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LTE Release 8 and Beyond


Carl Anderson
Sr. Business Development Manager
The Future of Mobile
Broadband



July 2014
Mobile Devices Solutions
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Topics
2
LTE Basics Overview
LTE Market Overview
LTE R9 Enhancements
LTE R10 Enhancements
R11 and R12
Wrap Up
Test Your LTE Knowledge

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LTE Basics Overview
Mobile Devices Solutions
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What are LTE, SAE, and EPC?
4
Long Term Evolution (LTE) is an umbrella expression describing
the work of the 3GPP RAN Working Groups:
a) Create a new, evolved RAN (E-UTRAN)
b) Create a technology to replace UTRAN (W-CDMA)
System Architecture Evolution (SAE) describes the work of the
3GPP SA2 Working Group:
Develop a framework for an evolution of the 3GPP system to:
Higher-data-rates
Lower-latency
Packet-optimized architecture
Support for multiple Radio Access Technologies (RATs)
The work focuses on creating an Evolved Packet Core (EPC)

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Version History for LTE/SAE
5
The Study Item that led to R8 LTE (3.9G) was started in
late 2004
Work Item complete in late 2008 (core and test specs frozen)
TeliaSonera launched the 1
st
commercial R8 LTE networks in Oslo
and Stockholm in December 2009
R9 LTE (3.9G) was completed in March 2010
R10 LTE Advanced (4G) was completed in April 2011
Focus on Carrier Aggregation and enhanced MIMO to increase
data rates
Carrier Aggregation Demonstrated to the FCC by Qualcomm and
AT&T in May 2011

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Version History for LTE/SAE
6
R11 LTE Advanced was completed in December 2012
Focus on Heterogeneous Networks (HetNets) and Coordinated
Multipoint (CoMP)
R12 LTE Advanced was scheduled for completion in June
2014 (but now delayed)
Focus on enhanced small cells, enhanced MIMO (massive MIMO),
higher-order Carrier Aggregation (3 carrier downlink, 2 carrier
uplink, and FDD/TDD), and new services (Machine-Type
Communications, Device-to-Device communications, etc.)

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Basic Performance for LTE/SAE
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Rel. 8
LTE
Rel. 10
LTE Advanced
4G
IMT-Advanced
Targets
Peak Data Rate DL 300 MB/s 1200 MB/s 1 GB/s
UL 75 MB/s 600 MB/s 500 MB/s
Peak Spectrum
Efficiency
DL 15 bps/Hz 30 bps/Hz 15 bps/Hz
UL 3.75 bps/Hz 15 bps/Hz 6.75 bps/Hz
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Network Architecture for LTE/SAE
8


Evolved
Packet Core (EPC)
GPRS Core
WLAN Access
Network
Inter Access System
Anchor (IASA)
Non 3GPP IP
Access
Evolved
RAN (E-UTRAN)
UTRAN
GERAN
Operational
IP Services
(IMS, etc.)
SGSN
3GPP
Anchor
SAE
Anchor
MME
S-GW
P-GW
WLAN
3GPP IP
Access
HSS
PCRF
Gb
Iu
S1
S3
S4
S7
S6
SGi
S2a
S5a
S5b
S2b
MME - Mobility Management Entity
S-GW Serving Gateway
P-GW PDN (Packet Data Network)
Gateway
3GPP Anchor Mobility anchor
between 2G/3G and LTE access
systems (based on GTP)
SAE Anchor Mobility anchor
between 3GPP RATs and non 3GPP
RATs
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Physical Layer Highlights for R8 LTE
9
Downlink
Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access (OFDMA)
Single Input Single Output (SISO) and Multiple Input Multiple Output
(MIMO) operation
Uplink
Single Carrier Frequency Division Multiple Access (SC-FDMA)
SISO only
Support for multiple channel bandwidths
1.4, 3, 5, 10, 15, and 20 MHz
Low latency
Supporting real-time voice and gaming
Duplex options
Frequency Division Duplex (FDD) and Time Division Duplex (TDD)
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Resource Elements and Resource Blocks
10
The smallest time-frequency
unit for downlink transmission
is called a Resource Element
A group of contiguous sub-
carriers and symbols form a
Resource Block (RB)
Data is allocated to each user
equipment (UE) in terms of
RBs
A typical RB spans 12
consecutive sub-carriers and
7 consecutive symbols
Resource Element
Resource Block
N
DL
SYMB
x N
RB
BW
Resource Elements
N
R
B
B
W

s
u
b
-
c
a
r
r
i
e
r
s

N
D
L
B
W

s
u
b
-
c
a
r
r
i
e
r
s

N
DL
SYMB
OFDM Symbols
One slot
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FDD vs. TD-LTE
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LTE Frequency Bands
12
TDD
FDD
Band 2 US, Canada, S. America
Band 38 Europe, Japan, Taiwan Band 39 China
Band 17 AT&T, US Band 14 US, Canada, Public safety
Band 25, 26, 27 US, Canada,
South America
Band 4 Americas, Canada
Band 13 Verizon, US, Canada
Band 1 Japan, Asia, EU
Band 5 US, Canada, Aus, Korea
Band 3 France, Poland, Nordic, Korea
Band 7 Europe, HK
Band 18 Japan, KDDI
Band 11 Japan
Band 41
US, China, Japan
Band 40 Australia, China, India
Band 20 Europe, Germany
Band 8 Korea
Band 19, 21, 28 Japan
Band 12 US, Canada, (AWS)
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Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO)
Refers to use of multiple antennas both at the TX and RX
LTE MIMO can be subdivided into three categories
Beamforming
Space Frequency Coding
Same data streams on all antennas
Increased S/N at cell edge
Spatial Multiplexing
Different data streams on all antennas
Higher data rates
MIMO in LTE
13
Serial
to
Parallel
Parallel
to
Serial
Data 2 R bps
Two Spatial Streams
R bps
R bps
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LTE UE Categories
14
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IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS) and VoLTE
15
IMS supports a wide variety of services
Including voice (VoLTE), video, presence, geo-location, and others
In an LTE network, IMS is enabled by Call Session Control Function
(CSCF) servers
Handover from VoLTE to CS services is enabled by Single Radio
Voice Call Continuity (SRVCC)
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LTE Market Overview
Mobile Devices Solutions
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LTE Network Deployments in the Americas
United States
T-Mobile/MetroPCSSept. 2010
Verizon Dec. 2010
AT&T Sept. 2011
Leap/Cricket Dec. 2011
US Cellular March 2012
Sprint July 2012
C Spire Sept. 2012
T-Mobile March 2013


17
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LTE Network Deployments in the Americas
Canada
Rogers (July 2011), Bell, Telus,
Eastlink, Allstream, & Sasktel
(TDD)
Latin America
Brazil Claro, On (TDD), Oi, Sky
(TDD), & TIM
Mexico Telcel & Movistar
Puerto Rico AT&T, Claro, Open
Mobile, Sprint, & T-Mobile


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LTE Device Availability
19
1563 Devices Overall
742 New Devices in One Year
LTE Smartphones are Available in the Largest Number
Routers/Hotspots are the Second Highest in Availability
387 TD-LTE Devices
March 2014
Gsacom.com
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R9 Enhancements
Mobile Devices Solutions
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Multimedia Broadcast Multicast Services (eMBMS)
21
Point-to-multipoint service
New network elements are required for eMBMS
Broadcast-Multicast Service Center (BMSC)
MBMS Gateway
Multi-Cell Coordination Entity (MCE)
Deployment options include single cell or Multimedia Broadcast Single
Frequency Network (MBSFN) using multiple eNBs
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IMS Service Continuity
Single Radio Voice Call Continuity
(SRVCC) first defined in R8 -
seamless session continuity as
the user moves between access
networks
In R9, functionality enhanced by
allowing transfer of a users
sessions to and from other
devices belonging to the user
e.g. Video stream transferred to a
large-screen TV
In addition, a user can add or
delete sessions on multiple
devices, controlled from a single
device
22
Eric Macioszcyk
catis-blog.com
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IMS Emergency Services
For LTE devices, 911/112
and other emergency calls
need to be routed to local
emergency services in the
serving network
Device could be at home or roaming
nationally/globally
Emergency services should
be supplied to at least
validated devices, and
possibly barred, USIM-less,
and other devices
Mobility, handovers,
SRVCC, etc. should be
allowed for emergency calls
23
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Enhanced Downlink Beamforming
R8 includes 5 types of
multi-antenna techniques
that can be used
Transmission Mode 1 to 7
(TM1-TM7)
Dynamically adjusted based on
feedback from the UE
R9 adds an extension of
Single Layer
Beamforming (TM7)
called Dual-layer
Beamforming (TM8)
Allows the transmitter to apply
beamforming on top of dual
layer downlink transmissions
24
Electronics Products
April 3, 2012
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Vocoder Rate Adaptation
25
Used with IMS (VoLTE) calls (AMR, WB-AMR, MPEG, etc.)
Network warns the endpoint of IP congestion
CODEC rate reduction is triggered
Avoids situations where packets might be dropped before the CODEC rate
is reduced

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Anritsu LTE Portfolio
26
MT8870A
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Anritsu Support for LTE R9
27
eMBMS
MD8430A + RTD
IMS Service Continuity
MD8430A + MD8480C + RTD + Radvision supports SRVCC
MD8475A supports SRVCC
ME7834L (Protocol Conf. and Carrier Acceptance) supports SRVCC
IMS Emergency Services
MD8430A + RTD + Radvision ProLab
Dual-Layer Beamforming (TM8)
MD8430A + RTD








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- LTE Advanced
R10 Enhancements
Mobile Devices Solutions
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Carrier Aggregation
29
LTE Advanced must support bandwidth of 100 MHz to achieve IMT-
Advanced targets of 1 GB/S DL and 500 MB/s UL
Its difficult to find 100 MHz of contiguous spectrum, so Carrier
Aggregation enables joining spectrum together
Multiple options including Contiguous, Non-Contiguous/In-Band, and Non-
Contiguous/Out-of-Band
Backwards compatible with LTE R8
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Enhanced Downlink MIMO and Uplink MIMO
LTE R8 supports up to
4x4 MIMO on the
downlink with 4 Layers
e.g. 4 Cat. 4 streams could
support 4 x 150 MB/s = 600
MB/s
LTE R10 doubles R8
capabilities with up to 8x8
MIMO on the downlink
with 8 layers
e.g. 8 Cat. 4 streams could
support 8 x 150 MB/s = 1200
MB/s
LTE R8 uplink supported
only SISO, but R9
enables up to 4x4 MIMO

30
Anirban Das
MTT Global Services
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Heterogeneous Networks (HetNets)
31
Concept is that lower power cells are placed as underlays in higher
power macrocells
Lower power cells include micro, pico, femto, RRHs, and relay
Two concepts to avoid interference
Carrier Aggregation-based (frequency domain)
o Control Channels to schedule RBs located in alternate carriers (cross-
carrier scheduling)
Non Carrier-Aggregation-based (time domain)
o Offset control channels in time and transmit Almost Blank Subframes (ABS)
4g-lte-world.blogspot.com
June 11, 2012
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Relay Nodes
32
Relay Nodes are essentially base station repeaters at cell edges
Interface between the eNB and Relay Node can be in-band or out-of-band
LTE
Extends high data rate coverage area and cell edge coverage
Two primary types of relay
L1 relay Amplify and forward
L2 relay Decode and forward
o Reduces interference and noise
over L1 relay
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Local IP Access (LIPA) and
Selected IP Traffic Offload (SIPTO)
LIPA provides LTE
devices connected to a
femtocell with access to
other IP access devices
on the network
TVs, audio and video libraries
on computers, servers, etc.
Mobility is not available between
femtocells
SIPTO allows IP traffic to
pass from the femtocell
directly to the internet,
bypassing the operators
core network
33
Femtoforum.org
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Interworking with WiFi
34
A typical smartphone can connect to one PDN over LTE and a 2
nd

PDN over WiFi, but mobility and transfer of PDNs between
connections is undefined before R10
R10 Solutions include:
WiFi authentication with USIM credentials
IP address allocated to be used only at that hotspot. No mobility to
LTE.
Multi-Access PDN Connection (MAPCON)
Multiple connections to different PDNs allowed over LTE and WiFi
Inter-system handover enables transfer of PDN connections between
technologies
IP Flow Mobility (IPFOM)
UE can access a PDN connection over LTE while maintaining
connectivity to the same PDN over WiFi
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Anritsu LTE Portfolio
35
MT8870A
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Anritsu Support for LTE R10
Downlink Carrier
Aggregation
MD8430A+ RTD
Uplink Carrier
Aggregation
MD8430A + RTD
Downlink MIMO
MD8430A + RTD (4x2 Today)
Uplink MIMO
MD8430A + RTD
Heterogeneous Networks
MD8430A + RTD







Relay Nodes
Heterogeneous Networks
LIPA
SIPTO
Interworking with WiFi

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R11 and R12
Mobile Devices Solutions
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Coordinated Multipoint (CoMP)

When a UE is at the cell
edge region:
The UE may be able to receive
signals from multiple eNBs
The UEs transmitted signals may be
received at multiple eNBs
If downlink signaling is
coordinated, performance
can be increased
Techniques include interference
avoidance or transmission of the
same data from multiple cell sites
For the uplink, if scheduling
is coordinated from multiple
sites, system performance
can be increased with
multiple receptions
38
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R12 Highlights
39
Slide Title or URL
Unwiredinsight.com
Alastair Brydon
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Test Your LTE Knowledge
40
Q1: When and where was the 1
st
LTE R8 network launched?




Q2: What is the peak downlink data rate of LTE R10?




Q3: How many 3GPP releases does LTE Advanced correspond to?




Q4: How many LTE devices were available in August 2013?




A1: Dec, 2009 in Oslo, Norway, and Stockholm, Sweden



A2: 1200 MB/s



A3: At least Rel. 10, 11, and 12, so 3 or higher is correct


A4: 1064

Q5: How many bands for LTE have been defined?




A5: 24 were shown, but more are being added


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Test Your LTE Knowledge
41
Q6: What does E-UTRAN stand for?




Q8: How many transmission layers does R10 allow in the downlink?




Q9: Can 2 carriers be aggregated when they are not adjacent in frequency?




A6: Evolved Universal Terrestrial Radio Access Network


A7: Optimizes infrastructure use when large numbers want the same
multimedia content
A8: 8 Layers


A9: Yes, with either intra-band, non-contiguous aggregation of inter-band
aggregation

EXTRA: What are MAPCON and IPFOM different forms of?




LTE Wi Fi interworking


Q7: Why is eMBMS so popular with operators?



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Questions
Mobile Devices Solutions
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Thank You!
43
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