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Rotational and

Torsional Vibration
Users Manual
Version: 1.0
Thank you!
Thank you very much for your investment in our unique data acquisition systems. These are top-quality
instruments which are designed to provide you years of reliable service. This guide has been prepared to
help you get the most from your investment, starting from the day you take it out of the box, and extending
for years into the future.
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Table f !ontents
Table Of Contents
" #otice................................................................................................................................."
"." $afety instructions......................................................................................................%
".% &bout this document...................................................................................................'
".' (egend........................................................................................................................'
% )ntroduction........................................................................................................................*
%." $ystem verview........................................................................................................*
%.% +nabling TV ,includes RV- module..............................................................................
%.' /asic operating concept.............................................................................................0
%.1 2eneral setup.............................................................................................................3
%.* !ounter $ensor +ditor.............................................................................................."4
' Rotational Vibration..........................................................................................................""
'." RV )ntroduction.........................................................................................................""
'.% RV $etup...................................................................................................................""
'.%." )nput filter..........................................................................................................."%
'.%.% Rotational 5! filter............................................................................................"%
'.%.' utput channels................................................................................................"%
'.' RV 6easurement......................................................................................................"'
1 Torsional vibration............................................................................................................"*
1." TV )ntroduction.........................................................................................................."*
1.% TV $etup..................................................................................................................."*
1.%." 2earbox ratio.....................................................................................................".
1.%.% utput channels................................................................................................".
1.%.' &ngle offset........................................................................................................"0
1.%.1 Reference curve................................................................................................"0
1.' TV 6easurement......................................................................................................"3
* &dvanced analysis and export........................................................................................."7
*." rder extraction........................................................................................................"7
*.% 88T peak calculation................................................................................................%%
*.' &ngle-based data export...........................................................................................%1
. 6easurement accuracy....................................................................................................%0
.." +rror sources............................................................................................................%0
..% !ounter accuracy......................................................................................................%0
..%." !ounter architecture..........................................................................................%0
..%.% &ngle resolution.................................................................................................%3
..%.' &ngle accuracy..................................................................................................%7
..%.1 8requency accuracy..........................................................................................%7
..' $ensor accuracy.......................................................................................................'4
..'." #on centered mounting.....................................................................................'4
..'.% Resolution error.................................................................................................'4
0 5ocumentation version history.........................................................................................''
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#otice
1 Notice
The information contained in this document is sub:ect to change without notice.
CAUTION
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Rotational and Torsional Vibration
9rinting ;istoryA
Version Revision "00
Released %4"'
(ast changedA '. 5ecember %4"' "1A**
!opyright
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1.1 Safety instructions
Your safety is our primary concern! Please be safe!
$afety symbols in the manual
WARNING
!alls attention to a procedure, practice, or condition that could cause body in:ury or
death.
CAUTION
!alls attention to a procedure, practice, or condition that could possibly cause
damage to equipment or permanent loss of data.
2eneral $afety )nstructions
WARNING The following general safety precautions must be observed during all phases of
operation, service, and repair of this product. 8ailure to comply with these
precautions or with specific warnings elsewhere in this manual violates safety
standards of design, manufacture, and intended use of the product. 5ewesoft 2mb;
assumes no liability for the customerFs failure to comply with these requirements.
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#otice
1. About t!is document
This is the ?sers 6anual for Rotational and Torsional Vibration Version ".4.
1." #e$end
The following symbols and formats will be used throughout the document.
IMPORTANT
2ives you an important information about a sub:ect.
9lease read carefullyG
HINT
2ives you a hint or provides additional information about a sub:ect.
EXAMPLE
2ives you an example to a specific sub:ect.
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)ntroduction
%ntroduction
The HTorsional VibrationI software option of 5+=+$oftJ is used to obtain - or enhance an existing 5ewesoft
system to - a rotationalBtorsional vibration monitoring and analyCing solution, for research, development and
optimiCation. =ith the small form factor of the 5ewesoft instruments ,e.g. $)R)?$, 5+=+-1', K- the perfect
mobile solution for test engineers and consultants is born.
Torsional and Rotational vibration are calculated, as well as the corresponding velocities, the software can
compensate uncentered mounting of the sensor and can also take care about the gearbox ratio. 8urthermore
the possibilities of 5+=+$oftJ allow angle-domain visualisation and export.
=ith 5+=+$oftJ also data from other sourcesA e.g. Video, !&#, +thernet, K are perfectly synchroniCed in
one datafile.
)f the powerful integrated post processing features of 5+=+$oftJ are not enough, you can even export the
data to several different file formats.
)n addition to Torsional Vibration, the system can be expanded with the rdertracking option to complete the
picture of the measurement situation.
.1 System Overview
&s the torsional vibration measurements are very critical in terms of accuracy, only precise counter sensors
are supported. &t least one ,Rotational vibration-, but usually two ,Torsional vibration- encoders are
necessary.
+ither an encoder or a special R)+ sensor can be used. The R)+ sensor has less resolution, but is much less
sensitive to vibrations ,which could damage standard encoders over time-.
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Rotational and Torsional Vibration
. &nablin$ T' (includes )'* module
(ike many additional mathematics modules also Torsional Vibration is an option to the standard
5+=+$oftJ package and needs to be enabled in the ;ardware setupA +nter L$ettingsM L;ardware $etupM
and then L6athM.
?sually this must not be done manually, since the license is already stored on your 5ewesoft instrument.
Nust click on the H&uto 5etectI button and all options will be detected and enabled automatically.
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)ntroduction
." +asic operatin$ concept
The Torsional vibration module inside 5+=+$oftJ is :ust one out of several other application modules which
offers dedicated mathematics and dedicated visual controls like angle based @>-diagram.
EXAMPLE
>ou can use the output channels of the Torsional vibration module as an input for the
rdertracking module, and also apply additional mathematics on it.
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Rotational and Torsional Vibration
., -eneral setup
)n the first step we add one module with the D buttonA
The input mask of the TV module is split into following sectionsA
inputA define the counter channels for input ,e.g. !#T", !#T%-
counter setupA define type of angle sensor ,e.g. +nc-*"%, !56-'.4-, and select ratio, if gearing used
filter setupA specify glitch filter and rotational filter
output channelsA select which calculations to be done, e.g. rotational velocity, torsional angle...
correctionA compensate constant angle offset, uncentered mounting, sensor errors
outputA preview of output channels B switch through with the arrow buttons
previewA preview of torsional angle
HINT
There is no need to configure the !ounter inputs separately in the !ounter setup, all
the settings are done out of the Torsional vibration module.
The setup of the !ounters is done out of the Torsional vibration module.
?sed !ounters will be locked ,greyed out- in !ounter setup.
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)ntroduction
$witch to HView !hannel (istI on the right upper corner to see a list of the calculated output channels.
)t is important to know that we actually have two different parameters that can be measured with the torsional
vibration moduleA rotational vibration and torsional vibration.
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Rotational and Torsional Vibration
.. Counter Sensor &ditor
There are some typical sensors predefined. ;owever, if your type is not listed, you can define your own
sensor in the !ounter $ensor +ditor. #ote, that for Torsional Vibration module the sensor has to be either
+ncoder or !56 type.
2o to $ettings O !ounter $ensor +ditor...
K and click on H&dd sensorI first, then enter a name, and set all other parameters. 5epending on the sensor
different parameters are available. =hen finished, click H$aveP+xitI.
#ow the sensor can be accessed from the dropdown menu of the Torsional vibration module.
HINT
>ou can press L8"M in any menu in 5+=+$oft and the help for the specific topic will
open.
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Rotational Vibration
" )otational 'ibration
".1 )' %ntroduction
Rotational vibration is simply the dynamic deviation of the rotation speed. )f we measure the rotation speed
of the shaft with high precision, we will notice that we get a high deviation of rotation speed in some regions
of the run up. This is caused by the angular vibration crossing the angular natural frequency of the shaft. )t is
calculated by cutting off the 5! component of the rotation speed or rotation angle.
)n the graph below we see two curves, the one above is the R96, and the curve below shows the deviation
in degrees, which is actually the rotation angle vibration. 5uring coastdown the max. vibrations appear at the
same R96Qs again.
". )' Setup
8or our test, we take the Torsional Vibration 5emo
<it, which consists of an electric motor ,in the
middle- and two encoders. The encoder on the left
is connected with a coupling and the encoder on the
right with a spring to the motor, to create high
vibrations.
/ecause we are currently only interested in
rotational vibration, we will only use the encoder on
the right side, connected with the spring ,see red
box-.
!onnect the +ncoder to the 5+=+$oft instrument
on a !ounter input.
&s mentioned, there is nothing to be setup in the
analog or counter channels setup. (etQs :ust go to
the Torsional vibration module, where we first add a
new module by clicking the D button. #ext we select
the 8irst sensor input . $ince we have connected
the first sensor to !#T", we need to select it from
the list. Then we define the sensor. )n our case we
have "344 pulses per revolution, so we choose
+ncoder-"344. )f the sensor used is not defined so
far, we need to create it in the !ounter sensor editor
first ,see page "4, chapter %.* !ounter $ensor
+ditor-
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Rotational and Torsional Vibration
"..1 %nput filter
The input filter can be used to prevent glitches and spikes in the digital encoder pulse signal. )t can be set
from "44ns to *us, the optimal setting is derived from following equationA
".. )otational /C filter
The )otational /C filter needs to be set to cut the 5! component of the R96s. =e need to set the filter to
include all wanted frequencies, but not too low, else we will have static 5! deviations on the output signal. )t
can be set from 4." to "4 ;C. >ou have to ensure that your lowest R96 is not filtered outG
& "4 ;C filter for example would mean, frequencies below .44 R96 would be suppressed.
".." Output c!annels
The output channels are
Rotational angle ,filtered angle value of vibration-
Rotational velocity ,filtered velocity vibration value-
@ axis reference angle ,the reference angle, which is always from 4 to '.4 and can be used as a
reference in angle based xy diagrams-
8requency, in R96 unit
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Rotational Vibration
"." )' 0easurement
=hen you switch to measure mode, the calculated channels of the TV module are shown in the channel
selector on the right side. 8irst idea would be to select the TVR8requency channel and display in
analogBdigital meter or a recorder.
The $ensorR"Rangle is the reference angle and can be used for an$le1based display of @> recorder.&dd a
@> recorder and click on $ensorR"Rangle first ,Sx axis-, then on Rot&ngleR" ,Sy axis-. Then set the recorder
to H&ngle based x-yI in the properties on the left side. $elect e.g. % periods to be displayed. This xy recorder
now displays the rotational angle of the current revolution. )t is like a scope, but with an angle reference
instead of a time reference.
Vary the R96 and when you come close to the resonance frequency, the amplitude reaches its maximum.
)n the next graph also the rotational velocity is added ,first derivation on the angle-, according to theory it is
shifted 74 degrees.
The last channel out of the module is called HRev. countI, a revolution counterA
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Torsional vibration
, Torsional vibration
,.1 T' %ntroduction
Torsional vibration is an oscillation of angular motions ,twist- which occur along rotating parts, such as gear
trains, crank shafts or clutches. =e need two encoders to measure the torsional vibration, so the torsional
vibration is actually a difference between angles of the two encoders. The torsional vibration also measures
the static twist of the shaft with higher R96s.
The graph below shows the run up and coast down where we can nicely see the static twist of the shaft, and
when passing through the natural frequency, the angular vibration of the shaft reaches its maximum.
,. T' Setup
=e extend the setup from the Rotational Vibrations
6easurement by also connecting now the second
encoder.
n the left side is an encoder with fix ,coupled-
connection to the motor ,first red box-, on the right
side is another encoder ,second red box-. $o we
measure the torsion vibrations of the metal spring
between.
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Rotational and Torsional Vibration
&dd a Torsional vibration module with the D button.
$elect !#T4 as first and !#T" as second sensor input. Then further define the encoders by selecting the
correct type from the dropdowns on the right side ,in our case +ncoder-*"% and +ncoder-"344-.
&s already explained in the rotational vibration section, you can use the input filter for cleaning the signal
from eventual glitches, and the rotational filter removes the 5! offset from the difference signal.
,..1 -earbo2 ratio
-earbo2 ratio stays "B" in our case. This is used for measuring the torsion angle across a gearbox.
,.. Output c!annels
Torsional angle (dynamic torsional angle that is the angle difference from sensor 1 to sensor 2)
Torsional velocity ,difference in angular velocity from sensor " to sensor %-
$ensor " Rotational angle
$ensor % Rotational angle
$ensor " Rotational velocity
$ensor % Rotational velocity
@ axis reference angle ,the reference angle, which is always from 4 to '.4 and can be used as a
reference in angle based xy diagrams-
8requency, in R96 unit
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Torsional vibration
,.." An$le offset
)n the section H&ngle offsetI you see the angular difference between the two sensors ,-"'0T-. !lick on H3eroI
to remove t!is static offset. The current average value of the signal will be subtracted. Then click on the y
axis to auto-scale the signal. )t is now approximately 4.
,.., )eference curve
#ow there is also an option how to compensate uncentered mountin$ and unsteady pulses from
encoder.
!entered mounting is very important. n the first picture ,"- there is no problem, the disk is mounted
perfectly. ;owever in real life, uncentered mounting like in picture ,%- will appear. (etQs draw on the disk a red
line on 4 degree and a blue line on 74 degree position. =hen the disk is turned, the sensor ,black box- will
count the pulses and after a certain number detect the 74 degree position. /ut if you look at the disk now, it
is far from 74 degreesG
Think of it rotating, then a constant sine wave will be generated additionally to the rotational vibrations. This
can be compensated in 5+=+$oft using the reference curve.
;owever, therefore it is required that the load must be removed from the engineG )t must be free-run.
therwise you would also cancel out vibrations you want to analyCe. =hen the the machine is running, press
the H$etI button.
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Rotational and Torsional Vibration
The current curve is now recorded over one revolution as a reference. &fter that the line is much more flat.
,." T' 0easurement
/elow you see an example setup screen with some typical instruments. $imilar to the rotational vibration
setup we can use the @> recorder to display the result angle-based. &fter the runup B coastdown you see
typical resonances and can analyCe the data further.
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&dvanced analysis and export
. Advanced analysis and e2port
..1 Order e2traction
(et us look a little bit further and extend the functions by adding the rder Tracking option.
?sually it is included in the 5$& package, we can use it to extract the orders of the torsional B rotational
vibrations.
&dd an rdertracking module. 8or the frequency source we need to define the Torsional vibration module
and the module created before. 5efine the ?pper and (ower R96 limit. This is used to reserve the memory
for waterfall 88T. The waterfall will be drawn from the lower to the upper limit in the 5elta R96 step . )n this
case, we will have ,'444-4- B *4 S .4 steps of waterfall. =e choose to extract the first three orders by
entering H"U%U'I in the ;armonics field. The yellow field indicates that you have to press enter to overtake the
values.
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Rotational and Torsional Vibration
=ith the '5 waterfall plot we can get a better picture of the situation. 9lot frequency against R96, or rders
against R96. n the left picture one can easily seperate into frequencies related and not-related to R96.
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&dvanced analysis and export
8urthermore the amplitudes B phases ,or even real and imaginary part- of the rders can be plot against the
frequency.
&gain, take the @> recorder, but now set graph type to H$ingle x axisI to get a /ode plot.
;ere you see the first harmonic ,green line- with its maximum around %144 R96, matching nicely to the
previous measurements. Turning of the phase also indicates resonance.
HINT
$ettings can also be added B modified HofflineI ,Safter measurement- on the datafile.
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Rotational and Torsional Vibration
.. 44T pea5 calculation
ne of the standard measurements is, to do e.g. the run up of the machine, and then calculate the max
amplitude over the 88T.
&dd a 88T function from the H$pectral analysisI section in math.
Then select the input channel, here for example TorsionRangle. $et to amplitude, verall, and averaging type
peak.
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&dvanced analysis and export
;ere is an example, done offline on a datafile ,of course you also can do it online, during measurement-. &
section has been selected in the recorder instrument below ,green line- to only analyCe the runup of the
machine.
Then a %5 graph was added ,see instrument bar, red box- and the &mpl88T math channel assigned.
> axis type can be set to logarithmic in the %5 graph properties ,left side- for convenience.
>ou can do the standard export, or :ust click on the %5 instrument, and use H+ditI O H!opy data to clipboardI.
9asting, e.g. into +xcel gives following resultA
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Rotational and Torsional Vibration
.." An$le1based data e2port
The angle-based display of measurement data is often very useful. )n the @> recorder you assign the
reference angle H$ensorR"RangleI to the x axisU then set the view either to
An$le1based 2yA working like a scope, see the current cycle
Sin$le 2 a2isA see all cycles layed over each other ,Hpersistence modeI-, easy to see minBmax over
all cyclesU persistence can be ad:usted with the 9retime limit in the properties
#ow, how is it possible to export this cycle-based dataV 2o to 6ath and add a HReference scope arrayI.
=ith this great tool 5+=+$oft arranges the input data, e.g. HTorsionRangleI over the H$ensorR"RangleI in a
matrix by resampling the values to the angle-base, you also can select resolution, in this example we :ust
use " degree. The output data is 6)#, 6&@ and &V2 over all cycles.
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&dvanced analysis and export
8or displaying the matrix data you have to use a different visual instrument, the %5 graph. Then you can
assign the &V+, 6)# and 6&@ channels from the 6ath function.
$tore a datafile, afterwards in the +xport section only select the ' matrix channels ,in order that data has the
same format-A
;ere we have done the export to +xcel, instead of the time axis, we have angle-based data.
)f you copy the data, then use the Hpaste special...I function in +xcel, you can HTransposeI columns and rows
automatically and get the angle from top down instead of left to right.
Selective e2port6
?se the recorder instrument to Coom into a section of your datafile in 5+=+$oft ,position both white cursors
) and )) and click between them-,then the calculation and export is only done over the selected data.
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6easurement accuracy
7 0easurement accuracy
7.1 &rror sources
The overall error of the measurement has to be split up into errors from the sensor and the counter
measurement uncertainty. ?sually the sensor errors make the ma:or amount.
7. Counter accuracy
7..1 Counter arc!itecture
To understand how the angle resolution is determined, it is at first important to understand the internal
architecture of the 5ewesoft !ounters. & combination of main and sub counter is used internally for getting
higher precision at the frequency measurement. The main counter is running on event counting ,or encoder
mode-. The sub counter is used for time measurement, it measures exactly the time of the input event with a
resolution of 7,00 nsec ,S " B "4%,1 6;C- relative to the sample clock.&t every rising edge on the !ounter
$ource the counter value of the sub counter is stored in a register. &t every $ample !lock the values of both
counters are read out.
=ith these both measurement results not only the frequency can be calculated in a precise way. &lso the
event counter result can be shown in fractions because the exact time when the event occurs at the input is
known. The event counting result is recalculated with interpolation to the sample point like shown in the
diagram below.
;ere the improvement of the measurement result is shown. =hile a standard counter input shows the value
up to one sample delayed, the counter input of the 5ewesoft instrument calculates the exact counter result at
the sample point.
IMPORTANT
The Counter value in the software is updated with the sample rate!
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Rotational and Torsional Vibration
7.. An$le resolution
The counter result is read out with the sample rate, therefore the same update rate applies for the calculated
angle.
8urthermore the angle resolution depends on the rotation speed ,R96-.
/elow there are two angle-based %5 graphs showing the $ensor angle on the x axis at the same R96. The
option Hdraw sample pointsI was enabled. n the left side the sample rate was set to *44 ;C, on the right to
%*44 ;CA
$ince rotational and torsional calculations are all based on the sample rate, the angle resolution is the same.
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6easurement accuracy
7.." An$le accuracy
&s the !ounter is working on an internal timebase of "4%.1 6;C, the angle accuracy is only depending on
the rotation speed ,R96-.
The following formula shows how to calculate the angle accuracyA

res
=
rpm
60
360
102.410
6
K "4%,1 6;C is the !ounter Timebase
The numerator shows the angle which is passing by in one second, this is then divided by the timebase of
the counter, in one second we will get "4%.1 million samples.
7.., 4re8uency accuracy
&ny digital frequency measurement is based on period time measurement. The time between two edges of
the input signal is HsampledI with the counter time base of "4%.16hC. =ith this simple measurement method
the accuracy of the measured frequency is given by ratio between the input signal frequency and the counter
time base frequencyA
f
error
=
f
in
102.410
6
=e can see, the error increases with input frequency. 8or example at "46;C the accuracy goes down to
"4WG
(ike explained above, the advanced counter structure of 5ewesoft are using two counters internal counters
and the output rate is synchronous with the the acquisition rate. =ith this technology we can limit the
maximum error to the used acquisition rate.
The illustration below shows the accuracy at different input signals between % k$Bsec to "444 k$Bsec taking
also the typical counter time base accuracy of * ppm in account.
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Rotational and Torsional Vibration
7." Sensor accuracy
7.".1 Non centered mountin$
!an be corrected under certain conditions, see page "0 chapter 1.%.1 Reference curve in this document.
7.". )esolution error
&n additional error occurs due to mechanical tolerances of the used encoder. 5epending on the encoder
mode setting used ,@", @%, @1-, they have influcence on the measurement.
91 mode6 8or this mode only the rising edge is important. )f the sensor marks are not precisely
repeating at constant delta angles ,have a constant H:itterI-, this also can be compensated with the reference
curve option
2oodA /adA
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6easurement accuracy
9 mode6 8or @% mode both the rising and falling edge of the first encoder track are used, which
doubles the resolution. /ut if the duty cycle is not exactly *4W, another error is introduced.
2oodA /adA
9, mode6 /oth falling and rising edges of both encoder tracks are used in @1 mode to get 1 times the
precision. The phase shift between the two tracks must be exactly 74T and the duty cycle *4W.
2oodA /adA
Therefore, the higher the mode used ,e.g. @1 compared to @"-, the more noise will be in the measurement
due to the discussed mechanical tolerances, because all effects appear together. )n a manner of speaking an
encoder with a high resolution ,e.g. '.44 pulses-, is difficult to manufacture precisely, and therefore will have
more noise in @1 mode than one with lower resolution ,e.g. '.4 pulses- in @1 mode.
f course, if using two encoders ,as in torsional vibration-, the errors are doubled.
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5ocumentation version history
: /ocumentation version !istory
Revision numberA "00
(ast modifiedA Tue 4' 5ec %4"', "1A**
'ersi
on
/ate
;dd.mm.yy
yy< Notes
1.0 28.11.13 initial revision
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