4 6-47
Ruinaulta Bridge in Trin
CH, planned 2007
Footbridge over the Rhi ne gorge connec t ing
t he Tri n railway st at ion with the Ruinaulta
Nat ura l Monument
Engineer : Walt er Bieler, Bonadu z
Suspe nsion bridge, deck as a hori zont al vieren-
deel girder
Tota l lengt h: 98 m
Maximum span: 74 m
Width: qm
Mat er ial: Pylon and Cab les: stee l, Br idge deck
and handrail: lar ch
Pa sserelle SOl, Val Soj in Tieino
eH, 2006
Wood en bri dge oyer th e Soja River in Bleni otal,
repl aces a metall ic struct ure th at was dest royed
duri ng floo d ing in August 2003
Engineer : Laub e, Biasca
Archite ct : Martin Hugli , lr agn a
Co mpress ion ar ch to minimi ze forces and
cos ts , [ivc arches lying on e oyer anot he r
free span: 22 m
Wi dth : I.2 111
Mat eri al : laminat ed timber, Sur facing: lamina-
t ed ti mb er plat e sur faced with bitumen ,
Abut ment : conc rete
Literat ure : Lignum (pub.) , 18Ingeni eurholz -
bautcn, Zuri ch, Febr uary 2007, pp . 20-21
I{ugli , Mar tin , Einfacher geht Briickc nbau
woh l nicht mehr, in: baucn mi t hol z, s, 2007 ,
pp . 18-21
Sch\\Tizer Hol zbau 7, 2007
Milk Bridge in Vals Platz
CH, planned 2008
Moveable bridge over th e Valser Rhine in t he
ce ntre of Vals Plat z
Engineer : COI1Zett Bron zini Gartmann, Chur
Simple girder with a box sect ion, bridge can be
lift ed during flooding, st r uc t ure works as a
fr ame
Total lengt h : 23 111
Fr ee span: 21111
Width: 1. 1 m
Mat eri al : steel
Expo-Bridge in Yverdon-Ies-Bains
Two par allel bridge t o t he Swiss r egiona l cx hib-
ti on Expo 2002
Engineer: St aubli , Kurath & Partner, Zurich
and Swl ssfiber, Zur ich
Ar ch it ect: Diller Scofidio + Renfro, New York
Co nt inuous girder, all memb ers translucent
Total length: 2 x 120m
Free span: 12 m
Width : 2, S m
Mat eri al: fibregl ass, Pier s: st ee l: Railing: t rans-
lucent , lit from bel ow
Lit erature : Oer Wolkenst eg, in : Fiberglas, sup-
plement to Hochparterre 4 , 2004 , Zurich , p. 21
Ent wic klunge n im Ber eich Faserkuns ts to ffe im
Bauwesen an der Zurcher Hochschule in
Winterthur, in : Der Bauingenieu r, 12 , 2ooS
Bridge over the Vltava in Prague-Troja
Th e stress ribbon bridge connect s th e Pragu e
Zoo and th e Stromovka Park
Engineer: ]i ri St ras kv, Pragu e
Tot al length: 249 m
Maximum span: 96 m
Width: 3. 8 m
Mat erial : concrete
Lit er ature : St ras ky, [iri , Stress ribbon and
cable -suppor ted ped estrian bridges, London,
2ooS, p 76
222 Footbridges
Bridgein Bad Homburg von der H6he
D, 2002
Urban footbridge above the Hessenring high-
Engineer: Schlaic h Ber germ ann und Partner,
St uttgart
Cable-st ayed bri dge wi th st one mast, deck plat e
suspended by 16 t ension rods
Total length: 76 m
Free span : 46 m
width: 6.9 m
Mat erial : Mast : Nero Assoluto, an igneous rock
Liter atu re: Russell , Lisa, Footbridge Awa rd s
2005", in : Brid ge Design and Engineer ing, vol.
11 , 4' , 2005"
Bridge over the AShighwaynear
D, 1996
Pedestrian and cycle bridge
Engineer : Ingenieur gruppe Bauen, Karl sruhe
Simple girder, fabricated next to the auto bahn,
lift ed int o place du ring a jc-mi nute br eak in
traffi c
Free span: 40 m
Mat erial : st eel
Foot bridge in Bensheim
Pedestrian and cycle br idge over th e Highways 3
and 47 connet ing the sout hern cit y cent re wi t h
t he western sect ion of the city
Engineer : Schlaich Ber ger mann und Par t ner,
St uttgart
Archi t ect: Heinz Frassine, Bensheim
Arch bridge with column-suppo r te d ramp
Free span: 30.3 m
Width: 2.5" m
Mat erial : Arch: ste el, Deck girder: reinforced
concre te
Gericke Footbridge in Berlin-Mitt e
D, 1915, 1949
Footbrid ge at the tram stat ion Bell evue over the
Spree River , or iginally called BellevueFootbridge
Engineer : Br uno Moh r ing
Longitudinal system: Frame wit h two ar tic ula-
ti ons serving as an arch syst em with suspend ed
deck; Tr ansverse syste m: Girder gr id wi t h re-
inforce d concret e plat e
Tot al lengt h: 5"6. 8 m
Free span: 5" 2m
Width : 5" m
Mat erial: Superstruct ure: ste el,
Surfaci ng: mast ic asphalt, Abutment : concrete
with li mestone
Lit er ature : Senator fur Bau- und Wohnungs-
wesen (pub.), Gerickest eg uber di e Spr ee, in :
Fu13gangerbr ucken in Berlin, Berlin, ' 976,
pp . 24- 25"
Abtei Bridge in Berlin-Treptow
D, 1916
Foothridge over th e sout he rn tributary of th e
Spree connec t ing Tr eptow Park with
Abt ci Island
Eng ineer : St adt ischc Vcrkehrsbauamt
Deck arc h hridge, arc h huilt between t wo
tower st r uct ures
Tot allcngth: ' 0 0 rn
Fr ee span: m
\Vidth : l .R m
Mat eri aI: rei nforced concrete ,
Reinforcem ent : wr apped cas t orin tubes
Gotenburg Footbridge, Berlin-Wedding
Bridge over the Panke forming an extension of
t he Gotenburger road, connecti ng th e par k
areas at eac h ri verbank
Simple compos ite gir de r, sinuso ida l guardrail
Tot al length: ,6.' m
Free spa n:
Wid th : 2,R m
Mat erial : st ee l, rei nforced co nc re te, Sur facing:
masti c aspha lt, Railing: steel
Lite rat ure: Senato r fur Bau- und Wohnun gs-
wcsen (pub. ), Elsens teg in Ne uko lln, in : Fu li-
gangerbr iicken in Berlin , Berlin, 197 6 , pp . H -H
Nordpol Bridge in Bochum-Hamme
D, 1999
Footbrid ge at t he entrance t o th e Westpark in
Enginee r : Boll inger + Grohmann, Frankfurt
Ar chitect : HeggeI' HeggeI' Schl ei ff Plane r + Ar -
chite kte n, Kassel
Lying truss gir de r, dia gon al tuhes as bra cing,
inte ract ive lighting system
Free span: 100 m
Width: 2. 2 m to 3.8 m
Material: Superstructure and Pier s: steel, Sur -
face : grating, Railing: cant ileveri ng full y t em -
per ed glass
Lite rat ure : Schmal, Pet er C. (cd .) , wo r kflow:
Struktur - Ar chitcktur, Basel , 2002, pp .
Murkenbach Bridge in B6blingen
D, 1995
Foo tbridge in th e city park
Engi nee r : Decker Ingeni eur-Gesellschaft , Bob-
Ar chitect: Jan son + Wol frum/ Ar chitektur +
St adtpl anung, Muni ch
Simple gi rde r wi th pl atform
Total len gth: 14. 8 m
Free span : ' 3.5 m
Width : 2. 8 m
Materi al : laminated timber fr om larch planks
on ste el cross beams
Lit erature : Janson, Alban and Sophie Wolf-
rum, Garten und Landschaft , 7,1996 , P: 4' 1'.
224 Footbridges
Bridge in Brandenburg an der Havel
D,2 001
Foot bridge over t he Jacobsgraben canal
Enginee r : lngenieurgemeinschaft Hartel &
Schier meyer, Bad Oeynhausen
Land scap e ar chitect: Uwe Tiet ze & Partner ,
Simple gir der
Tot al lengt h: 24 .2 m
Free span: 22.5 m
Width: 2.9 m
Mat eri al : St r uct ural member s and railing: hot
dip galvanized steel, Surfacin g: Bongossi tim-
Port Bridge Vegesack in Bremen
D, 2000
Pedest r ian bascul e brid ge bet ween AIt-
Vegesack and th e newly buil t Ar eal Haven Haft
Engineer : Aru p, Du sseld or f
Designer : Designlabor Bremerhaven , Bremer -
Closed bridge works as a cont inuous girde r.
Bascul e moti on uses th e elbow lever t echnique,
integrated lighting
Total lengt h: 42 m
Width: 3.5 m to 7 m
Material: steel, conc rete , Deck sur face: perfo-
rate d st ainless st eel plat e
Zoo Bridge in Dessau
D, 2001
Bridge oyer t he Ri ver Mulde , connec t ing th e
city cent re wi t h th e zoo
Engi neer: Ste fan Polonyi & Par t ner, Co logne
Ar chitect : Kist er Scheit hauer Gross, Co logne
Tubul ar arch with suspended cur ved deck
gi rder
Tot al length: 133m
Fr ee spa n: 111. 3 m
Width: 2.8 m
Mat erial : st eel
Lit er ature: Bund esingen ieurk ammer (pub.) ,
lngen ieurbaukunst in Deutschl and . Jahrbuch
200312004 , Hamburg, 2003 , pp . 102-104
Footbridge in Duisburg
Cable-st ayed br idge for the world expost ion
1958 in Bru ssels, t ransported aft er the ex posit i-
on t o the Du isbu rg Zoo, cur rently connec t ing
the Univer sit y campus with the Muhlheimcr
For est
Ar chitect : Egon Eicr rnann, Sep Ruf
Unil at erally suppor ted deck with a single asym-
metric mast.
Total length: 65 m
Maximum span: 43.5 m
Width: 4 m to 4 . 4 m
Mat eri al : Deck and abut me nt : reinfor ced conc-
ret e, Mast , cables and railing: ste el
Lit erature: Walt her, Rene, Schragse ilbr ucken,
Lausanne/Dussel dorf, 1994, pp. 154, 157
Essinger Bridge, Essing, Alt rnuhl Valley
Footbr idge over th e Main -Danube Canal
Engineer : Ingeni eurburo Bruninghoff und
Rampf, Ulm
Architect : Buro fur [ngeni eur-Architektur
Richard J. Dietri ch , Traunste in
Timber st ress ribb on brid ge
Tot al length : 190 m
Maxim um span: 73 m
Width : \ . 1m
Mat eri al : timber , Railin g: larch timber with
Niro-ste el guardra il fill ing
Lit er ature: Briininghoff', Hein z, The Essing
Timber Bridge, Germany, in : St r uct ura l
Enginee ring Int ern at ional, vol. 3, Mai 1993
Di etrich , Richard J. , Faszi nat ion Br iickcn , Mu -
nich , ' 998, pp . 206-2 1J
Well s, Matthew and Hugh Pearman,
\0 Briicken, Muni ch , 2002, pp . 140-143
Iron Bridge in Frankfurt
D, 1869, 1946
Footbridge over th e River Main
Truss brid ge
Total lengt h: 173. 6 m
Ma xim um span: 82.5 m
Wid th : 5.4m
Material : steel
Literature: Gorr, Wol fram , Fra nkfur ter Bru -
ckcn. Schl eus cn , Fahr cn , Tunnels und Brucken
des Main , Frankfurt, 1982, pp. " 5-138
Mack ler, Chr isto ph, Fra nkfurte r Bruckcn , in :
Jahrbuch fur Ar chit ektur 1984 . Das neue
Fra nkfur t II, Berlin , 1984, pp.61-98
Moll , Rein er , Alt stahlschweiBen und Nicte n im
Zuge der Grunderneuerung des "Eisern en Ste -
ges" in Frankf ur t am Main , in: Der Stahlbau ,
vol. 66, Janu ar y ' 997, pp . I -II
Holbein Footbridge in Frankfurt
Footbr idge between cit y cent re and the Sach-
se nhauser Mus eum bank
Enginee r: Koni g und Heunisch Planungs-
gesell schaft , Frankfurt
Arch it ect: Albert Speer & Partner , Frankfurt
Suspensi on bridge , staged lighting
Tota l lengt h: 214 m
Maximum span: 142m
Width: 2.4 m
Mat erial : steel
Lite rature : Ch r istian Bartenbach, Umlenk- und
Spiegelwerftechnik: Hohlbeinsteg, in : Werk,
Baucn + Wohnen, Oktober 1994
Setzepfandt, Wo lf-Christ ian , Arc hit ektur-
fuhr er Frankfurt am Main, Berlin, 2002, p. 85
Serieof bridges in Hamburg
D, Project
Footbridges between Will y-Brandt-StraBe and
th e Zoll Canal
Engineer : Werner Sobek Ingenieur e,
Ar chitect : Jan Stormer Partner , Hamburg
Cont inuous box girder, 30 round columns ar e
cont inued above t he de ck pr oviding bridge
Total length: 200 m
Maximum span: 40 m
Width: 2.3 m to 4 .2 m
Material : st eel
226 Footbridges
Skywal k in Hanover
0, 1998
Pedestrian walkway between Laat zen railway
st atio n and the Exp o 2000 grounds
Engi nee r : RFR Ingeni eure, St uttgart
Architec t: Schulitz + Partner Ar chitekten ,
Braun schweig
Doubl e tube with one storey-high struct ure
Total length: 338. 4- m
Maximum span: 28m
Width: 8.8 m
Mat eri al: ste el , Facade: bent glass
Liter ature: Karl J. Habermann and Helmut C.
Schulitz, Werner Sobek, Stahlbau Atl as, Mu-
nich, 1999, pp. 22S, 336 -339
Meyer , Lilr, Freakshow. Die Archi te kt ur der
Expo, in : db deutsche bauzeitung, 6, 2000,
pp. 60- 69
Pear ce, Martin, Bridge Builder s, Lond on , 2002,
Expo Bridges in Hanover
Four bridges on the Han over Expo grounds
Engi neer : Schlaich Bergermann und Partner ,
Ar chitect : Gerkan Marg & Partner ,
Cabl e-stayed bridges, all bridges on a grid
m x7
Greatest total length: East ern bridge 13S m
Gr eat est span: Southern bridge 4-S m
Greatest width: Cent ra l bridge 4-S m
Material : steel, cast ste el, Deck plat e: perma-
nent plat e in rei nforce d concre te , temporary
plat e from surfaced lar ch t imb er planks
Literat ure : Tor res Arcila, Martha, Bridges -
Ponts - Brucken, Mexi co City, 2002,
Cr uvelier, Mark, Footbr idges of th e world's
fair s, in: Footbridge 2002, Par is, pp. 104--105
Nesse Bridgein Leer
Brid ge over th e trade port connecti ng the his-
t ori c city cent re and pedest ri an zone wi th th e
newl y const r ucte d Nesse grounds
Engineer : Schlaich Bergermann und Partner ,
St ut tga r t
Cable-st ayed bridge with bascul e centre, deck
bent in plan
Total length: 82m
Length of the bascul e section: 2x7 m
Width: 3m to r m
Mat erial : Bascul e sect ion: steel, Deck girde r :
composit e, Abutment : reinfor ced concrete
B6rstel Bridge in Lehne
Pedestrian and cycle bri dge over the Ri ver
Engin eer : Schlaich Ber germ ann und Partner,
Ar chitect : Claus Bur y, Frankfurt
Stress ribbon bridge with concre te ar ch
Total length: 96 m
Maximum span: 35 m
Width: 3.Sm
Mat erial : Ar ch: reinfor ced concrete, Deck:
pr est ressed concre te
Footbridge in Minden
0, 1994
Pedest r ian and cycle br idge oyer the Ri ver We-
Sl' r
Eng ineer : Schlaich Berger mann un d Partner,
St uttgart
Suspension bridge wit h reinforced co nc re te
deck pl at e, inclined mast s
Span: around 105 m
Width: j . 6 m
Mat er ial : ste el
Lit erat ur e : Pearce, Martin, Bridge Builders,
Lon don, 2002 , pp . 174--177
Torres Arcila, Martha, Bridges - Pon t s >-
Br iicken, Mex ico Cit y, 20 0 2, pp. 4-38-4-4-1
Footbr idge in Mun ich
Footbridge oyer t he Mi t tl erer Ring
Engineer : Ingen ieurbii ro Suess und Sta ller,
Gr afelfi ng
Ar chit ect : Biir o fiir Ingenieur -Architekt ur
Ri chard J. Diet r ich, Trauns t ein
Spati al cable suspension , suspension st r uct ure
from t r iang ular cr oss sec t ion
Fr ee span: 69 m
Width: j.5m
Mat eri al: Super st r uct ure, cables: st eel
Literatur: Det ail , 5, 1987
Diet ri ch, Ri chard J. , Fasz inat ion Br iicken , Mu -
ni ch , 19 9 8, pp. 214--219
St ahl-Informat ions-Zent r um (pub.) , Hange-
sei lbr iicke in Mii nchen , Deu t schl an d ( 1985) , in :
Dokument at ion P7. Fufl gangerbriicken aus
Sta hl, Dusseld or f, 20 04-, p. 24-
Bridge to the Wiesn grounds, Munich
Pedestrian and cycle bridge oyer t he Bayer stras-
Engine er : Chr ist oph Ackermann Ber at endes
Ingenieurbii ro fiir Bauwc sen , Munich
Architect : Ackerma nn und Partner Ar chitek-
ten , Munich
Hybr id polygonal arch bridge
Fr ee span : 38 m
Width: 4-m
Mat eri al : steel , hi gh- stren gth st ee l
Lit erature: Brii ckenbauen mit ncu cn Werkst of-
fen: Die Fuflgangerb r iicke iiber die Bayerstrafle
in Mii nchen , in : St ahlbau, Octo ber 2005,
pp. 729 - 734-
Packer, Jeffr ey A. and Sil ke Wil lib ald (eds) ,
Tubular St r uc t ures XI, London, 2006
Footbr idge in Oschat z
Bridge oyer t he Ri ver Dollnitz, st at e bot ani ca l
exposit ion 20 0 6
Engine er : Silvio Weiland and Di rk Jesse, Tech -
ni cal Uni versit y Dresden
Bridge consist ing of ten U-spa ced prefabri cat ed
conc rete seg ment s, each r eceiying six pres-
t ress ed st eel tendon s
Tot al len gth : 9 . 1m
Fr ee span: 8. 6 m
Width: 2.5 m
Depth: deck plate and sides: 3 em
Mat erial: conc re t e wit h t extil e fibre r einfor ce-
Lit erat ure: Cur bach, Manfred and Silvi o Wei -
land, Fer t igt eilbriicke fii r die Landesgarten-
schau 200 6 in Oschatz aus t extilbeweh rtem Be-
ton , in : BFT, vol. 70 , 2, 20 04-, pp . 102-103
228 Footbridges
Ladenberg Bridgein Potsdam
Bridge over a port ion of a newl y dug city canal
in t he cent re of Potsdam
Engineer: Fichtner + Koppl, Rosenhei m
Ar chi tect : Biiro fiir Ingenieur -Architekt ur
Richard j . Die t ri ch, Trau nst ein
Simple girder, seri es of st eel girders wi t h lenti -
cular suspension system
Free span: 13m
Width: 3 m
Mat eri al : steel, Surfacing: t imb er
Lit erature: Diet r ich, Ri chard j ., Faszination
Briicken, Muni ch, 1998, Pl" 266- 267
Di etrich, Richard j. , Eine neue Briicke in Pot s-
dam, in: Umr isse - Zeit schr ift fiir Baukult ur,
2,2001 , p. 42
Dragon'sTail Bridgein Ronneburg
Pede strian and cycle bridge over the Gessent al
River near Ronnebu rg/ Gera for t he federal bo-
ta nica l expositi on 2007
Engi neer : Ficht ner + Koppl , Rosenheim
Ar chi tect : Biiro fiir Ingeni eur -Arch itektur
Richard j . Diet rich, Tra unstein
Timber st ress ri bbon br idge wi t h three spans
Total length: 2E m
Maximum span: 65 m
Width: 2.5 m to 3.8 m
Mat er ial: Stress ri bho n: lami nat ed ti mb er
blocks, Pier s: st eel tubes, Substruct ure :
Literat ure: Keirn , Mario, Briicken bau mit Sinn
fiir gesta lteri sche Qualitat , in: VDI -Na chrich-
ten , 10November 2006
Werner, Hartmut , Langst es Span nband
Europas, in: bauen mit hol z, II , 2006, Pl" 6-[(
Mahlbusen Bridgein Rostock
Pair of ste el bridges for the Int ern at ional Bota -
nical Exposit ion 2003
Enginee r: Schlaich Berger mann und Part ner,
St utt gart
Lands cape architect : W ES & Partner Land-
schaft sar chit ekt en, Hamburg
Conti nuous beam girder bridge wit h two main
gir ders , st eel girde r bridge
Tot al length: 35.5 m and 48 m
Maximum span: 25.5 m and 2x 24 m
Widt h: 4. 4 m
Mat eria l: ste el, concre te
Literat ure: Decha u, Wilfri ed, Die IGA in Ro-
st ock, in: db de uts che bauzeit ung, 8, 2003, p. 24
Schlaich, Mike, Die FuBgangerbriicken auf der
Int ern at ionalen Gar tenausst ell ung IGA 2003 in
Rostock, in: Bauingenieur, 10, 20 3, p. 441
StieberValleyBridge in Rot h
0, 2002
The bridge crea tes t he shor tes t pos sible con-
nectio n bet ween the rai lway st at ion and th e city
cent r e
Engineer : Gra d Ingen ieur planungen ,
Ingol st adt
Ar chitect: Vogel + Par t ner, Mun ich
Int egral st eel box gi rder fixed to abut ments , de-
flect s lat er ally und er t emperature loads.
Tota l length: 170 m
Maximu m span: 36 m
Width: j m
Mat erial: mechanically gah-anized and coated
ste el
Liter at ure: Habermann, Kar l j ., Schragseil -
br iicke in Roth, in: db deut sche bauzeitung,
3, Pl" 54-
Grad, j ohann, Stieber ta lbrii cke in Roth /
Bayern, in: Stahlbau, 12, 20 3, Pl" 868-871
Bridge in Schnaittach
D, 2002
Entrance br idge to Roten burg Ca stl e
Engineer : Ingenieu r - Bii ro Ludwig Viczens,
Eckenta l
C;irder br idge wit h t ran sverse frame for rai -
li ngs, hist or ic st r uc t ures are r efl ect ed in mo -
der n ti mb er const r uc t ion
Tot al lengt h: 24.4 m
W idth : l .6 m
Mater ial: Super structure and substr uct ure :
lami nated larch timber , st ee l, Foundat ion: r e -
ill1()ITed conc re te
Literat ur e : Viczcns, Ludwig, Briickenschl ag
zur Festung, in: baucn mi t hol z, [2, 200 2,
pp. 17-20
Queen Mary' s Bridge near Schwangau
D, 1866, rest ored 1978
Br idge over the Poll at' s Ca nyon wit h a view of
Neuschwanst ei n
Engineer : Hei nri ch Ger ber (1832- 1912)
Ri vet s steel truss, t he ori gina l t imber foot -
br idge was replaced in 1866 by a freely span ning
iro n st r uct ur e, rai lings arc or igina l
Fr ee span : 34.9 m
Mat eri al : iro n, Surfaci ng : ti mber
Tower Bridge in Singen amHohentwiel
D, 2000
Foo t br idge for t he Sta te Botan ical Exposition ,
connects t wo portions of t he city par k
Engineer : Baust atik ReIl ing, Singen
Landscape ar ch ite ct : Micha el Pal m,
Weinhei rn
Covered ti mb er truss bridge with stairway t o-
wer as continuo us gir der on three supports
with a cantilever, prefabricat ed in the wo rks hop
in two segment s
Total lcngt h: 43.5 m
Fr ee spa n: 28.2 m
Width: 2.2 m
Mat eri al : t imber
Literat ure : Fu Hgiingerbr iicke in Singen, in :
Detail, 3, 2001, pp . 446-449
Gede ckt e Fachwerkbriicke mit Turm , in:
bauen mit hol z, Novembe r 2000, pp. 12 -14
Pragsattell and II in Stuttgart-Nord
D, 1992
Br idges for t he Internati on al Bot anical Exposi-
ti on 1993 over t he Heilbr onner St ra lle
Engi neer : Schlaich Berg erman n und Par tner,
St uttgart
Architect : Planu ngsgruppe Luz, Lohrer, Egen -
hofcr , Schlaic h, St uttgart
Bri dge I :
Concrete footbridge suppor te d by steel tube
arch , bra nching st eel pi ers
Free span: 52m
Width : 4 .5m
Mat erial : steel , co ncr et e
Br idge 11 :
Branching co lumn br idge
Tota l length: 83.9 m
Wi dth: 4m
Mat er ial : steel , co ncrete
230 Footbridges
Footbridge in Stuttgart-Vaihingen
D, 1992
Footbridge over th e Allmandring on t he
Un iversit y of St uttgart campus
Engineer: Ingenieurburo Lachenman n,
Vaihi ngen an der Enz
Ar chit ect : Kaag + Schwa r z, St uttgart
Cable-t ensioned polygonal ar ch bridge, eleven
br idge segme nts with articul at ed conne ct ions
Fr ee span: 34 m
Width: 3.2m
Mat eri al : steel
Literat ur e: Kaag, Werner an d Rudolf Schwarz,
Fuf3gangersteg in Stuttgart , in: archplus ,
11 8, 1993, p. 33
Kaag, Werner and Gust! Lachenmann, Fuf3gan-
gerst eg in St ut t gar t -Vaihingen, in : arc hplus,
124h 25, 1994, p. 70
Lachenmann, Gust l, Fuf3gangers teg iiber den
Allmandring in St uttgar t / Vaihingen, in: Stahl -
bau, II, 1994 , pp . 337-342
Kaag, Werner and Rudolf Schwarz, Fuf3ganger-
steg in St uttgar t, in: Deta il , 8, 1999,
pp . 1459-1461
Schlaich, Jor g and Mat thias Schu ller, Ingen i-
eur baul- uhrer Baden -Wii rttemberq, Berlin,
1999, pp . 196-197
We lls, Matthew and Hugh Pear man ,
30 Brii cken, Miinchen , 2002, pp. 108-1II
Heilbronner Strar5e Bridge in Stuttgart
Bri dge for th e Int ernat ion al Botanical Exposi -
t ion 1993 near Nordbahn hof
Engi neer : Schlaich Bergermann und Partn er,
St uttgart
Ar chi t ect : Planungsgr uppe Luz, Lohr er,
Egen hofer, Schlaich , St uttgart
Back- and sel f-anchored sus pensio n bridge
Tota l lengt h : 125 mh30 m
Width: 5 m
Mat eri al : st eel, concrete
Lit erat ure : Schlaich, Jorg and Matthias Schul-
ler, Ingen ieurbauFuhrer Baden -Wiirtternberg,
Berli n, 1999, pp. 190-191
Footbridge in Stuttgart-Pragstrar5e
D, 1992
Cablen et Footb r idge for t he Int ern at ion al
Bot ani cal Expos it ion 1993
Engineer : Schlai ch Bergermann und Partner,
Ar chitect : Planungsgruppe Luz, Lehrer ,
Egenhofer, Schlaich, St ut tga r t
Cablenet footbridge , an inversely arranged
cablenet support s th e footbridge
Fr ee span: ca. 75 m
Width: 3. 1m
Mat erial : Cablenet : steel
Lit erature : Schlaich, Jorg and Matthias Schul-
ler, Ingen ieurb auFii hrer Baden-Wii rtt ember g,
Berlin, 1999, pp . 188-189
La-Ferre Footbridge in Stuttgart-
Ped es t ri an and cycle bridge over the Halde n-
rain st raBe
Engi neer : Pet er und Lochner , St uttgar t
Ar chitect: 'asp' Ar chitekt en St uttgar t
Fra me bridge, t he deck axis is a ci rc ular ar c in
plan with a radius of 53.7 m, integral bridge
wit hout bearings or joint s
Tot al len gth: IIR.5 m
Maximu m span : 2R.5m
Width: J.5 m
Mat erial: r einforced co nc re te, Pi ers: cas t st eel,
st e-el. Rail ing: st ainless ste el
Lit erature : Pete r, Jiirg and Matthias Schuller ,
FuB- und Radwegbriicken iibcr di e Haldenrain-
st r al3e in St uttgar t , in : Bet on- und Stahl -bet on -
bau , Novembe r 2002, pp . 609 - 614
Footbridge in Waiblingen
D,1 978
Bridge over t he Ri ver Rcms between Groller
Er lcninsel and Br uhlwiescn
Enginee r : Ingeni eu rbii r o Leonhardt und
And ra , Stut tgar t
Ar ch bridge
Tot al len gth : 39 m
Fr ee span: 28 m
Width : 3.7 m
Materi al : Superst ructure : reinforced conc re t e,
Surfacin g: urethane sur facing, Railings : st eel
Lit er ature : Leonhardt , Fritz, Brii cken /Bridges,
St uttga rt , 1994, p. 97
Schl ai ch, Jorg and Matthi as Schulle r, Ingeni -
eurba ul- uhrer Baden -Wiirttemberg, Berlin,
1999, pp . 216-217
Footbridge in Waiblingen
D, 1980
Footbridge between Grol i er and Kleiner Erlen-
Eng ineer : Ing enieu rbiiro Leonhardt und
Andra, Stuttgart
Arch bridge
Tot al length: 23m
Free span: 18m
Width: 2.4 m
Material: Supe rs t r uct ure : reinforced co ncre te ,
Surfa cin g: urethane surfacing, Railings: ste el
Backpack Bridge
Foldabl e bridge, can be erec ted by a singl e
Architect : Ma ximilian Ruttiger, Unterwossen
Dynamic folding st r uc t ur e , fits in the boot of an
est ate car
Fr ee span : 10 m
Weight : 38 kg
Mat er ial : aluminium
Lit er ature : Kalt enbach, Fr ank , Rucksack-
Bru ckc, in : Detail, 8, 1999, pp.1442-1443
232 Faathr Jges
Bridge in Assens
DK, 1850
Bridge on th e Brahesbor g gro unds
Suspension bridge
Free span: 22 .9 m
Mat eri al: ir on , Surfacing: t imb er
Liter at ure: Cort r ight , Robert S., Bridging th e
World, Wi lsonville, 2003, p. 114
Pont Veil in Alfarras
Bridge over th e Nog uera Ribaporcana
Some remnant s of th e or iginal bridge remained
and wer e incorporated int o the const r uct ion of
the new st r uct ure ; an ar ch br idge in th e older
sect ion, t he newer secti on is a cont inuous gir -
der and an arch br idge with suspended deck
Mat er ial : Origin al remn ants: st one , New
st r uct ure: st eel
Bridge in Andoain, Basque Country
E, 2005
Bridge over the Or ia, connec t ing the city cen-
tre wit h a recr eat iona l area
Engineer : Pedelt a, Barcelona
Simple gi rder, frame st r uct ure
Tot al length: 68 m
Wi dth: 3. 6 m
Mat eri al : weathering st eel , Abut ment: rein-
for ced concre te
Lit erature: Sobrino, Juan A. and Javier Jordan,
Two examples of innovati ve design of foot br id-
ges in Spain, in: Footbridge 2005" . znd Int ernati -
onal Confere nce, Dec. 6-8, 2005", Venice,
proceedings, pp. 223-224
Bridge in Bilbao
E.1 997
Footbrid ge in fro nt of th e Guggenh eim
Museu m on th e Abandoibar ra Pr omenade
Engi neer : 10 0M, Bilbao
Architect : Frank O. Gehry and Associat es,
Los Angeles
Free span: (3) m
Width: 7.3 m
Mat eri al: ceme nt, concrete and expanded poly-
st yrene
Liter ature: van Bruggen , Coosje and Frank O.
Gehr y, Guggenh eim Museum Bilbao, Ost fil-
dern, 1997
Pasarela Padre Arrupe in Bilbao
E, 2003
Footbridge over th e Ner vion to th e
Uni vcrsidad de Deusto
Engin eer: IDEAM, Madrid
:\ rchitect: Estudio Guad iana, Madrid
(;irder bridge, fold ed sec t ion with ste el rib st if-
kners, integrat ed lighting system
Totallcngth : 14.2. m
Maximum spa n: 84 m
\Vidth : 4 .1 m to II m
Mat eri al : sta inless st eel , Interior cladding: La-
pacho t imbe r
literature : Millanes Mato, Franci sco, La nou-
velle pa sserell e d'Abandoibarra devant Ie musce
Gu ggenheim, Bilbao, in : Bull et in ouvrages
mct all iqucs, 3, 20 0 4 , pp. 26 - 4 9
l.uro Inox (pub.). Trogbrucke in Bilbao,
Spani en, in: Fuflgangerbrucken aus Ede lst ahl
Rostfrci , Lux embourg, 20 0 4 , pp . 18 - 20
Iron Bridge in Girona
Footbrrdpe over th e Onyar in th e Pcscaterics
district , al so known as Pont de les Pei scateries
Engineer : Gu stav e Eiffel , Pari s
Tr uss girder
Material : iron
Literature: Asen sio, Paco, Gu stave Alexandre
EilTel, Dusseldorf, 200 3, pp. 38 -43
Pont d'en Gomez in Girona
Bridge also known as Pont de 10 Princeso
Archi t ect : LUIs Holrns
Mat erial : reinforced concrete
Lit erature: see p. 55
Pasarela de Sant Feliu in Girona
Footbridge over th e Onyar, connec t ing the ol -
dest city section ne ar Sant Feliu church and De-
vesa Park
Eng ine er : Pcdelta , Bar celona
Architect : Blazqucz -Guantcr Arquit cctes,
Gi rona
Simple girder frame structure
Fr ee span : m
Material : weathering st eel, Abutment : rein-
forced concrete
Lit er ature : Gomez -Pulido, M. Dolores and
Juan A. Sobrino, Sant Feliu Footbridge in Giro-
na , Spain, in : Footbridge 2002, Nov. 20 -22 , 2002,
Pari s, proce edings, pp .
Schlai ch , Mike (ed .), Saint Feliu Footbridge ,
Spain ( 19 9 6 ), in : Guidelines for the design of
footbridges, Lausanne, November p. Il6
234 Footbr dges
Footbridge in L1eida
E, 2001
Bridge over a roa dway and t wo railway tracks
approximat ely 2 km out side of Lleid a
Engi neer : Ped el t a, Barcelona
Arc h bridge wit h t wo ar ches and t ension cords .
The ent ire bridge was prefabr icat ed and li ft ed
and set int o posit ion on sit e.
Free span: 38 m
Width: 3 m
Material : fibr eglass, Ramps and piers : rein-
for ced concrete
Lit erat ur e : Go mez-Pulido , M. Dolores and
Juan A. Sobrino, A Ne w Glass-Fibre Rein -
forced -Pl ast ic Footbr idge, in: Footbridge 20 02.
Design and dynamic behaviour of footbridges,
Nov. 20 -2 2, 20 02, Pari s, proceedings ,
pp . 187-188
Bridge over the Guadalentin in Lorca
E, 2002
Foot br idge in th e cit y cent re
Engine er : Ca rlos Fernandez Casado , Madrid
Arch bridge wit h suspe nde d deck
Fr ee span: 86 m
Width: 2 x 4 m
Material : st eel
Bridge over the Manzanares in Madrid
Footbridge in th e city cent re
Eng ineer : Carlos Fernandez Casado, Mad r id
Cable-s t ayed br idge
Fr ee span: 147 m
Width: 3 m
Mat erial : steel
San Juan de la Cruz Bridge in Palencia
E, 2004
Brid ge over th e Ca r r ion, connect ing th e Islas
Dos Agu as spo r ts cent re
Engineer : Fheco r Ingen ieros Co nsulto res,
Madr id
Cable -st ayed br idge, cur ved br idge deck, no
addit ional r amps despite elevat ion differen ce of
th e two brid geheads
Fr ee spa n: 7 0. 7 m
Width: 3 m
Mat erial : Brid ge gir de r: st eel
Lit eratu re : Ra mo Mar ti n, Jose, Pasar ela sob re
el ri o Car r ion en Palencia, in : Un a r eflexion so -
bre el proyect o de pu entes y pasar elas sobre r ios
en eI ambit o urbano, pp . 2-4
III Congreso de ingenierla civil , territorio y
medic ambient e : Agu a, Biodi versidad e Inge-
ni eria, Zaragoza, 2;- 27 October 20 0 6
Bridge in Pontevedra
Bridge oyer t he Lcr ez
Enginee r : Fhecor Ingeni ero s Co ns u ltorcs,
Madr id
Arch brid ge with sus pe nde d walkway, bridge
was const r uct ed par all el to th e ri verbank and
rot at ed into it s fi nal positio n using t wo boat s.
Fr ee span: 82. , m
Widt h: + m
Mat eri al: steel
Bridge in Puente la Reina, Pamplona
E, 11 th century
Footbr idge at t he delt a of th e River Robo in
Arga as a pat hway for t he pilgrims tr avelling to
Santiago de Co rnpost el a, also know n as
Puente de los Peregrinos
Brid ge wi t h six ar che s
Lit erat ure : Gr af, Bernhard , Wh ence ther e is
only on e rou t e. Puent e la Reina: t he Pil grims'
Bridge, in: Bri dges th at Changed t he World,
Mu nic h, 2002, PI" 26-27
PontTrencat in Sant Celoni
E, 2003
Renovation of a me die val bridge ove r th e Tor -
dera, destroyed du r ing t he Napoleonic Wars
Enginee r : Alfa Pol aris, Sant Vicen c de Montalt
Arc h brid ge , box sect ion, int egrate d lighting
Tot al lengt h: 72m
Maximum span: 2+ m
Width: 3.+ m
Mat eri al : weat hered ste el, concr et e
Lit er atur : Font , Xavi er, Rest aurati on of th e
Pont Tr enca t ( Broken Bridge) , in: Foot bri dge
2005. znd Int ernat ional Conference, Dec. 6-8,
200" Ven ice, proceedings, PI" 11 9-120
Russell , Lisa, Foot br idge Awa r ds 2005, in:
Br idge Design & Engineer ing, +1, 2005,
PI" 35-+9
Pasarela Vallparadfs in Terrassa
E, 2007
Br idge near th e r ecently ren ovat ed park in th e
cit y cent re
Engineer : Pedelt a, Bar celon a
Cont inuo us girder over four suppo r ts , simple
piers ser ve as supports.
Gesamt langc : 100 m
Fr ee span : 3 x 33m
Mat erial : ste el , Bridge gi rder : st eel and conc -
r et e, Abu t ment : r ei nforced conc re te
Bridge in Zaragoza
E, 2002
Foot br idge over th e int er-cit y highway Ronda de
la Hispanidad connect ing t wo park areas
Engineer : Ca rlos Fernandez Casado, Madrid
Arch bridge wi t h incl ined ar ch and cent r al deck
Free span: 56 m
Width: 4m
Mat erial: steel
Literature : Astiz, Migu el A. and Miguel A. Gil,
Javier Manterol a, The Ronda de la Hi span idad
pedes t ria n br idge in Zar agoza (Spain), in:
Tubular Str uct ures X, Oxford, 2003, pp . 25-32
Schlaich, Mik e (cd.) , Footbridge acros s th e
"Ronda de la Hi spanidad" , Spai n (2002), in:
Gui del ines for th e design of footbri dges, fib ,
Lausanne, November 2005, p. 127
Expo Bridge in Za ragoza
E, planned for 2008
Multi -st orey footbridge over th e Ebro, ent ra nce
to th e Worl d' s Fair 2008
Engineer: Ar up , Madrid
Architect: Za ha Hadid Ar chit ect s, Londo n
Co mbinat ion of box gi r der and t ru ss beam
Total lengt h: 270 m
Maximum span: 123 m
Width: II m t o 30 m
Material : St ru ct ure : ste el, Exter ior cladding:
fibr eglass conc re te , Surfaci ng : shot cre te
Lit eratur: Ar regui, Ines, Expo Saragosse 2008,
in : Le Co urrier d' Espagn e, August 2006
Pabell on Pu ente, in : Ar chitectur a y critica,
Foot bridge inAgen
F, 1841, renovated 2002
Bridge over th e Garonne
Arc hi tect : Ca binet d ' Ar ch it ecture Stephane
Brassie, Agen
Back anchor ed suspension bridge wit h diagon al
Total length: 263m
Maximum spa n: 174.3 m
Width: 2.3 m
Mat eri al : Mast and cables : st eel
Lit eratur : Passerelle d' Agen : le sauvet age d'un
ouvrage hist orique, in: Chanti ers de Fr ance,
Mar ch 2003, pp. 22-23
Petit , Sebast ien, Deux r ehabilita tio ns nova-
trices, in: Travaux, November 2003, pp . p -5)
Lecinq , Ben oit and Sebastien Petit, Rescue
Mi ssion , in : Civil Engineering Magazin e ,
Januar y 2004
Passerelle de la Fraternite. Aubervilliers
Ped est ri an and cycle bridge over th e
Canal Saint -Denis between Q uai Jean -Mari e
Tj ibaou and Quai Adrien Agn es
Ar chit ect : Mimram Ingen ier ie , Pari s
Arch br idge
Free span: 44 m
Materi al : Arch: st eel, Abutment and
platforms: reinforced concre te,
Surfaci ng: t imber
Lit eratur e : Footbridge ove r th e Canal Saint -
Den is, in : Bridge Design & Engineer ing, 29,
4 , 2002
Mehu e, Pierre, Deux siecles de passerell es
metalliqucs, in: Bull etin ouvrages mct all iques,
2, 2002
Pont de Gresin. Bellegarde-sur-Valserine
F,1 947
Footbr idge oyer th e Rhone . Origina lly t here
were numero us bri dges here, the most rec ent
was dest royed in 1940 ; a renovat ion of th e cu r-
rent bri dge is planed for 2007
Back-anchored suspensi on br idge wit h t russ stif-
fening girder
Tota l length : 137 .8 m
Span : 114 . 2 m
Widt h: J m
Mater ial: st eel
Passerelle Mataro in Creteil
F, 1988
Also known as Pont Oudry-Mesfy
Archit ect : Santiago Ca latrava, Zuri ch
Arc h br idge , suspende d deck
Total lengt h: 120 m
Maximu m span : H m
Mat eria l: st ee l
Lit eratu re : Ca lat rava , Santiago , Des bow-
st rings originaux, in: Bull et in an nue l de
I'AFGC, Januar y [9 9 9 , pp. S9 -6[
Fr ampton , Ken net h, Ca lat rava Bridges, Basel,
Footbridge in Dole
F, 2005
Bridge oye r t he Doubs
Eng ineer: Quadric, Montl uel
Arch itect: Alai n Spielmann Ar ch itecte, Pari s
Susp ension br idge with two vertica l mast s,
simple gi rder
Free span: 70 m
Wi dth: 3 m
Mat erial: metal
Lit eratu re: Ga nz, Hans-Rudolf, Dole Deli ght ,
in: Bri dge Des ign & Engineering, November
Cele Footbridge in Figeac
F, 2003
Bri dge oyer th e Celc
Arc hit ect : Mimra m Ingcnieri e , Pari s
Tr uss arc h
Tota l len gth : 4 2 m
Fre e spa ns : 2 x 2[ m
Wi dt h: 3 m t o 5 m
Lit erat ure : Brocard , Mau r ice , CAin des Grands [996, pp. 4 4 -53 2005, p. 13
Pon ts , Peronn as, 19 9 1 Mo nte ns , Serge , Cre tci l . Passcrel!e en
bow-string, in: Les plu s beaux pant s de Fr ance ,
Pari s, 200 [ , p. 121
238 Footbridges
Holzarte Bridge near Larrau, Pyrenees
Footbr idge over th e Olhadubi River canyo n
Suspe nsion bridge
Passerelle du Commerce in Le Havre
Pedetrian and cycle bridge ove r th e Bassin du
Comme rce, also known as Pont de 10 Bourse
Archite ct : Guillaume Gill et
Assymme tric cab le -st ayed br idge , A-shaped
Tot al lengt h : 105 m
Maximum spa n: 73.4 m
Width: 5.5 m
Lit er at ure : Gr attesat , Guy, Ponts de Fr ance,
Pari s, 1982, pp . 266-267
Walther, Rene, Schr iigseilbr iicken, Lausa nn e/
Dii sseld orf, 1985, p. 160
Bridge in Meylan
Footbridge over th e Iser e
Engineer : Ca mpeno n Bernard Co nst ruct ion,
Boulogne-Bill ancourt
Arc hit ect : Cabinet Arsac
Cable-st ayed bri dge wit h upside down Y-shaped
Total length : 119 m
Maximum spa n: 79 m
Width: 6.7 m
Mat eri al : Cables: ste el, Deck : prestressed co n-
cre te , Pylon s: reinforced concrete
Lit er ature : AFPC (pub.) , Passerell e de Meylan
( Isere) , in: Bull et in 1980-81-82, pp. 397-403
Walther, Ren e, Schragse ilbr ucken, Lausanne/
Diisseldorf, 1985, p. 167
Marrey, Bernard, Les Ponts Mod ernes - 20e
siec le, Pari s, 1995, pp . 213 -214
Passerelle Debilly in Paris
Bridge for th e 190 0 World's Fair between Rue
de la Manutetion and Quai Branl v, r en ovat ed
Engi neer : Amedee Alb)', Andre-Louis Lion,
Jean Resal
Ar ch brid ge with two ar t iculatio ns and inter -
medi at e deck girder
Total lengt h: 120 m
Maximum span: 75 m
Width: 8 m
Mater ial: st eel
Lit erature : Ga illa rd, Mar c, Quais et Ponts de
Pari s, Amiens, 1996, P: 169
Poiss on, Jer om e, Passer ell e Debilly, in : Les
Ponts de Paris, Paris, 1999, p. 223
Monten s, Serge , Passer ell e de Bill)', in : Les plus
beau x ponts de Fra nce, Pari s, 2001, p. 115
Granite Footbridge in Pari s-La Defense
F, expected September 2007
Footbridge at th e Societ e Generalc Towers con -
necting t he square of t he Grande ATche with th e
new TOl I T Granite in Na nte r re
Engineer : Schlaich Bergermann un d Par tn er,
Stu ttgart
Archit ect : r:eicht inger Archit ec tes , Pari s
Unil at er all y suspe nded cu r ved cable-stayed
br idge with inver t ed syst em , r uns par all el to
th e glazed facad e of t he Societe Generate, a 1.8 m
high glass plat e offers wind prot ecti on for t he
ped estr-ians
Fr ee span: 88 m
Width : 4-., m
Mat er ial : ste el, Wind protection and raili ngs:
impr int ed glass
Lit erature: La passerell e Gra nit e en chant ier,
in : l. c Monit eur des Tra vaux Publ ics et du Bati -
ment , 8 Sept ember 2006 , P: 20
Passerelle Bonnets Rouges in Rennes
F, 1994
Brid ge some ,00 m nort h of t he TGV st ation
Eng ine er: Groupe Alto , Gent illy
Ar chit ect : Fra ncois Deslaugi ers , Mar seille
Fold ing bridge , motor sit uated bet ween th e bo x
secti on girders of t he bri dge deck
Totallcngt h: 4-0m
Fr ee span: 12 m
Lengt h of cant ilever: 8 m
Width: 3.5 m
Mat eri al : st ainles s steel
5arre Bridge in 5arreguemines
Pedest r ian and cycle brid ge over t he Ri ver Sar -
re conne ct ing t he cit y ce nt re wit h t he
Casi no park
Engi neer : Jean-Louis Michot ey, Mi chel
Ar chit ec t : Alain Spielmann Arch it ect e, Paris
Self-anchored, asymmetric susp ens ion bridge
wit h single mast , di agon al hangar s
Total length : 9 0 m
Max imum span: 54-. 4- m
Mat er ial : ste el, rei nforce d concr ete
Lit er ature : Mi chot ey, Jean-Loui s und Alain
Spielmann, Michel Virlogeux, La passer ell e de
Sar re guemines, in: Bull eti n ouvrages metall i-
ques, 1,20 01 , pp. JI6 - 127
Duclos, Thi er ry, La passer elle de Sar re-
guemine s, in : Bull etin ann uel de I'AFGC,
Januar y 20 0 1, pp . 59 - 63
Passerelle du Francs Moisins, St Deni s
F,1 998
Ped estrian an d cycle br idge over t he Canal
Saint -Den is as par t of urban proj ect to revit ali -
ze th e cana l bank
Architect : Mi mram Ingeni er ie, Par is
Ar ch bri dge
Free span: 4-3 m
W idth : 3.5 m to 5 m
Mat erial : ste el
Lit er atur e : Passerelle sur Ie canal de Saint -
Denis , in : L'aci er pou r const r uire, Oktober
19 9 8
Mimra m, Mar c, Passerell e pictonne au-dessus
du canal de Saini -Denis, in : Bull et in pont s
metalliqucs, 19 9 9
Mehu e , Pierre , Deux siec les de passerell es
met alliques, in : Bull etin ouvrages metalliques ,
2, 2002
740 FC'otbr dqes
Passerelle du Barrage in Saint-Maurice
F, 1997
Footbridge over the Marne River between the
road Fernand Saguet de Maison- Alfort and a
Archit ect s: Mimram Ingeni eri e, Pari s
Arch bridge with doubl e ar ch and three braces,
depth of th e box sect ion minimi zed at the
cent re of th e bridge
Total length: 110 m
Free span: 3 x 37 m
Width: 3.) m to 7 m
Mat erial : Arch: ste el
Literature: Passer ell e sur Ie barrage de Saint-
Maurice, in: L'acier pour const r uire, Oct ober
1998, pp. 36-37
Mimram, Mar c, Passerelle de Saint-Maurice.
Maisons-Alfort, in : Bull etin ponts metalliques,
' 9, ' 999
Passerelle des Deux Rives in Strasbourg
Bridge connect ing both sides of th e park for the
border cross ing 2004 Gardening Exhibit ion
Engineers : LAP Leonhardt Andra und Partner ,
Stuttgart and Mim ram Ingeni er ie, Par is
Deck with a slope of up t o 18 percent , less st eep
bridge for pedestrians and cyclis ts
Total lengt h: 390 m
Fre e span: 183.4 m
Width: walkway: 2.5 m, Bike path: 3 m
Mat erial: st eel
Liter ature: Morgenthal, Gui do and Reiner
Saul, Verbindend es Element der grenziibergrei-
fend en Gartenschau, in: Stahlbau-Nachri cht en,
' , 2004 , pp . 9-1/
Passerelle PSOin Toulouse
Bridge over a beltway with an asymmetric
st r uct ure, or iented according to th e land scape
Ar chitect s: Mimram Ingeni eri e, Pari s
Console bridge with doubl e cur vat ure
Free span: 7S m
Mat erial : Deck girder : st eel plat e, Surfacing:
Footbridge Parc du Val Joly nearTrelon
Engineer s: Arcora, Ar cueil
Ar chit ect : Michel Marot
Back anchored suspension bridge, th in bridge
Free span: 56 m
Width: 2.5m
Material : Cables: st eel, Surfa cing: wood,
Railing: t extile membran
Literature: Baus, Ur sul a, Super be.
FuBgangerbriicke im Pare du Val Joly, in:
db deutsche bauzeitung, 7,1 989, P: 92
Mobius Bridge in Bristol
GB, scheduled 2009/ 10
Ped est r ian and cycle bridge between Finzel s
Reach and Cas tle Park
Engineers : Buro Happold, London
Arc hit ects: Hak es Associates Ar chitects ,
Truss gir de r
Free spa n: 60 m
Width : 2.7 m to 3m
Material : st ee l, Railing: glass, Handrail : st eel
Lit er ature : Landmark bridge gains planning
per mis sion , in : BSEE Building Services and
Environment al Engin eer, 28Jul y 2005
Mobius Bridge, Bri stol , in : Aro, Novembe r/
December 2005, p. 18
Dryburgh Abbey Bridge in Dryburgh
GB, 1818, 1872
Footbridge over th e Tweed, original bridge
coll apsed and was repl aced in [872
Engineers : John und Willi am Smith
Suspension bridge with cable stays
Maximum spa n: 79 m
Width: 1.4m
Lit er atur e : Stevenson , Rob ert , Description of
Suspen sion Brid ges, in : Edinburgh Philosophi -
cal Journal , vol. 5 , [0, 182[
Tr oit skv, M. S., Cable -Staye d Bridges. Theory
and design, Lond on, [977
Fernand ez Trovano, Leonardo, Tierra sobre el
agua. Vision hi storica univer sal de los puent es,
Madrid, 1999 , pp. 661-6 62
Shakkin' Briggie in Edzell
GB, c. 1900
Footbridge over th e Ri ver North Esk, Scotland
Chain suspen sion bridge, lat er braced with
cant ilever ing transverse gir ders ; four chains at
eac h side
Span : around 30 m
Width : around 1.2m
Millers Crossing Bridge in Exeter
Ped estrian and cycle bridge over th e Exe
between Exeter and Exwick
Engineers : Engine eri ng Design Group, Devon
Co unty Council , Exet er
Asymmetri c cable-st ayed bridge , tufted form,
mill st one acts as counte r we ight
Fr ee span : 54 m
Width: 3 m
Mat erial : Pylon, bridge gir der and cables: steel,
Mill stone : granite, Abutment : reinforced con-
cre t e
242 Footbridges
Pier 6 Airbridgein Gatwick
UK, 2005
Bridge between Pier 6 and th e Nor t h Air po r t
Engineer : Arup, london
Archite ct : Wilkinson Eyr e Ar chitect s,
Tr uss girder, bridge was pr efabricat ed at the
limits of the airport grounds and assembled and
erec te d within t en days on site
Tot al length: 197 m
Free span: 128 m
Maximum width: II.S m
Mat erial : steel, glass
literature: Gatwick Pier 6 Air Bridge, in : New
St eel Const r uctio n, Jul y 2006 , P: IS
Gat wick Airport , new footbridge linking Pier
Six, in: Th e Architect s' Journal , 24 June 2004,
pp 4-S
Union Chain Bridge in Horncl iffe
Bridge cross ing the Tweed River and connec-
ting England and Scot land
Engineer : Sir Samuel Brown
Back anchore d chain suspension bridge
Maximum span: 112 m
Material : Bridge girder and chain: wrought
iron, Surfacing: timber
literature: Stevenson, Robert, Description of
Suspension Bridges, in: Edinburgh Philosoph i-
cal Journal , vol. S, 10 , 18 21
Prade, Marcel , l es grands ponts du monde.
Ponts remarquables d' Eur ope, Poit iers, 1990
Pi con , Ant oin e (ed.) , L'ar t de l' ingcni eur, Pari s,
1997, pp -" .>23-S25
Mill er, Gordon, Uni on Chain Bridge, in: Co n-
fere nce Report of th e Institution of Civil Engi-
neers 159 , May 2006 , pp. 8 8 -95
Sackler Crossing Bridgein Kew
UK, 2006
Foot br idge over a lake in the Royal Bot anic
Enginee r : Buro Happold , l ondon
Designer : John Pawson, l ond on
Footbridge spanning in th e longitudinal axis
Tot al lengt h: 70 m
Free span: 70 m
Width : 3 m
Mat eria l: Walkway: granite, Railing: bronze,
Substructure: ste el
liter atu re: Russell , lisa, Route Mast er , in:
Bridge Update, January 200 6
Walk on wat er at Kew, in: Th e Obser ver, 14
May 2006
landscape: John Pawson' s bron ze-railed br idge
is in the tradition of landscape int er ventions at
Kew, in: Archit ecture Today, Jun e 20 0 6 , p. 77
Bridge in Kingston-upon-Hull
UK, scheduled 2008
Bridge over the Hull connec t ing the city cent re
with the development plans on the east side of
the r iver
Engineer : Alan Baxt er & Associates, l ondon
Archit ect: McDowell + Benedetti, l ondon
Wing bridge with m long cant ilever
Free span : 6 0 m
Width: 2 m t o 4 . 5 m
Mat eri al: epoxy coated steel, Surfacing: Epoxy
with mineral aggregat e, Scating and terrace:
literature: Taking a turn on the ri ver, in: bd
Building Design , 12 May 20 0 6
Boom town, in: Building, 12 May 20 06
Swinging bridge clinches competit ion, in: Plan
Magazine, June 200 6
NewTelford Bridge in London
UK, 1994
Footbridge in Saint Kath erine marina, or igina l
constr uct ion in 1829 , part s of whi ch r emain
alongside th e modern st r uct ure
Engineer : Morton Partnership , London
Roll bridge
Mat erial: st eel
St Saviour's Dock Bridge in London
Footbridge over hi storic St Saviour' s Dock
Enginee r: Ramboll Whitbybi rd, London
Ar chit ect : Nicholas Lacey & Partners,
Cable -st ayed bridge
Tota l length: 34- m
Maximum span: 15.2 m
Lit er ature : Pearce , Martin, Brid ge Build ers ,
London , 2 0 0 2 , p. ' 39
Bridges to Babylon in London
Bridge of for th e Rolling Stones Tour
connect ion th e main stage with an side st age in
th e middle of th e Millennium Dome
Engineer : Ateli er One, London
Designer: Th e Mark Fisher Studio, London
Tempora ry, moveabl e bridge structure, bridge
is mounted to th e main st age , whi ch ser ves as
a count er weight , in closed position, th e side
stage serves as a support.
Fr ee span: 43 m
Width: 2 m
Mat eri al : ste el
Lit erature : Lyall , Sut herla nd, Ingeni eur-Bau-
Kunst. Di e Kon struktion der neuen Form,
Stuttgart , 2002, pp . 1I0 -117
South Quay Bridge in London
Footbridge at th e Canary Wharf grounds
Engine er: Jan Bobrowski & Partners, London
Ar chitect : Wilkinson Eyre Ar chitect s,
Asymmetric cable stayed bridge, di agonal
Fr ee span: 180 m
Width: 6 m
Material : st ee l
244 Footbr dges
Floating Bridge in London
UK, 1999
Bridge at the West India Quay in London
Enginee r : Ant hony Hunt Associ ates , Lond on
Archit ect: Fut ure Syste ms, London
Moveable floati ng bridge
Total length: 80 m
Free span: 15" m
Width: 2. 4 m to 3. 6 m
Mat erial : Pier s and supports: stee l , Bridge
gir der : aluminium
Liter ature: Field, Marcus, Docklands-Br iicke
199 6 , in : Fut ure Syst ems . Baut en und Proj ekt e
195"8- 2000 , Heidelberg, 199 9, pp. 84-91
Well s, Matthew and Hugh Pearman,
30 Brucken, Muni ch, 2002, pp. 9 0- 95"
Watan abe, Eiichi , Float ing Brid ges. Past and
Pr esent , in: St r uct ural Engineering Int ernatio-
nal, vol. 13, May 2003, pp. 128- 131
Plashet School Footbridge in London
Footbridge connect ing th e t wo buildings of th e
Plashet Grove School
Engi nee r: Techniker, London
Archit ect : Bird s Portchmouth Russum
Architects , London
S-for m cur ved br idge, spanning over
asymmet r ically formed br idge, me mbrane
Free span: 67 m
Width: 2. 2 m
Mat erial : ste el and Teflon , Membrane: PTF E-
coate d fibreglass
Liter atu re: Ful3giingerbr iicke in London , in:
Det ail , 5", 200 1, pp. 864-867
Pearce, Martin, Bridge Builder s, London, 2002 ,
pp. 30-3 5"
Wells, Matthew and Hugh Pearman,
30 Briicken, Munich, 2002, pp. 4 8-B
Hungerford Bri dge in London
UK, 2003
Two bridges one on each side of the Charing
Cross Rail Bridge, connect ing Lond on's Sout h
Bank wi t h the West End
Engineer : WSP Group, Lond on
Architect : Lifschut z Davidson Sandilands,
Conti nuours girder, inclined mast, deck
suspended by cables
Total lengt h: 315" m
Width: 4 m
Mat erial : Mast s and cables: steel , Bridge girder :
rein for ced concrete , Surfacing: st one til e,
Railing: poli shed st ainless st eel
Bel lmouth Passage in London
UK, Proj ect
Two bridges in Canar y Whar f on the Isle of
Engineer : Techni ker , London
Archit ect : Birds Portchmouth Russum
Archit ect s, London
Moveable brid ge, Sout h bridge: Two part swing
br idge, Nor t h brid ge: bascul e bri dge
Free span: Sout h bridge: 32 m , Nor t h bridge:
23 m
Wid th: Sout hbridge: 3 m to 10 m, Nor th
br idge: 1.6 m t o 4 .5" m
Mat erial : Nor t hbr idge: ste el folded st r uct ure
Lockmeadow Bridge in Maidstone
UK, 1999
Bridge adjacent to t he Archbishop's Palace
Engineer: Flint & Neill Par tnershi p, London
Archit ect : Wil kinson Eyre Archit ects ,
Cable stayed bridge, int egrat ed light ing syste m,
deck as slender as possible to mini mi ze t he
impact on the sur roundings
Tot al length: 80 m
Free span: 4 5" m
Width: 2.I m
Mat eri al : Cable and mast : st eel , Bridge girder:
alum inum
Litera ture : Firth, lan , Tale of Two Br idges, in:
Th e Str uctural Engineer, vol. 80, 2002,
PI" 26 -3 2
Pearce, Mart in, Bridge Builders, Lond on , 2002,
pp. 216-221
William Cookworthy Bridge, St Austell
Bridge over Bodmi n Road
Engine er : Sust rans, Loddiswell
Architec t : David Sheppard Architects ,
Er mington
45"0 mm deep box girder
Free span: 25" m
Widt h: 2.5" m
Material: weatheri ng ste el
Liter ature: Bridge, St . Auste ll, Cornwall David
Sheppard Architects, in: Archit ect ura l Review,
December 2005", PI" 68 - 69
Trinity Bridge in Salford
UK, 1995
Foot br idge connec t ing Salford and Manchest er
Archit ect : Sant iago Calatrava , Zurich
Asymmetric cable-st ayed brid ge, incli ned mast
Tot al length : 78.5" m
Free span: 54 m
Wid t h: 6 m t o I I m
Mat er ial: st eel
Literature: Sharp, Denni s, Landmark li nk .
Architect ura l design of a cable stay bri dge in
Salford, England , in: Arc hit ectural Review,
March [9 9 6
Frampton , Kenneth (ed.), Calatrava Bridges,
Basel , 1996, pp. [88 -[95
Jod idio, Philip, Sant iago Calatrava , Cologne,
199 8 , pp. [48-[5[
NorthbankBridge in Stockton
UK, Project
Pedestri an and cycle br idge over the Tees near
t he city cent re
Engine er: WSP Group, London
Architect: Lifschut z Davidson Sandi lands,
Cable stayed bri dge with t wo asymmetric
consoles, bridge girder const r ucte d as a frame,
int egrat ed light ing
Maxi mum span : 27.5 m
Mat eri al : Console: concrete, weathering steel
246 Footbridges
Bridge in Cascine di Tavola
Footbridge over the Filimortula, or ignal bridge
destroyed by retreating German troops in 1944
Engineer: Alessandro Adil ard i, Pr ato and
Lor enzo Frasconi, Prato
Back-anchor ed suspension bridge, cables fixed
to the ends of the mast
Free span: 18.4 m
Width: 2.6 m
Material: ste el , Surfacing: timber
Literature: Oper e 09 - Rivista Toscana di
Architettura, vol. 3, June 2005
Trepponti in Comacchio
1, 1634
Footbridge in the city cent re at the confluence
of three (or iginally five) canals, also known as
Pont e Pallott a, rebuilt several times
Architect : Luca Dan ese di Ravenna
Arch bridge, five wit h stai r ways leadin g to
a high platform, flanked by two tower s
Mat erial : Pietra d'lstria, a typ e of stone
Literature: Cor t r ight , Robert 5., Bridging the
World, Wilsonvill e, 2003, P: 181
Passerella Rari -Nantes in Padua
I, Project
Pedestrian and cycle bridge between th e Via
Isonzo and the Via Vitt ori o Veneto
Engineer : Enzo Siviero , Padua
Archit ect : Progeest , Padua
Arch bridge with two ar t iculatio ns
Free span: 75 m
Width: 4 m
Material : ste el , timber
Passerella Olimpica in Turin
Bridge over railway platforms between the
former Mercati Gener ali and the Lingotto
Architect /Engi nee r : Hugh Dutton Associes,
Pari s
Arch br idge with 69 m high arc h, suspended
Total length: 385 m
Maximum span: 150 m
Width: 4 .3 m
Material : Arch: st eel
Literature: Aydemir, Murat , Olympic ar ch
gives Lingotto a lift , in: Bridge Design &
Engineer ing, vol . 12, March 2006, p. 16
Beidel er , Juli en and Philippe Donnaes, L'arc
sous toutes ses formes, in: Le Moniteur des
Travaux Publi cs et du Batiment, 30 Mar ch 207,
Bridge in Venice
Ent rance to the Palazzo Quer ini Stampalia,
near Campo San Marco
Engineer : Pier o Maschi ett o
r\ rchitc ct: Carlo Scar pa , Venice
Arch br idge
Free span: 8 m
Width: 1.6 m
Mat erial : Arch and railin g: iron, Several
st airs: st one, Surfacing and hand rail : timber
Ponte PiazzaIeRoma in Venice
I, under const ruction
Bridge over the Canal Gr ande connec t ing t he
railway stat ion with the Piazzale Roma
Archit ect : Sant iago Ca lat rava, Zurich
Tot al length: 94 m
Free span: 77 m
Mat eri al: steel , glass
Nesciobrug in Amsterdam
Pedestrian and cycle br idge over the new
suburb of IJburg over Amsterdam's Rhin e
Cana l
Engineer : Ar up, Lond on
Architec t : Wilkinson Eyre Architects, London
Suspension bridge with one main cable, curved
bridge girder
Tot al length: 790 m
Free span : 168 m
Width : Walkway: 2m, Cycle path : 3.) m
Mat er ial : Bridge: st eel, Approach
ramp s: concret e
Dunajec Footbridge, SromowceNizne
Foot bri dge over the Sromowce Nizne in Poland
and Cc r vcnv Klastor in Slovakia
Enginee r: Most y Wroclaw Design and Resear ch
Offi ce, Wr oclaw, Jan Biliszczuk
Cable-stayed bridge
Tot al length: 1) 0 m
Maximum span: 90 m
Width: 3,) m
Mat erial : Pylon , half frams and wind
protecti on : steel, Deck girder: laminat ed
timber, Sur facing: stone pine timber
Liter ature: Russell , Lisa, Elegant footbri dge
connects bord er resorts, in : Bridge Design &
Engineer ing, vol. 12 , December 2006, p. 8
248 References
The bibliographic references for individual
bridges and themes are given on the pages
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1823-1850, APC nouvelle serie, 1981
BAUERNFEIND, C. M., Briickenbaukunde,
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BIELER, Walter, Taler mit Holz iiberspannen.
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BILL, Max, Robert Maillart, Zurich, 19H
BILLINGTON, David P., Robert Maillart, Zurich /
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BILLINGTON, David P., The Art <fStructural
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BISI, Luigi , 1ponti inferro italiani nell'ottocento,
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BLAKSTAD, Lucy, Bridge- The Architecture <f
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BOGLE, Annette , Peter Cachola Schmal and
Ing eborg Flagge (cds), Leicht, weit. Light
Structures. jorg Schlaich, Rudo!fBergermann,
Exhibition catalogue, Munich, 2003
BONATZ, Paul and Fritz Leonhardt, Briicken,
Konigstein im Taunus, 1952
BROCKSTEDT, Emil, Die Entwicklung des lnpe-
nieurholzbausam Beispiel der bolzemen Briicken im
Zeitraum von 1800-1940, Braunschweig, 1994
BROWN, David, Briicken, Munich, 1994
BRunWILER, Eugen and Christian Menn, Stahl-
betonbriicken, Vienna/New York, 2003
BRUNNER, JOSEF, Beitragzur geschichtlichen
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PhD thesis, ETH Zurich, Bern, 1924
BUHLER, Dirk, Briicken, Munich, 2004
CARAMELLE, Franz, HistorischeBriickenbauten
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CORTRIGHT, Robert S., Bridgingthe World,
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EVERT, Sven, Briicken. Die Entwicklung der Spann-
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GERLICH, Franz, Briicken in Tirol, Innsbruck
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KURRER, Karl -Eugen, Geschichte der Baustauk,
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Berlin ,
lV\ URRAY, Peter and Mary Anne St even s,
l.i vinq Bridges. The Inhabited Bridqe: Past, Present
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[ 9 9 0
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bet on , bulletin 32, Lau sanne , Nov. 2005"
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STADELMANN, Werner , Holzbriicken in der
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STiGLAT, Kl aus , Briicken am We8' Friihe Briicken
aus Eisen und Beton in Deutschland und Frankrei ch,
Berlin, [996
STlGLAT, Kl au s, Bouinqenieure und ihr Werk,
Berlin, 2004
STRASKY, Jiri, Precast Stress-Ribbon and Suspen-
sion Pedestrian Bridqes, FlP Symposium, Kyoto,
[993, vol. 2
STRAS KY, Jiri , Stress ribbon and cable-supported
pedestrian brid8es, London, 2005"
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kunst , Basel , 1992
TORRES ARCILA , Mar tha, Brid8es - Ponts :
Briicken, Mexico City , 2002
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im 19. Jahrhundert, Dusseldorf, [99[
TRAUZETTEL, Ludwig, Briickenbaukunst , in :
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r ep rint 1983-1989)
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64 , vol. 87, Stuttgart , 1985
WALTHER, Ren e, Schriigseilbriicken, Lau sanne /
Dusseldorf, [994
WELLS, Matthew and Hugh Pearman,
30 Briicken, Miinchen , 2002
WERNER, Er nst, Die ersten Ketten- und Drahtseil-
briicken. Technikgeschichte in Einzeld arstellun-
ge n , 28, Dusseldorf, 1973
WHI TNEY, Charles S., Brid8es- A Study in Their
Art, Science and Evolution, New York , 1929
WIRTH, Hermann, Technik. Zeupnisse der
Produkt ions- und Verkehrsqeschichte, Berlin /
Leipzi g, 1990
WITTF OHT, Hans, Building Bridoes, Dusseldorf,
[9 84
WITTI'OHT , Hans, Briickenbauer aus Leidenscheift,
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[9 21
www.structurae .com
www.bridjjemei st
250 Architects, Engmeers
Architects, Engineers
A BERNET HY, J ame s 47
A CKERMANN, C h r istoph 22 7
ACKERMAN N, Kurt 108
ADILARDl , A le s san d ro 246
A LBERT, Julius W ilhelm 42
ALBERTI, Le on Ba ttista 22
A LBY, Amede e 23 8
AMMANN, O t h mar H erm ann 4 9
APARICIO, A n g el C. 14 6
ARNODI N, Ferdi nand 181
A RSAC 23 8
A RUP, ave N iq u i st ) 9 , 6 6
A RUP 224,236, 242,247
A RZADUN, F e rnan do H
AUMULLER, Britta 20 2
BACHOFNER, Rol f 212
BALDI SCH W I LER , Bl a s ius 24
BALM ON D, C eci l 140
BANDHAUER, C h ristian Gottfrie d H e inrich 34
BAZAI N E, P i e r r e- Dom i n iqu e 4 0
BER DO LY ET Dur-ouv 40
BER GERMANN, Rudol f 9 2
B ETANCOURT, Augusti n
BI ELER , Walte r 132, 17 2, 220
BI LL, M a x )6
BIRo, A. 217
BLONDEI. , Pie rre 218
BO LLI NGER + G RO HMANN 2 16 , 223
BONATZ, Paul ) 9 , 62 , 64
BRASSI E, Stephane 236
B RIX, Adol p h Fe rdi nan d W e nzeslaus 4 8
BROWN, Si r Samuel 36,242
BRU N EI. , Is a m bard King d o m 36
BRUNS, A . 38
BURKHARDT, Berthold 28
B URY, C laus 226
CALATRAVA, Santiago 136 , 163 ,164- 16 7 , 237 , 24 ) , 247
CESSART, Loui s A lexan dre d e 26
C HALEY, J o seph 41
CHAMBER S, William 28
CONZ ETT BRONZIN I G ARTMANN 8 o , 122, 18 8 , 212,
216 ,221
CONZ ETT, J ii r g B
C ORAY, R ichard )2
C ULMANN , K arl )2
D A PONTE, A n tonio 1) 8
D ARBY I , Abrah a m 26
D AR BY III , Abraham 26
DASHWOOD, Francis 28
D ESLAUGI ERS, Francois 239
DELESSERT, Benj amin 4 2
DICK, Rud ol f 17
DI CK BAU ER, F rank 1)2
DI ETRICII , Richard 22),227,228
D I LLON, J a cque s 26
D ISCHINGER , Franz )9, 6 4
DOSWALD , Cor n el 8
DREDGE, J a m e s 36
D R EW RY, C har le s St uart 4 6
DUFOUR, G u i llaume H enri 41,42,44
D YCKE R HOFF & WIDMAN N ) 4, 6 4, 130
EGGER , H a r al d 2 16
E I ERMAN N, Egon 224
EIFFEL, G u s tave 40, 233
E SSEX, J a m e s 22
E RDMANNSDORFF, Friedrich W il helm von 28
ETH ERIDGE, William 22
F EI CHTI NGER ARCH IT EKTEN 144,163,167,239
F EICHTINGE R, Di e t mar 177
F EHLI NG, R e n ate 200
F ERNANDEZ TROYANO, Le onard o 10 6
F IN K, Albe rt 138
F INLEY, J ame s 36
F I NSTERWALDER, Ulrich )9,64, 72, 82 , 130
Fmsco 126
F ISCHER VON ERLACH, J oha n n Bernha r d 34, 38
F LI NT & N EILL PARTN ER SH I P 96, 110,136, 1)4,24)
FOHL, Klaus 8
FONSECA, Ant o n io Ada o cia 14 0
F R ASCONI , L orenz o 246
FRASIN E, H einz 222
FR EYSSI NET, E uge ne 62
Fus s, N i kolaus 4 0
GEESI N, R on 15 6
GERBER, H ei nri ch 22 9
GERKA N M ARG & PA RTNER 18 2, 226
( ; ILL ET, G ui llau m e 238
CRA NI CH ER, Gu st av 38
ClUJ'!' & PARTNER 126
GRUBE N;\ IAN N, J ohanne s 23
GRUBENMANN, H ans Ul rich 23, 159
H ACKHOfER , Jo se f 2 17
Hxn m, Zaha 14 9 , IS8 , 236
I-L\u s u-:, Martin 2 16
H AL\I ER L, Peter 179
H A,\ DI , Thorst cn 202
H APPO LD, BURo 24 1,242
H AZARD s \ YHI T E 42
H EI NSEN, Hein 20 4
H EN NEBI QU E, Francois 55
H ESSE, Lu dwig Ferd i nand 4 8
H OAR E, H enr y 28
H OUI S, Luis 55 ,2B
HOSSDORF , H einz 8 0
Hucr .r, M art in 22 1
!DE A M 233
!DaM 232
J ANSO N + 'vVOLERIL\1 2 2
J ESSE, Di rk 227
J O H NSON, Phil ipp 60
Jus s ow, H e inri ch C hr is top h 33
K AUFMAN N, H ermann 15 2
K AWAl\I ATA, T adashi 178
K IR KLAND , A lexan d e r 36
KLENZE, Le o von 38
K NI GH T, Marti n 8
KO EN EN, M athias 54
Kii NZLE, O tto 220
KU PPLER, J ohann G eorg 34
LACH ENM AN N, G ust! 230
LAM BOT, J o seph Loui s
13 1, 176, 23 1, 240
LAUGI ER , M arc Antoi ne 2 1
LEE, R icha rd 46
L EN l': E, Peter J o s e ph 32,202
L EO NH ARDT, Fr it z 49,59 ,62 ,92
LI ESS, J ohanne s 200
LI ON, A n d re- Lou is 238
L OD O LI , Carlo 2 1
L ()S CHER, Carl Imm anuel 34
L OHM ER , Ger d 62,64
M AI LLART, Robert 56,60, 124
M ANTERO LA, J a vier III , 13 6
MA RG, Volkwin 18 9
MAROT, M ichel 24 0
M ARTI N, G e org e 36
M ASCHI ETTO, Pi ero 247
M ASON O RDl SH , R ol and 3 6
M EH RTENS, G e org 38, 48
M EN N, C h r is t ian 72
MI CH OTEY, J e an- L ouis 239
MIMRAM I NGENI ERI E 23 6 , 23 7,239,24 0
MIMRAM , Marc 14 2
MI TI S, Ignaz von 39
M OHRI NG, Bruno 222
M OGORAY, A n dre 44
M O NI ER , J o se ph 54
M ORANDI , Ric c ardo 60
M ORSCH , E m i l 55
M ORY, Hans 72
M OSTY W ROCLAW D e sign and R e s e a r ch Office 247
NAV I ER, C la u de H enri 4 2,44
N ERVI , Lui gi 60
OHMAN N, Friedrich 217
ORDl SH, R owland M a s on 36
OTTO, F RE I 4 9
aVE ARUP & PART NERS 140, 16 8
252 Architects, Engineers
PALLADIO, A n drea 22, 158
PALM, M ichael 229
PAUL, Marti n 2[ 7
PAUSER, A lfred 2[8
PAWSON, J ohn 242
P EDELTA 232,233,234
P ERRONET, Je a n R odolphe 20
PLAGNIOL, Brun o 4 2,43
P OLARI S, A lfa 235
POLONCEAU, A ntoine Remv 26
P RI TCHAR D, Thomas Farnol 26
R EIT ZEL, Erik 204
R ENNI E, J ohn 26
R ESAL, J e a n 238
RIIl ERA, J Os e Eugen io 166
RI COLAI S, R o b ert Le 160
RI EBENBAUER, J ohann 153
RITTER , Karl Wilhelm 52, 56
RI TTER, J o s ef 24
R OEBLI NG, J ohann August 38, 4[ ,42
R UTTI GER, M a ximili an 23 I
R UETTI MANN, T oni 198
RUF, Se p 224
SAUERZAPFE, Martin '34
SAUNDERS, Todd 206
SCARPA, Carlo 24 7
78,79,90 ,92,108,112, [ [ 4 , [82 -[85, 189 ,
222,226,2 27,228,229,230,239
SCHLA ICH, J org 49 ,71 , 90 , 92, [3[, [60
SCHONHERR, Torben 204
SCK ELL , Fri e drich Ludwig von 32
SEGUIN, Marc 4 2
SEGUIN, Jul e s 4 2
SIVI ERO, Enzo 246
SM EATON, J ohn 54
SMITH, J o hn 36, 47, 24 [
SMITH, W i lliam 36, 47,241
SOANE, Si r J ohn 22
SPIELMANN, A lai n 237,239
STIGLAT, K lau s 59
STRASKY, J i ri 76 , 94, [36, 22[
STROBL, Wolfgang [77
T AMMS, Frie d rich 88
T ELFORD, T homas 36
T ODT, Fritz 59
T ORROJ A, Eduar do 68
TORROJA, J ose Antoni o 68 , 166
T ORTI , Fabi o 210
T RAI TTEUR, W ilhelm von 4 0
TRI EST, Fe rdi n a n d von 32
VIFQUAIN, J e an Baptiste 39, 4 4
VICAT, Loui s -Jo s eph 4 2, 54
VI EZENS, Lu dwig 229
VIRLOGEUX, Michel 239
WALTH ER, R ene 72, 80 , [30
WAYSS, G u stav Adolf 54
W EBSTER, 11 174
W EIL AND, Si lvio 227
W EISZ, H . 74
W ENAWESER, O tto 74
W I EGAND, W erner [7 8
WHITBY, BIRD & PARTNERS '36, 156, 24 3
WI LH ELMSEN, T ommie 206
W IL KIN SON EY RE 110, '36, 154, 156 , 163,
174 , 186,24 2,243,24 5,247
W IL KINSON, J ohn 26
WSP Gr-ou e 24 4 , 245
Z IAN E 218
Z I ESEL , Wolfdietrich 2 [7
3 LHD [ 70
Index of Places
A(;E:--I 236
A .\ \S TE R DA:' \ 24 7
A:--IDOAIN 231
ANG ERS 41,1 0 0
A:--INOKAY 4 3
AR DEZ ' 3, P
A SSE:--I S 2 )2
B.-\DEN -BADE N 222
Las Glorias Bridge 10 6
Port Bridge 14 6
B FI . I. H ; ARDE- SUR- VAl. SER I N E 2 37
B ER G EN 206
.tbtei Bridge 223
Brid,qe in the Chatl ott enburq Pare 32
Gericke Footbridge 222
Gothenbura Footbri dqe 223
Lion Bridqe 48
Campo de Volancin Bridge 166
Museum Bridge 232
Pasarela Padre Arrupe 233
Ponce da Ribera H
Nordpol Bridge 223
West Park Bridge I 12 , I 19
BO BLI N G EN 2 2 3
Bridge by G. Wayss H
Port Bridge Vegesack 224
BRUG ES 18 8
C OI M BRA 14 0
C R ETEI L 23 7
D ESSAU 2 24
D OLE 2 37
DRYIlURGH 36,241
Expo Bridge 22 4
Katzbuckel Bridge 184
DUMFRI ES 3 6 , 4 7
E DZEl. 1. 24 1
EGG )0
ESSI NG 2 2)
FI G EAC 237
Holbein Footbridge 2 25
Iron Bridge 225
F RoJAc H 1S3
Iron Bridge 233
Pasarela de Sant Feliu 233
Pont d'en Gomez 0 de la Princesa H, 2 3 3
GIU,\l AGLlO, M AG GI A-TAL 2 10
GRAZ 2 16
Ry ck Bridge 189
Wiecker Bridge 19 3
Expo Bridqes 226
Skywalk 226
H ERI s Au 24
H ITTI SAU 23,51
Kumma Bridge 159
254 Index of Places
Kzw 24 2
KI EL 182
L EER 19 2,2 26
L OHN E 226
Bellmouth Passaqe 244
Brids e at th e Royal Victor ia Dock 138
Bridpes t o Babylon 24 3
Floatmq Brids e 244
Huns eiford Bridse 244
Millennium Bridse 10 1, 168
Nell' Te!ford Brids e 24 3
Plashet School Footbri dqe 24 4
Rollins Brids e 19 0
Roy al Ballet School Brids e 154
Science Museum Brids e 156
South Qyay Bridoe 24 3
St Sav iour's Dock Bridge 24 3
Passerelle du CollCse 44
Passerelle Saint Georqes 44
Passerell e Saint Vincent 4 4
Lockmeadow Brids e 24 5
St ress Ribbon Bridse 76
Brids e over the ,Hanzanares 234
Bndqe over th e M3 0 mot onvay 68
Glorias Cat alano Footbr idqe I 19
Brough t on Bridse 10 0
Merchant s Brids e 136
M O YLAN D 178
Bridqe in t he Deut sches Museum I 16, I 19
Bridoe t o th e Wiesn s rounds 227
Temporary Bridpe.for Architekt urwoche A1 179
Footbridqe over th e Mi ttle rer RinS 227
MURCI A 111, 216
N ICE 200
PADUA 24 6
Passerelle Buttes- Chaumont 40
Passerelle Debil ly 26, 238
Passerell e Simone de Beauvoir 144
Passerell e So!ferino 14 2
Pont des Arts 26 , 27
P EEB LES 36 , 46
P OSTBRIDGE, Dartmoor 2 I
RIJ EK A 170
Mahlbusen Bridqe 228
Nort h Brids e 79
R OTH 228
SA NT C EL O N I 235
SASSNITZ 15, 114 , 116
S I ER R E 9 8
ST D ENI S 239
Bridge orer the Sitter 17
Ganggelibrugg 22 o
Bridge at iV/ax Evt]: Lake 92
Bridge on the University o.fStuttgart 23 0
Cannst atier Footbridge 131
Footbridge i n Rosenstein Park 90
Heilbronner StraJ3e Bridge 230
l.a Feru: Footbridge 23 1
l.owent or Footbridge 230
Praqsaucl Footbridges I and 11 229
Schiller Footbridge 88
STRENGE N 24,2 17
S ULZ 217
SW .-\N SEA 110
T AI N 4 3
l'asserellc des 4
Passcrcllc PSG 240
TouRNo N 4 3
Travcrsincr Footbridge I 122
Traversincr Footbridge II 2 I 2
T 1U'.LON 240
T HI N 2 2 0
VALSOJ /Tici no 221
Palazzo Q!1erini Siampaqlia 247
Ponte Ptarrale Roma 247
V ENT 82
Erdberger Footbridge 2 18
Zollamt Bridge 2 I 7
f-lackinger Footbridge 218
Rems Footbridge I 23 I
Rems Footbridge II 231
W EI M AR 38
WI N T ERT H U R 124
Y VER DO N - l ES- BAI N S 22 1
Bridge overthe inter-city highway 236
Bridge Pavilion at the Expo 15 8 , 236
Picture Credits
P: 22, Old Wa lton : archi ve ; Pl' : 2" Grubcnm ann :
Maggi / Navone, 200 3; p. H, fr om left : Faust o Vera ntio ,
Reprint, Muni ch , 19 6 , ; Fischer von Er lach , Entwurf cinc r
histori schcn Archi te kt ur ; Pet er s, 1987; P' )6 and P: 42 left :
Pctcr s, 20 0) ; P: 4 0, St Pet er sburg: Ur sula Baus; P'
Chazc lct: Klaus St iglat, Kar lsruhe ; Offenb ach : Jorg
Rcvmendt , Darmst adt ; Du sseldorf: Stiglat, 19 96 ; Bremen,
Toulouse, Sai ntcs : arch ive; P' Bill, 19 , 5; P: 6,. left :
Dvw idag-Rcport ; P: 6H- 69: Chr ist ina Diaz Moren o, Efrcn
Garc ia Gr inda , Madrid ; P: 71, left ; Rene Walth er : P' 82,
ri ght ; Leonh ardt , 1994; P: 87; Inst. F. Massivbau, TU
Berfin : p. 103: archive; pp. 106-107: Mike Schl aich: P: II I :
Ca rlos Fernandez Casado; p. 116, r ight : Dcu t sc-hcs Museum
Muni ch, phot ographi c service, Beato Harr er ; P: 11 8: Jiirgen
Schmidt ; p. 120 left , P: 121 : Sc- hlaic-hRC'rgermann un d
Par t ner ; PI" 116-127: Gr iff, Fircc-o: rp. 140 -141: Chr ist ian
Richt cr s, Mun ste r; pp . Nick \ Vood, Lond on ; pp .
James Morri s, London; p. Rendering Zaha
Hadi d; P: 16" left; Svcn Wor ner. Stuttgart ; r ight : Fret Ot to,
rinding Form, II. ; PI" 170-171; JU ID, Zag reb; p. 17H: Leo
van del' Klcij ; 1'. 179: Flor ian l iol zhcrr , Muni ch ; P' IH8; Jiirg
Con zett , Chur; P: ,89, ce nt re; Schlaich Bcr gcrmann lind
Partner; P: 19J, Wrecker Bridge : Brigitt e Braun ; PI" 100-
101: Philippe Ruault , Nantes; pp. 204-105: Er ik Reit zel : PI"
206-207: Todd Saunde rs; pp . 208-209: Pushak arkit ckt cr ; PI"
116-147, Graz: HelmutTezak; Naudcrs : Vcrcin Alttinster miinz;
Strengen: Mucha, Alois, Holzbruc-kcn, Wicsbadcn/Bcrlin ,
1995; Vienna, Erdbcr jjcr Foot hridge : Alfred Pauscr: Horton
and Wol uwc Saint -Pier re: [can-Luc Dcru (Daylight); Lucern e:
Kantonal c Denkmalpflepc Luzcrn ; l' ontrcsina: Otto Kunz]r-;
Trin: Walter Bieler; Val Soj: Martin Hugli;Yvcrdon.lcs-Batns:
Beat Widmer: Prag: Jir i St rasky: Bad Homhurg, Hanover, Expo
Bridges, Paris-La Defense: Schleich Ikrgermann uncl Partn er ;
Baden-Baden: Ingenieur gruppe Baucn, Karlsruh e; Berlin ,
Ger icke Footbridge und Gothe nburg Foothridge: Senator fUr
Bau- und \Vohnungswescn t pub.). l:uf3gangcrb riicken in Berl in,
Berlin , 1976; Hohlingcn: Janson +\Volfrum ; Brandenhurg
an del' Havel: Llwc Tiet ze l.andschaftsarchitcktcn: Bremen:
Torstcn Wildc-Schr ot cr; Essing, Potsdam, Ronncbu rp: Richard
J. Dietrich; Hanover, Skywalk: Schullt z + Part ner Architcktcn;
Lehne: Claus Bur )'; Oschat z: Mike Schlaich; Schnaitt ach:
Ingenieur-Ruro LudwigViczr-ns: Singen am Hohcnt wicl:
Michael Palm; Backpack Bridge: Maximilian Riitt iger; Asserts:
Cor tr ight , Br idging the World , 200J; Andoain, Llcida, Tcrrassa:
Pcdelta : Lcrca, Madr-id, Zaragoza: Car los Fernandez Casado ;
Palencia. Pcnt cvcdra : Phccor Ingenieros Consultorcs; Agen:
Gcrr it de Vos; Aubcr-villicr s, Belkgarde-sur -Valscrtnc, Mcylan:
Jacques Mossot (www.s tr uct urac. dcu Crctr -i l: Ger ard Mct ro n
( ructurac.dc}; Dole, Sar rcgucrnincs: Alain Spielmann
Architcct c; Figeac, St Den is, Saint-Maurice, Toulouse;
Mimram Ingenierie; l.arrau: hom anct .nl/ r- br uit oza :
Lc Havre; Mar -rev, Lcs Pont Modcrn cs, Paris 1995"; Rcnncs:
Marc Malinowskv.Trclon: Gro upe At-cora; Exeter; Clive
Ryall; Gat wick, London , Sout h Quay Bridge : Wilkinson
Eyre Architect s; Kcw: Kcw Gard ens; Kingston-upon -Hull:
Mcl rowell + Benedetti; London, Bridges to Babylon:The Mark
Fisher St udios; London, Plashct Schoo l f oothr idge : Nicholas
Cane; London , Hungerford Bridge: Ian Lamhot ; Stoc kton:
Lifschut z Davidson Sandilands; Cascinc di Tavola: Alessandro
Adilardi; Comacchio: phot ographic archi ves of t he commune of
Comrnacchio; Padua: Lorenzo Attoli co; Tur in: Michel Dcnancc;
Venice, Palazzo Qu erini Stampalia: Christian Hell: Venice, Ponte
Piazzalc Roma:Tobia Zor dan; Amsterdam: Ar up; Sromowcc
Nizne: Pawcl Hawr vszkow
All ot her photographs; Wiifri cd [)c chau, St uttgar t
\\"\\'\\'.wiIfr icd -dech
Authors: Ursula Baus, Mike Schlaich
Phot ographer : Wilfr ied Dcchau et al.
Layout : Moniteurs , Sibylle Schlaich; frei04 publizistik , Ur sula Baus
Translation into English: Chr is Rieser, NewYork ; RtchardToovey, Berlin
English Proofreading: Monica Buckland, Basel
Library of Congress Cont rol Number 200793 1248
Bibliogra phic information published by the Ger man National Libr ar y
The Ger man National Librar y lists this publi cation in the Deut sche Nationalbibliografie;
detailed bibliographic data an.' available on the Int ern et at http. v/
This book is also available in a Ger man language edition ( ISBN 978 -3-76 41-8138-7) .
This 'work is subject to copyright. All right s are reserved, whet her the
whole or part of the material is concer ned, specifically the rights of
tr anslation , reprint ing, re-use of illustrat ions, recitation, broadcast ing,
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For any kind of use, permi ssion of the copyright owner must be obtained.
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P. O. Box IB, CH-40 I0 Basel, Switzerland
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Lithography: Flori an Hoch, Stuttga r t
Printed in Italy
ISBN 978-3-7643 -8139-4

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