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THE ULTIMATE PHRASAL VERB BOOK

Contents.............................................................................4
TO THE TEACHER........................................................6
TO THE STUDENT.........................................................7
1. FOCUS ON: separable and nonseparable phrasal erbs !
come from..............................................................9
figure out..............................................................10
give back..............................................................10
look for.................................................................10
put on....................................................................10
run into..................................................................11
show up.................................................................11
take off..................................................................12
". FOCUS ON: phrasal erbs and do, does, and did. . .16
come off................................................................17
doze off.................................................................18
fall for...................................................................18
give in...................................................................18
hear about.............................................................18
pull through..........................................................18
stay off..................................................................19
throw up................................................................19
#. FOCUS ON: three$%ord phrasal erbs....................""
feel up to...............................................................22
get over with.........................................................22
go along with........................................................22
go in for................................................................2
look forward to.....................................................2
put up with............................................................2
screw out of..........................................................2
talk down to..........................................................2
4. FOCUS ON: present and past &ont'n(o(s phrasal erbs "6
cheat on................................................................2!
go after..................................................................2!
look up..................................................................27
pay for..................................................................27
plan for.................................................................28
point to..................................................................28
put to.....................................................................28
wrap up.................................................................29
). FOCUS ON: pron(n&'at'on o* t%o$%ord phrasal erbs #"
break down...........................................................2
burn down............................................................."
call in...................................................................."
find out................................................................."
hand back.............................................................."
look at...................................................................#
setup.....................................................................#
6. FOCUS ON: pron(n&'at'on o* three$%ord phrasal erbs 4+
boil down to.........................................................."0
come down with..................................................."0
come up with........................................................"1
get around to........................................................."1
get out of..............................................................."1
go back on............................................................"1
go through with...................................................."2
monkey around with............................................."2
7. FOCUS ON: separable phrasal erbs %'th lon, ob-e&ts 4)
cut up...................................................................."#
hold up.................................................................."!
let out...................................................................."!
point out................................................................"7
run over................................................................"7
see about..............................................................."8
take in..................................................................."8
.. FOCUS ON: present per*e&t phrasal erbs.............)4
burn out................................................................#"
fall over................................................................##
fight back..............................................................##
hear of...................................................................#!
pick out.................................................................#!
tear down..............................................................#!
work in..................................................................#7
!. FOCUS ON: t%o$%ord phrasal erbs that re/('re an add't'onal part'&le %hen (sed %'th an ob-e&t0 1 61
break out...............................................................!2
catch up................................................................!2
chicken out...........................................................!
get along...............................................................!
give up..................................................................!
hang up.................................................................!
hook up.................................................................!"
work up.................................................................!"
1+. FOCUS ON: phrasal erbs (sed as no(ns0 1.........6!
fall off...................................................................!9
kick back..............................................................70
lay off...................................................................70
screw up................................................................71
11. FOCUS ON: phrasal erbs (sed 'n &o1po(nd no(ns 76
backup..................................................................77
cut off...................................................................78
drop off.................................................................79
follow up..............................................................80
take out.................................................................80
try out...................................................................81
wake up................................................................82
work out................................................................82
1". FOCUS ON: past per*e&t phrasal erbs..................!
back off.................................................................89
come across..........................................................90
come up................................................................90
fall through..........................................................91
put out...................................................................91
1#. FOCUS ON: pass'e phrasal erbs0 1.....................!)
call off...................................................................9#
dose off.................................................................9#
hand in..................................................................9!
let off....................................................................97
light up..................................................................97
track down............................................................98
14. FOCUS ON: part'&'ple ad-e&t'es *or1ed *ro1 phrasal erbs0 11+"
butt in..................................................................10
dress up...............................................................10
dry up..................................................................10
fill out.................................................................10"
put away.............................................................10"
stick up...............................................................10"
use up..................................................................10#
1). FOCUS ON: phrasal erbs and will or be going to111
blow away...........................................................112
come through......................................................112
dry out.................................................................11
fi$ up...................................................................11
go with................................................................11"
head back............................................................11#
tell on..................................................................11!
16. FOCUS ON: phrasal erbs %'th ,er(nd ob-e&ts0 11"+
believe in............................................................120
carry on...............................................................121
count on..............................................................121
get through..........................................................122
go for..................................................................12
hold off...............................................................12
put past...............................................................12
think about..........................................................12"
17. FOCUS ON: aderbs and phrasal erbs..............1"!
come over...........................................................10
get back at...........................................................10
go about..............................................................11
grow out of.........................................................11
rip up..................................................................11
wear down..........................................................12
1.. FOCUS ON: phrasal erbs and can, could, will, and would 1#7
breakthrough.......................................................18
figure on.............................................................18
get off.................................................................19
go beyond...........................................................1"0
lift upon..............................................................1"0
line up.................................................................1"0
stand around.......................................................1"1
tell apart..............................................................1"1
1!. FOCUS ON: phrasal erbs and the aderb right 14)
aim at..................................................................1"#
bring back...........................................................1"!
bring over...........................................................1"!
cool off...............................................................1"!
go back...............................................................1"7
hand over............................................................1"7
pull over..............................................................1"7
warm up..............................................................1"8
"+. FOCUS ON: phrasal erbs *ollo%ed b2 the -ing *or11)#
end up.................................................................1#
go around............................................................1#
%o off.................................................................1##
hang around........................................................1#!
lie around............................................................1#7
start out...............................................................1#7
stay up................................................................1#7
"1. FOCUS ON: phrasal erbs and should and ought to16"
look around.........................................................1!
look over.............................................................1!
pick on................................................................1!
settle down..........................................................1!"
step on................................................................1!"
take out on..........................................................1!"
think ahead.........................................................1!#
zip up..................................................................1!#
"". FOCUS ON: the part'&le up and the aderbs right and all 16!
burn up................................................................170
clear up...............................................................170
count up..............................................................171
eat up..................................................................171
heat up................................................................171
pay up.................................................................171
plug up................................................................172
wipe up...............................................................172
"#. FOCUS ON: t%o$%ord phrasal erbs that re/('re an add't'onal part'&le %hen (sed %'th an ob-e&t0 " 176
crack down.........................................................17!
cut down.............................................................17!
drop out..............................................................178
get away..............................................................178
hold out...............................................................179
make up..............................................................179
stay out...............................................................181
watch out............................................................181
"4. FOCUS ON: phrasal erbs (sed as no(ns0 ".......1.)
come down.........................................................18#
&et up..................................................................18!
print out..............................................................18!
show off..............................................................187
slow down..........................................................187
stop over.............................................................188
trade in................................................................188
"). FOCUS ON: phrasal erbs and have to0 have got to, and must 1!#
do with................................................................19"
have on...............................................................19"
hurry up..............................................................19#
knock over..........................................................19#
lighten up............................................................19#
plan ahead...........................................................19#
settle for..............................................................19!
think up...............................................................19!
"6. FOCUS ON: phrasal erbs and the aderb back 1!!
get together.........................................................199
go over................................................................200
go up...................................................................201
let in on...............................................................201
open up...............................................................202
put together.........................................................202
shut off................................................................202
start up................................................................20
"7. FOCUS ON: phrasal erbs %'th the part'&le off and the aderb right "+7
bite off................................................................208
break off.............................................................208
dry off.................................................................208
knock off.............................................................209
tear off................................................................209
wash off..............................................................209
wear off...............................................................210
wipe off...............................................................210
".. FOCUS ON: pass'e phrasal erbs0 "..................."1)
beef up................................................................21#
break up..............................................................21#
call back..............................................................21!
call up.................................................................21!
carry out..............................................................21!
give away............................................................217
mess up...............................................................217
stand up..............................................................218
"!. FOCUS ON: phrasal erbs and might0 may0 and can """
ask for.................................................................222
come apart..........................................................22
drop in................................................................22
flip out................................................................22
look out...............................................................22
luck out...............................................................22
make out.............................................................22"
run across............................................................22"
#+. FOCUS ON: part'&'ple ad-e&t'es *or1ed *ro1 phrasal erbs0 """.
lock in.................................................................229
&ock out..............................................................229
punch in..............................................................20
put out.................................................................20
sort out................................................................21
space out.............................................................22
wash up...............................................................22
#1. FOCUS ON: phrasal erbs and ,er(nd s(b-e&ts "#.
care for................................................................28
cut out.................................................................29
do away with......................................................29
do without...........................................................2"0
look into..............................................................2"0
plan on................................................................2"0
put off.................................................................2"0
rule out................................................................2"1
#". FOCUS ON: phrasal erbs %'th the part'&le out "44
clean out.............................................................2"#
clear out..............................................................2"!
come out.............................................................2"!
empty out............................................................2"8
fall out................................................................2"8
go out..................................................................2"8
leave out.............................................................2"9
stick out..............................................................2"9
##. FOCUS ON: phrasal erbs and 1'dsenten&e aderbs"))
blow up...............................................................2#!
catch on..............................................................2#!
come about.........................................................2#7
fall behind...........................................................2#7
goof around........................................................2#7
help out...............................................................2#8
know about.........................................................2#8
pull off................................................................2#8
#4. FOCUS ON: pron(n&'at'on o* t%o$and three$%ord phrasal erbs0 " "6"
do over................................................................2!2
float around........................................................2!
lead up to............................................................2!
put up to..............................................................2!
stand for..............................................................2!
stick around........................................................2!"
stick to................................................................2!"
take back.............................................................2!#
#). FOCUS ON: ,er(nd phrasal erbs......................."6!
fool around.........................................................270
go by...................................................................270
hold against........................................................271
leave behind........................................................271
live with..............................................................271
make of...............................................................272
narrow down.......................................................272
trick into.............................................................272
#6. FOCUS ON: phrasal erbs %'th the part'&le down"76
back down..........................................................27!
calm down..........................................................277
fall down.............................................................277
go down..............................................................277
lay down.............................................................278
put down.............................................................278
run down.............................................................279
sit down..............................................................280
#7. FOCUS ON: phrasal erbs (sed as no(ns0 #.......".)
brush off.............................................................28#
come on..............................................................28!
cover up..............................................................287
hang out..............................................................287
leave over left over.............................................287
&et down.............................................................288
talk to..................................................................289
#.. FOCUS ON: the erb keep and aderbs and aderb'als sho%'n, de,rees o* ar'ab'l't2 "!4
keep at................................................................29#
keep away...........................................................29#
keep down..........................................................29#
keep from............................................................29!
keep off...............................................................29!
keep on...............................................................29!
keep to................................................................297
keep up...............................................................297
#!. FOCUS ON: pass'e phrasal erbs0 #...................#+1
chop up...............................................................02
cross off..............................................................02
fill up..................................................................02
pick up................................................................0
sell out................................................................0"
straighten out......................................................0#
take over.............................................................0#
wipe out..............................................................0!
4+. FOCUS ON: ,er(nd phrasal erbs s. phrasal erbs *ollo%ed b2 the $'n, *or1 #1"
-ing form...............................................................312
gerund...................................................................312
blow off..............................................................12
burst out..............................................................1
come back...........................................................1
get off on............................................................1"
go away..............................................................1"
run around..........................................................1"
The cat ran around the room chasing the mouse. 314
The children were running around the museum, and the guard told them to stop. 314
stick with............................................................1!
41. FOCUS ON: t%o$%ord phrasal erbs %'th the part'&le in that re/('re into %hen (sed %'th
an ob-e&t..............................................................#"+
break in...............................................................21
'heck out............................................................22
go in...................................................................2
let in....................................................................2
plug in................................................................2
sneak in.............................................................2"
sneak out...........................................................2"
4". FOCUS ON: phrasal erbs %'th get, 1#".
get back.............................................................28
get behind.........................................................29
get down.............................................................0
get in...................................................................0
get out................................................................1
get over.............................................................2
get up.................................................................
4#. FOCUS ON: 1odals and present per*e&t phrasal erbs ##7
blow out.............................................................8
give out...............................................................9
gross out.............................................................9
run up..................................................................9
shut up................................................................"0
stop off................................................................"0
try on.................................................................."0
44. FOCUS ON: part'&'ple ad-e&t'es and pass'e phrasal erbs %'th the erb get #46
beat up................................................................"7
mi$ up................................................................."8
piss off................................................................"9
rip off.................................................................."9
4). FOCUS ON: phrasal erbs %'th the erb turn #)4
turn down............................................................#"
turn in.................................................................#"
turn into..............................................................##
turn off................................................................##
turn on................................................................#!
turn out...............................................................#7
turn over.............................................................#8
turn up................................................................#9
46. FOCUS ON: pron(n&'at'on o* phrasal erbs %'th the part'&le into #64
build in................................................................!"
bump into............................................................!"
con into...............................................................!#
con out of............................................................!#
freak out..............................................................!#
make for..............................................................!#
talk into...............................................................!#
talk out of...........................................................!!
47. FOCUS ON: part'&les (sed %'tho(t erbs #7+
brush up..............................................................70
come in...............................................................71
cut back..............................................................71
move in...............................................................72
move out.............................................................72
pull out................................................................7
put in...................................................................7
run out................................................................7"
4.. FOCUS ON: 1odals and present per*e&t pass'e phrasal erbs #7.
close down..........................................................79
knock out............................................................79
look down on......................................................80
look up to............................................................80
put back..............................................................80
switch off............................................................81
throw out............................................................81
4!. FOCUS ON: &o1b'nat'ons o* get0 right0 back0 and to #.6
dog up.................................................................89
get ahead.............................................................89
get back to..........................................................89
get on..................................................................89
get to...................................................................90
hang on...............................................................91
start off...............................................................91
throw away.........................................................91
)+. FOCUS ON: 3eep at 't4.............................#!6
ask out................................................................9!
come down to.....................................................9!
deal with.............................................................9!
hold on................................................................97
pay back..............................................................97
take up on...........................................................97
turn around.........................................................97
wear out..............................................................98
Ans%ers.........................................................................4+4
5nde6..............................................................................4"6
Contents
TABLE OF CONTENTS
To the Teacher / iv
To the St!ent / v
1. Separable and Nonseparable Phrasal
Verbs / 1
2. Phrasal Verbs and do, does, and did / 8
3. hree!"ord Phrasal Verbs / 1#
#. Present and Past $ontinuous Phrasal
Verbs / 18
%. Pronunciation o& wo!"ord Phrasal
Verbs / 2#
'. Pronunciation o& hree!"ord Phrasal
Verbs / 32
(. Separable Phrasal Verbs with )ong
*b+ects / 3(
8. Present Per&ect Phrasal Verbs / #'
,. wo!"ord Phrasal Verbs hat -e.uire an
/dditional Particle "hen 0sed with an
*b+ect, 1 / %3
11. Phrasal Verbs 0sed as Nouns, 1 / '1
11. Phrasal Verbs 0sed in $o2pound Nouns /
(1
12. Past Per&ect Phrasal Verbs / 83
13. Passive Phrasal Verbs, 1 / ,1
1#. Participle /d+ectives 3or2ed &ro2 Phrasal
Verbs, 1 / ,8
1%. Phrasal Verbs and will or be going to /11(
1'. Phrasal Verbs with 4erund *b+ects, 1 / 11'
1(. /dverbs and Phrasal Verbs / 12%
18. Phrasal Verbs and can, could, will,
and would / 133
1,. Phrasal Verbs and the /dverb right
5 1#1
21. Phrasal Verbs 3ollowed b6 the !ing
3or2 / 1#,
21. Phrasal Verbs and should and ought to 1%8
22. he Particle up and the /dverbs right and all
5 1'%
23. wo!"ord Phrasal Verbs hat -e.uire an
/dditional Particle "hen 0sed with an
*b+ect, 2 / 1(2
2#. Phrasal Verbs 0sed as Nouns, 2 / 181
2%. Phrasal Verbs and have to, have got to, and
2ust / 188
iii
2'. Phrasal Verbs and the /dverb bade / 1,#
2(. Phrasal Verbs with the Particle o&& and the
/dverb right 5 212
"#$ Passive Phrasa% Ver&s' " / "()
2,. Phrasal Verbs and 2ight, 2a6, and can /21(
*)$ Partici+%e A!,ectives For-e!
.ro- Phrasa% Ver&s' " / ""*
31. Phrasal Verbs and 4erund Sub+ects / 233
32. Phrasal Verbs with the Particle our / 23,
33. Phrasal Verbs and
7idsentence /dverbs / 2%1 3#.
Pronunciation o& wo! and hree!
"ord Phrasal Verbs, 2 / 2%(
3%. 4erund Phrasal Verbs / 2'#
3'. Phrasal Verbs with the Particle down / 2(1
3(. Phrasal Verbs 0sed as Nouns, 3 / 281
38. he Verb keep and /dverbs and /dverbials
Showing 8egrees o& Variabilit6 / 28,
3,. Passive Phrasal Verbs, 3 / 2,'
#1. 4erund Phrasal Verbs vs. Phrasal
Verbs 3ollowed b6 the !in/ 3or2 / 31(
#1. wo!"ord Phrasal Verbs with the Particle in
hat -e.uire into "hen 0sed with an *b+ect /
31#
#2. Phrasal Verbs with /et, 1 / 322
#3. 7odals and Present Per&ect
Phrasal Verbs / 331
##. Participle /d+ectives and Passive Phrasal
Verbs with the Verb /et 5 3#1
#%. Phrasal Verbs with the Verb ru2 / 3#8
#'. Pronunciation o& Phrasal Verbs
with the Particle into / 3%8
#(. Particles 0sed "ithout Verbs / 3'#
#8. 7odals and Present Per&ect
Passive Phrasal Verbs / 3(2
#,. $o2binations o& /et, ri/ht, &ac0, and t1 /
381
%1. 9eep at 5t: / 3,1
/nswers to ;<ercises / 3,8
5nde< / #11
TO THE TEACHER
he inspiration &or he 0lti2ate Phrasal Verb =ook ca2e about when a student asked
2e &or a te<tbook to help her learn the 2eanings o& co22on phrasal verbs. 5 had
nothing to o&&er. he onl6 te<tbook &ocusing on co22on verbs that 5 could give her
contains not one phrasal verb > it teaches arise but not get up, awake but not wake
up, seek but not look &or.
Phrasal verbs are verbs, not idio2atic curiosities. here is no logic to classi&6ing
take over with take the bull b6 the horns. Phrasal verbs are an essential part o&
spoken and written ;nglish at all levels, and no student who hopes to 2aster the
language can a&&ord to overlook the2.
/lthough this te<tbook is intended pri2aril6 &or high!inter2ediate to advanced
students, a2bitious students at lower levels will bene&it &ro2 it as well. *nl6 so2e
3*$0S sections 2a6 prove to be a little be6ond the2? otherwise, there is nothing to
prevent an6 student &ro2 stud6ing the de&initions and e<a2ples and atte2pting the
e<ercises.
/ vocabular6 te<tbook should provide 2echanics as well as 2eaning. Students
want to know 2ore than what a word 2eans > the6 want to know how to use it
correctl6.
he i2portance o& 2echanics is the reason &or the e2phasis on the prepositions
re.uired when so2e phrasal verbs are used transitivel6 and &or the inclusion o&
reviews o& points o& gra22ar not speci&ic to phrasal verbs. Prepositions are the glue
that holds ;nglish together, but 2an6 students &alter when using newl6 learned verbs
because the6 do not know that a preposition is also re.uired, or i& the6 do, which one.
his aspect o& ;nglish is not given the attention it deserves because it is di&&icult to
teach > there are no rules that govern when a preposition, or which preposition, is
re.uired, and no teacher likes to sa6 @Aou +ust have to re2e2ber.@
he hope o& the latter &eature, the discussion o& points o& gra22ar not speci&ic to phrasal
verbs, is that co2bining practice with phrasal verbs and practice with a variet6 o&
gra22atical structures will increase not onl6 the studentBs con&idence in the
knowledge o& phrasal verbs but also his or her willingness and abilit6 to use the2 in a
wider range o& situations.
here is inevitabl6 a degree o& oversi2pli&ication. hat phrasal verb particles are
so2eti2es prepositions and so2eti2es adverbs is 2entioned onl6 once. No purpose
is served b6 di&&erentiating between the2, and the overlap between the two is
con&using to the student. Phrasal verbs are not identi&ied as transitive or intransitive
because this is dictated b6 logic. )ess co22on 2eanings o& so2e phrasal verbs have
not been included. /dverb place2ent is presented and illustrated in si2pli&ied &or2
without discussion o& the di&&erent t6pes o& adverbs > doing so would have gone
be6ond the scope o& this te<tbook.
iv
C; 0)57/; PC-/S/) V;-= =**9 St!ent
/nd no di&&erentiation is 2ade between recogniDed ad+ectives derived &ro2 past participles and
past participles with ad+ectival 2eaning. he ad+ectival use o& past participles Eboth phrasal and
nonphrasalF is an e<tre2el6 i2portant aspect o& spoken ;nglish > so2ething ever6 student o&
;nglish should be &a2iliar with > 6et the dividing line between true ad+ectives derived &ro2
past participles and passive sentences e2plo6ing past participles with ad+ectival 2eanings is
ill!de&ined and proble2atic. Native speakers o& ;nglish regularl6 use past participles in
super&iciall6 passive sentences with purel6 ad+ectival 2eaning. "hether the past participles are
verbs or actuall6 ad+ectives is o& no concern to the native speaker and is entirel6 irrelevant to
the student o& ;nglish. -ather than distract the student with an unnecessar6 ele2ent o&
con&usion, both are re&erred to as participle ad+ectives throughout this te<tbook.
he e<ercises in this te<tbook are intended to rein&orce 2eaning and 2echanics. / cloDe
e<ercise alwa6s co2es &irst, &ollowed b6 e<ercises &ocusing on sentence structure and the
3*$0S discussion. )ast are e<ercises that ask the student to answer .uestions or write
original sentences.
here is a good deal o& review built into this te<tbook. ;ver6 section contains two or 2ore
e<ercises re.uiring the student to re&er back to a previous section in order to review a phrasal
verb, participle ad+ective, or noun. "hen a phrasal verb has two or 2ore 2eanings, it is
intentional that no help is provided to the student in deter2ining which 2eaning applies?
students have to review the2 all and &igure it out &or the2selves.
5 have tried in this te<tbook to i2itate the &or2 and content o& ever6da6 ;nglish. 5&
occasionall6 the register and sub+ect 2atter o& so2e e<a2ples and e<ercises see2 not .uite
right &or &or2al discourse, that is deliberate. Students need to learn &or2al ;nglish, o& course,
but since 2ost people speak in&or2all6 2ost o& the ti2e, students need to gain &a2iliarit6 with
the s6nta<, usage, and content o& the in&or2al ;nglish the6 read and hear ever6 da6 at work, at
school, at ho2e, and on television.
TO THE STU2ENT
Phrasal verbs are co2binations o& ordinar6 verbs like put, take, co2e, and go and particles like
in, out, on, and o&&. he6 are a ver6 i2portant part o& ever6da6 ;nglish. ;ver6 student o&
;nglish needs a basic understanding o& the 2ost co22on phrasal verbs and also o& co22on
nouns and ad+ectives 2ade &ro2 phrasal verbs.
7ost phrasal verbs are nor in&or2al, slang, or i2proper &or educated speech or &or2al writing.
;<actl6 the opposite is true > 2ost phrasal verbs are acceptable at all levels o& spoken or
written ;nglish. 5n &act, &or 2an6 o& the phrasal verbs in this te<tbook, there is no alternative to
the phrasal verb > there is no other wa6 to sa6 it.
v
Cowever, a &ew phrasal verbs in this te<tbook are identi&ied as in&or2al, and it is
better not to use the2 in serious, &or2al speech or writing. =ut these in&or2al phrasal
verbs are i2portant because the6 are ver6 co22on in ever6da6 in&or2al speech and
writing.
So2e phrasal verbs are ver6 eas6 to understand. 3or e<a2ple, it is not di&&icult to
understand sit down or co2e in because their 2eanings are obvious. =ut 2an6 phrasal
verbs are ver6 idio2atic. 5dio2atic 2eans that there is no wa6 to know what the verb and
particle 2ean together b6 knowing what the verb and particle 2ean separatel6. 3or
e<a2ple, ever6 beginning!level student learns what the words call, run, o&&, and out 2ean,
but that does not help the student to know that call o&& 2eans cancel or that run out
2eans use all o& so2ething.
;ach section o& this te<tbook starts with a 3*$0S, an e<planation o& so2ething
i2portant about phrasal verbs. hen eight phrasal verbs and an e<planation o& each
i2portant 2eaning o& each one are presented along with one or 2ore e<a2ple sentences
&or each 2eaning. 3ollowing that are several e<ercises to help 6ou understand and
re2e2ber what the phrasal verbs 2ean and how to use the2 in a sentence. /nd like real
conversation, .uestions asked with 5 or we are answered with 6ou, and .uestions asked
with 6ou are answered with / or we.
/nd because there is a lot to learn in this te<tbook, there is a lot o& review to help 6ou learn
it. ;ver6 phrasal verb is reviewed at least twice later in the book. he 2ore idio2atic
phrasal verbs are reviewed 2ore o&ten, and the 2ore i2portant 2eanings o& phrasal
verbs with several 2eanings are reviewed 2ore o&ten.
Ter-s' A&&reviations' an! S3-&o%s Use! in this Te4t&oo0
verb Verb refers to the verb part of a phrasal verb. In other words, the phrasal verb minus the
particle. In the phrasal verb pull over, pull is the verb and over is the particle.
particle The adverbs and prepositions in phrasal verbs are both called particles in this book. Many
particles are adverbs and prepositions, and it can be very difficult and confusing to
figure out if a particle in a particular phrasal verb is one or the other. Fortunately,
this is almost never important to the student, so it is a lot easier to simply call them
both particles.
+$v$ phrasal verb n. a noun 2ade &ro2 a
phrasal verb
part.adj. participle adjective a past participle of a phrasal verb used as an adjective put on it.
"hen words or sentences have a line through the2, it 2eans that the6 are
incorrect.
$$$ hree dots between the verb and the particle 2ean that the ob+ect o& the
phrasal verb can be placed between the verb and the particle.
vi
($ 3*$0S *NG se+ara&%e an! nonse+ara&%e +hrasa%
ver&s
Phrasal verbs are either separable or nonseparable. 0n&ortunatel6, there is no rule that will help
6ou to look at a phrasal verb and alwa6s know whether it is separable or nonseparable.
Se+ara&%e +hrasa% ver&s
Separable phrasal verbs can be separated b6 their ob+ect. "hen the ob+ect is a noun, it is
usuall6 entirel6 optional whether the ob+ect is placed between the verb and the particle or
placed a&ter the particle. =oth sentences below are correctG
I took my shoes off.
I took off my shoes.
Cowever, when a pronoun is used instead o& a noun, the pronoun 2ust be placed
between the verb and the particleG
5 too0 the2 o..$
5 too0 o.. the2$
=ut in one t6pe o& sentence, separable phrasal verbs 2ust be separated > when the
phrasal verb has two ob+ectsG
!he put a blanket on.
!he put on a blanket.
!he put a blanket on the bed.
!he put on a blanket the bed.
Nonse+ara&%e +hrasa% ver&s
"onseparable phrasal verbs cannot be separated by their object#
$e ran into a tree.
$e ran a tree into.
hroughout this book, phrasal verbs that can be separated have three dots E...F between
the verb and the particle.
Infinitive%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
present tense &ing form past tense past participle
come from
come from & comes from coming from came from come from
($ co-e .ro- p.v. "hen 6ou co-e .ro- a place, 6ou were born there or lived there
previousl6. "hen 6ou co-e .ro- a &a2il6 or a social situation, 6our past e<perience helps
to e<plain 6our present attitudes and behavior.
Mike comes from 'laska, so he(s used to cold weather.
)ane had a difficult childhood. !he came from a broken home.
*
"$ co-e .ro- p.v. "hen so2ething co-es .ro- a source, that is where it
originated.
The word +admiral+ comes from an 'rabic word.
The mechanic heard a strange sound coming from the engine.
(nfinitive
present tense )ing form past tense past participle
figure out
*',(re o(t 7 *',(res o(t *',(r'n, o(t *',(red o(t *',(red o(t
1. figure ... out p.v. ,the object can be a noun or a noun clause- .hen you figure out so2ething, such as
the answer to a .uestion, the solution to a proble2, or wh6 a person is a certain wa6 or acts
a certain wa6, 6ou think about and succeed in understanding it.
)oe(s so hostile all the time. I can(t figure him out.
I looked everywhere for my keys, but I couldn(t figure out where I put them.
give back
give back & gives back giving back gave back given back
($ /ive $$$ &ac0 EtoF p.v. "hen 6ou return so2ething to so2eone, 6ou /ive it &ac0$
$an 5 use 6our penH 5Bll /ive it &ac0 a&ter the test.
i226, /ive that to6 &ac0 to 6our sister right now:
look for
look for & looks for looking for looked for looked for
($ %oo0 .or p.v. "hen 6ou %oo0 .or things or people, 6ou tr6 to &ind the2.
/ looked for you at the party, but I didn(t see you.
/0cuse me, can you help me1 I(m looking for 232 Main !t.
put on
put on & puts on putting on put on put on
($ +t$$$ on p.v. "hen 6ou place so2ething on or appl6 so2ething to 6our bod6, 6ou +t it
on$
I +t on 26 new dress be&ore going to the part6.
;ric &orgot to +t suntan lotion on' and now heBs as red as a lobster.
"$ +t$$$ on p.v. "hen 6ou place so2ething on or appl6 so2ething to another sur&ace, 6ou
+t it on$
I +t the book on the table.
Ierr6 +t too 2uch &ertiliDer on his %a5, and now he has to cut it twice a week.
*$ +t$$$ on p.v. "hen 6ou attach or a&&i< so2ething to another thing, 6ou +t it on$
The .ilson4s put a new roof on their house last year.
I told the tailor to put red buttons on the dress he(s making for me.
6$ +t$$$ on p.v. "hen 6ou +t on weight, 6ou gain weight.
C; 0)57/; PC-/S/) V;-= =**9
5id you see Mike1 $e(s put on so much weight that I didn(t recogni6e him.
I need to go on a diet. I(ve been putting on a lot of weight lately.
7$ +t $$$on p.v. "hen 6ou organiDe or per&or2 so2ething &or other peopleBs entertain2ent,
such as a pla6 or a concert, 6ou +t it on$
The club put on a show to raise money for the party.
That opera hasn(t been put on in more than 733 years.
8$ +t$$ $on p.v. Jin&or2alK "hen 6ou +t people on, 6ou kid or tease the2.
8ou won the lottery1 8ou(re putting me on!
5on(t put me on tell me the truth.
+t9on n. So2ething done with the intentio o& &ooling or !eceivin/people is a +t9on$
$e didn(t really win the lottery. It was all a big put-on to impress his girlfriend.
Infinitive
present tense &ing form past tense past participle
run into
run into & runs into running into ran into run into
($ rn into p.v. "hen 6ou are driving and hit another vehicle or so2ething near the road, such
as a tree or a telephone pole, 6ou rn into it.
'li was driving too fast, and he ran into a telephone pole.
I was run into by a drunk driver.
"$ rn into p.v. "hen 6ou 2eet people ne4+ecte!% or nintentiona%%, 6ou rn into the2.
B-+ into is the sa2e as rn into$
.e ran into 9aren and her new boyfriend at the supermarket yesterday.
I owe Frank :233, so I hope I don(t run into him.
*$ rn into p.v. "hen 6ou une<pectedl6 enconte di&&iculties or proble2s, 6ou rn into the2.
; thought it would be easy to fi0 my car, but I(ve been running into problems.
)anice ran into one problem after another at work today.
6$ rn into p.v. "hen the total o& so2ething grows to a large a2ount or nu2ber, it rns into
that a2ount or nu2ber.
If you fi0ed everything on that old car that needs fi0ing, it would run into thousands of dollars.
The number of starving people in the country ran into millions.
show up
show up < shows up showing up showed up shown up
($ sho5 + p.v. "hen 6ou appear so2ewhere, 6ou sho5 +$ Trn + is si2ilar to sho5 +.
; was supposed to meet my sister for lunch, but she hasn(t shown up yet.
=ver a hundred people showed up for the news conference.
"$ sho5 + p.v. "hen so2ething appears or beco2es visible, it sho5s +$
It(s hard to photograph polar bears because they don(t show up well
against the snow. The spots won(t show up until the last stages of the
disease.
Infinitive
present tense &ing form past tense past participle
take off
take off & takes off taking off took off taken off
3
($ ta0e $$$o.. p.v. "hen 6ou re2ove so2ething &ro2 6our bod6, 6ou ta0e it o..$
; was so tired when I got home that I took my clothes off and went straight to bed. Take off your shoes.
8ou(re getting mud on the carpet.
"$ ta0e $$$o.. p.v. "hen 6ou re2ove so2ething &ro2 a sur&ace, 6ou ta0e it o..$
I took the book off the table. 8ou need to take the old wa0 off the floor before you
wa0 it again.
*$ ta0e $$$o.. p.v. "hen 6ou re2ove so2ething &ro2 so2ething it is attached or a&&i<ed to,
6ou ta0e it o..$
'lfonso always takes the skin off chicken before he cooks it. 'fter )ane took the
flat tire off her bicycle, she put on the new one.
6$ ta0e $$$ o.. p.v. "hen 6ou ta0e ti2e o.. &ro2 work or stud6, 6ou do so2ething di&&erent, in
stead o& working or stud6ing.
I can(t work tomorrow. I have to take the day off for some tests at the hospital. =ur company always
lets us take the week between >hristmas and "ew 8ear(s 5ay off.
7$ ta0e o.. p.v. "hen an airplane leaves the ground and &lies up into the air, it ta0es
o..$
=ur plane took off an hour late because of the snow.
?ut on your seat belt@ we(re taking off now.
takeoff n. Takeoff is when an airplane leaves the ground and flies up into the air. The takeoff was
delayed because of the snow.
6. take off p.v. .hen a business or other organi6ed activity becomes very successful, it takes off.
The new restaurant(s business is taking off because it got a good review in the newspaper.
If this business takes off we could make a lot of money.
:$ ta0e o.. p.v. Jin&or2alK "hen 6ou leave suddenl6 or .uickl6, 6ou ta0e o..$
#
'fter he found out the FAI was looking for him, he took off in a hurry.
This party(s boring let(s take off.
#$ ta0e $$$ o.. p.v. "hen 6ou reduce the price o& so2ething that is &or sale b6 a certain
a2ount, 6ou ta0e that a2ount o.. the price.
The sign in the store window said, +/very Monday take *3 percent off all marked prices.+
The car dealer took :7,333 off the list price.
;L;-$5S; 1 a ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith +hrasa% ver&s .ro- this section$
Be sre the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$
E4a-+%e< Sergeant Iones is ver6 strict with his children. Ce $*7;S
3-*7 a 2ilitar6 &a2il6.
1. /&ter the police arrived, we MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM.uickl6.
2. Sales o& air conditioners reall6 MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM when the te2perature got over 111 degrees
last su22er.
3. 7egan MMMMMMMM a lot o& weight MMMMMMMM when she was pregnant.
#. 5B2 going to install a new progra2 tonight, and 5 hope 5 donBt MMMMMMMMMMMMMMM an6 proble2s.
%. he invisible ink MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMonl6 under ultraviolet light.
'. 5 was e<pecting 111 people at the part6, but onl6 around %1 MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM.
(. Iane was luck6? she MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM a good &a2il6.
8. =e sure 6ou MMMMMMMM a coat o& +ri-er MMMMMMMMbe&ore 6ou paint the .en!e.
,. 76 cousin is so weird that even his 2other canBt MMMMMMMM hi2 MMMMMMMMMMM.
11. 5 donBt &eel well? 5 think 5Bll MMMMMMMM to2orrow MMMMMMMMM and sta6 ho2e.
11. "e were scared to death when we heard voices MMMMMMMMthe attic.
12. 76 son alwa6s &orgets to MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM his coat be&ore he goes outside.
13. 5 was surprised when our plane MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM on ti2e.
1#. "e MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM our dog all night, but we couldnBt &ind hi2.
1%. Paul &inall6 MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM 26 $8s a&ter 5 asked hi2 &or the2 about a 2illion ti2es.
1'. 5B2 not going to the part6 because 5 donBt want to MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMIanice.
%
1(. he real estate agent said that our asking price was too high and that we should MMMMMMMMMM at least
N11,111 MMMMMMMMMM it i& we want to sell our house.
18. MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM those 2udd6 shoes be&ore 6ou co2e inside.
1,. Sending 26 son to Stan&ord and 26 daughter to Aale is going to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM so2e
serious 2one6.
21. MMMMMMMMM the orna2ents MMMMMMMM the $hrist2as tree isnBt as 2uch &un as putting the2 on.
21. Aou canBt be serious > 6ouBre MMMMMMMM 2e MMMMMMMMMMMMMM:
22. 8onBt &orget to MMMMMMMM a sta2p MMMMMMMMMM that letter be&ore 6ou 2ail it.
23. / special per&or2ance o& he Nutcracker was MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM at the childrenBs hospital.
2#. he 2aid MMMMMMMM the dirt6 sheets MMMMMMMM the bed.
2%. =e care&ul: Aou al2ost MMMMMMMMMMMM MMMMMM that truck back there.
;L;-$5S; 1 b ; =rite three sentences sin/ the o&,ects in +arentheses$
Be sre to +t the o&,ects in the ri/ht +%ace$
E4a-+%e< 5 canBt &igure out. Ethe answer, itF
5 canBt &igure out the answer. 5 canBt &igure the answer out. 5 canBt &igure it out.
*. I finally figured out. Bthe instructions, themC
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
2. 4ive back when 6ou are &inished, E26 tools, the2F
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
'
2. !he put on. Bher slippers, themC
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
#. 5 took o&&. E26 shoes, the2F
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
D. The hurricane took off. Bthe roof, itC
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
;L;-$5S; 1c ; =rite ans5ers to the >estions sin/ +hrasa% ver&s an!
nons .ro- this section$ Be sre the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$
E4a-+%e< 5 canBt understand where 26 wallet is. "hat canBt 5 doH
Aou canBt &igure out where 6our wallet is.
1. / lot o& guests didnBt co2e to the wedding. "hat didnBt a lot o& guests doH
2. -aul thought about the 2ath proble2, and he knows the answer now. "hat did -aul doH
3. he +et is leaving the ground and &l6ing into the air. "hat is the +et doingH
#. 5n Ouestion 3, what would 6ou call what the airplane didH
%. *2ar speaks /rabic because he was born in ;g6pt. "h6 does *2ar speak /rabicH
'. "e le&t =obBs house .uickl6. "hat did we doH
(. 5 2et 0ncle Iohn at the baseball ga2e toda6. "hat did 5 do toda6H
8. he source o& the s2oke was a window on the tenth &loor. "hat did the s2oke doH
,. Aou al2ost hit a tree while 6ou were driving 6our car. "hat did 6ou al2ost doH
(
11. 7r. a6lor attached his na2e to his 2ailbo<. "hat did 7r. a6lor doH
11. 5 have to re2ove the &lat tire &ro2 26 car. "hat do 5 have to doH
12. "e didnBt have an6 proble2s cooking the turke6. "hat did we doH
13. 5B2 re2oving the dirt6 dishes &ro2 the table. "hat a2 5 doingH
1#. Sales o& the co2pan6Bs new product were ver6 success&ul. "hat did sales o& the co2pan6Bs
new product doH
1%. )inda is tr6ing to &ind her gol& ball. "hat is )inda doingH
1'. SusieBs blue e6es arenBt visible in this photo. "hat donBt SusieBs e6es do in this photoH
1(. Ii2 alwa6s &orgets to place salt and pepper on the table. "hat does Ii2 alwa6s doH
18. =ill didnBt go to work last 3rida6. "hat didnBt =ill doH
1,. Sall6 returned 3rankBs ca2era. "hat did Sall6 doH
"$ FOCUS ON< +hrasa% ver&s an! do, does, an!
did
)ike ordinar6 verbs, phrasal verbs &or2 negatives and .uestions with do, does, and
did.
Present tense >estions
5n the present tense, .uestions are &or2ed with do Ee<cept when the sub+ect is he, she,
it, or the na2e o& one person or thingFG
.hy do. I always fall for losers1
5o you sometimes do!e off in class1
5o we ever give in to pressure1
$ow do these bottle tops come off"
"hen the sub+ect is he, she, it, or the na2e o& one person or thing, does is used.
-e2e2ber that the !s &or2 o& the verb is not used in .uestionsG
5oes this welding torch throw sparks up into the air1
Present tense ne/atives
5n the present tense, negatives are &or2ed with do not or donBt Ee<cept when the
sub+ect is he, she, it, or the na2e o& one person or thingFG
8
; used to do!e off while driving, but I don(t anymore.
I think he has the flu because you don(t usually throw up when you
have a cold.
.e don(t usually fall for cra6y stories like that.
If his dogs do not stay off our lawn, I(m going to call the dogcatcher.
"hen the sub+ect is he, she, it, or the na2e o& one person or thing, does not or doesnBt
is used. -e2e2ber that the !s &or2 o& the verb is not used in negativesG
If Mark doesn(t pull through five children will be without a father.
Past tense >estions
5n the past tense, .uestions are &or2ed with did. -e2e2ber to use the
in&initive &or2 o& the verbG
I(m so embarrassed. .hy did I fall for his lies1
5id the patient pull through"
$ow many times did he throw up"
5id we give in to their demands1
5id they hear about the e0plorer who was eaten by piranhas1
Past tense ne/atives
5n the past tense, negatives are &or2ed with did not or didnBt. -e2e2ber to use the
in&initive &or2 o& the verbG
; was really sick, but I didn(t. throw up.
8ou didn(t fall for that nonsense, I hope.
$e pulled and pulled, but the bowling ball did not come off.
.e didn(t hear about the half&price sale until it was too late.
I(m sorry. .e tried everything, but she didn(t pull through.
Infinitive
present tense &ing form past tense past participle
come off
come off < comes off coming off came off come off
($ co-e o.. p.v. "hen so2ething co-es o..' it beco2es detached &ro2 what it was
attached or &astened to.
Ae careful with this old book. The cover(s coming off.
That paint won(t come off your hands unless you use turpentin.
"$ co-e o.. p.v. "hen an event co-es o..' it is success&ul.
The party came off well. /veryone had a lot of fun.
The attack didn(t come off the way the general planned it.
*$ co-e o.. p.v. "hen 6ou sa6 ?Co-e o.. it@ to people, 6ou are sa6ing that 6ou
think so2ething the6 have said is untrue or &oolish.
It(s 7#33 '.M., you come home smelling like beer, and you say you were working late at the office1
=h come off itE
,
#nfinitive
present tense -ing form past tense past participle
do!e off
do!e off & do!es off do!ing off do!ed off do!ed off
($ !o@e o.. p.v. "hen 6ou &all into a light sleep, 6ou !o@e o..$
I went to a movie last night, but it was so boring I do!ed off.
If I have a drink at lunch, I(m sure to do!e off at my desk.
fall for
fall for & falls for falling for fell for fallen for
($ .a%% .or p.v. "hen so2eone success&ull6 tric0 or !eceive 6ou, 6ou .a%% .or the trick or
!ece+tio or 6ou .a%% .or it.
I feel like an idiot. The salesman promised me it was a real diamond, not glass, and I fell for it.
8our girlfriend told you that guy she was dancing with at the party was her brother1 $ow could you fall
for a story like that1
"$ .a%% .or p.v. "hen 6ou suddenl6 &eel a strong attraction to so2eone or so2ething, 6ou
.a%% .or that person or thing.
)im met !am(s sister last week, and now he calls her every day. I guess he really fell for her in a big way.
.hen I saw this house, I fell for it immediately, and I made an offer the same day.
give in
give in & gives in giving #n gave in given in
($ /ive in EtoF p.v. "hen so2eone pressures or &orces 6ou to do so2ething or allow
so2ething even though 6ou do not want to, 6ou /ive in$
My son drove me cra6y asking me to buy him a new bicycle, and I finally gave in.
The strike laste for eight months, but the company never gave in to the workers( demand.
hear about
hear about & hears about hearing about heard about heard about
($ hear a&ot p.v. "hen 6ou hear and learn in&or2ation about so2eone or so2ething,
6ou hear a&ot it.
$ave you heard about the new Thai restaurant downtown1
I heard about the earthFuake on >"".
pull through
pull through & pulls through pulling through pulled through pulled
($ +%% thro/h p.v. "hen 6ou recove &ro2 a serious illness or in,r, 6ou +%%
thro/h$
The doctor didn(t think his chances were very good, but he pulled through.
/rik is very sick, but he(s young and strong, so I(m sure he(ll pull through.
1$
5n&initive
present tense &ing form past tense past participle
sta% off
sta% off & sta%s off sta%ing off sta%ed off sta%ed off
($ sta3 o.. p.v. "hen 6ou sta3 o.. so2ething, 6ou donBt walk or sit on it.
8ou kids can play in the living room, but sta% off the ?ersian rug.
.hat can I do to get my cat to sta% off the kitchen counter1
throw up
throw up & throws up throwing up threw up thrown up
($ thro5 + p.v. "hen people thro5 +, the6 vo-i.
'le0 was so sick that he threw up all over my shoes.
I feel like I(m going to throw up.
($ thro5$$$ + p.v. "hen so2ething causes s2all particles o& dirt, dust, or a li.uid to rise into
the air, it thro5s the2 +$
Ae careful with that chain saw It(ll throw sawdus up in your eyes.
5on(t stand too close to the fire@ it(s throwing up sparks.
;L;-$5S; 2a ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith +hrasa% ver&s .ro- this section$
Be sre the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$
1. Ceather calls o2 ever6 da6. 5 have a &eeling sheBsMMMMMMMM MMMMMMMMhi2.
2. 5 went to the shoe repair gu6 because the heel MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM 26 shoe.
3. 5 MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM ten 2inutes a&ter the 2ovie started, and 5 2issed the whole thing.
#. he bride drank too 2uch cha2pagne, and she MMMMMMMM MMMMMMM all over the best 2an.
%. 5 needed a car to go to the part6, so 5 told 26 &ather 5 needed his car to go to the librar6 to
stud6, and he MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM it.
'. 0ncle 3redBs reall6 sick. 5& he MMMMMMMMM MMMMMMMMM, itBll be a 2iracle.
(. 5 +ust sha2pooed the carpet in the living roo2, so MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM it.
8. he coup MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM without an6 bloodshed.
,. 5 donBt care i& 6ou beg 2e all night > 5B2 not MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM:
11. 5 MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM 6our brotherBs accident last night. 5s he all rightH
11
11. 8onBt get close to the &ire. 5tBs MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM ashes and sparks.
12. 8o 6ou reall6 e<pect 2e to believe a craD6 stor6 like thatH MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM it:
;L;-$5S; 2b ; Chan/e the sentences to >estions sin/ !o' !oes' or !i!$
E4a-+%e< 3rancisco usuall6 doDes o&& a&ter dinner.
8oes 3rancisco usuall6 doDe o&& a&ter dinnerH
1. he sick bo6 threw up.
2. -osa &alls &or ever6 bo6 she 2eets.
3. he tops co2e o&& easil6.
#. he dog sta6s o&& the bed.
%. ;rik heard about the new +ob.
;L;-$5S; 2c ; Chan/e the sentences to ne/atives sin/ !o not or !onAt' !oes not
or !oesnAt' or !i! not or !i!nAt$
E4a-+%e< 3rancisco doDes o&& a&ter dinner.
3rancisco doesnBt doDe o&& a&ter dinner.
1. 5 alwa6s give in to her de2ands.
2. 7r. and 7rs. a6lor &ell &or the sales2anBs pro2ises.
3. hese 2achines throw up sparks.
#. he patient pulled through.
%. he plot co2e o&& as planned.
;L;-$5S; 2d ; =rite ans5ers to the >estions sin/ +hrasa% ver&s .ro- this
section$ Be sre the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$
1. 76 2other told 2e not to walk on the kitchen &loor. "hat did 26 2other tell 2eH
2. "hen 8an saw that new 2otorc6cle, he decided he had to bu6 it no 2atter how 2uch it cost.
Cow did 8an &eel about the 2otorc6cleH
12
3. he students are so tired that the6 are starting to sleep in class. "hat are the students doingH
#. Nicole learns about ever6thing that happens in town. "hat does Nicole doH
%. he 2eeting didnBt happen the wa6 5 planned it. "hat didnBt the 2eeting doH
'. Aou had an accident a&ter one o& the wheels separated &ro2 6our car. "h6 did 6ou have an
accidentH
(. Aou can ask a thousand ti2es i& 6ou want to, but 5B2 not agreeing to 6our de2ands. "hat a2 5
not doing to 6our de2andsH
8. 76 cousin 2ade a lot o& pro2ises to 2e, and 5 believed the2. Cow did 5 react to her pro2isesH
,. 8r. "ood said edBs disease is ver6 serious, and she doesnBt think thereBs 2uch hope that heBll
recover. "hat doesnBt 8r. "ood thinkH
11. i226 is ver6 sick, and he was vo2iting all night. "hat was i226 doing all nightH
;L;-$5S; 2e, -eview ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith these +hrasa% ver&s .ro-
Section ($ Be sre the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$ To chec0 their
-eanin/s' revie5 Section ($
co2e &ro2 give back put on show up
&igure out look &or run into take o&&
1. )ook what ti2e it is: "e have to be at work in &i&teen 2inutes. "eBd better MMMMMMMM
MMMMMMM right now.
2. 5 waited &or Ioe &or three hours, but he never MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM.
3. he 2aid MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM the dirt6 sheets and washed the2.
#. 5B2 MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM a +ob closer to ho2e.
%. Potatoes originall6 MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM South /2erica.
'. hatBs 2ine: MMMMMMMM it MMMMMMMM right now or 5B2 telling 7o2:
(. he6 were killed when the6 MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM a truck.
8. he 2echanic canBt MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM what the proble2 is with 26 car.
13
3. 3*$0S *NG three95or! +hrasa% ver&s
Phrasal verbs are not alwa6s co2posed o& two words. hree!word phrasal verbs are
co2posed o& a verb and two particlesG the &irst particle is nor2all6 an adverb, and the
second a preposition. )ike two!word phrasal verbs, three!word phrasal verbs are
either separable or nonseparableG
I know it(s been a long day, but do you feel up to playing tennis after dinner1
)ake always went in for fishing when he was a kid. It was nice to meet you, and I look forward to seeing you again.
I(m sorry I can(t say yes about the motorcycle, but I have to go along with your mother(s decision.
I(ve put up with these love handles long enough ne0t week I(m getting liposuction.
Mr. Aaker tried to screw his e0&wife out of her share of the lottery pri6e.
8ou talk down to me like I(m some kind of idiot. 9aren(s nervous about the job interview.
!he just wants to get it over with so she can stop worrying about it.
Infinitive
present tense &ing form past tense past participle
feel up to
feel up to < feels up to feeling up to felt up to feel up to
($ .ee% + to p.v. "hen 6ou .ee% + to doing so2ething, 6ou have the con.i!enc or energ6
to do it.
I(m sorry to cancel, but I just don(t feel up to going dancing tonight.
The top of the mountain is only *,333 feet away do you feel up to it1
get over with
get over with & gets over with getting over with got over with gotten over with
($ /et$$$ over 5ith p.v. Jalwa6s separatedK "hen 6ou want to /et so2ething over 5ith' it
is because it is so2ething unpleasant that 6ou want to &inish so that 6ou can stop
worr6ing about it or !rea!in it.
Get(s fi0 both cavitie today, doctor@ I just want to get it over with.
I think it(s better to get the e0am over with first period than to be nervous about it all day long.
go along with
/o a%on/ 5ith B /oes a%on/ 5ith /oin/ a%on/ 5ith 5ent a%on/ 5ith /one a%on/
5ith
($ /o a%on/ 5ith p.v. "hen 6ou agree with people or agree with what the6 are sa6ing,
6ou /o a%on/ 5ith the2.
I understand your concer, Ginda, but I have to go along with Maria on this matter.
.hat(s my opinion1 I go along with =mar.
*H
"$ /o a%on/ 5ith p.v. "hen 6ou o&e a rule or &ollow a decision, 6ou /o a%on/ 5ith it.
Mrs. Taylor wasn(t happy about the committee(s decision, but she went along with it anyway.
I don(t care what the boss says I(m not going along with any changes that will mean longer hours for less money.
#nfinitive
present tense -ing form past tense past participle
go in for
go in for & goes in for going in for went in for gone in for
($ /o in .or p.v. "hen 6ou /o in .or a certain activit6, 6ou like it and do it regularl6.
Aryan really goes in for any kind of outdoor activity.
.hen I was a kid I went in for football, but I don(t watch it much anymore.
look forward to
look forward to & looks forward to looking forward to looked forward to looked forward
to
($ %oo0 .or5ar! to p.v. "hen 6ou %oo0 .or5ar! to so2ething or %oo0 .or5ar! to
doing so2ething, 6ou are e<cited about so2ething in the &uture because 6ou en+o6 it or
because it will bene&it 6ou in so2e wa6.
It(s been four years since my brother went overseas. I(m looking forward to seeing him again.
I look forward to an opportunity to meet with you in person.
put up with
put up with & puts up with putting up with put up with put up with
($ +t + 5ith p.v. "hen 6ou +t + 5ith so2ething 6ou do not like or are not happ6
about, 6ou accept it and do not tr6 to change it.
$er neighbors have loud parties every night, but she doesn(t complain. !he just puts up with it.
My husband said, +I(ve put up with your brother long enoughE+
screw out of
screw out of & screws out of screwing out of screwed out of screwed out of
($ scre5$$$ ot o. p.v. Jin&or2alK "hen 6ou get 2one6 or so2ething valuable &ro2 people
in a dishonest wa6, 6ou scre5 the2 ot o. it.
That con man screwed me out of my life savings.
Their slea6y son&in&law screwed them out of thousands of dollars.
talk down to
talk down to & talks down to talking down to talked down to talked down to
($ ta%0 !o5n to p.v. "hen 6ou ta%0 !o5n to people, 6ou use a tone o& voice or an attitude
that shows 6ou think the6 are less intelligent, less educated, or &ro2 a lower level o&
societ6 than 6ou.
1%
; was furious about the way he talked down to meE
Aob hates )ane because of the way she talks down to him.
;L;-$5S; 3a ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith +hrasa% ver&s .ro- this section$
Be sre the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$
1. hanks &or inviting 2e, but 5 donBt MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM card ga2es.
2. 5 couldnBt MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM 26 husbandBs s2oking an6 longer.
5 told hi2 to choose between cigarettes and 2e.
3. 5B2 sorr6, but 5 think 6our plan is a big 2istake, and 5 canBt MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM
MMMMMMMMit.
#. ;ven though 7r. "atson is the richest 2an in town, he never MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM
MMMMMMMM people.
%. 5tBs been onl6 two weeks since the traged6. 5B2 sure the6 donBt MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM
MMMMMMMM going to the part6.
'. 5& that crook thinks heBs going to MMMMMMMM 2e MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM
%11 bucks, heBs craD6:
(. he whole &a2il6Bs going to be here &or hanksgiving, and 7o2 is reall6 MMMMMMMM
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMit.
8. 5 volunteered to give 26 speech &irst +ust so 5 could MMMMMMMM it MMMMMMMM
,. ;ven i& 6ou donBt like the rules, 6ou have to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM
the2.
;L;-$5S; 3b ; =rite ans5ers to the >estions sin/ +hrasa% ver&s .ro- this
section$ Be sre the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$
1. Ierr6Bs brother!in!law talks to hi2 like heBs an idiot. Cow does Ierr6Bs brother!in!law talk
to Ierr6H
2. Nicole canBt work to2orrow, and sheBs nervous about telling her boss. "hat should Nicole doH
3. he6 paid N%,111 too 2uch &or their house because the sales2an lied to the2. "hat did the
sales2an do to the2H
1'
#. Sall6Bs going to &l6 in an airplane &or the &irst ti2e, and sheBs ver6 e<cited about it. Cow does
Sall6 &eel about &l6ing in an airplaneH
%. he winters in 7inneapolis are terrible, but 6ou canBt 2ove or change the weather. "hat
do 6ou have to doH
'. ;rik +ust got out o& the hospital, and he doesnBt &eel strong enough to go back to work.
"h6 canBt ;rik go back to workH
(. 5 thought the new polic6 was an e<cellent idea, and 5 agreed with it 111 percent. Cow did 5 &eel
about the new polic6H
;L;-$5S; 3c, -eview ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith these +hrasa% ver&s .ro-
Section "$ Be sre the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$ To chec0 their
-eanin/s' revie5 Section "$
co2e o&& &all &or hear about sta6 o&&
doDe o&& give in pull through throw up
1. 7iguel told 2e he didnBt steal 26 V, but 5 didnBtMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM his lies.
2. Ii2 is reall6 sick, and he sta6ed ho2e &ro2 school toda6. Ce MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM
twice last night.
3. /&ter a &ew weeks, the gold on this cheap +ewelr6 starts to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM.
#. Ce kept nagging and nagging, and 5 &inall6 MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM.
%. 5& that cat doesnBt learn to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM the table, it will have to go.
'. /&ter =ett6Bs te2perature got up to 11% degrees, we started to think she 2ight not
(. he 2eeting was so boring that 5 MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM.
8. 5 MMMMMMM MMMMMMMM a countr6 where people use big stones &or 2one6.
1(
6$ FOCUS ON< +resent an! +ast continos
+hrasa% ver&s
)ike one!word verbs, phrasal verbs can nor2all6 be used in the continuous tense
Ealso called the progressive tenseF using the -ing &or2 o& the verb Ealso called the
present participleF and a &or2 o& be:
The principal told me you(d been cheating on the test.
I(ve been going after my master(s for nearly five years.
.hich dictionary is he looking up the words in1
$ow will she be pa%ing for her tuition bill1
The compass needle couldn(t be pointing to the south.
.e would be planning for a bigger crowd if the weather weren(t so bad.
They should be wrapping the meeting up in a few minutes.
Thanks for all your help. I(m sorry for putting you to so much trouble.
Infinitive
present tense &ing form past tense past participle
cheat on
cheat on < cheats on cheating on cheated on cheated on
($ cheat on p.v. "hen 6ou cheat on 6our se<ual partner, 6ou have se< or a ro2antic
relationship with another person.
!arah filed for divorce after she caught Ieorge cheating on her. >an you believe it1
!he was cheating on me with my best friendE
"$ cheat on p.v. "hen 6ou do so2ething dishonest so that 6ou can do better on a test,
6ou cheat on the test.
The teacher caught 'li cheating on the e0am.
If I didn(t cheat on the tests, I(d never pass any of my classes.
go after
go after & goes after going after went after gone after
($ /o a.ter p.v. "hen 6ou chase and tr6 to ph6sicall6 stop or to attack people, 6ou /o
a.ter the2.
' policeman saw him stealing the car and went after him.
>aptain Morgan was ordered to go after the enemy soldiers.
"$ /o a.ter p.v. "hen law en&orce2ent o&&icials tr6 to prosecute people through a legal
procedure, the6 /o a.ter the2.
Federal prosecutors are now going after the top drug dealers.
The senator introduced a bill designed to go after deadbeat dads.
*$ /o a.ter p.v. "hen a business tries to increase its pro&its b6 tr6ing to increase its
2arket share or its nu2ber o& custo2ers, it /oes a.ter the2.
18
The tobacco company denied going after the teenage market.
The >/= said he wanted to go after new customers in >hina.
6$ /o a.ter p.v. "hen 6ou /o a.ter so2ething, 6ou tr6 to obtain it even though it 2a6 be
di&&icult to do.
!ofia went after a degree in accounting.
Todd trained for a year before going after the record in the *33&yard dash.
Infinitive
present tense &ing form past tense past participle
look up
look up < looks up looking up looked up looked up
($ %oo0$$$ + p.v. "hen 6ou get in&or2ation &ro2 a re&erence book, such as a word &ro2
a dictionar6 or a telephone nu2ber &ro2 a telephone book, 6ou %oo0 the word or
nu2ber +$
The teacher told the students to look the new words up in a dictionary.
I looked up his number, but it(s not in the phone book.
"$ %oo0$$$ + p.v. "hen 6ou locate and visit people 6ou have not seen &or a long ti2e, 6ou
%oo0 the2 +$
; was in 5allas on business, and I looked up 5an )ones, my old college roommate.
If you(re ever in 9empton, look me up.
*$ %oo0 + p.v. "hen a situation is %oo0in/ + or starting to %oo0 +' it is i2proving.
Ausiness was pretty bad for a while, but things are starting to look up. I(m much
happier than I was last year. Things are looking up.
pa% for
pa% for & pa%s for pa%ing for paid for paid for
($ +a3$$$ .or p.v. "hen 6ou give so2eone 2one6 in e<change &or so2ething, 6ou +a3 .or
it or +a3 so2eone .or it.
>an # pa% for this stuff with a credit card1
'lfonso paid the waiter for his dinner.
paid for part.adj. 'fter you have paid for something, it is paid for. My car is old, but at
least it(s paid for.
"$ +a3 .or p.v. "hen 6ou are punished &or so2ething, 6ou +a3 .or what 6ou have
done.
I caught the guy who(s spreading these false rumors about me, and he paid for ruining my reputation.
8oung people think that drugs are harmless, but they(ll pa% for their foolishness someday.
1,
Infinitive
present tense &ing form past tense past participle
plan for
plan for < plans for planning for planned for planned for
($ +%an .or p.v. "hen 6ou 2ake preparations &or so2ething in the &uture, 6ou +%an
.or it.
The festival was a disaster because they didn(t plan for such a huge crowd.
It(s never to early too start planning for retirement.
point to
point to & points to pointing to pointed to pointed to
($ +oint to p.v. "hen 6ou indicate people or things with 6our hand or a &inger, 6ou +oint to
the2. "hen an arrow or a sign indicates so2ething, it +oints to it.
The waitress couldn(t hear me, so I pointed to my empty glass and she understood. The prosecutor
asked, +>an you point to the man you saw carrying the gun1+
"$ +oint to p.v. "hen a situation or occurrence causes 6ou to consider so2ething else, it
+oints to that thing.
These terrible test scores point to a need for some major changes in our educational system.
The fact that all the people with food poisoning ate tuna salad sandwiches pointed to contaminated mayonnaise as the
source of the illness.
put to
put to & puts to putting to put to put to
($ +t$$$ to p.v. "hen 6ou con&ront people with a di&&icult or thought!provoking .uestion,
accusation, or proposition, 6ou +t it to the2.
$e didn(t want to tell me the truth, but I really put it to him, and he finally told me the whole story.
.hen ?rof. 9line put his theory to me like that, I reali6ed what he was talking about.
"$ +t$$$ to p.v. "hen 6ou put people to trouble or put the2 to an e<pense, 6ou cause the2
to do e<tra work or to spend 2one6.
Thanks for helping me with my flat tire. I(m sorry to put you to so much trouble.
I know my father would pay my dental bill if I asked him, but I hate to put him to such an e0pense.
*$ +t $$$to p.v. "hen 6ou +t part o& 6our bod6 or so2ething in 6our hand to so2ething,
6ou touch or press it to so2ething.
The neighbors were arguing again, so we put our ears to the wall to try to hear what they were saying.
.hen he put a gun to my head, I reali6ed he wasn(t joking.
21
#nfinitive
present tense -ing form past tense past participle
wrap up
wrap up & wraps up wrapping up wrapped up wrapped up
($ 5ra+$$$ + p.v. "hen 6ou enclose an ob+ect in so2e kind o& paper, usuall6 gi&t wrapping
paper or packaging paper, 6ou 5ra+ it +$
; have to wrap this gift up before I go to the party.
The movers wrapped up the china with newspapers.
5ra++e! + part.ad+. /&ter 6ou enclose an ob+ect in so2e kind o& paper, usuall6 gi&t
wrapping paper or packaging paper, it is 5ra++e! +$
"$ 5ra+$$$ + p.v. "hen 6ou conclude an event that has been happening &or so2e ti2e,
6ou wrap it up. =in! + is si2ilar to 5ra+ +$
.e wrapped up the meeting around H#33 and went home.
The salesman blabbered for two hours before I finally told him to wrap it up.
;L;-$5S; #a ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith +hrasa% ver&s .ro- this section$ Be
sre the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$
*. It(s *7#23. Get(s%%%%%%%%this meeting%%%%%%%%and goto lunch.
7. There was no way he could deny his guilt after the prosecutor %%%%%%%% it %%%%%%% him.
2. The high crime rate %%%%%%%% %%%%%%%% a need for more police officers.
H. 8ou(ll %%%%%%% %%%%%%%% what you did to me if it(s the last thing I ever doE
D. The principal gave a 6ero to each of the students who %%%%%%%% %%%%%%%% the test.
J. I %%%%%%% my ear %%%%%%%% the wall to try to hear what !ally was saying about me.
(. Mike is %%%%%%%% the words %%%%%%%% in the dictionary.
K. The police officers %%%%%%%% %%%%%%%% the robbers, but they didn(t catch them.
L. Ginda told "ed that she would divorce him if he ever %%%%%%%% %%%%%%%% her again.
*3. 8es, it was Fuite a surprise we didn(t %%%%%%%% %%%%%%%% twins.
**. .e saw an arrow%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%the door at the end of the hallway.
*7. 'fter she won the silver medal, she %%%%%%%% %%%%%%%% the gold.
*2. Most insurance companies won(t %%%%%%%% %%%%%%%% plastic surgery.
*H. I returned to my hometown for the first time in forty years and %%%%%%%% %%%%%%%% my first girlfriend.
21
*D. The guy in the seafood store %%%%%%%%% the fish %%%%%%%%% in old newspapers.
*J. The FAI is %%%%%%%% %%%%%%%% major drug smugglers.
*M. These last si0 months have been difficult for !ally, but now things are starting to
18. he co2pan6 started in $ali&ornia, but now itBs MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM custo2ers all over the
countr6.
1,. Aou MMMMMMMM 2e MMMMMMMM a lot o& trouble to help 6ou 2ove 6our piano, and 6ou didnBt even
sa6 thank 6ou.
;L;-$5S; #b ; =rite sentences sin/ the o&,ects in +arentheses$ Be sre to +t the
o&,ects in the ri/ht +%ace$
*. I was looking up in the dictionary, Ba word, itC %%%%%%%% %%%%%%%% %%%%%%%% %%%%%%%% %%%%%%%% %%%%%%%%
7. I was in Aoston looking up. Bsome old army buddies, themC %%%%%%%% %%%%%%%% %%%%%%%% %%%%%%%% %%%%%%%%
%%%%%%%%
2. 5ad(s upstairs wrapping up. BMom(s birthday present, itC %%%%%%%% %%%%%%%% %%%%%%%% %%%%%%%% %%%%%%%%
%%%%%%%%
H. The committee is wrapping up. Btheir discussion, itC %%%%%%%% %%%%%%%% %%%%%%%% %%%%%%%% %%%%%%%% %%%%%%%%
22
;L;-$5S; #c ; =rite ans5ers to the >estions sin/ +hrasa% ver&s an! +artici+%e
a!,ectives .ro- this section$ Be sre the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$
1. Ce showed 2e where the bathroo2 was with his &inger. "hat did he doH
2. "eBre preparing &or 311 wedding guests. "hat are we doingH
3. he situation is getting better. "hat is the situation doingH
H. The little boy ran away, and his father chased him and tried to catch him. .hat did the father do1
%. So&ia is going to tr6 to break the record in the high +u2p. "hat is So&ia going to tr6 to doH
'. o2 did a lot o& work to get his guest bedroo2 read6 &or 2e when 5 visited hi2. "hat did 5 do
to o2H
(. 5B2 giving 2one6 to the cashier &or the book 5 want to bu6. "hat a2 5 doingH
8. 5n Ouestion (, how would 6ou describe the book a&ter 5 give the 2one6 to the cashierH
,. he people in the 2eeting are concluding the 2eeting. "hat are the6 doingH
11. "hen -osa was in New *rleans, she looked &or and visited a childhood &riend. "hat did
-osa do to her friend1
11. Ii2 asked 6ou a reall6 di&&icult .uestion. "hat did Ii2 do to 6ouH
12. 7egan is tr6ing to &ind ;rikBs telephone nu2ber in a telephone book. "hat is 7egan doingH
13. o2 is 2arried, but he slept with another wo2an. "hat did o2 do to his wi&eH
;L;-$5S; #d, -eview ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith these +hrasa% ver&s .ro-
+revios sections$ Be sre the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$ To chec0 their
-eanin/s' revie5 the section n-&er /iven a.ter each one$
co2e &ro2, 2 &igure out, 1 hear about, 2 pull through, 2
&all &or, 2 give in, 1 look &or, 1 show up, 1
*. I %%%%%% %%%%%%%% your mother on our first date, and we got married three months later.
7. >armen(s family %%%%%%%% %%%%%%%%% Michoacan around twenty years ago.
2. ?aul was supposed to meet us at K#33, but he never %%%%%%%% %%%%%%%%%.
72
#. hese instructions donBt 2ake an6 sense at all. 5 canBt MMMMMMMM the2 MMMMMMMM.
%. /&ter /unt 7ar6Bs stroke, her chances didnBt look good, but she MMMMMMMM MMMMMMM
1. 76 daughter begged 2e to let her get her ears pierced, and 5 &inall6 MMMMMMMM
(. 76 &ather was listening to the radio, and he said he MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM a new
car that runs on water.
2. 5 spent two hours MMMMMMMMM MMMMMMMMM the re2ote control be&ore 5 &ound it.
%
7$ FOCUS ON< +ronnciation o. t5o95or!
+hrasa% ver&s
Nonse+ara&%e +hrasa% ver&s
Intransitive nonseparable phrasal verbs Everbs that do not allow an ob+ectF
are usuall6 accented on the particleG
The barn got hit by lightning, and it burned &'().
"ed drank so much that he passed '*T on the bathroom floor.
Transitive nonseparable phrasal verbs Everbs that re.uire an ob+ectF are
usuall6 accented on the verbG
$ank(s been +,-.T#)/ on his wife for years.
I told the teacher my dog ate my homework, but she didn(t 0.11 for it.
Se+ara&%e +hrasa% ver&s
!eparable phrasal verbs Bwhich are always transitiveC are usually accented on the particle#
The Aritish soldiers tried to burn &'() the .hite $ouse.
The teacher passed them '*T.
/s the e<a2ples above show, a single phrasal verb can belong to 2ore than one
categor6 depending on its 2eaning.
Infinitive
present tense &ing form past tense past participle
break down
break down ! breaks down breaking down broke down broken down
($ &rea0!o5n p.v. "hen so2ething 2echanical &rea0s !o5n' it !oes not &unction.
2#
; was late for work because my car broke down.
This photocopier is a piece of junk it breaks down every day.
&ro0en9!o5n part.ad+. "hen so2ething is old, in bad condition, or not &unctioning
properl6, it is &ro0en9!o5n$
My car is a broken-down piece of junk.
&rea0!o5n n$ A &rea0!o5n is a situation in which so2ething 2echanical has
&ro0en !o5n$
'fter that last breakdown I decided it was time for a new car.
"$ &rea0!o5n p.v. "hen an arrange2ent, agree2ent, negotiation, plan, or 2arriage
&rea0s !o5n' one or 2ore persons involved is not cooperating or participating
because o& a disagree2ent or proble2.
'fter he started drinking heavily, their marriage started to break down.
The peace negotiations broke down because neither side was willing to compromise.
&rea0!o5n n. / situation in which an arrange2ent, agree2ent, negotiation, plan, or
2arriage has &ro0en !o5n is a &rea0!o5n$
"either side would give an inch, and there was a breakdown in the negotiations.
*$ &rea0!o5n p.v. "hen 6ou &rea0 !o5n' 3o lose sel&!control and beco2e
e2otionall6 or 2entall6 con&used.
.hen the judge sentenced )ones to life in prison, he broke down and begged for mercy.
Tom breaks down whenever he thinks of the tragedy.
&rea0!o5n n. / situation in which so2eone has &ro0en !o5n and is ver6 upset or
con&used is a &rea0!o5n$
Marvin had a complete mental breakdown and started to see invisible people.
6$ &rea0 !o5n p.v. "hen so2ething deco2poses or reduces to its s2allest parts or is
reduced b6 so2eone to its s2allest parts, it &rea0s !o5n$
'fter the poison breaks down it(s Fuite harmless.
'nticoagulant drugs are used to break down blood clots.
7$ &rea0$$$ !o5n p.v. "hen 6ou reduce a process, situation, proble2, plan, or idea to
its basic parts to 2ake it easier to understand, 6ou &rea0 it !o5n$
The professor(s plan seemed really complicated, but after he broke it down for us, we understood it a little
better.
If you break the manufacturing process down into steps, it(s easier to train new workers.
8$ &rea0 $$$ !o5n p.v. "hen 6ou use &orce to go through a door that is locked, 6ou
&rea0 it !o5n$
2%
The police broke the door down and arrested the bank robbers.
' door had to be broken down to rescue the people trapped by the fire.
Infinitive
present tense &ing form past tense past participle
burn down
burn down < burns down burning down burned down burned down
($ &rn $$$ !o5n p.v. "hen a building or other structure &rns !o5n or so2eone &rns it
!o5n' it is co2pletel6 destro6ed b6 &ire.
Though most of >hicago burned down in *KM*, a few buildings survived.
The owner was arrested for deliberately burning his factory down.
call in
call in & calls in calling in called in called in
($ ca%% in p.v. "hen 6ou call 6our place o& e2plo62ent to sa6 6ou cannot work that da6
because 6ou are sick, 6ou ca%% in or ca%% in sick.
The manager was angry when her secretary called in three days in a row.
+alling in sick too often is a good way to get fired.
"$ ca%%$$$ in p.v. "hen 6ou re.uest the help o& people or o& an organiDation with 2ore
e<perience, power, or knowledge to help with a proble2 or di&&icult pro+ect, 6ou ca%% the2
in$
.hen the local police couldn(t handle the riot, the "ational Iuard was called in.
The local police chief considered calling the FAI in to help solve the crime.
find out
find out & finds out finding out found out found out
($ .in! $$$ ot p.v. Jnot usuall6 separated > the ob+ect can be a noun, a noun clause, or a
co2plete sentenceK "hen 6ou .in! ot in&or2ation or a &act, 6ou learn or beco2e aware
o& that in&or2ation or &act.
If you don(t know when the movie starts, look in the newspaper to find out.
I met a nice man at the party, but I never found out his name.
I met a nice man at the party, but I never found out what his name was.
I was surprised when I found out that he can speak fourteen languages.
I was surprised when I found out he can speak fourteen languages.
I tried to get the information, but I couldn(t find it out.
hand
back
hand back & hands back handing back handed back handed back
($ han!$$$ &ac0 EtoF p.v. "hen 6ou return things to people b6 holding the2 in 6our hand
and e<tending 6our ar2, 6ou han! the2 &ac0 or han! the2 &ac0 to the2.
The teacher will hand the tests back in third period.
The guard handed my I5 card back to me.
2'
5n*'n't'e
present tense $'n, *or1 past tense past part'&'ple
look at
loo8 at 7 loo8s at loo8'n, at loo8ed at loo8ed at
($ %oo0 at p.v. "hen 6ou &ocus 6our e6es on people or things, 6ou %oo0 at the2.
/ looked at her and told her I loved her.
1ook at me when I talk to youE
"$ %oo0 at p.v. "hen 6ou e<a2ine so2ething or a situation and decide what to do about it,
6ou %oo0 at it$
The mechanic looked at my car but couldn(t find anything wrong with it.
8our finger might be broken@ you should have 5r. !mith look at it.
*$ %oo0 at p.v. "hen 6ou think a certain wa6 or have an opinion about so2ething, that is
the wa6 6ou %oo0 at it.
The way I look at it, >ongress is to blame for this mess, not the ?resident.
.hat should be done about this situation depends on how you look at it.
6$ %oo0 at p.v. Jin&or2al > alwa6s continuousK "hen 6ou sa6 that people are %oo0in/ at
an a2ount o& 2one6 or a length o& ti2e, 6ou 2ean that this is how 2uch the6 think
so2ething will cost or how long so2ething will take.
That was a serious injury. 8ou(re looking at months and months of physical therapy.
?utting a new roof on this house isn(t going to be cheap. 8ou(re looking at at least :*D,333.
pile up
pile up & piles up piling up piled up piled up
($ +i%e$$$ + p.v. "hen things increase in nu2ber and start to &or2 a pile, the6 +i%e +$
"hen people add things to a pile, the6 +i%e the2 +$
The snow piled up so high that I couldn(t open my door. In the fall we pile the dead
leaves up in the driveway and burn them.
piled up part.adj. .hen things are in a pile, they are piled up.
' lot of dirty laundry is piled up in the basement.
"$ +i%e + p.v. "hen work or so2ething else that 2ust be done increases &aster than 6ou
can do it, it +i%es +$
I(m really worried about money. My bills are piling up faster than I can pay them.
My work really piled up white I was on vacation.
setup
set up * sets up setting up set up set up
($ set$$$ + p.v. "hen 6ou arrange the parts o& so2ething so that the6 are in their proper
position and can &unction, 6ou set it +$
2(
The kids got a swing set for >hristmas, and 5ad had to set it up in the snow.
.hen you(re camping, be sure to set your tent up before it gets dark.
set + part.ad+. /&ter the parts o& so2ething are in their proper position and &unction properl6,
the6 are set +$
The party is starting in one hour. 're the tables set up"
set+ n. / collection or arrange2ent o& parts or e.uip2ent necessar6 &or a certain procedure
or task is a set+$
The nurse prepared setups for the hospital emergency room.
"$ set$$$ + p.v. "hen 6ou plan and organiDe an activit6 or pro+ect, 6ou set it +$
# set up a H#33 meeting with )ones and his lawyer.
2etting up a meeting of all fifty governors took a lot of planning.
set + part.ad+. "hen an activit6 or pro+ect is planned, arranged, or organiDed, it is
set +$
The arrangements for the wedding were very complicated, but everything is set up now.
set+ n. Cow an activit6 or pro+ect is planned or arranged is the set+$
"hatBs the set+ &or the 3ourth o& Iul6 picnicH
*$ set$$$ + p.v. Jin&or2alK "hen 6ou co22it a cri2e but 2ake it appear that another,
innocent person is guilt6 o& the cri2e, 6ou set the innocent person +$
)oe robbed the bank and tried to set me up by leaving some of the stolen money in my apartment and then telling the
police about it. The detective didn(t believe me when I told him I was set up.
set+ n. Jin&or2alK /n atte2pt b6 so2eone to 2ake it appear that an innocent person
is guilt6 o& a cri2e is a set+$
; told the detective it was a setup and that I could prove I had been at the racetrack when the bank
was robbed.
;L;-$5S; %a ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith +hrasa% ver&s .ro- this section$ Be sre
the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$
1. "hen he heard that his brother had been killed, he MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM and cried.
2. "eBre e<pecting co2pan6. $an 6ou MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM the card table in the dining roo2H
3. $an 6ou help wash the dishes, pleaseH he6Bre reall6 beginning to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM.
#. 5 gave the cashier 26 credit card, and then she MMMMMMMM it MMMMMMMM to 2e.
D. I don(t know the answer, but I(ll try to %%%%%%%% %%%%%%%%.
J. .e were very busy at work today. Two people %%%%%%%% %%%%%%%% sick.
M. Naul %%%%%%% %%%%%%%% his watch and told me he had to leave.
K. My car is a real piece of junk. It %%%%%%%% %%%%%%%% at least once a week.
L. I(m a little confused about your theory. .ould you mind %%%%%%%% it %%%%%%%% for me1
*3. I(ll tell the judge that I(m innocent and that "ed 9elly%%%%%%%%me%%%%%%%%.
**. $ey, any way you %%%%%%%% %%%%%%%% it, one thing(s for sure we have to get more crooks off the streets and into the
jails.
*7. This is the FAI open the door or we(ll %%%%%%%% it %%%%%%%%E
*2. Maybe I can fi0 your computer. I(ll%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%it after dinner.
*H. The family doctor has never seen a case of malaria before, so he is %%%%%%%% %%%%%%% a specialist.
(*D. !ome chemical compounds start to %%%%%%%% %%%%%%%% after only a few hours.
*J. The arsonist tried to %%%%%%%% %%%%%%%% several houses in the neighborhood.
*M. The secretary is %%%%%%%% %%%%%%%% a meeting.
*K. The civil war started again after the peace talks %%%%%%%% %%%%%%%%.
*L. )im buys a newspaper every day, but he never puts it in the garbage when he is finished. "ewspapers are slowly
%%%%%%%% %%%%%%%% in his basement.
73. The mechanic said, +To fi0 a car after an accident that bad, I(d say you(re %%%%%%%% %%%%%%% at least :H,333.+
;L;-$5S; %b ; Revie5 the e4+%anation at the &e/innin/ o. this section o. ho5 t5o9
5or! +hrasa% ver&s are +rononce!$ Then' sa3 each sentence in E4ercise 7a a%o!
an! circ%e the ver& or +artic%e that is accente!$
ECERCISE 7c ; =rite three sentences sin/ the o&,ects in +arentheses$
Be sre to +t the o&,ects in the ri/ht +%ace$
*. The firefighters broke down. Bthe door, itC
>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>
>>>>>>> .
7. They burned down, Bthe old barn, itC
>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>
>>>>>>> .
2. $e called in. B5r. !hapiro,herC
>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>
>>>>>>> .
H. =ur teacher handed back. Bthe papers, themC
>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>
>>>>>>> .
D. I set up. Bthe ironing board, itC
>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>
>>>>>>> .
ECERCISE 7! ; =rite ans5ers to the >estions sin/ +hrasa% ver&s' +artici+%e a!,ectives' an!
nons .ro- this section$ Be sre the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$
1. Iane arranged a bab6 shower. "hat did she doH
2. 5n Ouestion 1, how would 6ou describe the bab6 shower a&ter Iane arranged itH
3. 5 get 2agaDines in the 2ail &aster than 5 can read the2. "hat are 26 2agaDines doingH
#. 5n Ouestion 3, how would 6ou describe 26 2agaDinesH
%. odd returned the pen to 7ark. "hat did odd doH
'. 0ncle 3redBs car had a 2echanical proble2, and it stopped running. "hat did it doH
(. 5n Ouestion ', how would 6ou describe 0ncle 3redBs carH
8. 5n Ouestion ', what did 0ncle 3red haveH
,. he soldiers destro6ed the building with &ire. "hat did the soldiers doH
11. he soldiers destro6ed the building with &ire. "hat did the building doH
11. "hen the detective told Iake he could get the death penalt6, he beca2e ver6 nervous and upset.
"hat did Iake doH
12. 5n Ouestion 11, what did Iake haveH
13. he boss was angr6 because 6ou didnBt call to sa6 that 6ou were sick and couldnBt work. "h6 was
the boss angr6H
1#. Iud6 took her new co2puter out o& the bo<, connected alt the cables, and got it read6 to use. "hat
did she do to her co2puterH
1%. 5n Ouestion 1#, a&ter Iud6 took her new co2puter out o& the bo<, connected all the cables, and got it
read6 to use, how would 6ou describe itH
1'. he door was locked, but Cank &orced it open and got inside. "hat did Cank doH
1(. 5 learned that /llBs e<cuse was a big lie. "hat did 5 doH
ECERCISE 7e' Revie5 ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith these +hrasa% ver&s .ro-
+revios sections$ Be sre the +hrasa% ver&s are In the correct tense$ To chec0 their
-eanin/s' revie5 the section n-&er /iven a.ter each one$
co2e o&&, 2
&eel up to, 3
get over with, 3
go along with, 3
go in &or, 3
look &orward to, 3
put up with, 3
sta6 o&&,2
talk down to, 3
throw up, 2
1. Cer husband is a real +erk. Cow does she MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM hi2H
2. 5 wasnBt sure i& $harles MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM going scuba diving again so soon a&ter the
shark attack.
3. 5B2 telling 6ou &or the last ti2e: MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM the grass:
#. $an 6ou help 2e with this +arH he top wonBt MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM.
%. 5Bve never been to 5tal6, and 5B2 reall6 MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM going there.

31
'. 5B2 sorr6 5 canBt agree with 6ou 8ad, but 5 have to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM
MMMMMMMM 7o2.
(. "hen 5 had &ood poisoning 5 MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM all night long.
8. Aou can be sure Paul will take his vacation out west. Ce reall6 MMMMMMMM MMMM outdoor stu&& like
ca2ping and 2ountain cli2bing.
,. $an 6ou believe the nerve o& that gu6 in the 2eeting 6esterda6H Ce MMMMMMMM
MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM 2e as i& 5 was the stupidest gu6 on ;arth:
11. 5B2 tired o& arguing about the divorce settle2ent. 5 +ust want to MMMMMMMM it.
8$ 3*$0S *NG +ronnciation o. three95or!
+hrasa% ver&s
The pronunciation of three&word phrasal verbs is generally Fuite simple# the second, or middle, particle is
accented regardless of whether the phrasal verb is separable or inseparable#
; think I(ve come *3 with an answer to your problem.
The detective didn(t get any information '*T of him.
#nfinitive
present tense -ing form past tense past participle
boil down to
boil down to & boils down to boiling down to boiled down to boiled down to
($ &oi% !o5n to p.v. "hen 6ou sa6 that so2ething &oi%s !o5n to so2ething else, 6ou
are sa6ing that it is the basic cause o& a 2ore co2plicated situation or proble2.
Most of the crime in this city boils down to drugs.
My decision to stay at this awful job boils down to one thing money.
come down with
come down with & comes down with coming down with came down with come down will
($ co-e !o5n 5ith p.v. "hen 6ou are starting to get sick, 6ou are co-in/ !o5n 5ith
so2ething or co-in/ !o5n 5ith an illness.
; don(t feel well. Maybe I(m coming down with something.
My grandmother said, +If you don(t wear an undershirt, you(ll come down with pneumonia.+
27
Infinitive
present tense &ing form past tense past participle
come up with
come up with < comes up with coming up with came up with come up with
($ co-e + 5ith p.v. "hen 6ou think o& an idea, plan, or solution, 6ou co-e + 5ith
it.
It took me all night, but I came up with the answer.
Gydia wants to come up with a great idea for the party.
get around to
get around to & gets around to getting around to got around to gotten/got around to
($ /et aron! to p.v. "hen 6ou do so2ething a&ter waiting &or so2e ti2e because 6ou are
laD6, ine..icien, or do not want to do it, 6ou /et aron! to it.
I didn(t get around to doing my ta0es until 'pril *H.
5on(t worry about the broken window. I(ll get around to it one of these days.
get out of
get out of & gets out of getting out of got out of gotten/got out of
($ /et ot o. p.v. "hen 6ou /et ot o. so2ething or /et ot o. doing so2ething 6ou 2ust
do but do not want to do, 6ou &ind a wa6 to avoid it.
!am got out of gym class by pretending to be sick.
The boss wants me to work a double shift, but I(ll get out of it.
# got out of going to church with my parents by pretending to be sick.
"$ /et$$$ ot o. p.v. 5& an activit6 gives 6ou pleasure, satis&action, or so2e other bene&it,
6ou /et pleasure, satis&action, or so2e other bene&it ot o. it.
I sat through that boring class for three months and didn(t learn a thing. I didn(t get anything out of it.
The judge didn(t get any pleasure out of imposin such a harshpenalty.
*$ /et$$$ ot o. p.v. "hen 6ou use &orce, pressure, or deceit to get so2ething, such as
in&or2ation or 2one6, &ro2 people, 6ou /et it ot o. the2.
They tortured him for days, but they couldn(t get any information out of him.
It took me a while, but I got the whole story out of her.
go back on
go back on & goes back on going back on went back on gone back on
($ /o &ac0 on p.v. "hen 6ou 2ake a pro2ise, but 6ou do not do what 6ou pro2ised to do,
6ou /o &ac0 on 6our pro2ise.
I promised to take my son to a baseball game, and I(m not going back on my word.
The ?resident went back on his pledg not to raise ta0es.
33
#nfinitive
present tense -ing form past tense past participle
go through with
go through with & goes through with going through with went through with gone through with
($ /o thro/h 5ith p.v. "hen 6ou do so2ething that 6ou have decided to
do even though it 2a6 be dangerous or unpleasant or others 2a6 ob+ect, 6ou /o
thro/h 5ith it$
The spokeswoman said the company would go through with its plan to move the company to Me0ico.
5espite his family(s opposition, /rik went through with his decision to Fuit his job and start his own business.
monke% around with
monke% around with & monke%s around monke%ing around with monke%ed around with monke%ed around
($ -on0e3 aron! 5ith p.v. Jin&or2alK "hen 6ou ad+ust or tr6 to repair 2echanical devices
even though 6ou do not have per2ission or do not have the skill to do it properl6, 6ou
-on0e3 aron! 5ith the2.
I monke%ed around with my camera, and I think maybe I fi0ed it.
Frank was monke%ing around with my printer, and now it doesn(t work.
ECERCISE 8a ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith +hrasa% ver&s .ro- this section$ Be
sre the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$
*. I(m not surprised that 'li stayed home from work today. 8esterday he thought he might be
MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM a cold.
2. )ast 6ear, the co2pan6 MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM its plan to 2ove &ro2 downtown to the
suburbs.
3. 5Bve thought and thought, but 5 canBt MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM an6 reason wh6 6our idea wonBt
work.
#. 3i<ing the leak in the roo& is going to be a big +ob, but 5 have to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM
MMMMMMMM it be&ore the ne<t rain.
%. Ceather didnBt want to tell 2e wh6 she was 2ad, but 5 &inall6 MMMMMMMM the reason
MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM her.
'. 5 donBt MMMMMMMM 2uch satis&action MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM teaching students who donBt want to be in
the class.
3#
(. he e<planation &or our &ailure to solve this proble2 isnBt co2plicated. 5t reall6 MMMMMMMM
MMMMMMM MMMMMMMM a lack o& &unding.
8. 5 think 6ou should take 6our V$- to a repair shop. 5& 6ou MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM
MMMMMMM it, 6ouBll +ust 2ake it worse.
,. 5B2 supposed to report &or +ur6 dut6 on 7onda6, but 5 donBt want to. 5Bve got to think o& a wa6 to
MMMMMMM MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM it.
11. Aou lied to 2e: Aou pro2ised 2e 6ou would .uit s2oking, and now 6ouBve MMMMMMMM
MMMMMMM MMMMMMMM 6our word.
ECERCISE 8& ; =rite ans5ers to the >estions sin/ +hrasa% ver&s .ro- this
section$ Be sre the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$
1. o2 was ver6 nervous about getting 2arried, but he did it. "hat did o2 doH
2. "e were in Paris &or &ive da6s, but we never &ound ti2e to go to the ;i&&el ower. "hat
didnBt we doH
3. 76 &ather said 5 had to cut the grass, but 5 told hi2 5 would do it to2orrow. "hat did 5 doH
#. Ianice reall6 likes teaching because it gives her a lot o& satis&action. "h6 does Ianice like
teachingH
%. 7s. $u22ings thought o& a wa6 to 2anu&acture her co2pan6Bs products 2ore cheapl6. "hat
did 7s. $u22ings doH
'. here are 2an6 reasons wh6 one house sells &or a higher price than other houses, but the 2ain
reason is the houseBs location. "h6 does one house sell &or 2ore than anotherH
(. Aou &eel a little sick now, and 6ou think 6ouBll have a cold to2orrow. "hatBs happening to 6ou
toda6H
8. 5 donBt reall6 know what to do, but 5Bll tr6 to &i< the air conditioner an6wa6. "hat will 5 do to the air
conditionerH
,. 76 wi&e didnBt talk to 2e all da6, but she said nothing was wrong. 5 asked her again and again what the
proble2 was and she &inall6 told 2e. "hat did 5 doH
11. -a.uel pro2ised /le< she would go to the dance with hi2, but she went with $arlos instead. "hat
did -a.uel doH
3%
ECERCISE 8c' Revie5 ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith these +hrasa% ver&s .ro-
+revios sections$ Be sre the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$ To chec0 their
-eanin/s' revie5 the section n-&er /iven a.ter each one$
burn down, %
cheat on,#
&ind out, %
go a&ter, #
hand back, %
look at, %
look up, #
pile up, %
plan &or, #
point to, #
put to, #
wrap up, #
1. "eBve been at this 2eeting all a&ternoon. 8onBt 6ou think we should MMMMMMMM it MMMMMMMM and go
ho2eH
2. 5& we send out (% invitations to the wedding, and ever6one we invited brings his or her spouse, we
should MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM 1%1 guests.
3. )6dia MMMMMMMM her best &riend &ro2 college MMMMMMMM when she was in )as Vegas.
#. he students who MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM the test b6 writing the answers on their hands were
e<pelled &ro2 school.
%. his ca2era isnBt working right. 5B2 going to take it to Ii2 at the photo shop and ask hi2 to
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMit.
'. =ill wonBt be happ6 i& he MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM that 6ou scratched his car.
(. 76 sonBs thinking about MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM his 2asterBs degree.
8. ;vidence gathered a&ter the air plane crash MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM engine &ailure as the cause.
,. 5 reall6 MMMMMMMM it MMMMMMMM her, and she ad2itted that 5 was right.
11. "eBd better do the laundr6 soon? itBs starting to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM.
11. he police o&&icer MMMMMMMM 26 driverBs license MMMMMMMM to 2e along with a ticket.
12. he detective thinks the owner MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM his restaurant &or the insurance 2one6.
ECERCISE 8! ; Revie5 the e4+%anation at the &e/innin/ o. Section 7 o. ho5 t5o9
5or! +hrasa% ver&s are +rononce!$ Then' sa3 each sentence in E4ercise 8c a%o!
an! circ%e the ver& or +artic%e that is accente!$
3'
:$ FOCUS ON< se+ara&%e +hrasa% ver&s 5ith %on/
o&,ects
"e have seen that the ob+ect o& separable verbs can be placed between the verb and the
particle or a&ter the particleG
clearG 5 %oo0e! + the word.
clearG 5 %oo0e! the word +$
"hen the ob+ect is short > one word or +ust a &ew words in length > the 2eaning is
clear either wa6. Cowever, when the ob+ect is several words long, it can be awkward and
con&using to place the ob+ect between the particlesG
clear# I looked up the words that our teacher said were really important and would probably be on the fiunal e0am. confusing# ;
looked the words that our teacher said were really important and would probably be on the final e0am up.
5t boils down to the &ollowing.
Short ob+ects can be placed between the verb and the particle or a&ter the particleG
!he put on her dress.
!he put her dress on.
pronouns, such as hi2, her, and it 2ust be placed between the verb and the particleG
!he put it on.
and long ob+ects should be placed a&ter the particle to avoid con&usionG
!he put on the new dress with the red, yellow, and blue flowers that she bought last week for H3
percent off.
Infinitive
present tense &ing form past tense past participle
cut up
cut up & cuts up cutting up cut up cut up
($ ct$$$ + p.v. "hen 6ou use a kni&e or pair o& scissors to cut so2ething so that there
are 2an6 s2all pieces, 6ou ct it +$
The boy(s mother is cutting a piece of meat up for him.
I was so angry at her that I cut her picture up and flushed it down the toilet.
ct + part.ad+. /&ter so2ething has been ct +' it is ct +$
This steak is for 'unt 9athy, but give the cut-up one to Oncle Fred he doesn(t have any teeth.
2M
5n&initive
present tense !ing &or2 past tense past participle
hold up
hold up P holds up holding up held up held up
($ ho%!$$$ + p.v. "hen a wall, colu2n, or other structure supports the weight o&
so2ething above it, such as a ceiling, it ho%!s it +$
The workers were killed when they removed a column holding the roof up.
The house was held up by jacks the foundation was repaired.
"$ ho%!$$$ + p.v. "hen 6ou +reven so2ething &ro2 happening or cause it to happen late,
6ou ho%! it +$ "hen things or people dela6 6ou, the6 ho%! 6ou +$
The band hasn(t arrived yet, and they(re holding up the whole wedding.
I(m sorry I(m late. I was held up by traffic.
ho%!+ n. So2ething that prevents so2ething else &ro2 happening or causes it to happen
late is a ho%!+$
.hy haven(t you finished this work yet1 .hat(s the holdup"
*$ ho%!$$$ + p.v. "hen 6ou use a gun or other weapon to rob a person, bank, or
store, 6ou ho%! it +$ Stic0 + is the sa2e as ho%! +$
The jewelry store owner was held up by three men wearing ski masks.
!ome idiot tried to hold the bank up with a s4uir gun.
ho%!+ n. "hen so2eone uses a gun or other weapon to rob a person, bank, or
store, it is a ho%!+$ / stic0+ is the sa2e as a ho%!+$
The robber fired his gun in the air and yelled, +This is a holdup.+
There was a holdup at First "ational Aank this morning.
6$ ho%! + p.v. "hen an ob+ect re2ains in good condition a&ter heav6 use, it ho%!s
+$
These cheap shoes won(t hold up more than si0 weeks.
!ome Noman aFueducts have held up for 7,333 years.
7$ ho%! + p.v. "hen a plan, idea, or agree2ent is still believed in or respected a&ter a
period o& ti2e, it has he%! +$
/instein(s theories have held up despite occasional challenges.
The ceasefir is holding up longer than anyone e0pected.
let out
let out & lets out letting out let out let out
($ %et $$$ot p.v. "hen 6ou allow ani2als or people to leave a place b6 giving
per2ission or opening a door, 6ou %et the2 ot$
The guard lets the prisoners out of their cells every day at *#33.
I opened the door and let the dog out.
38
"$ %et$$$ ot p.v. "hen 6ou 2ake an ite2 o& clothing bigger b6 changing the sea-, 6ou %et
it ot$
'fter I gained twenty pounds, I had to have all my pants let out.
The tailor let her old dress out so that she could wear it again.
*$ %et$$$ ot p.v. "hen 6ou revea secret or sensitive in&or2ation, 6ou %et it ot$
This information is secret. 5on(t let it out.
I was furious when my secretary let out that I had interviewed for a new position.
6$ %et ot p.v. "hen 6ou 2ake a sound that shows 6our e2otion or &eelings, 6ou %et ot
that sound.
$eather knew )im was lying again, and let out a sigh.
The lion let out a loud roar before he attacked the hunter.
Infinitive
present tense &ing form past tense past participle
point out
point out < points out pointing out pointed out pointed out
($ +oint$$$ ot p.v. "hen 6ou bring things or people to so2eoneBs attention or indicate the
location o& things or people with 6our hand or inde< &inger, 6ou +oint the2 ot$
/s we walked through the 2useu2, the tour guide +ointe! several &a2ous paintings ot$
4eneral Iohnston showed the satellite photo to the reporter and +ointe! ot the ene26 tanks.
"$ +oint $$$ot p.v. "hen 6ou are writing or speaking and 6ou stress or e2phasiDe so2e
i2portant in&or2ation 6ou think the reader or listener needs to know, 6ou +oint ot the
in&or2ation.
I pointed several flaw out in ?rof. >hildress(s theory.
$e said that he thought my plan was basically good but that he wanted to point out several possible
problems.
run over
run over & runs over running over ran over run over
($ rn over EtoF p.v. "hen 6ou run &ro2 where 6ou are to where so2eone else is, 6ou
rn over or rn over to that person.
I saw a man hitting a child, and I ran over and stopped him.
.hen I saw Melanie, I ran over to her and gave her a big hug.
"$ rn$$$ over p.v. "hen 6ou drive over people or things with a car, truck, or other vehicle
causing da2age, in+ur6, or death, 6ou rn the2 over$
)ohn was run over by a bus and killed.
I ran over a glass bottle and got a flat tire.
3,
*$ rn over p.v. "hen li.uid in a container &ills the container and goes over the top, it rns
over$
9eep on eye on the bathtub so that it doesn(t run over.
There(s too much water in this pot. It(s going to run over the side.
6$ rn over p.v. "hen 6ou go be6ond a li2it, 6ou rn over or rn over the li2it.
I hope the **#33 meeting doesn(t run over5 I(m meeting a client for lunch at *7#33.
The speaker was given fifteen minutes for her speech, but she ran over.
Infinitive
present tense &ing form past tense past participle
see about
see about < sees about seeing about saw about seen about
($ see $$$ a&ot p.v. "hen 6ou talk to so2eone to get per2ission &or so2ething or to
arrange so2ething, 6ou see a&ot it or see so2eone a&ot it.
Is Guis going to see about changing his flight from the fifth to the si0th1
The carpet in my office is filth. I need to see the maintenance guy about getting it shampooed.
"$ see a&ot p.v. "hen 6ou are upset about a change or a new polic6, and 6ou want to sa6
that 6ou will take so2e action or talk to so2eone in authorit6 to prevent or reverse the
change or new polic6, 6ou sa6 @5Bll see a&ot that@ or @"eBll see a&ot that.@
"ow they(re saying I can(t even smoke in my own office. I(ll see about thatE
Those crooks in >ity $all want to double my real estate ta0es. .e(ll just see about that.
take apart
take apart & takes apart taking apart took apart taken apart
($ ta0e $$$ a+art p.v. "hen 6ou co2pletel6 separate the parts o& so2ething, 6ou ta0e it
a+art$ Ta0e a+art is the opposite o& +t to/ether$
I had to take my bike apart when I moved.
The mechanic took the engine apart.
take in
take in < takes in taking in took in taken in
($ ta0e $$$ in p.v. "hen 6ou bring a car or other household appliance to a 2echanic or
repair person, 6ou ta0e it in$
!ally took her car in to have the oil changed.
The V>N is broken again. I need to take it in.
"$ ta0e $$$ in p.v. "hen 6ou ta0e in a pla6, 2ovie, 2useu2, or other attraction, 6ou go to
it or see it.
.e stopped in >harleston and took in the sights.
'fter dinner we took in a movie.
#1
*$ ta0e$$$ in p.v. "hen 6ou allow people to live with 6ou, 6ou take the2 in.
)udy(s brother had nowhere to go, so she took him in.
The =rtegas offered to take their neighbors in after the fire.
6. take... in p.v. ,usually passive- .hen you are taken in by someone, that person successfully tricks or
deceives you.
!talin was taken in by $itler(s assurances.
They were completely taken in by )ake(s elaborat hoa.
7$ ta0e $$$ in p.v. "hen 6ou 2ake an ite2 o& clothing s2aller b6 changing the sea2s, 6ou
ta0e it in$ Q.R. STUVWXUSUYUZ[U Let ot$
!he likes some of her maternit clothes so much that she(s going to take them in after the baby is born.
If I lose any more weight, I(ll have to have all my pants taken in.
ECERCISE :a ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith +hrasa% ver&s .ro- this section$ Be
sre the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$
*. .hen the bullet hit him, he %%%%%%%% %%%%%%%% a slight gasp and fell dead.
7. My friends were supposed to be here an hour ago. .hat is %%%%%%%% them MMMMMMMMH
2. .ill you please drive more carefullyE 8ou almost %%%%%%%% %%%%%%%% that lady back there.
H. 'nn %%%%%%%% %%%%%%%% that she was going to go to Gas Vegas with her boss, and the whole office was talking about it.
D. Take two pounds of beef, %%%%%%%% it %%%%%%%%, and put it in a frying pan.
J. The e0pedition leader spoke to us and %%%%%%%% %%%%%%%% the importance of taking plenty of water with us in the desert.
M. =pen the gate and %%%%%%%% the horses %%%%%%%%.
K. I(m embarrassed to admit I was %%%%%%%% %%%%%%%% by his lies.
L. 'fter Todd(s parents were killed, his 'unt )udy and Oncle $enry %%%%%%%% him
*3. The soldier was %%%%%%%%% his rifle %%%%%%%%% and cleaning it.
**. In /cuador I rode on a steam locomotive that(s still %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%after K3 years.
#1
12. /&ter we saw the ;2pire State =uilding, we MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM a =roadwa6 pla6.
13. hese alu2inu2 polesMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMthe tent.
1#. Nicole is at the co2puter store MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMgetting 2ore 2e2or6 installed in her
co2puter.
1%. 5 had 26 old uni&or2 MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM so that 5 could wear it to the reunion.
1'. / robber MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM a li.uor store with a shotgun last night.
1(. "hen 5 got into the tub, the water MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM the side and onto the &loor,
18. he health depart2ent inspector walked around the restaurant and MMMMMMMM several rats
MMMMMMMM to the owner.
1,. Ii2Bs phone was ringing, so 5 MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM to his desk and answered it.
21. he suit was too big, but the storeBs tailor said he could MMMMMMMM it MMMMMMMM.
21. 5 heard a weird noise co2ing &ro2 26 carBs trans2ission. 5 think 5Bd better MMMMMMMM 26 car
MMMMMMMM.
22. 5tBs an unusual arrange2ent, but it has MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM &or several 6ears.
23. he con&erence is scheduled to end uesda6 at %G11, but thereBs a good chance that it will
2#. 5 was +ust noti&ied that 5B2 going to be trans&erred to 7ongolia. "eBll MMMMMMMM
MMMMMMMM that: 5B2 going to talk to the boss.
2%. he robber was shot while tr6ing to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM an o&&!dut6 police o&&icer.
ECERCISE :& ; =rite three sentences sin/ the o&,ects in +arentheses$
1. he cook cut up. Ethe 2eat, itF
>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>
>>>>>>>>> >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>
>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>
7. The snowstorm held up. Bair travelers, themC
>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>
>>>>>>>>> >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>
>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>
#2
3. 8onBt let out. Ethe dog, itF F
>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>
>>>>>>>> >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>
>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>
#. he real estate agent pointed out. Ethe swi22ing pool, itF F
>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>
>>>>>>>> >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>
>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>
D. The truck ran over. Bthe man, himC F
>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>
>>>>>>>> >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>
>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>
'. 5B2 going to take apart, Ethe broken doorknob, itF F
>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>
>>>>>>>> >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>
>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>
(. he tailor took in. Ethe pants, the2F F
>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>
>>>>>>>> >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>
>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>
ECERCISE :c ; =rite ans5ers to the >estions sin/ +hrasa% ver&s an! nons .ro- this
section$ Be sre the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$
1. 5 donBt like this hotel roo2. 5B2 going to ask the desk clerk about changing to a di&&erent roo2. "hat
a2 5 going to doH
2. No one believes in the scientistBs theories an62ore. "hat havenBt the scientistBs theories doneH
3. Ianice is going to 2ake her pants s2aller. "hat is she going to doH
#. 7r. *rtega was tricked b6 the sales2an. "hat happened to 7r. *rtegaH
#3
%. / car drove over 6ou. "hat happened to 6ouH
'. he +eweler showed 2e several &laws in the dia2ond. "hat did the +eweler doH
(. he ga2e started late because it was raining. "hat did the rain doH
8. Susie is using scissors to 2ake several s2all pieces o& paper &ro2 a larger piece o& pap
"hat is Susie doingH
,. he posts are supporting the porch. "hat are the posts doingH
11. he wo2an told the bank teller to give her all the 2one6 in the cash register or she would
shoot hi2. "hat did the wo2an doH
11. 5n Ouestion 11, what happened at the bankH
12. 5 put 26 broken V in 26 car, drove to the repair shop, and carried the V in. "hat did to 26
VH
13. =ill separated all the parts o& his t6pewriter. "hat did =ill doH
1#. here was too 2uch water in the bathtub, and it spilled onto the &loor. "hat did the water
doH
1%. /&ter 26 parents died, 26 grandparents let 2e live with the2. "hat did 26 grandparents doH
1'. 7r. Aoung told so2e people about the secret in&or2ation. "hat did 7r. Aoung do with the
secret in&or2ationH
1(. 5 saw an e2pt6 luggage cart at the airport, and 5 went to it .uickl6 and grabbed it. "hat did 5
doH
18. "hen the thie& started to open the wo2anBs door, a screa2 ca2e &ro2 her 2outh. "hat did
the wo2an doH
1,. 5Bve been using this lawn 2ower &or twent6!&ive 6ears, and it still works &ine. "hat has the
lawn 2ower doneH
21. he cowbo6 opened the gate so that the cattle could leave the corral. "hat did the cowbo6
doH
21. 8r. S2ith went to a 2useu2 while he was in -o2e. "hat did 8r. S2ith doH
22. he 2eeting was supposed to end at 2G11, but it hasnBt ended 6et. "hat is the 2eeting
doingH
23. 5B2 2aking 26 pants bigger. "hat a2 5 doingH
##
ECERCISE :!' Revie5 ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith these +hrasa% ver&s .ro-
+revios sections$ Be sre the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$ To chec0 their
-eanin/s' revie5 the section n-&er /iven a.ter each one$
boil down to, ' &igure out, 1 go through with, '
co2e down with, ' get around to, ' look &orward to, 3
co2e o&&, 2 get out o&, ' 2onke6 around with, '
co2e up with, ' go a&ter, # put on, 1
doDe o&&, 2 go back on, '
*,* thought about what I was going to say to her, but when the time came, I was so nervous I
couldn(t%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%it.
7. The ?resident(s news conference didn(t %%%%%%%% %%%%%%%% well because it revealed his poor understanding of the
situation.
2.* %%%%%%% %%%%%%%% %%%%%%%% watching 'unt 9athy(s vacation videotape by saying I had to study for a test.
H. I don(t usually %%%%%%%% %%%%%%%% %%%%%%%% doing my >hristmas shopping
until 5ecember 7H. D. I(ve been %%%%%%%% %%%%%%%% %%%%%%%% this broken refrigerator all day, but I still don(t know what(s
wrong with it. J. Me0ico >ity(s problems %%%%%%% %%%%%%% %%%%%% one thing too many people.
M. $ave you seen my pen1 I can(t %%%%%%%% %%%%%%%% what happened to it.
K. If you %%%%%%% a coat of paint %%%%%%%% that old house, it wouldn(t look so bad.
L. =ne police officer helped the mugging victim while her partner %%%%%%%% %%%%%%%the mugger.
*3. My son promised that he would stop cutting school, and so far he hasn(t %%%%%%%% %%%%%%% %%%%%%%% that promise.
**. The company %%%%%%%% %%%%%%%% %%%%%%%% a way to decrease labor costs without lowering wages.
*7. I have never been to Thailand, and I(m really %%%%%% %%%%%% %%%%%% going there.
*2. !he was so tired she %%%%%%%% %%%%%%%% as soon as she sat down.
*H. The show was canceled after the star %%%%%%%% %%%%%%%% %%%%%%% laryngitis.
HD
#$ FOCUS ON< +resent +er.ect +hrasa% ver&s
The present perfect is used to talk about the past and the present at the same time#
he6 have torn !o5n the building. Ehe building is not there now because
the6 tore it down in the past.F
or to say that something is completed#
!he has picked out some library books.
The present perfect is formed with have, or when the subject is he, she, it, or the name of one person or
thing, has, and the past participle of the verb#
present# The tree falls over.
past# The tree fell over.
present perfect# The tree has fallen over.
-e2e2ber that have can be co2bined with pronouns as BveG
he6Bve never hear! o& hi2. and has with
nouns and pronouns asBsG
The tree(s fallen over.
$e(s never heard of her.
Ae careful not to confuse the(s contraction of has and the(s contraction of is#
!he(s picked out some library books. B!he has...C !he(s
picking out some library books. B!he is...C
Infinitive
present tense &ing form past tense past participle
burn out
burn out < burns out burning out burned out burned out
($ &rn ot p.v. "hen a &ire, candle, or other &la2e stops burning because it has no 2ore
&uel, it &rns ot$
.e need more wood@ the fire has burned out.
5on(t worry@ the sun won(t burn out for another four billion years.
&rne!9ot part.ad+. /&ter a &ire, candle, or other &la2e stops burning because it has no 2ore
&uel, it is &rne!9ot$
The burned-out rocket landed in the ocean.
burned-out part.adj. .hen people are e0tremely tired, either physically or psychologically, because of stress or
hard work, they are burned-out.
Teaching those awful students for so many years has left him burned-out.
Taking care of four small children day after day would leave any mother burned-out.
HJ
"$ &rn ot p.v. "hen a light bulb stops producing light because it has reached the end
o& its use&ul li&e, it &rns ot$
These new bulbs are guaranteed not to burn out for ten years. I can(t see what
I(m doing because this bulb has burned out.
&rne!9ot part.ad+. / light bulb that no longer produces light because it has reached
the end o& its use&ul li&e is &rne!9ot$
; climbed the ladder and unscrewed the burned-out bulb.
*$ &rn $$$ot p.v. "hen people are &orced to leave their ho2e or so2e other shelter
or hiding place because o& &ire or &ire da2age, the6 are &rne! ot$
The only way to get the enemy soldiers out of the tunnels was to burn them out.
!even families were burned out of their homes by the huge fire.
&rne!9ot part.ad+. So2ething that has been da2aged or destro6ed b6 &ire is
&rne!9ot$
'fter the war, nothing was left but burned-out cars and buildings.
Infinitive
present tense &ing form past tense past participle
fall over
fall over < falls over falling over fell over fallen over
($ .a%% over p.v. "hen people or things .ai% over, the6 &all to the ground &ro2 an upright
position.
That tree has been dead for fifty years, but it still hasn(t fallen over.
I almost fell over when I heard the terrible news.
"$ .a%% over p.v. "hen 6ou .a%% over 6oursel& or Eusuall6F .a%% all over 6oursel&, 6ou tr6 so
hard to serve so2eone or to 2ake so2eone like 6ou that 6ou appear &oolish.
The supervisor fell all over himself trying to satisfy the customer.
Mike was falling all over himself trying to impress $eather.
fight back
fight back & fights back fighting back fought back fought back
($ .i/ht &ac0 p.v. "hen 6ou &ight back, 6ou &ight, either ph6sicall6 or with words, so2eone
or so2ething that attacked 6ou &irst.
The soldiers fought back bravely, but the situation was hopeless.
'fter being accused of corruption, the senator said she would fight back and prove her innocence.
"$ .i/ht &ac0 p.v. "hen 6ou .i/ht &ac0 an e2otional response, such as tears or &ear, 6ou
tr6 ver6 hard to overco2e the e2otion.
The mother fought back tears when she saw the little white coffins.
I had to fight back the urge to punch him in the nose.
#(
#nfinitive
present tense -ing form past tense past participle
hear of
hear of & hears of hearing of heard of heard of
($ hear o. p.v. "hen 6ou learn about so2ething &or the &irst ti2e, 6ou hear o. it.
5o I know Fred !mith1 "o, I(ve never heard of him.
I told my real estate agent, +If you hear of a good deal on a three&bedroom house, please call me right
away.+
"$ hear o. p.v. "hen 6ou learn in&or2ation about so2ething that 2akes 6ou angr6 and
6ou sa6 6ou will not hear o. it, 6ou 2ean that 6ou will not tolerate or allow it.
=ur daughter wants to fly to Me0ico with her boyfriend1
I won(t hear of itE I told him that his scheme was outrageous and that I wouldn(t hear of such a thing.
pick out
pick out & picks out picking out picked out picked out
($ +ic0$$$ ot p.v. "hen 6ou choose so2ething &ro2 a group because 6ou pre&er it to the
others in the group, 6ou +ic0 it ot$
$ave you picked out a dress to wear to the party yet1
Mike(s dog had puppies, and he asked me to pick one out.
"$ +ic0$$$ ot p.v. "hen 6ou are able to &ind and recogniDe so2ething in a group, 6ou
+ic0 it ot$
/ven though the class photo was fifty years old, # picked my father out easily. The police detective asked
me if I could pick the mugger out from a group of photos.
ring up
ring up & rings up ringing up rang up rung up
($ rin/ $$$ + p.v. "hen 6ou want to bu6 so2ething in a store, a cashier uses a cash
register to rin/ + what 6ou want to bu6 in order to deter2ine how 2uch 2one6 6ou
2ust pa6.
.ell, I guess I(ll take this one. >an you ring it up please1
I couldn(t believe it when the clerk finished ringing it all up :LHJE
"$ rin/ $$$ + p.v. E2ainl6 =ritishF "hen 6ou call people on the telephone, 6ou rin/ the2
+$
$e rang up "ancy and asked her to go to the dance.
If you need a ride, ring me up when you arrive at the airport.
tear down
tear down & tears down tearing down tore down torn down
($ tear$$$ !o5n p.v. "hen 6ou tear !o5n a building, 6ou deliberatel6 and co2pletel6
destro6 it.
#8
They tore so many old buildings down in my hometown that I barely recogni6e it.
' lot of smaller homes in the suburbs are being torn down and replaced with larger ones.
#nfinitive
present tense -ing form past tense past participle
work in
work in & works in working in worked in worked in
($ 5or0$$$ in p.v. "hen 6ou 2ake roo2, with so2e di&&icult6, &or so2ething in a
schedule or plan, 6ou 5or0 it in$
.e(re going to be in >hicago for only a couple of days, but I(ll try to work in a >ubs game. I told him my schedule was
pretty tight, but that I(d try to work the meeting in.
ECERCISE #a ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith +hrasa% ver&s .ro- this section$
Be sre the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$
*. The Geaning Tower of ?isa still hasn(t %%%%%%%% %%%%%%%%.
7. /very year I have to replace the >hristmas tree lights that have %%%%%%%% %%%%%
2. The enemy was so strong that there was no way we could have %%%%%%%%
H.* don(t have time to talk about it now. I(ll %%%%%%%% you %%%%%%%% after dinner.
D. !arah always tries to %%%%%%%% %%%%%%%% a little sightseeing on her business trips.
J. My brother is pretty easy to %%%%%%%% %%%%%%%% in a crowd he(s almost seven feet tall.
M. If you haven(t %%%%%%%% %%%%%%%% a video yet, you(d better hurry the store(s closing in five minutes.
K. The firefighters decided to let the fire in the lumberyard %%%%%%%% itself%%%%%%%%.
L. That cashier has been yakking with his friends for ten minutes and still hasn(t %%%%%%%% our stuff %%%%%%%%.
*3. ' screen door on a submarine1 That(s the most ridiculous thing I(ve ever %%%%%%%%
**. .hen I told the waiter I was the owner of the restaurant, he %%%%%%%% all %%%%%%%% himself trying please me.
#,
12. he taco stand 2oved across the street a&ter it was MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM b6 the &ire.
13. "hen 5 &ound out that one o& 26 e2plo6ees cheated a custo2er, 5 said 5 wouldnBt MMMMMMMM
MMMMMMMM such a thing in 26 store.
1#. 5 had to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM 26 &ear as 5 waited &or 26 turn to +u2p &ro2 the plane,
1%. he6Bll have to MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM 2ost o& the buildings that were da2aged b6
the earth.uake.
ECERCISE #& ; =rite three sentences sin/ the o&,ects in +arentheses$ Be
sre to +t the o&,ects in the ri/ht +%ace$
1. he sheri&& burned out. Ethe escaped convicts, the2F F
>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>
>>>>>>>>> >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>
>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>
2. =ill has picked out. Ea new car, oneF F
>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>
>>>>>>>>> >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>
>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>
2. The clerk hasn(t rung up yet. Bthese >5s, themC F
>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>
>>>>>>>>> >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>
>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>
#. he new owners have torn down. Ethe garage, itF F
>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>
>>>>>>>>> >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>
>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>
%. he 2a6or tried to work in. Ea tour o& the &actor6, itF F
>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>
>>>>>>>>> >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>
>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>
%1
ECERCISE #c ; =rite ans5ers to the >estions sin/ +hrasa% ver&s an! +artici+%e
a!,ectives .ro- this section$ Ma0e a%% the +hrasa% ver&s +resent +er.ect$
1. 5 asked 26 &ather i& 5 could s2oke in the house, and he beca2e angr6 and said he wouldnBt
allow it. "hat did 26 &ather sa6 about s2oking in the houseH
2. he &orest &ire has stopped because there arenBt an6 2ore trees le&t to burn. "hat has the
&ire doneH
3. he cashier has totaled how 2uch we 2ust pa6 &or our groceries. "hat has the cashier doneH
#. he6 have chosen a hotel &or their wedding reception. "hat have the6 doneH
%. Sall6Bs 2other couldnBt stop her tears. "hat couldnBt Sall6Bs 2other doH
'. *ne o& 26 carBs headlights isnBt working an62ore. "hat did the headlight doH
(. 5n Ouestion ', how would 6ou describe the headlightH
8. he stack o& books was too high, and now the books are on the &loor. "hat did the books doH
,. he co&&ee shop had to 2ove to a di&&erent location because o& a &ire. "hat happened to the
co&&ee shopH
11. 5n Ouestion ,, how would 6ou describe the co&&ee shopBs previous locationH
11. /&ter the6 attacked us, we didnBt attack the2. "hat didnBt we doH
12. 5Bve 2ade roo2 in 26 bus6 da6 &or a ga2e o& tennis. "hat have 5 doneH
13. She hasnBt called 2e on the telephone. "hat hasnBt she doneH
1#. he6Bve co2pletel6 destro6ed the old &actor6. "hat have the6 doneH
1%. he sergeant tried e<tre2el6 hard to show the captain how well he was training the soldiers.
"hat did the sergeant doH
1'. 5 asked Ii2 i& an6one had ever told hi2 about the new sea&ood restaurant in the 2all.
"hat did 5 ask Ii2H
%1
ECERCISE #!' Revie5 ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith these +hrasa% ver&s .ro-
+revios sections$ Be sre the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$ To chec0 their
-eanin/s' revie5 the section n-&er /iven a.ter each one$
cut up, ( go in &or, 3 point out, ( see about, (
&all &or, 2 hold up, ( pull through, 2 show up, 1
get over with, 3 let out, ( put up with, 3 take apart, (
give in, 2 look up, # run over, ( take in, (
1. 76 bic6cle was reall6 dirt6, so 5 MMMMMMMM it MMMMMMMM and cleaned it.
2. it was a ver6 serious in+ur6, and no one e<pected -aul to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM.
3. 5Bve been waiting &or the V repair gu6 all da6, but he still hasnBt MMMMMMMM
#. 5 &eel +ust aw&ul. 5 was driving to work, and 5 MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM a dog.
%. he detectives werenBt MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM b6 the crookBs e<planation.
'. he detectives didnBt MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM the crookBs e<planation.
(. 7rs. a6lorBs husband doesnBt have an6 teeth, so she has to MMMMMMMM all his &oodMMMMMMMM.
8. he &reight train MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM tra&&ic &or twent6 2inutes, so we were late &or work.
,. 5n his report 6esterda6, the head o& 2arketing MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM several wa6s to increase the
co2pan6Bs sales.
11. 5. MMMMMMM the word 5nternet MMMMMMMM in an old dictionar6, but 5 couldnBt &ind it.
11. SusieBs 2other told her, @5B2 not going to MMMMMMMM 6ou MMMMMMMM o& this house until 6ou &inish
6our ho2ework.@
12. he co2pan6 &inall6 MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM to de2ands that it hire 2ore wo2en and 2inorities.
13. 5B2 having root canal surger6 ne<t week. 5Bll be glad to MMMMMMMM it MMMMMMMM.
1#. 8avid called the travel agenc6 to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM getting his ticket changed.
%2
*D. 9aren loves to ski. In fact, she%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% most winter sports.
*J. Aetty told the doctor she couldn(t %%%%%%%% %%%%%%%% %%%%%%%% the pain any longer, and she asked him for morphine.
D$ FOCUS ON< t5o95or! +hrasa% ver&s that re>ire
an a!!itiona% +artic%e 5hen se! 5ith an o&,ect' (
"ith so2e two!word verbs 6ou 2ust use a second particle when the verb has an ob+ectG
The criminal broke out.
The criminal broke out prison.
The criminal broke out of prison.
Tom and )erry don(t get along.
Tom and )erry don(t get along each other.
Tom and )erry don(t get along with each other.
So2eti2es, as with &rea0 ot and &rea0 ot o&, there is no change in 2eaning.
So2eti2es, as with han/ + and han/ + on, there is a s2all change in 2eaning. /nd
so2eti2es, as with hoo0 + and hoo0 + to, the second particle is necessar6 not when
there is one ob+ect but onl6 when there are twoG
I hooked up my new >5 player.
I hooked up my new >5 player my stereo.
I hooked up my new >5 player to my stereo.
here is no good wa6 to alwa6s know which second particle 2ust be used or i& and how it
will change the 2eaning o& the verb. he best thing to do is to si2pl6 2e2oriDe each
case.
hroughout this book, two!word phrasal verbs that re.uire an additional particle when
used with an ob+ect are shown with the second particle in parenthesesG
&rea0 ot Eo&F.
8o not con&use two!word phrasal verbs that re.uire an additional particle when used
with an ob+ect with three!word phrasal verbs. hree!word phrasal verbs alwa6s have
three words > there is no two!word version, or i& there is a phrasal verb with the sa2e
verb and &irst particle, it has a di&&erent 2eaning and is classi&ied as a di&&erent verb. 3or
e<a2ple, &rea0 ot and &rea0 ot Eo&F are included in one de&inition because the6 have
the sa2e 2eaning, but +t + and +t + 5ith have di&&erent 2eanings and are
classi&ied separatel6.
%3
#nfinitive
present tense -ing form past tense past participle
break out
breakout & breaks out breaking out broke out broken out
($ &rea0 ot Eo&F p.v. "hen 6ou escape &ro2 a place where 6ou are a prisoner, 6ou &rea0
ot or &rea0 ot o& that place.
Aubba broke out of prison last month.
The police have been looking for him ever since he broke out.
&rea0ot n. /n escape &ro2 prison is a &rea0ot$
There hasn(t been a successful breakout from the state prison in more than twenty&five years.
($ &rea0ot p.v. "hen &ighting begins suddenl6, it &rea0s ot$
Nioting broke out after the general canceled the election.
Millions wilt be killed if nuclear war breaks out.
catch up
catch up & catches up catching up caught up caught up
($ catch + EwithF p.v. "hen 6ou 2ove &aster and reach the sa2e level or place as people
who had been 2oving &aster or doing better than 6ou were, 6ou catch + or catch + with
the2.
.e left an hour before Guis, but he drove fast and Fuickly caught up.
'fter missing several weeks of class, NaFuel is so far behind that she(ll never catch up.
?epsi has caught up with >oca&>ola in some markets.
The mugger was running so fast that the angry mob couldn(t catch up with him.
ca/ht + part.ad+. /&ter 6ou have 2oved &aster and reached the sa2e level or place as
people who had been 2oving &aster or doing better than 6ou are, 6ou are ca/ht +$
.hen I was sick, I missed a lot of schoolwork, but I worked hard and now I(m caught up.
($ catch + EonF p.v. "hen 6ou stud6 or learn so2ething 6ou are interested in but have not
had ti2e &or, 6ou catch + on it.
I wonder what the latest gossip is. Get(s call Michael so we can catch up. 'fter I returned from vacation, I
read the newspaper to catch up on the local news.
ca/ht + part.ad+. /&ter 6ou have studied or learned so2ething 6ou are interested in but
have not had ti2e &or, 6ou are ca/ht +$
"ow that I(ve read the newspapers I missed while I was on vacation, I(m caught up.
%#
#nfinitive
present tense -ing form past tense past participle
chicken out
chicken out & chickens out chickening out chickened out chickened out
($ chic0en ot Eo&F p.v. Jin&or2alK "hen 6ou do not do so2ething because 6ou are a&raid,
6ou chic0en ot or chic0en ot o& it.
; was going to ask $eather to go to the dance with me, but I chickened out. Miguel(s mad
at himself because he chickened out of asking his boss for a raise yesterday.
get along
get along & gets along getting along got along gotten/got along
($ /et a%on/ EwithF p.v. "hen 6ou /et a%on/ with people, 6ou have peace&ul, har2onious
relations with the2. Eet on is si2ilar to /et a%on/$
)im and his cousin aren(t good friends, but they get along.
I haven(t gotten along with my neighbors for years.
"$ /et a%on/ p.v. "hen 6ou are able to do so2e sort o& work without an6 serious
proble2s, 6ou /et a%on/$
$ow are you getting along in your new job1
=h, I(m getting along okay, thank you.
give up
give up & gives up giving up gave up given up
($ /ive + EonF p.v. "hen 6ou stop tr6ing to do so2ething because 6ou think 6ou will
never succeed, 6ou /ive + or /ive + on it.
Forget itE This is impossible I give up!
I(ve tried for years to have a nice looking lawn, but I(ve just given up on it.
7. give... up p.v. .hen you are running from or fighting with the police or enemy soldiers and you surrender,
you give up or give yourself up.
.hen the bank robbers reali6ed they were surrounded by police, they gave up. The suspect got
tired of hiding from the police, and he gave himself up.
8. give ...up p.v. .hen you stop doing something you do regularly, such as a sport or a job, you give it up.
My father didn(t give sky diving up until he was eighty&two.
I had to give up my second job because I was so e0hausted all the time.
hang up
hang up & hangs up hanging up hung up hung up
($ han/ + EonF p.v. "hen 6ou stop talking on the telephone and put down the receiver, 6ou han/
+ the telephone. "hen 6ou are angr6 and han/ + the telephone without sa6ing good!b6e to
so2eone, 6ou han/ + on the person 6ou are talking to.
%%
'fter I finished talking to her, I said good&bye and hung up.
.hen he called me a moron, I got so mad I hung up on him.
"$ han/ $$$ + p.v. "hen 6ou hang so2ething in a high place so that it cannot touch the
ground, 6ou han/ it +$
.hen I get home, the first thing I do is hang my coat up.
Timmy never hangs anything up5 he just leaves it on the floor.
hn/ + part.ad+. /&ter 6ou have hung so2ething in a high place so that it cannot touch
the ground, it is hn/ +$
Timmy, why are your clothes on the floor and not hung up"
#nfinitive
present tense -ing form past tense past participle
hook up
hook up & hooks up hooking up hooked up hooked up
($ hoo0$$$ + FtoG p.v. "hen 6ou connect one electronic device to another, 6ou hoo0 it +
or hoo0 it + to so2ething.
; bought a new printer, but I haven(t hooked it up yet.
I hooked my sound system up to my TV, and now the TV is in stereo.
hoo0e! + part.ad+. /&ter one electronic device has been connected to another, it is
hoo0e! +$
There(s a V>N on my TV, but don(t try to use it because it(s not hooked up. hookup n. .
hookup is an electrical connection.
The cable TV hookup usually costs :73, but it(s free this month.
($ hoo0 + EwithF p.v. Jin&or2alK "hen 6ou 2eet people so2ewhere, usuall6 a&ter 6ou
have done so2e things separatel6, 6ou hoo0 + or hoo0 + with the2.
8ou do your shopping, I(ll go to the post office, and we(ll hook up around 7#23, okay1
I(ll hook up with you at *7#33 at the corner of !tate and Madison, and we(ll have lunch.
work up
work up & works up working up worked up worked up
($ 5or0 + EtoF p.v. "hen 6ou graduall6 i2prove at so2ething di&&icult that 6ou do
regularl6, 6ou 5or0 + to that i2prove2ent.
8ou can(t lift 733 pounds on your first day of weight training. 8ou have to work up to it.
.hen I started running, I couldn(t go more than a mile, but now I(ve worked up to five miles.
"$ 5or0 + p.v. "hen 6ou graduall6 develop the energ6, con&idence, courage, and so on,
to do so2ething di&&icult or so2ething 6ou do not want to do, 6ou 5or0 + the
%'
energ6, con&idence, courage, and so on. "hen 6ou graduall6 develop a &eeling, 6ou 5or0 +
the &eeling.
It took me a long time to work up the nerve to ask my boss for a raise.
If I work up some energy, I(ll wash the car.
I really worked up a sweat in the gym today.
Naking leaves all day sure works up an appetite.
5or0e! + part.ad+. Jin&or2alK "hen 6ou are an<ious, worried, or upset about
so2ething, 6ou are 5or0e! + or 5or0e! + about it.
Mark has been acting nervous all day. .hat(s he all worked up about1
Nela0, we(re only a few minutes late. It(s nothing to get worked up about.
ECERCISE Da ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith +hrasa% ver&s .ro- this section$
Be sre the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$
1. 76 elbow has gotten so bad that 5 think 5 2ight have to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM tennis.
2. /&ter several 6ears o& tension between the two countries, war MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM in 1,(2.
3. 7aria, how are 6ou MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM at 6our new +obH
#.1 a2 so laD6 toda6. 5 +ust canBt MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM the energ6 to &inish 26 school pro+ect.
%. he 2urderer was tired o& running &ro2 the police, and he MMMMMMMM hi2sel&MMMMMMMM.
'. he other runners were so &ar ahead that 5 couldnBt MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM.
(. Susie,MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM6our clothes right now:
8. 3or a long ti2e 5 could t6pe onl6 around twent6!&ive words per 2inute, but 5Bve slowl6 MMMMMMMM
MMMMMMMM to si<t6.
,. 5B2 reall6 behind in 26 work. 5& 5 donBt take work ho2e with 2e, 5Bll never MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM.
11. )6dia is a nice, eas6going person. Aou wonBt have an6 trouble MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM her.
11. 5 tried and tried to learn to speak Iapanese, but 5 &inall6MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM.
12. Cello 7arkH 5B2 reall6 angr6, and 5Bve got so2e things to tell 6ou, and donBt 6ou dare
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMon 2e:
%(
13. 8an is so sh6. Ce was supposed to give a speech toda6 at school, but he MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM.
1#. *ka6, hereBs the planG Aou go to the bookstore, 5Bll get 26 laundr6, and weBll MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM
around 11G11.
1%. 5 wonder whatBs been happening while we were on vacation. 5 think 5Bll read the newspaper so 5 can
MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM.
1'. his is a 2a<i2u2 securit6 prison. No one has ever MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM.
1(. =ob tried to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM 26 new dishwasher, but he didnBt do it right, and he &looded the
kitchen.
ECERCISE D& ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith the correct secon! +artic%es$
1. 5 called 26 girl&riend to apologiDe &or &orgetting her birthda6, but she hung up MMMMMMM 2e.
2. "hen 5 started li&ting weights, 5 could li&t onl6 thirt6 kilogra2s, but little b6 little 5 worked up
MMMMMMMM&i&t6.
3. CeBs ver6 sick, but the doctors havenBt given up MMMMMMMM hi2 6et.
#. So&ia was going to bleach her hair, but she chickened outMMMMMMMM it.
%. 8onBt invite $ar2en to -osaBs birthda6 part6. he6 donBt get along MMMMMMMM each other.
'. he bank robber was carr6ing 2,111 .uarters, so it was eas6 &or the police catch up MMMMMMMM
hi2.
(. No prisoner has ever broken out MMMMMMMM this prison.
8. 5 need a di&&erent cable to hook 26 2onitor up MMMMMMMM 26 co2puter.
,. AouBve been gone a long ti2e, and 6ou have to catch up MMMMMMMM a lot o& things.
ECERCISE Dc ; =rite three sentences sin/ the o&,ects in +arentheses$ Be sre to
+t the o&,ects in the ri/ht +%ace$
1. onight 5B2 going to tr6 to hook up. E26 &a< 2achine, itF
%8
7. 'fter my accident, I had to give up. Bscuba diving, itC MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM
MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM.
2. 8ou can hang up in the closet, Byour coat, itC MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM
MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM.
ECERCISE D! ; =rite ans5ers to the >estions sin/ +hrasa% ver&s' +artici+%e a!,ectives' an!
nons .ro- this section$ Be sre the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$
1. "hen 5 went on vacation three weeks ago, 26 sister and her husband were talking about
getting a divorce. Now that 5B2 back &ro2 vacation, 5 want to know what happened while 5
was gone. "hat do 5 want to doH
7. Gydia has to stop driving because her eyesight is so bad. .hat does Gydia have to do1
3. Susie was walking with us, but she stopped to look in a store window, and we continued
walking. "hat does Susie need to do nowH
H. I spilled wine on your white carpet, and you became angry and upset. $ow would you describe yourself1
D. >onnecting a printer to a computer is easy. .hat is easy1
J. In Puestion D, how would you describe the printer after it is connected to a computer1
M. !everal prisoners are going to try to escape from the state prison tonight. .hat are the prisoners going to try to
do tonight1
K. In Puestion M, if the prisoners are successful, what would their escape be called1
L. Ginda and "icole don(t like each other, and they argue sometimes. .hat don(t Ginda and "icole do1
DL
11. "e argued with our daughter &or 2onths, but we stopped tr6ing to get her to stop s2oking. "hat
did we doH
11. 3ights start in that bar all the ti2e. "hat happens in that bar all the ti2eH
12. Paul slowl6 developed the courage to ask his boss &or a raise. "hat did Paul doH
13. 5n Ouestion 12, what didnBt Paul doH
1#. he police told the robber to surrender. "hat did the police tell the robberH
1%. 9aren is tr6ing to graduall6 be able to li&t 111 pounds. "hat is 9aren doingH
1'. =ett6 was so angr6 with her bo6&riend that she put the telephone receiver down without
sa6ing good!b6e. "hat did =ett6 do to her bo6&riendH
ECERCISE De' Revie5 ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith these +hrasa% ver&s .ro-
+revios sections$ Be sre the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$ To chec0 their
-eanin/s' revie5 the section n-&er /iven a.ter each one$
burn out, 8 &ind out, % pick out, 8 ring up, 8
cheat on,# hand back, % pile up, % run into, 1
&all over, 8 hear o&, 8 point to, # tear down, 8
&ight back, 8 look at, % put to, # work in, 8
1. "ho is heH 5Bve never MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM hi2 be&ore, and 5 donBt know an6thing about hi2.
2. 76 2ail MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM while 5 was on vacation.
3. hanks &or all 6our help. 5B2 sorr6 to MMMMMMMM 6ou MMMMMMMM so 2uch trouble.
#. hat dead tree is rotten. 5B2 surprised it hasnBt MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM6et.
%. 5 MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM several cars last weekend, but 5 canBt decide which one to bu6,
'. $an 6ou help 2e MMMMMMMM a tie MMMMMMMM to wear with this shirtH
(. "hat a surprise: 5 MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM 26 &i&th grade teacher at the 2all toda6.
8. $harles MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM a beauti&ul 7ercedes!=enD across the street and said it was his.
,. *ka6, class, 6ouBve got until the bell rings. "hen 6ouBre &inished with 6our tests,MMMMMMM the2
MMMMMMMM to 2e.
'1
11. ;ver6one in town knows that Iake has been MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM his wi&e &or 6ears.
11. 5B2 not sure i& there will be ti2e to 2eet with 6ou toda6, but 5Bll tr6 to MMMMMMMM it
12. he invasion was so sudden that there was no wa6 to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM.
13. he cashierMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMour stu&& and said, @hat co2es to N1#2.%'.@
1#. =obBs not in a good 2ood toda6. Ce +ust MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM that he needs surger6.
1%. 5t was &un to visit 26 ho2etown, but 5 was sad to see that 26 old house was being
1'. 5 need to bu6 a new 111!watt bulb? this one MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM 6esterda6.
11. 3*$0S *NG +hrasa% ver&s se! as nons' (
7an6 two!word phrasal verbs can be used as nouns. /ll the verbs in this section have a noun
&or2. Notice that the two!word noun is so2eti2es written with a h6phenG
verbG /o ahea!
nounG /o9ahea!
and so2eti2es as one wordG
verb< %a3 o..
noun< %a3o..
0n&ortunatel6, there is no rule that will help 6ou to alwa6s know which &or2 to use. /lso, not
ever6one agrees which nouns should be h6phenated and which should be written as one word,
so 6ou will occasionall6 see a noun written both wa6s.
Infinitive
present tense &ing form past tense past participle
fall off
fall off < falls off falling off fell off fallen off
($ .a%% o.. p.v. "hen people or things drop to a lower level &ro2 a higher place, the6 .a%% o&&
the place where the6 were.
The dish fell off the table and broke.
Ae careful you don(t fall off your bicycle.
8(
"$ .a%% o.. p.v. "hen the .ualit6, degree, or &re.uenc6 o& so2ething decreases, it .a%%s o..$
Sales o& &ountain pens .e%% o&& a&ter the ballpoint pen was invented.
he .ualit6 o& his work has .a%%en o.. as he has gotten older.
.a%%o.. n. / decrease in the .ualit6, degree, or &re.uenc6 o& so2ething is a .a%%o..$
he chair2an was asked to e<plain the .a%%o.. in the co2pan6Bs sales.
;g6pt e<perienced a big .a%%o.. in touris2 a&ter several terrorist incidents.
5n&initive
present tense !ing &or2 past tense past participle
fill in
fill in & fills in filling in filled in filled in
($ .i%%$$$ in p.v. "hen 6ou .i%% in a &or2, 6ou put in&or2ation in the correct spaces.
Fi%% ot is the sa2e as .i%% in$
7aria .i%%e! in the +ob application and gave it to the secretar6.
he teacher gave us the .uiD and told us to .i%% the blanks in with the correct answers.
.i%%e! in part.adj. /&ter 6ou write all the in&or2ation in the correct spaces o& a &or2, the &or2 is
.i%%e! in$
/re those &or2s blank or .i%%e! inH
his check isnBt an6 good > the a2ount isnBt .i%%e! in$
2. .i%%$$$ in p.v. "hen people want or need 2ore in&or2ation about a plan, situation,
or occurrence and 6ou suppl6 that in&or2ation, 6ou .i%% the2 in$
So2ething interesting happened while 6ou were gone. 5Bll &ill 6ou in later.
5 &ell asleep during the 2eeting. $an 6ou .i%% -e inH
*$ .i%% in E&orF p.v. "hen 6ou te2poraril6 do so2eone elseBs +ob, 6ou .i%% in &or that
person.
he regular bartender is on vacation, so odd is .i%%in/ in$
SheBs the star o& the show. No one can .i%% in &or her.
.i%%9in n. So2eone who te2poraril6 does so2eone elseBs +ob is a .i%%9in$
Ierr6 is /nnBs .i%%9in while sheBs on vacation.
he regular driver is in the hospital, and the .i%%9in doesnBt know the route.
go ahead
go ahead & goes ahead going ahead went ahead gone ahead
($ /o ahea! EwithF p.v. "hen 6ou take an action 6ou have alread6 considered doing, 6ou
/o ahea! with the action.
5Bve decided to /o ahea! with 26 plan to reorganiDe the co2pan6.
/&ter she learned about Ii2Bs drug proble2, -a.uel 5ent ahea! with the 2arriage an6wa6.
8"
"$ /o ahea! p.v. "hen 6ou tell people to /o ahead, 6ou tell the2 to do so2ething without
an6 &urther dela6 or hesitation. 5& 6ou are in a position o& authorit6 and 6ou tell so2eone
to /o ahea! with an action, 6ou give per2ission &or that action.
"hat are 6ou waiting &orH Eo ahea!$
Ies' /o ahea! and leave work earl6. 5tBs no proble2.
/o9ahea! n. "hen 6ou give people per2ission to per&or2 an action, 6ou give the2 the /o9
ahea!$
"e approved his plan and gave hi2 the /o9ahea!$
he 3ood and 8rug /d2inistration gave the phar2aceutical co2pan6 the /o9ahea! to test the
drug on hu2ans.
5n&initive
present tense !ing &or2 past tense past participle
grow up
grow up & grows up growing up grew up grown up
($ /ro5 + p.v. "hen 6ou /ro5 +' 6ou graduall6 change &ro2 a child to an adult.
5 /re5 + on a s2all &ar2 in North 8akota.
Ero5in/ + without a &ather wasnBt eas6.
/ro5n9+ part.adj. [informal > used primarily by children] "hen children behave in a 2ature
wa6, the6 are /ro5n9+$ So2ething that relates to adults, and not children, is /ro5n9+$
Susie is onl6 eleven, but she acts ver6 /ro5n9+$
i226 doesnBt like /ro5n9+ books because the6 donBt have an6 pictures.
/ro5n9+ n. [informal > used primarily by children] / /ro5n9+ is an adult.
here were children an! /ro5n9+s at the part6.
*nl6 /ro5n9+s are allowed to sit in the &ront seat o& the car.
2. /ro5 + p.v. "hen 6ou tell people to /ro5 up, 6ou are sa6ing that their behavior
is childish and i22ature.
AouBre acting like a bab6. "h6 donBt 6ou /ro5 +:
"hen he put his &ist through the wall, 5 said, @*h, /ro5 +:@
hand out
hand out & hands out handing out handed out handed out
($ han! ... ot p.v. "hen 6ou distribute so2ething to other people, 6ou han! it ot$ Eive ot is
si2ilar to han! ot$
he teacher han!e! the tests out to the class.
;2ergenc6 loan applications were han!e! ot to the &lood victi2s.
han!ot n. So2ething given &ree to people in need to help the2 is a han!ot$
8*
,andouts of food and clothing were given to the homeless people.
/ven though my father was poor, he was too proud to ask for a handout.
han!ot n. Printed 2aterial given to students or other people to provide the2 with
i2portant in&or2ation.
The teacher prepared a handout for his students.
There are several handouts on a table by the library entrance.
#nfinitive
present tense -ing form past tense past participle
kick back
kick back & kicks back kicking back kicked back kicked back
($ 0ic0 &ac0 EtoF p.v. "hen 6ou 0ic0 &ac0 2one6 or 0ic0 &ac0 2one6 to
businesspeople or govern2ent o&&icials, 6ou illegall6 and secretl6 give the2 a
percentage o& the 2one6 that the6 spend with 6our co2pan6 as a reward &or giving
6ou the business.
The prosecutor said that D percent of every contract was kicked back to the head of the purchasing
department.
!he offered to kick back *3 percent if I(d switch to her company.
0ic0&ac0 n. 7one6 6ou illegall6 and secretl6 give to businesspeople or govern2ent
o&&icials as a reward &or giving 6ou business is a 0ic0&ac0$
The FAI agent heard the governor asking for a kickback. The reporter
discovered that the loan was really a kickback.
"$ 0ic0 &ac0 p.v. Jin&or2alK "hen 6ou 0ic0 &ac0' 6ou rela<.
It(s been a tough week. Tonight I(m going to buy a case of beer and kick back.
Get(s kick back and watch the football game tonight.
la% off
la% off & la%s off la%ing off laid off laid off
($ %a3$$$ o.. p.v. "hen a co2pan6 no longer needs workers because it does not have enough
business, it te2poraril6 or per2anentl6 %a3s o&& the workers.
Ford laid off 73,333 workers during the last recession. My wife had to go back
to work after I was laid off from my job.
%a3o.. n. Iobs cut b6 a co2pan6 because it does not have enough business are
%a3o..s$
The company said there wouldn(t be any la%offs despite the decline in profits.
"$ %a3 o.. p.v. Jin&or2alK "hen 6ou %a3 o.. people, 6ou stop criticiDing, teasing, or pressuring
the2.
8ou(ve been bugging me all day. If you don(t la% off you(re going to be sorry.
1a% off "ancy she(s having a bad day.
'#
*$ %a3 o.. p.v. "hen 6ou %a3 o.. so2ething, such as a &ood or an activit6, 6ou stop
consu2ing the &ood, or doing the activit6.
Gisten to the way you(re coughing. 8ou(ve got to la% off cigarettes.
'fter "ed had a heart attack, he laid off cheese and butter sandwiches.
#nfinitive
present tense -ing form past tense past participle
screw
up
screw up & screws up screwing up screwed up screwed up
($ scre5$$$ + p.v. Jin&or2alK "hen 6ou da2age so2ething or do so2ething wrong or
badl6, 6ou scre5 + or 6ou scre5 + what 6ou are doing.
; tried to fi0 my computer, but I couldn(t do it, and I just screwed it up instead.
Mark sent his wife a letter that he wrote to his girlfriend. $e sure screwed up.
scre5e! + part.ad+. "hen people or things are scre5e! up, the6 are da2aged or
con&used.
My back is so screwed up I can(t even walk.
Ieorge was a nice guy, but a little screwed up in the head.
scre5+ n. / proble2 or con&used situation caused b6 so2eoneBs 2istake is a
scre5+$
Two babies were switched because of a screwup in the maternity ward. There was a screwup in the
finance department, and the bill was paid twice.
"$ scre5$$$ + p.v.Jin&or2alK "hen people 2ake a 2istake that causes a proble2 &or 6ou,
the6 scre5 6ou +$
The travel agent forgot to reconfirm my flight, and it really screwed me up.
8ou really screwed me up when you lost my car keys.
ECERCISE ()a ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith +hrasa% ver&s .ro- this section$ Be
sre the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$
1. he teacher asked 2e to MMMMMMMM the e<a2s MMMMMMMM.
2. "h6 donBt 6ou let a 2echanic &i< the carH 5& 6ou tr6 to do it 6oursel&, 6ouBll +ust MMMMMMMM itMMMMMMM.
3. Nobod6 likes the new priest in our church, and attendance has MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM.
#. 76 &eet were killing 2e a couple o& weeks ago, so 5 MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM +ogging &or a while, and now
the6Bre &ine.
%. 5t reall6 MMMMMMMM 2e MMMMMMMM when 6ou told 26 boss what 5 said about hi2.
'%
'. he *rtega\s wonBt take a vacation this 6ear because 7r. *rtega has been MMMMMMM
MMMMMMMM and the6 need to save 2one6.
(. "hen 7other was MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM, there wasnBt an6 V. People went to the 2ovies or
read instead.
8. he head o& purchasing at 26 co2pan6 went to +ail because he 2ade all the suppliers
MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM N2,111 o& ever6 contract.
,. 76 husband told 2e 26 plan to enter 2edical school was craD6, but 5 MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM
with it an6wa6.
11. he secretar6 in the hu2an resources depart2ent said/CereBs an application. ake it and
MMMMMMMM it MMMMMMMM.@
11. 5& 6ou want to borrow 26 car tonight, MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM. 5B2 not going an6where.
12. he other 2ountain cli2bers are nervous about Ii2 because the6 think heBs going to
MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM a cli&&.
13. AouBve been criticiDing 2e &or the last three hours: "ill 6ou MMMMMM MMMMMMMM:
1#. he 2anager asked his assistant to MMMMMMMM hi2 MMMMMMMM about the proble2s in the
warehouse.
1%. 5tBs 3rida6 night. )etBs bu6 so2e beer and MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM.
1'. 5 canBt work to2orrow. $an 6ou MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM &or 2eH
1(. AouBre acting like a big bab6. MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM:
ECERCISE ()& ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith nons .ro- this section$
1. /t the part6, the children ate in the living roo2, and the MMMMMMMMMMM ate in the dining
roo2.
2. he boss said, @*ne 2ore MMMMMMMMMMM and 6ouBre &ired.@
3. he reporter discovered that the 2a6or was taking MMMMMMMMMMM &ro2 the construction
co2pan6.
#. ;ver6 6ear at this ti2e the king gives MMMMMMMMMMM to the poor.
%. Ned will be 26 MMMMMMMMMMM while 5B2 on 26 hone62oon.
''
'. he teacher prepared a MMMMMMMMMMM to give to the students.
(. he $;* said he regretted the MMMMMMMMMMM but that there was no other wa6 &or the co2pan6
to avoid bankruptc6.
8. he tea2 lost ever6 ga2e o& the season and su&&ered a '1 percent MMMMMMMMMMMM in
attendance.
,. he president called 4eneral $ha2bers and gave hi2 the MMMMMMMMMMM &or the attack.
ECERCISE ()c ; =rite three sentences sin/ the o&,ects in +arentheses$ Be sre to
+t the o&,ects in the ri/ht +%ace$
1, Aou havenBt &illed in. Eall the spaces, the2F MMMMMMMMMMM MMMMMMMMMMM
2. 5s the teacher handing outH Ethe tests, the2F MMMMMMMMMMM MMMMMMMMMMM
3. he co2pan6 is going to la6 o&&. E26 brother, hi2F MMMMMMMMMMM MMMMMMMMMMM
H. I(m sorry I screwed up. Byour plan, itC MMMMMMMMMMM MMMMMMMMMMM
ECERCISE ()! ; =rite ans5ers to the >estions sin/ +hrasa% ver&s' +artici+%e
a!,ectives' an! nons .ro- this section$ Be sre the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct
tense$
1. 5 wasnBt sure i& 26 plan would work, and 5 thought about it &or a long ti2e be&ore 5 &inall6
decided to tr6 it. "hat did 5 do with 26 planH
2. he secretar6 gave 2e an application and told 2e to put the correct in&or2ation in the spaces,
"hat did the secretar6 tell 2e to doH
3. 5n Ouestion 2, how would 6ou describe the application a&ter 5 put the correct in&or2ation in the
spacesH
#. he 2echanic is tr6ing to &i< 26 carBs trans2ission, but sheBs 2aking a lot o& 2istakes. "hat is the
2echanic doing to 26 carBs trans2issionH
%. 5n Ouestion #, how would 6ou describe the trans2ission a&ter the 2echanic &inishes &i<ing itH
'. Aou give N3,111 to the 2a6or ever6 2onth so that he will give 6our co2pan6 cit6 business. "hat
do 6ou do ever6 2onthH
(. 5n Ouestion ', what is the N3,111 that 6ou give to the 2a6or ever6 2onthH
8. =usiness is bad at Nanc6Bs co2pan6, and the6 told her that the6 donBt need her an62ore.
"hat happened to Nanc6H
,. he hotel clerk &orgot to call 2e in the 2orning to wake 2e up, and 5 was late &or a ver6
i2portant 2eeting. "hat did the hotel clerk do to 2eH
11. 5 was born in Cawaii, and 5 lived there until 5 was eighteen. "hat did 5 do in CawaiiH
11. Sall6Bs parents told her she canBt watch a V show because itBs &or adults. "hat did Sall6Bs
parents tell her about the V showH
12. New ho2e construction will decrease i& there is a recession. "hat will new ho2e construction do i&
there is a recessionH
13. 5n Ouestion 12, i& there is a decrease in new ho2e construction, what would it be calledH
1#. i226 was teasing Susie all da6 until his 2other told hi2 to stop. "hat did i226Bs 2other tell
hi2 to doH
'8
1%. /ll is doing *2arBs +ob while *2ar is on vacation. "hat is /li doingH
1'. =lankets and bo<es o& &ood will be given to the people whose ho2es were destro6ed b6 the
tornado. "hat will be done with the blankets and bo<es o& &oodH
1(. Sarah had to answer the phone while she was watching a 2ovie. /&ter she returned to the V
roo2, SarahBs &riend Sall6 told Sarah ever6thing she had 2issed. "hat did Sall6 do &or SarahH
ECERCISE ()e' Revie5 ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith these nons .ro-
+revios sections$ To chec0 their -eanin/s' revie5 the section n-&er
/iven a.ter each one$
breakdown, %
breakout, ,
holdup, ( hookup,
,
put!on, 1 setup, % takeo&&, 1
1. he pilot said that the MMMMMMMMMMM would be on ti2e.
2. here was a MMMMMMMMMMM on the highwa6, and tra&&ic was barel6 2oving at all.
3. / cable MMMMMMMMMMM is usuall6 N3,.,%, but this 2onth itBs &ree.
#. he guards suspected the prisoners were planning a MMMMMMMMMMM.
%. "aiter, weBve been waiting &or our dinner &or an hour. "hatBs the MMMMMMMMMMMH
'. 5 told 26 law6er that it was a MMMMMMMMMMM and that 5 was innocent.
(. "hen the detectives ca2e and arrested Cank, we didnBt think it was real >+ust a big
ECERCISE ().' Revie5 ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith these +hrasa% ver&s .ro-
+revios sections$ Be sre the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$ To chec0
their -eanin/s' revie5 the section n-&er /iven a.ter each one$
catch up, ,
chicken out, ,
get along, ,
give up, ,
hook up, ,
pick out, 8
talk down to, 3
work up, ,
1. 8onBt tr6 to run ten 2iles at &irst? 6ou have to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM to it.
2. /&ter searching &or three da6s without an6 luck, the rescue tea2 MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM on &inding
an6 survivors.
3. he police showed 2e so2e pictures to see i& 5 could MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM the gu6 who
2ugged 2e.
#. Aou go to the bank, 5Bll go to the post o&&ice, and weBll MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM with each other at
the corner in &ort6!&ive 2inutes.
%. 5 wasnBt happ6 about having Nanc6 &or a partner on the pro+ect. 5 donBt MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM
with her.
'. Iust because 6ou went to college and 5 didnBt, doesnBt 2ake it oka6 &or 6ou to MMMMMMM
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM2e.
(. he teacher said, @Aour daughter has 2issed a lot o& school, and sheBll need to work hard to
MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM to the rest o& the class.@
8. 7aria got scared andMMMMMMMMMMo& +u2ping o&& the high diving board.
(($ FOCUS ON< +hrasa% ver&s se! in
co-+on! nons
/s we saw in Section 11, 2an6 two!word phrasal verbs can be used as nouns. 7an6. o& these
nouns &or2ed &ro2 two!word phrasal verbs can be co2bined with ordinar6 nouns to &or2
co2pound nounsG
noun< &ac0+ co2pound nounG backup disk
noun< .o%%o59+ co2pound nounG &ollow!up call
)ike ordinar6 co2pound nouns, the &irst noun has a &unction si2ilar to that o& an
ad+ectiveG
Fuestion# .hat kind of clothes1
answer# 5irty clothes.
adjective
.uestionG "hat kind o& clothesH
answerG "orkout clothes.
noun
he ad+ective dirt6 and the noun workout serve the sa2e &unctionG 2odi&6ing the noun
clothes. /lwa6s accent the &irst word in a co2pound nounG
nounG BACK+ co2pound nounG BACK+!is0
nounG FOLLO=9+ co2pound nounG FOLLO=9+ call
(1
#nfinitive
present tense -ing form past tense past participle
backup
back up & backs up backing up backed up backed up
($ &ac0$$$ + p.v. "hen 6ou walk backward, 6ou backup. "hen 6ou drive a vehicle in
reverse, 6ou &ac0 + or &ac0 the vehicle +$
The fire was so hot that we had to back up.
I put the car in reverse and backed it up.
"$ &ac0 + p.v. "hen 6ou are e<plaining so2ething, and 6ou repeat so2ething that 6ou
alread6 said, 6ou &ac0 +$
8ou(re going too fast. >an you back up a little and e0plain your plan again1
!orry, I forgot part of the story. Get me back up a little.
*$ &ac0$$$ + p.v. "hen 6ou 2ake a clai2 or state2ent and then show people evidence
or give the2 in&or2ation proving that the clai2 or state2ent is true or correct, 6ou &ac0 it
+$
"o one believed )im(s accusations because he couldn(t back them up with any evidence.
The IN! asked me for some receipts to back up my deductions.
6$ &ac0$$$ + p.v. "hen 6ou support people in a con&lict or a con&rontation, 6ou &ac0
the2 +$ "hen 6ou support people b6 doing so2e work or a di&&icult assign2ent,
6ou back the2 +$
Ginda said she would back me up if I complained about our supervisor.
The general backed up his threats with H33,333 soldiers.
)erry is the bar(s main bartender, and Tanya backs him up when it gets busy.
&ac0+ n. So2eone or so2ething that supports or is read6 to provide support in a con&lict
or a con&rontation b6 doing so2e work or a di&&icult assign2ent is a &ac0+$
.hen the rioters grew more violent, the police called for backup.
The firefighter entered the burning building without a backup.
7$ &ac0$$$ + p.v. "hen 6ou duplicate i2portant in&or2ation, such as a co2puter progra2
or data, so that 6ou will still have it i& the original in&or2ation is lost or da2aged, 6ou &ac0
it +$
If you(re going to install that new software, be sure you back up your entire hard disk first.
I back my work up every day before I go home.
&ac0+ n. / duplicate o& i2portant in&or2ation, such as a co2puter progra2 or data, is a
&ac0+$
; keep a backup of my important computer files on floppy disks.
The major gave a backup copy of the battle plan to his secretary.
(1
&ac0e! + part.ad+. /&ter 6ou duplicate i2portant in&or2ation/such as a co2puter
progra2 or data, the original is &ac0e! +$
; accidentally erased your book from your computer. I hope your work was backed up.
8$ &ac0$$$ + p.v. "hen a piece o& e.uip2ent or 2achiner6 is ver6 i2portant and another
is kept available in case the one that is nor2all6 used &ails, the second piece o&
e.uip2ent or 2achiner6 &ac0s + the &irst.
The hospital bought a generator to back up the unreliable city power supply. .e kept the old
computer to back the new one up.
&ac0+ n. "hen a piece o& e.uip2ent or 2achiner6 is ver6 i2portant and another is kept
available in case the one that is nor2all6 used &ails, the second piece o& e.uip2ent or
2achiner6 is a &ac0+$
The skydiver checked his main parachute and his backup before the flight. The school
had to dose when the main power and the backup both failed.
:$ &ac0$$$ + p.v. "hen so2ething &ac0s +' it is being prevented &ro2 2oving,
progressing, or &lowing nor2all6.
'n accident backed up traffic for three miles. The assembly line is going to back up if /rik doesn(t get
the parts he needs soon.
&ac0+ n$ A &ac0+ is a situation in which so2ething is being prevented &ro2
2oving, progressing, or &lowing nor2all6.
; sat in that backup for three hours without moving an inch. The huge number of >hristmas
cards and packages caused a backup at the post office.
&ac0e! + part.ad+. "hen so2ething is being prevented &ro2 2oving, progressing, or
&lowing nor2all6, it is &ac0e! +$
Get(s take the train downtown. Traffic is always backed up at this time of the morn in a.
Infinitive
present tense &ing form past tense past participle
cut off
cut off < cuts off cutting off cut off cut off
($ ct$$$ o.. p.v. "hen 6ou co2pletel6 re2ove part o& so2ething with a kni&e, saw, or pair
o& scissors, 6ou ct it o..$
$e cut off a piece of cheese so that I could taste it. =ne of the
kings of /ngland had his head cut off.
"$ ct$$$ o.. p.v. "hen 6ou stop the suppl6 or &low o& so2ething, such as water, electricit6,
or 2one6, 6ou ct it o.. or 6ou ct o.. the people receiving it.
; won(t be surprised if my electricity is cut off I haven(t paid the bill in three months.
The bartender told the drunk guy that she was cutting him off.
M7
cto.. n. he ti2e when so2ething, such as water, electricit6, or 2one6, is ct o.. is the
cto..' cto.. point, or cto.. date.
; got a notice saying that if I don(t pay my water bill soon, the cutoff date will be March *3. "inety is the cutoff
students with lower scores on the e0am won(t be accepted into the advanced program.
*$ ct$$$ o.. p.v. "hen 6ou abruptl6 and rudel6 drive a vehicle in &ront o& other peopleBs
vehicles, causing the2 to suddenl6 slow down or stop, 6ou ct the2 o..$
; had to slam on the brakes when some jerk cut me off on the way to work. The lady in the red car tried to
cut me off but I wouldn(t let her get in front of me.
6$ ct$$$ o.. p.v. "hen so2eone is ct o.. while speaking on the telephone, the connection
is accidentall6 broken.
; was in the middle of an important call when I was cut off. Ietting cut off happens all the
time when you(re on the phone to >hina.
7$ ct $$$o.. p.v. "hen 6ou create a ph6sical or ps6chological barrier between 6oursel&
and other people, 6ou ct 6oursel& o.. &ro2 the2. "hen 6ou are separated &ro2 other
people because o& a barrier or a great distance, 6ou are ct o.. &ro2 the2.
'fter 5an joined a cult, he completely cut himself off from his family and friends. ' flash flood cut us
off from the rest of the e0pedition.
cto.. part.ad+. "hen 6ou are separated &ro2 other people because o& a barrier or a great
distance, 6ou are cto..$
The bridge was destroyed by the earthFuake, and now we(re cut off.
Infinitive
present tense &ing form past tense past participle
drop off
drop off < drops off dropping off dropped off dropped off
($ !ro+$$$ o.. p.v. "hen 6ou take things or people to another place and leave the2 there,
6ou !ro+ the2 o..$
>an you drop me off at the train station on your way to work1 Guis dropped off
his laundry at the cleaners.
!ro+9o.. n. So2ething that has been !ro++e! o.. is a !ro+9o..$ he place where
so2ething or so2eone is !ro++e! o.. is a !ro+9o.. point, !ro+ o.. window, and soon.
Guis left his laundry at the drop-off window. The north side of the train station
parking lot is for drop-offs.
"$ !ro+ o.. p.v. "hen a businessBs sales, the occurrence o& so2e event, or the interest
so2e people have in so2ething declines, it !ro+s o..$
'ttendance at baseball games has been dropping off in the last few years. 'fter >5s were introduced, sales of
records dropped off sharply.
M2
!ro+9o.. n. / decline in a businessBs sales, in the occurrence o& an event, or in the interest
so2e people have in so2ething, is a !ro+9o..$
There has been a drop-off in traffic deaths thanks to strict drunk driving laws. The drop-off in car sales
was e0plained by the recession.
*$ !ro+ o.. p.v. "hen the level o& the ground declines steepl6, it !ro+s o..$
Ae careful hiking this trail, it drops off steeply on the other side of the mountain. The island has no beach
at all. The land drops off straight into the sea.
!ro+9o.. n. / steep decline in the level o& the ground is a !ro+9o..$
The bus driver didn(t see the drop-off and the bus plunged into the gorge. It was hard to see
the drop-off because of the dense jungle.
Infinitive
present tense &ing form past tense past participle
follow up
follow up < follows up following up followed up followed up
($ .o%%o5 + EonF p.v. "hen 6ou .o%%o5 + on so2ething, 6ou return to so2ething that was
i2portant to 6ou previousl6 because 6ou now have 2ore in&or2ation or 2ore ti2e or
because 6ou want to 2ake sure so2e e&&ort 6ou 2ade previousl6 is correct or e&&ective.
; saw a beautiful house with a +for sale+ sign and I followed up on it when I got home. The doctor told me
I(d need to follow up the treatment with physical therapy.
.o%%o59+ n$ A .o%%o59+' .o%%o59+ call, .o%%o59+ visit, and so on, is a return to
so2ething that was i2portant to 6ou previousl6 because 6ou now have 2ore in&or2ation or
2ore ti2e or because 6ou want to 2ake sure so2e e&&ort 6ou 2ade previousl6 is correct or
e&&ective.
The customer service manager made a follow-up call to make sure I was happy with the repair job. The doctor
asked me to see him two months after the operation for a follow-up.
take out
take out & takes out taking out took out taken out
($ ta0e $$$ ot Eo&F p.v. "hen 6ou ta0e so2ething ot or ta0e it ot o& a container, storage
place, or building, 6ou re2ove it. Pt in/into is the opposite o& ta0e ot$
; want to take some books out of the library tonight. )ake took out
a gun and shouted, +This is a holdupE+ "ancy took :D33 out of the
bank.
ta0eot n$ Ta0eot is &ood that is taken &ro2 a restaurant to be eaten at another location.
Carr3ot and carr39ot &ood are the sa2e as ta0eot and ta0e9ot &ood.
; don(t feel like cooking tonight. Get(s get takeout. That take-out
chicken is good, but it sure is greasy.
(#
"$ ta0e $$$ot Eo&F p.v. "hen 6ou re2ove so2ething because 6ou do not want it or
because it is da2aged, 6ou ta0e it ot or ta0e it ot o& so2ething. Pt in/into is the
opposite o& ta0e ot$
The teacher said my story would be a lot better ifE took this part out of the third paragraph.
The school will be closed while the asbestos insulation is being taken out and replaced.
*$ ta0e$$$ ot Eo&F p.v. "hen 6ou ta0e 2one6 ot or ta0e 2one6 out o& a bank or a bank
account, 6ou withdraw the 2one6. Pt in is the opposite o. ta0e ot$
; had to take money out of my savings account to pay for my medical bills.
"icole(s at the bank taking : *,333 out.
6$ ta0e$$ $ot p.v. "hen 6ou ta0e people out/6ou go with the2 to do so2ething en+o6able
> dinner in a restaurant, a 2ovie, and so on > and pa6 &or it 6oursel&.
.hat do you think about taking Mom out for Mother(s 5ay1
)im took his girlfriend out last Friday.
7$ ta0e$$ $ot p.v. Jin&or2alK "hen 6ou ta0e people out, 6ou kill the2.
The snipers will try to take out the kidnapper when he opens the door.
The hit man took Vito out with a shotgun blast to the head.
Infinitive
present tense &ing form past tense past participle
tr% out
try out < tries out trying out tried out tried out
($ tr3$$$ ot p.v. "hen 6ou tr3 so2ething ot' 6ou tr6 it to see i& 6ou want to bu6 it or to
see i& 6ou want to start using it regularl6.
I(m not going to spend :7,333 on a bicycle unless I tr% it out first. 8ou can tr% it
out for thirty days without any obligation.
tr3ot n. "hen 6ou give so2ething a tr3ot'3o test it to see i& 6ou want to bu6 it or start
using it regularl6.
; gave Aetty(s new diet a tr%out but I actually gained weight.
The airline gave the new plane a thorough tr%out before making a decision.
"$ tr3$$$ ot p.v. "hen 6ou tr3 people ot' 6ou give the2 a chance to show that the6 can
per&or2 a +ob well be&ore hiring the2 or be&ore giving the2 2ore di&&icult work to do.
The manager agreed to tr% him out for a week.
I told the supervisor that if she tried me out she(d see that I could do the job.
tr3ot n. "hen 6ou give people a tr3ot' 3o give the2 a chance to show that the6 can
per&or2 a +ob well be&ore giving the2 2ore di&&icult work to do.
Tr%outs for the football team will be ne0t !aturday and !unday.
If you give Mike a tr%out I(m sure you won(t be disappointed.
*$ tr3 ot E&orF p.v. "hen 6ou tr3 ot or tr3 ot &or so2ething, 6ou tr6 to show that 6ou can
per&or2 a +ob well in order to get hired.
' lot of guys will tr% out but only a handful will make the team.
5aniela(s mother told her, 9Tr%ing out for the cheerleading sFuad isn(t as important as doing your
homework.+
Infinitive
present tense &ing form past tense past participle
wake up
wake up < wakes up waking up woke up woken up
($ 5a0e$$$ + p.v. "hen 6ou stop sleeping, 6ou 5a0e +$ "hen 6ou cause other people to
stop sleeping, 6ou 5a0e the2 +$
'$ is so sleepy in class that the teacher must wake him up every five minutes.
I woke up at 7#33 'M and couldn(t get back to sleep.
5a0e9+ part.ad+. "hen 6ou are sta6ing at a hotel and 6ou ask the desk clerk to call 6ou at
a certain ti2e to 5a0e 6ou up, 6ou ask &or a 5a0e9+ call.
; asked the desk clerk to give me a wake-up call at M#23.
"$ 5a0e$$$ + p.v. "hen 6ou learn so2ething that causes 6ou to understand the truth about
so2ething or so2eone, it 5a0es 6ou + or 5a0es 6ou + to the truth about so2ething or
so2eone,
; used to smoke, but when my best friend died of lung cancer, it really woke me up. $ey, wake up!
"icole is lying to you. >an(t you see that1
work out
work out & works out working out worked out worked out
($ 5or0 ot p.v. "hen a situation 5or0s ot a certain wa6, it happens that wa6. "hen a
situation does not 5or0 ot' it is not satis&actor6.
The switch to the new system worked out a lot better than anyone e0pected.
!he said that living with her in&laws wasn(t working out very well.
"$ 5or0 ot p.v. "hen a situation 5or0s out, the end result is success&ul.
8es, I thought your idea was terrible, but I must admit it worked out.
The marriage didn(t work out and they were divorced after si0 months.
*$ 5or0 ot p.v. "hen a calculation or 2easure2ent 5or0s ot to be a certain a2ount, this
a2ount is the result o& the calculation or 2easure2ent.
The cost of the boo6e we need for the reception works out to more than : *,D33.
The monthly payment on a J percent loan works out to :JH7.
6$ 5or0$$$ ot p.v. "hen 6ou 5or0 ot a calculation, 2easure2ent, or other proble2, 6ou do
the work necessar6 to deter2ine the result o& the calculation or 2easure2ent or think about
how to solve the proble2.
('
Maria worked out bow much paint we will need for the living room twenty&five gallons.
I(ve forgotten how to work out math problems without a calculator.
8ou need to go to the airport, I need to go to work, and we have only one car. $ow are we going to work this
out"
7$ 5or0 ot p.v. "hen 6ou 5or0 ot a solution or plan, 6ou decide what to do a&ter care&ul
consideration, either alone or in discussion with other people.
The opposing lawyers worked out a compromise.
I think I(ve worked out a way to buy a new car without borrowing money.
8$ 5or0 ot p.v. "hen 6ou e<ercise in order to i2prove 6our health or ph6sical
appearance, 6ou 5or0 ot$
Aob works out in the gym for two hours every night. I(m a fat slob.
I need to start working out again.
5or0ot n. / series o& e<ercises done in order to i2prove 6our health or ph6sical
appearance is a 5or0ot$ =or0ot clothes are clothes 6ou wear while e<ercising.
I(m really sore from that workout last night. The trainer designed a workout for each
player on the team.
5or0ot n. "hen 6ou sa6 that 6ou gave a 2echanical device or s6ste2 a 5or0ot' 6ou
2ean that 6ou caused it to per&or2 so2e length6 or di&&icult work,
5riving to 'laska sure gave this old truck a workout.
The snack bar got a real workout when three buses full of hungry tourists stopped at the same time.
ECERCISE (( a ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith +hrasa% ver&s .ro- this section$ Be
sre the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$
1.1 al2ost had an accident on the wa6 to work when another driver MMMMMMMM 2e MMMMMMMM. 2. "ith so
2an6 deliver6 truck drivers out sick with the &lu, deliveries are starting to MMMMMMMM. 3. Aou should
alwa6s MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM 6our i2portant co2puter &iles. #. he art restorers are tr6ing to MMMMMMMM
MMMMMMMM a wa6 to clean the painting without da2aging it. %.1 hit a tree while 5 was MMMMMMMM 26 car
MMMMMMMM. '. he butcher has onl6 nine &ingers. Ce MMMMMMMM the other one MMMMMMMM.
((
(. Pro&essor $hildress has so2e interesting theories, but can he MMMMMMMM the2 MMMMMMMM with an6
evidenceH
8. /&ter ever6 sale, a good salesperson MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM with a cat: to 2ake sure the custo2er is
satis&ied.
,. 5B2 going to leave earl6 to2orrow so that 5 can MMMMMMMM so2e &il2 MMMMMMMM at the photo lab. 11.
No one believed 5 was telling the truth until $harles MMMMMMMM 2e MMMMMMMM.
11. 5 usuall6 MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM around (G11, but this 2orning 5 overslept.
12. )6dia had planned to spend the su22er in 5tal6, but it didnBt MMMMMM MMMMMM.
13. he sharpshooter was ordered to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM the ene26 leader.
1#. he designers put in 2anual controls to MMMMMMMMMMMMthe auto2atic s6ste2.
1%. 8avid and 7aria MMMMMMM MMMMMMM how 2uch their wedding is going to cost.
1'. he cost o& their wedding MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM to N22% per person.
1(. =e care&ul > the north side o& the 2ountain MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM sharpl6.
18. CelloH CelloH he phone is dead? 5 guess we were MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM.
1,. Ne<t weekend weBre MMMMMMMM 7o2 and 8ad MMMMMMMM &or their &i&tieth wedding anniversar6.
21. he pro&essorBs lecture was reall6 con&using, so 5 asked hi2 to please MMMMMMMM MMMMMMM and
e<plain it again.
21. he bank robbers tried to escape through the back door, but the police went to the back o& the
bank and MMMMMMMM the2 MMMMMMM.
22. PeopleBs &ascination with the .uintuplets MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM .uickl6 a&ter the se<tuplets were born.
23. =ob bought so2e new skis, and this weekend heBs going to MMMMMMMM the2 MMMMMMMM.
2#. 5 wasnBt ver6 responsible when 5 was 6ounger, but having children reall6 MMMMMMMM 2eMMMMMMMM.
2%. Ned used to e<ercise ever6 da6, but he hasnBt MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM in 2onths.
(8
2'. he baseball 2anager decided to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM the new pitcher to see what he could do.
2(. 5 like 2ost o& this article 6ou wrote about 2e, but thereBs one thing 5Bd like 6ou to MMMMMMMM.
28. Sa2 had a tot o& big ideas when he was 6oung, but his li&e sure hasnBt MMMMMMMM MMMMMMM the wa6 he
e<pected.
2,. he electricit6 was MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM a&ter a tree &ell during the stor2 and cut so2e power lines.
31. 5 MMMMMMMM 26 58 card MMMMMMMM o& 26 pocket and showed it to the guard.
31. )6dia has never MMMMMMMM a penn6 MMMMMMMM o& her savings account.
ECERCISE (( & ; =rite three sentences sin/ the o&,ects in +arentheses$ Be sre to
+t the o&,ects in the ri/ht +%ace$
1. 8id 6ou back upH E6our work, itF MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM
2. he6Bre cutting o&&. Ethe power, itF MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM
3. 5 dropped o&& at the airport. E3rank/hi2F MMMMMMMM MMMMMMM MMMMMMMM
#. 7o2 asked 2e to take out. Ethe garbage, itF MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM
(,
%. /le< tried out. Ehis new bic6cle, itF MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM
'. 7ike has woken up. E/li, hi2F MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM
ECERCISE (( c ; =rite ans5ers to the >estions sin/ nons an! co-+on! nons
.ro- this section$ There -a3 &e -ore than one 5a3 to ans5er a >estion$
1. he photographer alwa6s keeps two ca2eras with hi2. *ne is his 2ain ca2era. CeBll use the second i&
thereBs a proble2 with the &irst. "hat is the second ca2eraH
2. he phone co2pan6 sa6s 26 telephone service will stop on Iul6 1 i& 5 donBt pa6 26 bill be&ore that date.
"hat is Iul6 5H
3. 8r. S2ith is a new doctor. 5& heBs not sure how to treat a patient, heBll call 8r. "ood &or help. "hat is 8r.
"ood to 8r. S2ithH
#. Aou used the new e<ercise e.uip2ent to see i& 6ou wanted to bu6 it. "hat did 6ou do to the e<ercise
e.uip2entH
%. he police arrested 7rs. a6lorBs husband because he was beating her. / social worker visited 7rs.
a6lor a &ew da6s later to talk to her. "hat did the social worker doH
'. he clothes 5 wore 6esterda6 white 5 was e<ercising got ver6 dirt6. "hat got dirt6H
(. "e got &ood &ro2 a $hinese restaurant and ate it at ho2e. "hat kind o& &ood did we eatH
8. =ecause o& construction, tra&&ic on the interstate stopped and there was a long line o& cars. "hat was on
the interstateH
L. The number of arrests for burglary is a lot lower this year than last year. .hat has happened to the number of arrests for
burglary1
11. Sall6 lost so2ething ver6 i2portant on her co2puter because she didnBt 2ake another cop6 in case
there was a proble2 with the original. "h6 did Sall6 have a proble2H
81
11. /t the edge o& the continental shel&, the sea &loor &alls several thousand &eet. "hat is at the
edge o& the continental shel&H
12. 5 2ade (,111 copies on this photocopier. "hat did 5 do to the photocopierH
ECERCISE ((! ; =rite ans5ers to the >estions sin/ +hrasa% ver&s an! nons
.ro- this section$ Be sre the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$
1. he electric co2pan6 stopped 26 electricit6 because 5 didnBt pa6 26 bill. "hat did the6 do to
the electricit6H
2. 5 bought so2e &ried chicken, and 5 took it to 26 house. "hat kind o& &ood did 5 bu6H
3. ;<ercising is good &or 6our health. "hat is good &or 6our healthH
#. he long!distance co2pan6 o&&ered to let 2e use their service &ree &or thirt6 da6s, and 5B2
going to tr6 it. "hat a2 5 going to do to the long!distance co2pan6Bs serviceH
%. 5n Ouestion #, what is the long!distance co2pan6 letting 2e doH
'. 8uring the &lood, a lot o& people couldnBt leave their houses because o& the water. "hat did the
water do to the2H
(. 5n Ouestion ', how would 6ou describe these peopleH
8. AouBre 2aking an e<tra cop6 o& 6our work +ust in case. "hat are 6ou doingH
,. 5n Ouestion 8, what would 6ou call the e<tra cop6 o& 6our work that 6ouBre 2akingH
11. he newspaper reporter is getting 2ore in&or2ation about so2ething interesting that
so2eone told her on the phone. "hat is the reporter doingH
C. 76 e<ercise routine is ver6 di&&icult. "hat is di&&icultH
12. he prosecutor proved his accusation with so2e photographs. "hat did the prosecutor do with
the photographsH
13. Iane wants to show the basketball coach that she would be a good 2e2ber o& the basketball
tea2. "hat does Iane want to doH
1#. 5 have a second alar2 clock in case the &irst doesnBt wake 2e up. "hat does 26 second alar2 clock
do to 26 &irstH
81
1%. 5n Ouestion 1#, what would 6ou call 26 second alar2 clockH
1'. Nicole takes her &riend to the train station ever6 2orning. "hat does Nicole do to her &riendH
1(. 5 have an appoint2ent with 26 doctor ne<t 2onth so that he can see i& 26 surger6 was success&ul.
"hat would 6ou call 26 appoint2ent ne<t 2onthH
18. 7ariaBs plan isnBt happening the wa6 she e<pected. "hat isnBt 7ariaBs plan doingH
1,. =ill went with Iud6 to dinner and a 2ovie and he paid &or ever6thing. "hat did =ill doH
21. wo hundred guests at N#% each calculates to N,,111. "hat does 211 guests at N#% each doH
21. 5 have never stopped sleeping at 3G31 in the 2orning be&ore. "hat have 5 never done be&oreH
ECERCISE (( e' Revie5 ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith these +hrasa% ver&s .ro-
+revios sections$ Be sre the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$ To chec0
their -eanin/s' revie5 the section n-&er /iven a.ter each one$
co2e &ro2, 1 give back, 1 hand out, 11 look &or, 1
&all o&&, 11 go ahead, 11 hear about, 2 screw out o&, 3
&eel up to, 3 go along with, 3 kick back, 11 screw up, 11
&ill in, 11 grow up, 11 la6 o&&, 11 sta6 o&&, 2
1. 5& the co2pan6 doesnBt MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM 21 percent o& its e2plo6ees, itBs going to go out o&
business.
2. =lankets and bo<es o& &ood were MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM to the &lood victi2s.
3. 5 MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM in 4er2an6 because 26 &ather was in the /r26 there.
#. 9ath6 didnBt close her car window last night, and it rained. She reall6 MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM.
%. Aou MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM? 5Bll catch up with 6ou later.
'. he percentage o& people who s2oke MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM a&ter s2oking was linked with lung
cancer and heart disease.
(. "hat can 5 do to get 26 black cat to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM 26 white couchH
8. 5Bve been MMMMMMM MMMMMMM an apart2ent that allows dogs, but 5 canBt &ind one.
,. CeBsMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMNew Aork and will be here in two hours.
82
*3. I was so stuffed from that huge dinner my mother cooked that I didn(t %%%%%%%% %%%%%%%%%%%%%%% playing tennis
afterward.
**. Their lawyer tried to %%%%%%%% them %%%%%%%% %%%%%%%% : *73,333.
*7. I don(t feel like going anywhere tonight. Get(s just %%%%%%%% %%%%%%%% and take it easy.
*2. I(m sorry I can(t agree with you, )oe, but I have to %%%%%%%% %%%%%%%% %%%%%%% Ginda on this decision.
*H. $ere(s my flashlight. Make sure you %%%%%%%% it %%%%%%%% when you(re finished using it.
*D. I didn(t get *33 on the test because I forgot to %%%%%% %%%%%% one of the blanks.
*J. This restaurant is wonderful. I(m surprised I haven(t%%%%%%%%%%%% it before.
12. 3*$0S *NG +ast +er.ect +hrasa% ver&s
The past perfect is used to say that one thing in the past happened before another thing in the past#
Mike said the wedding had fallen through.
past earlier in the past
.hen I got to work, Mr. Toy for had already signed in.
past earlier in the past
The past perfect is formed with had and the past participle of the verb#
present# ,e wakes up.
past# $e woke up.
past perfect# $e had woken up.
Infinitive
present tense &ing form past tense past participle
back off
back off < backs off backing off backed off backed off
($ &ac0 o.. p.v. "hen 6ou 2ove awa6 &ro2 danger or a person 6ou are arguing or &ighting with in
order to avoid in+ur6 or a 2ore serious &ight or argu2ent, 6ou &ac0 o..$ "hen 6ou tell people to
&ac0 o..' 6ou are warning the2 that 6ou are beco2ing angr6 and that a &ight or argu2ent is
likel6.
83
I(m warning youE 8ou(d better back off.
Tom backed off when he saw that )ake had a gun.
#nfinitive
present tense -ing form past tense past participle
come across
come across & comes across coming across came across come across
($ co-e across p.v. "hen people cross &ro2 one side o& a space or distance to
where 6ou are, the6 co-e across$
's soon as "icole saw me, she came across the room and gave me a big hug.
Ay *L*3, millions of immigrants had come across the ocean to 'merica.
"$ co-e across p.v. "hen 6ou co-e across people or things, 6ou see or &ind the2 without
planning or e<pecting to. Rn across is si2ilar to co-e across$
; asked the antiFue dealer if she had ever come across a .indsor chair.
=n the trail, we came across some hikers from 'ustralia.
*$ co-e across p.v. "hen so2ething 6ou sa6 or do co-es across a certain wa6, 6our
attitude or &eelings are perceived in this wa6 b6 other people.
; was just joking, but I don(t think it came across that way.
$is 'merican humor didn(t come across well in Aritain.
come up
come up & comes up coming up came up come up
($ co-e + EtoF p.v. "hen people 2ove toward 6ou to a higher level or position, or &ro2
the south to the north, the6 co-e +$ Co-e !o5n is the opposite o& co-e +$
.hy don(t you come up and see me some time1
My cousin from !an 'ntonio came up to 5etroit last week.
"$ co-e + p.v. "hen 6ou 2ove to a higher social or pro&essional position, 6ou
co-e +$
; saw 5an driving a Mercedes. $e(s really coming up in the world.
The major didn(t go to the military academy. $e came up through the ranks.
*$ co-e + p.v. "hen a new topic is introduced into a conversation, it co-es +$
; don(t agree with )im about anything, so if politics comes up I just leave the room.
.e were discussing possible candidates to manage the new office, and your name came up.
6$ co-e + p.v. "hen so2ething une<pected happens that re.uires &urther
attention, it co-es +$
I(m sorry I can(t go to your party@ something important has come up.
Ontil this situation came up we were having a nice, rela0ing weekend.
7$ co-e + p.v. Jalwa6s continuousK "hen so2ething is co-in/ +' it will
happen soon.
8#
Mother(s 5ay is coming up so I need to buy my mother a gift soon.
The TV announcer told the audience what was coming up after the commercial.
#nfinitive
present tense -ing form past tense past participle
fall through
fall through & falls through falling through fell through fallen through
($ .a%% thro/h p.v. "hen people or things drop through an opening &ro2 one side to the other
side, the6 .a%% thro/h$
The roofer had fallen through a hole in the roof.
My Oncle Fred was ice fishing when he fell through a hole in the ice and was never seen again.
"$ .a%% thro/h p.v. "hen a plan, an arrange2ent, or a business deal does not happen or is
canceled because o& a proble2 or because so2eone does not do what is e<pected, it .a%%s
thro/h$
The family reunion fell through after 5ad got sick.
=ur house is back on the market. The deal fell through because the buyers couldn(t get a loan.
put out
put up & puts up putting up put up put up
($ +t$$$ + p.v. "hen 6ou 2ove so2ething to a higher level, 6ou +t it +$
3ut these knives up where the baby can(t reach them.
$e aimed the gun at me and said, 93ut your hands up or I(ll shoot.+
"$ +t$$$ + p.v. "hen 6ou attach so2ething, such as a picture or a sign, to a wall, 6ou +t it
+$
The teacher had put some posters up in her new classroom.
=ur real estate agent is putting up a +for sale+ sign.
*$ +t$$$ + p.v. "hen 6ou build or install so2ething, such as a building, shel&, &ence, or wall,
6ou +t it +$
.e need to put up a fence to keep the rabbits out of our garden.
I talked to a carpenter about putting up some shelves in the family room.
6$ +t$$$ + p.v. "hen 6ou erect or asse2ble so2ething that is collapsed, &olded, or in several
pieces, 6ou +t it +$
The circus put up their tent outside of town.
The "ative 'mericans stopped by the river and put up their teepees.
7$ +t + p.v. "hen 6ou contribute 2one6 to pa6 &or or help pa6 &or so2ething, 6ou +t + the
2one6.
#7
he 2a6or o&&ered to +t + hal& the 2one6 necessar6 to build a new stadiu2
&or the tea2.
7r. a6lor said he would put up N3 2illion toward the cost o& a new cancer
treat2ent &acilit6.
'. +t + p.v. "hen 6ou &ight, resist, or argue against so2ething, 6ou +t + a
&ight or +t + resistance.
he union +t + a &ight when the co2pan6 tried to la6 o&& workers.
he Iapanese +t + little resistance when the 2arines landed.
(. +t$$$ + p.v. "hen 6ou put people up, 6ou let the2 sta6 with 6ou, usuall6
te2poraril6, in 6our house or in a hotel.
Sa2 didnBt have an6where else to go a&ter the &ire, so 5 said 5 would +t hi2
+ &or a couple o& nights.
he hotel desk clerk apologiDed &or not being able to +t us +.
5n&initive
present tense !ing &or2 past tense past participle
screw on
scre5 on B scre5s on scre5in/ on scre5e! on scre5e! on
($ scre5$$$ on p.v. "hen 6ou scre5 on the top o& a circular container, 6ou turn it so
that it beco2es tight and keeps the contents o& the container inside.
5 hadnBt scre5e! the top o& the gas can on tight enough, and all the gas leaked out.
5& 6ou donBt scre5 the top o& the bottle on, the soda pop will go &lat.
scre5e! on part.adj. /&ter 6ou turn the top o& a circular container so that it beco2es tight
and keeps the contents o& the container inside, the top is scre5e! on$
"$ scre5$$$ on p.v. "hen 6ou attach part o& a 2echanical device with spiral grooves
to another part with spiral grooves, 6ou scre5 it on$
7ake sure 6ou scre5 each o& the nuts on tightl6.
Put the new ink cartridge in the botto2 hal& o& the pen and then scre5 on the top.
scre5e! on part.adj. /&ter 6ou attach part o& a 2echanical device with spiral grooves to
another part with spiral grooves, the &irst part is scre5e! on$
he top o& that water bottle isnBt scre5e! on' and it 2ight leak all over the place.
sign in
si/n in B si/ns in si/nin/ in si/ne! in si/ne! in
($ si/n $$$ in p.v. "hen 6ou si/n in' 6ou write 6our na2e on a list to show that 6ou have arrived
at 6our workplace or at so2e other place, such as a hotel or a club.
5B2 going to be late. $ould 6ou si/n 2e inH
/ll visitors to the consulate are asked to si/n in.
#8
5n&initive
present tense !ing &or2 past tense past participle
sign out
si/n ot B si/ns ot si/nin/ ot si/ne! ot si/ne! ot
($ si/n ... ot p.v. "hen 6ou si/n ot' 6ou write 6our na2e on a list to show that
6ou have le&t 6our workplace or so2e other place, such as a hotel or club.
Ii2 isnBt here. Ce si/ne! ot at %G1'.
8r. "ood usuall6 &orgets to si/n ot when she leaves the dink.
"$ si/n ... ot p.v. "hen 6ou si/n so2ething ot' such as a book or so2ething
valuable or i2portant, 6ou write 6our na2e on a list to show that 6ou have borrowed
the ite2 and are responsible &or returning it.
he pro&essor si/ne! the book ot o& the rare book roo2.
-e2e2ber to si/n ot 6our lab e.uip2ent be&ore che2istr6 class.
;L;-$5S; 12a > Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith +hrasa% ver&s .ro- this section$ Be
sre the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$
1. he in&or2ation in this &ile is top secret. Aou have toMMMMMMMM it MMMMMMMM be&ore 6ou can
re2ove it &ro2 this roo2.
2. So2ething MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM at the last 2inute, and 5 had to cancel 26 trip.
3. "eBd betterMMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM the tent be&ore it gets too dark.
#. 5 was in the librar6, and 5MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM so2e interesting books.
%. 5 was sure Ianice was still in the building so2ewhere because she hadnBtMMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM 6et.
'. he weddingMMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM when the groo2 was arrested &or biga26.
(. 76 son alwa6sMMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM a big &ight when 5 tr6 to get hi2 to go to bed.
8. 5 wasnBt in the 2ood &or a &ight, so 5 decided toMMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM.
,. he search part6 &ound that the snow2obiler hadMMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM a hole in the ice and
drowned.
11. No one said an6thing about 6ou last night. Aour na2e didnBtMMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM even once.
11. he store ownerMMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM a @no s2oking@ sign.
12. o attach the &ilter to the ca2era lens, 6ou +ustMMMMMMMM itMMMMMMMM.
13. he 2anager alwa6s checked to see who didnBtMMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM on ti2e.
#:
1#. he charit6 was asked to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM N2 2illion toward the purchase o& new 2edica:
e.uip2ent.
1%. So2eone had MMMMMMMM the lid MMMMMMMM so tightl6 that 5 couldnBt get it o&&.
1'. 76 house was destro6ed b6 a tornado. $an 6ou MMMMMM 2e MMMMM &or a &ew da6sH
1(. 5 was upstairs working when 26 wi&e MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM to ask 2e what 5 wanted &or lunch.
18. he applicantBs criticis2 o& his previous e2plo6er didnBt MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM well with the
interviewer.
1,. 5 bought a plastic $hrist2as tree thatBs reall6 eas6 to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM.
21. Nanc6 MMMMMMMM MMMMMMM the 4olden 4ate =ridge ever6 2orning to go to work.
21. 5 didnBt go to a &anc6 5v6 )eague college. 5 MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM the hard wa6.
22. $an 6ou MMMMMMMM the window shade MMMMMMMM so that we can get 2ore light in here, pleaseH
23. SusieBs 2other told her that $hrist2as was MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM, so she had better be a good
girl.
ECERCISE ("& ; =rite ans5ers to the >estions sin/ +hrasa% ver&s an! +artici+%e
a!,ectives .ro- this section$ Ma0e a%% the +hrasa% ver&s +ast +er.ect$
1. 7ike told 2e that Ierr6 had been angr6 and was going to hit =ill, but that Ierr6 had then changed his
2ind and walked awa6. "hat had Ierr6 doneH
2. )uis had written his na2e on a piece o& paper to show that he had co2e to work. "hat had )uis doneH
3. he carpenter had dropped suddenl6 &ro2 the second &loor to the &irst &loor through a hole 5N the &loor.
"hat had the carpenter doneH
#. i226 had argued with his 2other because he didnBt want to go to bed. "hat had i226
doneH
%. oddBs e<planation 2ade a good i2pression on the +ur6. "hat had oddBs e<planation doneH
'. he rich lad6 had given the 2one6 to build an ani2al shelter. "hat had the rich lad6 doneH
88
(. he host o& the V talk show had said that the dancing bear act was going to take place right a&ter
the co22ercial. "hat had the host o& the V show said about the dancing bear actH
8. he cook had turned the lid o& the +ar so that it was tight. "hat had the cook doneH
,. 5n Ouestion 8, how would 6ou describe the lid o& the +ar a&ter the cook turned it so that it was
tightH
11. he ho2eless shelter had allowed the2 to sleep there overnight. "hat had the ho2eless shelter
doneH
11. he president canceled his vacation because a serious proble2 had suddenl6 occurred.
"h6 did the president cancel his vacationH
12. "eBd had a deal to bu6 a new house, but we didnBt bu6 it because o& a proble2. "hat had
happened to our dealH
13. 7arshaBs na2e had been 2entioned during the 2eeting. "hat had 7arshaBs na2e doneH
1#. he *rtegas had built a &ence around their swi22ing pool. "hat had the *rtegas doneH
1%. Aou had &ound so2e old newspapers while cleaning the attic. "hat had 6ou doneH
1'. 7iguel had traveled &ro2 7ia2i to New Aork. "hat had 7iguel doneH
1(. he doctor had written her na2e on a piece o& paper to show that she had le&t the hospital. "hat
had the doctor doneH
ECERCISE ("c ; =rite ei/ht ori/ina% sentences sin/ +hrasa% ver&s .ro- this
section$ Tr3 to -a0e so-e o. the- >estions' so-e ne/ative' an! so-e +resent or
+ast +er.ect$
1. MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM. 2.
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM.
3.MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM. #.
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM. %.
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM '.
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM. (.
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM. 8.
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM.
8,
ECERCISE ("!' Revie5 ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith these +hrasa% ver&s .ro-
+revios sections$ Be sre the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$ To chec0
their -eanin/s' revie5 the section n-&er /iven a.ter each one$
back up, 11 &ollow up, 11 point to, # tr6 out, 11
cut o&&, 11 go a&ter, # put to, # wake up, 11
drop o&&, 11 pa6 &or, # take out, 11 work out, 11
&all o&&, 11 plan &or, # throw up, 2 wrap up, #
*. I don(t care if it takes me the rest of my life, you(ll %%%%%%%% %%%%%%%% the terrible thing you didE
2. he sales2an got a good lead &ro2 a &riend, and he MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM on it i22ediatel6.
3. "e need to take the bab6 to the doctor right now. SheBs MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM twice in the last hour.
#. Sales have MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM b6 13 percent in the last 6ear.
%. hat was a ver6 interesting .uestion 6ou MMMMMMM MMMMMMM 7ark at the 2eeting.
'. -ela<, ever6thingBs going to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM oka6.
(. $an 6ou &ollow 2e in 6our car so that 5 can MMMMM 26 car MMMMM at the 2echanicH
8. ;rik MMMMMMMM his son MMMMMMMM and told hi2 it was ti2e &or school.
,. 5 drove into the 2ountains to MMMMMMMM 26 truckBs &our!wheel drive MMMMMMMM.
11. Aou should alwa6s MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMan6thing i2portant be&ore 6ou install a new progra2.
11. he police o&&icer asked the bo6 where his &ather was, and the bo6 MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM the bar across
the street.
12. 5tBs getting prett6 late. )etBs MMMMMMMM this 2eeting MMMMMMMM.
13. he gu6 behind the counter MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM a s2all piece o& cheese so 5 could taste it.
1#. 5t was a bit o& a proble2 when Iane brought her children with her to 26 dinner part6. 5 hadnBt
MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM so 2an6 people.
1%. he censor told the &il2 director to MMMMMMM MMMMMMM so2e o& the violent scenes.
1'. IaneBs going to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM that new +ob in the =oston o&&ice.
,1
13. 3*$0S *NG +assive +hrasa% ver&s' (
he passive voice is used when what happened Ethe verbF is 2ore i2portant than
who did it Ethe sub+ectFG
The scene of the crime was dosed off b% the police.
when the sub+ect is obviousG
he tests were han!e! in$ Eb6 the students > who elseHF
or when the sub+ect is unknownG
76 dog was rn over$ Eb6 an unknown personF
he passive is &or2ed with be and the past participle o& the verb. =e can be in an6
tense and can be continuousG
The game has been called off.
My name was left off.
The tent Is being set up.
The criminals will be tracked down.
/s we saw in the &irst three e<a2ples, sa6ing who per&or2ed the action with a b6
phrase is optional, but it is alwa6s possible. his is a good wa6 to test a sentence to
see i& it is in the passiveG
The game has been called off by. the, referee.
My name was left off by >harles.
The tent is being set up by. the campers.
The criminals will be tracked down by the police.
Infinitive
present tense &ing form past tense past participle
call off
call off < calls off calling off called off called off
($ ca%%$$$ o.. p.v. "hen 6ou ca%% o.. an event, such as a part6, ga2e, or so2ething else that
had been previousl6 planned, 6ou cancel it.
The football game was called off because of rain.
.e can(t call the party off it(s going to start in half an hour.
dose off
close off < closes off closing off closed off closed off
($ c%ose $$$o.. p.v. "hen 6ou c%ose o.. an area/6ou prohibit people &ro2 entering it or
passing through it b6 locking the door or blocking the entrance.
The police closed several streets off because of the parade.
The house was so e0pensive to heat that the owners closed several rooms off.
,1
c%ose! o.. part.ad+. /n area that 6ou are prohibited &ro2 entering or passing through because
the door has been locked or the entrance has been blocked is c%ose! o..
Three rooms in the museum are closed off.
#nfinitive
present tense -ing form past tense past participle
hand in
hand in & hands in handing in handed in handed in
($ han! $$$ in EtoF p.v. "hen 6ou co2plete a test, report, or pro+ect and 6ou give it to the
person who assigned the work, 6ou han! it in or han! it in to that person. Trn in is si2ilar to
han! in$
The tests must be handed in no later than **#33.
$e finished his investigation and handed his report in to the committee.
"$ han! $$$ in p.v. "hen 6ou han! in 6our resignation or letter o& resignation, 6ou in&or2 6our
e2plo6er that 6ou are .uitting 6our +ob.
; was so furious that I handed my letter of resignation in the ne0t day.
The ?resident asked the cabinet members to hand in their resignations.
*$ han! $$$ in EtoF p.v. "hen 6ou give so2ething to a person o& authorit6 who has de2anded it
or because 6ou no longer need or want it, 6ou han! it in or han! it in to a person o& authorit6.
Trn in is si2ilar to han! in$
The guard was ordered to hand his gun in after he shot the window washer.
The drivers return to the factory at D#33 and hand their keys in to the dispatcher before they leave.
hit on hit on & hits on hitting on hit on hit on
($ hit on p.v. "hen 6ou think o& an interesting idea or a solution to a proble2, 6ou hit on
it.
; think I(ve hit on a way to solve this problem.
'fter two years of tests, they finally hit on the solution.
"$ hit on p.v. Jin&or2alK "hen 6ou hit on a person o& the opposite se<, 6ou approach and
aggressivel6 tr6 to interest that person in 6ou ro2anticall6 or se<uall6.
Gydia had a terrible time at the party. !he was hit on by every guy there.
Get(s go somewhere else Mark keeps hitting on me, and I(m tired of it.
%eave o.. leave off & leaves off leaving off left off left off
($ %eave$$$ o.. p.v. "hen 6ou do not include people or things on a list, either
accidentall6 or deliberatel6, 6ou leave the2 o..$
'fter what happened at the last party, 5an wasn(t surprised that he was left off the guest list.
>heck to make sure you don(t leave anyone off the list.
L7
"$ %eave o.. p.v. "hen 6ou interrupt so2ething that 6ou intend to &inish later, 6ou %eave o..
at the point where 6ou stop.
=kay class, we left off on page L7 last week, so open your books to page L2.
Finish your story. Oncle Fred. 8ou left off where the giant octopus was about to eat you.
5n&initive
present tense !ing &or2 past tense past participle
let off
let o&& P lets o&& letting o&& let o&& let o&&
($ %et$$$ o.. p.v. "hen 6ou let so2eone o&& a bus or other &or2 o& transportation, 6ou stop it
so that person can leave it.
The driver let her off at the corner. That(s my house there. >an
you let me off please1
"$ %et$$$ o.. p.v. "hen 6ou are %et o.. b6 a person in authorit6, 6ou are not punished or 6ou
are given onl6 a light punish2ent.
It was )ake(s first offense, so the judge let him off with a warning.
?eople were shocked that he had been let off so lightly.
*$ %et$$$ o.. p.v. "hen 6ou &ire a gun or e<plode bo2bs or &ireworks, 6ou %et the2 o..$
EregionalF "hen 6ou %et o.. stea2, 6ou e<press angr6 &eelings or &rustration or do
so2ething to relieve those &eelings.
The high school was evacuated after someone let off a smoke bomb.
.hen I was a kid I used to love letting off firecrackers on the Fourth of )uly.
I(m sorry I was so angry this morning@ I was just letting off steam.
light up
light up & lights up lighting up lit up lit up
($ %i/ht$$$ + p.v. "hen 6ou shine lights on so2ething or attach lights to
so2ething, 6ou %i/ht it +$
'irport runways are lit up so that pilots can see them in the dark.
The police lit the house up with their spotlights.
%it + part.ad+. /&ter a light is shined on so2ething or 6ou put lights inside or attach lights to
the outside o& so2ething, it is %it +$
The signs aren(t lit up so it(s hard to see them at night.
"$ %i/ht$$$ + p.v. "hen 6ou %i/ht + a cigarette, cigar, or pipe, 6ou use a 2atch or lighter
to start it burning.
$ere are the matches let(s light up. 1ighting a cigarette up ne0t to the gasoline truck was the last
thing he ever did.
,3
Infinitive
present tense &ing form past tense past participle
track down
track down & tracks down tracking down tracked down tracked down
($ trac0$$$ !o5n p.v. "hen 6ou &ind things or people a&ter looking ver6 hard &or the2, 6ou
track the2 !o5n$
The terrorists were tracked down by Interpol.
I finally tracked down that book I(ve been looking for.
ECERCISE (*a ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith +hrasa% ver&s .ro- this section$ Be
sre the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$
1. he +udge MMMMMMMM her MMMMMMMM with a warning.
2. 5t wasnBt cold enough, so we MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM the hocke6 ga2e.
3. /s soon as Nanc6Bs bo6&riend went to the washroo2,the gu6 at the ne<t table MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM
her.
#. ;ver6 $hrist2as 26 &ather used to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM our house with thousands
o& lights.
%. he police &inall6 MMMMMMMM the killers MMMMMMMM and arrested the2.
'. he principal caught 2e as 5 was MMMMMMM MMMMMMM a cigarette in the washroo2.
(. he roo2 that was da2aged b6 the &ire was MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM to the public.
8. 5 was reall6 angr6 that 5 was MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM the list.
,. hatBs a great idea: AouBve reall6 MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM so2ething.
11. hree students got a Dero because their pro+ects werenBt MMMMMM MMMMMM on ti2e.
11. 8river, can 6ou MMMMMMMM 2e MMMMMMMM at the ne<t cornerH
12. 8r. S2ith resu2ed his lecture where he had MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM be&ore the lunch break.
13. /&ter "ilson screwed up the &inance depart2ent, he was asked to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMMM his letter o&
resignation.
1#. ;ven though the ene26 soldiers were hal& a 2ile awa6, we MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM
a &ew shots.
1%. he crooked police o&&icers were ordered to MMMMMMMM their badges MMMMMMMM.
,#
ECERCISE (*& ; =rite three sentences sin/ the o&,ects in +arentheses$ Be
sre to +t the o&,ects in the ri/ht +%ace$
*. The bride hasn(t called off. Bthe wedding, itC MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM
7. 're they closing off1 Bthe gallery, itC MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM
2. The accountant handed in. Bher report, itC MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM
H. $ave you left off1 B>armen, herC MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM
D. The judge let off. Bthe pickpocket, himC MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM
J.I told him not to light up. Bthe cigarette, itC MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM
,%
(. he ;P/ tracked down. Ethe polluters, the2F MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM
ECERCISE (*c ; =rite ans5ers to the >estions sin/ +hrasa% ver&s an! +artici+%e a!,ectives
.ro- this section$ Ma0e a%% the +hrasa% ver&s +assive$
1. Ce discovered the source o& the ru2or. "hat happened to the source o& the ru2orH
2. he students &inished their .uiDDes and gave the2 to the teacher. "hat happened to the
.uiDDesH
3. he +udge never sends &irst!ti2e o&&enders to +ail. "hat alwa6s happens to &irst!ti2e o&&endersH
#. / gu6 started talking to Ceather at the dance. "hat happened to CeatherH
%. he list o& candidates didnBt include 6our na2e. "hat happened to 6our na2eH
'. he re&eree canceled the ga2e. "hat happened to the ga2eH
(. he6 are putting ropes around the plaDa so that no one can go in. "hat is happening to the
plaDaH
8. 5n Ouestion (, a&ter the6 &inish putting ropes around the plaDa, how would 6ou describe itH
,. he battleship shined lights on the ene26 sub2arine. "hat happened to the ene26
sub2arineH
11. 5n Ouestion ,, how would 6ou describe the sub2arine a&ter the battleship shined lights on itH
,'
ECERCISE (*!' Revie5 ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith these +hrasa% ver&s
.ro- +revios sections$ To chec0 their -eanin/s' revie5 the section
n-&er /iven a.ter each one$
burn down, % let out, ( point out, ( set up, %
call in, % look at, % run into, 1 take apart, (
give back, 1 pile up, % run over, ( take o&&, 1
hand back, % plan &or, # screw out o&, 3 talk down to, 3
1. 7ost o& the cit6 was MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM b6 the invading soldiers.
2. eacher, will points be MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM &or spellingH
3. 8an is so rude > 5 have never been MMMMMMM MMMMMMM MMMMMMM like that be&ore.
#. / con&erence will be MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM between the law6ers &or each side.
%. he a6lors were MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM their li&e savings b6 their
stockbroker.
'. he children were happ6 to be MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM o& school earl6.
(. he entire sta&& was MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM to the o&&ice and given pink slips.
8. Several &laws in the plan were MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM.
,. -a.uel was al2ost MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM b6 a ce2ent truck while she was driving to work.
11. here wasnBt enough roo2 inside the cabin, so the &irewood had to be MMMMMMMM
MMMMMMM outside.
C. he general said the occupied territor6 would never be MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM.
12. he test will be MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM to the students to2orrow.
13. his engine has been MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM three ti2es, but no one can &igure out
whatBs wrong with it.
1#. his is a ver6 i2portant pro+ect. ;ver6 possible proble2 2ust be MMMMMM MMMMMM.
1%. 76 neighbor stopped at the side o& the road to change a &lat tire, and he was MMMMMMMM
MMMMMMMM and killed b6 a drunk driver.
1'. ;ach proposed design &or the new &lag was MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM and re+ected.
,(
(6$ FOCUS ON< +artici+%e a!,ectives .or-e!
.ro- +hrasa% ver&s' (
he past participles o& 2an6 ;nglish verbs can also be used as ad+ectives. Aou will
see that sentences with ad+ectives &or2ed &ro2 past participles are ver6 si2ilar to
sentences with verbs in the passive voiceG in both cases a &or2 o& be is used with
the past participle. 3or this reason, it is not alwa6s eas6 to sa6 whether a sentence
contains an ad+ective &or2ed &ro2 a past participle or a verb in the passive voiceG
he door was closed. E5s this a passive sentence or is dosed an ad+ectiveHF
So2eti2es, whether a sentence contains an ad+ective &or2ed &ro2 a past participle
or a verb in the passive voice is clear &ro2 the sentence structureG
The door was closed by the secretary, BpassiveC
The door was closed when I came home last night, BadjectiveC
or the conte<tG
Fuestion# .hat happens if the health inspector finds rats in a restaurant1
answer# It(s closed. BpassiveC
.uestionG 5s the window openH
answerG 5tBs closed. Ead+ectiveF
=ut in so2e cases it is not possible to sa6 absolutel6 whether a sentence contains an
ad+ective &or2ed &ro2 a past participle or a verb in the passive voice. 3ortunatel6, it is
usuall6 not ver6 i2portant because the 2eaning is o&ten essentiall6 the sa2e. 3or that
reason, throughout this book true ad+ectives &or2ed &ro2 past participles and past
participles &unctioning as ad+ectives are both classi&ied as participle ad+ectives.
7uch 2ore i2portant than the di&&erence between ad+ectives &or2ed &ro2 past
participles and past participles &unctioning as ad+ectives is what the words 2ean.
So2e participle ad+ectives are written with a h6phen E2ake!upF, so2e without a
h6phen E&i<ed upF, and so2e as one word ErundownF. =ecause not ever6one agrees
which participle ad+ectives should be h6phenated/which should not, and which should
be written as one word, 6ou will occasionall6 see the sa2e participle ad+ective written
with or without a h6phen or written as one word. /lso, =ritish ;nglish h6phenates
2an6 participle ad+ectives that are not nor2all6 h6phenated in /2erican ;nglish?
2an6 o& the participle ad+ectives shown unh6phenated in this book are h6phenated in
=ritish ;nglish.
,8
5n&initive
present tense !ing &or2 past tense past participle
butt in
butt in P butts in butting in butt in butt in
($ &tt in p.v. "hen 6ou enter a conversation, situation, or place Eespeciall6 a lineF
aggressivel6, rudel6, and without invitation/6ou &tt in$
; was trying to talk to Mm at the party, but Aob kept butting in.
My father taught me that it(s not polite to butt in line@ you have to go to the back and wait your turn.
dress up
dress up & dresses up dressing up dressed up dressed up
($ !ress$$$ + p.v. "hen 6ou !ress +' 6ou wear ver6 nice clothes, o&ten &or a special
occasion. "hen 6ou !ress people up, 6ou put ver6 nice clothes on the2/ o&ten &or a
special occasion.
8ou should always dress up for a job interview.
The Taylors dressed their children up so they could take some pictures.
!resse! + part.ad+. "hen 6ou are !resse! up, 6ou are wearing ver6 nice clothes, o&ten
&or a special occasion.
.here are Tom and "ancy going1 They(re all dressed up.
I felt like an idiot at the party everyone was really dressed up e0cept me.
"$ !ress + Elike/asF p.v. "hen people wear old!&ashioned clothes or costu2es, the6
!ress +' !ress + like so2eone, or !ress + as so2eone.
5id you see >harles at the $alloween party1 $e dressed up like a cowboy.
't )ane(s costume party, everyone has to dress up as a clown.
dr% up
dr% up & dries up dr%ing up dried up dried up
($ !r3$$$ + p.v. "hen so2ething !ries + or so2ething !ries it +' all the water or other
li.uid in it goes awa6.
The sun came out and dried up all the rain. The
Ireat !alt Gake is slowly dr%ing up.
!rie! + part.ad+. /&ter all water or other li.uid in so2ething goes awa6, it is
!rie! +$
The cowboys reached the river only to find that it was dried up.
These leaves will burn okay now that they(re dried up.
"$ !r3 + p.v. "hen the a2ount or suppl6 o& so2ething gets s2aller and then disappears
co2pletel6, it !ries +$
The factory switched to synthetic rubber after the supply of natural rubber dried up.
The small grocery store(s business dried up after a huge supermarket opened across the street.
LL
5n&initive
present tense !ing &or2 past tense past participle
fill out
.i%% ot B .i%%s ot .i%%in/ ot .i%%e! ot .i%%e! ot
($ .i%%$$$ ot p.v. "hen 6ou .i%% ot a &or2, 6ou put in&or2ation in the correct spaces. Fi%% in is
the sa2e as .i%% ot$
The personnel director asked !ofia to fill out an application.
0ill the withdrawal slip out and give it to the teller.
.i%%e! ot partad+. /&ter all the in&or2ation is in the correct spaces o& a &or2, the &or2 is .i%%e!
ot$
$ere(s my application@ it(s all filled out. 're these forms
blank or filled out"
"$ .i%%$$$ ot p.v. "hen slender people gain weight, the6 &ill ot$
)ake was really thin when he got out of prison, but he has really filled out since then.
"icole started to fill out after she started working at the candy shop.
put awa%
put awa% & puts awa% putting awa% put awa% put awa%
($ +t$$$ a5a3 p.v. "hen 6ou return so2ething to the place where it is usuall6 stored
while it is not being used, 6ou +t it a5a3$
; told you to put awa% %our toys before you go outside.
Todd always dries the dishes, and I put them awa%.
+t a5a3 part.ad+. 5& so2ething is in the place where it is usuall6 stored while it is not
being used, it is +t a5a3$
.here is my tool kit1 I looked in the closet, and it(s not put awa%. The dishes are put
awa%. "ow let(s watch TV.
"$ +t$$$ a5a3 p.v. "hen people are +t a5a3' the6 are sent to prison or a 2ental
institution.
; hope they put that maniac awa% and throw away the key.
)ake was put awa% for ten years after he was convicted of murder.
*$ +t$$ $a5a3 p.v. Jin&or2alK "hen 6ou consu2e large .uantities o& &ood or drink
Eespeciall6 alcoholic drinkF, 6ou +t it a5a3$
Ae sure to buy plenty of beer if 5avid is coming to the party. $e can really put it awa%.
I don(t feel well. I put awa% four hot dogs and a bag of cookies.
stick up
stick up & sticks up sticking up stuck up stuck up
($ stic0$$$ + p.v. "hen 6ou use a gun or other weapon to rob people, banks, or
stores, 6ou stic0 the2 +$ Ho%! + is the sa2e as stic0 +$
111
>all the policeE They(re sticking up the bank.
If we need some money, we can always stick up a liFuor store.
stic0+ n. "hen so2eone uses a gun or other weapon to rob a person, bank, or
store, there is a stic0+$ A ho%!+ is the sa2e as a stic0+$
' man wearing a ski mask yelled, +This is a stickup!9
The detective was asking Fuestions about the stickup last night.
"$ stic0$$$ + p.v. "hen 6ou put so2ething, such as a picture, sign, or notice, in
a place where people can see it, 6ou stic0 it +$
!am stuck a notice up about his lost dog.
I(m going to stick these +no smoking+ signs up all over the school.
*$ stic0$$$ + p.v. "hen 6ou push so2ething inside a container or space that is long
and narrow, 6ou stic0 it +$
.e had to take !usie to the emergency room after she stuck a paper clip up her nose.
Mark stuck his hand up the chimney to try to find the hidden key.
6$ stic0 + p.v. "hen so2ething long and narrow is raised above the sur&ace, it
stic0s +$
Ae careful walking around a construction site there might be a nail sticking up.
My hair was sticking up in the back after ; woke up from my nap.
stc09+ part.ad+. Jin&or2al > although the participle ad+ective stc09+ derives &ro2
stic0 +' the verb &or2 is never used in this senseK "hen 6ou think 6ou are better
than other people because 6ou are 2ore beauti&ul or 2ore intelligent or because 6ou
co2e &ro2 a higher level o& societ6, 6ou are stc09+$
$eather is the most popular girl in the school, but she isn(t stuck-up.
They(re so stuck-up they(ll never sit at our table.
Infinitive
present tense &ing form past tense past participle
use up
use up & uses up using up used up used up
($ se$$$ + p.v. "hen 6ou use up so2ething, 6ou use all o& it.
'fter you use something up be sure to write it on the grocery list.
I used up all the glue@ we need to buy more.
se! + part.ad+. /&ter all o& so2ething has been used, it is se! +$
8o we have another tube o& toothpaste in the houseH his oneBs se!
+$
wind
wind up & winds up winding up wound up wound up
($ 5in! $$$+ p.v. "hen 6ou turn the handle or ke6 o& a 2echanical to6, watch, or clock to 2ake
it operate, 6ou 5in! it +$
111
; overslept because I forgot to wind up my alarm dock. This toy doesn(t use
batteries@ you have to wind it up.
5on! + part.ad+. /&ter so2eone turns the handle or ke6 o& a 2echanical to6, watch, or
clock, it is 5on! +$
The toy soldier is wound up. )ust push the button to make it walk.
.hat is wrong with this watch1 It(s wound up but it still doesn(t work.
5on! + part.ad+. "hen 6ou are nervous or tense, 6ou are 5on! +$
5on(t even talk to )oe today. $e(s really wound up.
I(m feeling really wound up I need a drink.
"$ 5in! + p.v. "hen 6ou sa6 that so2eone or so2ething 5in!s + a certain wa6 or 5in!s
+ doing so2ething, 6ou 2ean that this situation was the result o& a series o& decisions,
actions, or unplanned and une<pected occurrences. En! + is si2ilar to 5in! +$
.e got totally lost and wound up *33 miles from the campground.
If you don(t start driving more carefully, you(re going to wind up dead.
*$ 5in! $$$ + p.v. "hen 6ou 5in! + an activit6 or event, 6ou &inish it or get read6 to &inish
it. =ra+ + is si2ilar to 5in! +$
The detective wound up her investigation and made several arrests.
.e(d better wind things up here@ it(s getting late.
6$ 5in! $$$ + p.v. "hen 6ou wrap so2ething long, such as an electrical cord, rope, string, or
2easuring tape, around and around so that it is in a ball or on a spool, 6ou 5in! it +$
That(s enough fishing for today. Get(s wind up our lines and go home.
The firefighters wound up their fire hoses and went back to the station.
5on! + part.ad+. "hen 6ou wrap so2ething long, such as an electrical cord, rope, or
2easuring tape, around and around so that it is in a ball or on a spool, it is 5on! +$
This rope is a mess. 8ou should keep it wound up.
This electrical cord is realty wound up tight.
ECERCISE (6a ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith +hrasa% ver&s .ro- this section$ Be
sre the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$
1. "e couldnBt decide where to go, so we MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM sta6ing ho2e.
2. =e sure 6ou MMMMMMMM this &or2 MMMMMMMM care&ull6.
3. 76 son loves to eat. Ce can MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM an e<tra large piDDa in less than &i&teen
2inutes.
112
/. 5Bll MMMMMMMM this notice MMMMMMMM on the wall.
%. "eBre going out to a nice restaurant tonight, so be sure to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM.
'. =usiness at the ski shop alwa6s MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM in su22er.
(. "hen 6ouBre &inished with 6our 7onopol6 ga2e, MMMMMMMM it MMMMMMMM.
8. $ongress is MMMMMM MMMMMM so2e un&inished business be&ore the su22er recess.
,. he &ire&ighter MMMMMM her hand MMMMMM the drain pipe to tr6 to reach the kitten.
11. he 2eetingBs al2ost over MMMMMMMM the6Bre MMMMMMMM it MMMMMMMM now.
11. Ianice went to the costu2e part6MMMMMMM MMMMMMMMM like 7arie /ntoinette.
12. he desert is so hot that rainwater MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM al2ost i22ediatel6.
13. 5 donBt know what ti2e it is. 5 &orgot to MMMMMMMM 26 clock MMMMMMMM.
1#. =e care&ul when 6ou sail 6our boat in this shallow water. So2eti2es logs MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM
&ro2 the botto2.
1%. )6dia hasMMMMMMM MMMMMMMMMa little since she had the bab6.
1'. /unt 9ath6 &inished knitting the sweater and MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM her knitting needles.
1(. 3rank and Iesse Ia2esMMMMMM MMMMMMa bank in North&ield, 7innesota, in 18('.
18. 5 hope the6 catch those crooks and MMMMMMMM the2 MMMMMMMM &or a long ti2e.
1,. 5 MMMMMMMMall 26 ti2e MMMMMMMMon the &irst hal& o& the test and didnBt have an6 ti2e le&t &or the
second hal&.
21. 76 brother is so rude: "henever 5 tr6 to talk to 26 &riend 9aren, he MMMMMMM MMMMMMM and wonBt
let 2e talk.
ECERCISE (6& ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith +artici+%e a!,ectives .ro- this section$
1. 5 hope it rains soon. *ur lawn is reall6MMMMMMMMMMM.
2. "h6 are 6ou MMMMM MMMMMMH /re 6ou going to a part6H
3. So2e o& these &or2s are blank and others are MMMMM MMMMM.
#. /ll the people who live in that neighborhood think the6Bre better than ever6one else in town.
hereBre so MMMMM MMMMM.
%. 5 canBt use 26 printer. he toner cartridge is MMMM MMMM, and 5 need to bu6 a new one.
'. he clock isnBt working because it isnBt MMMMM MMMMM.
(. irnrn6, are 6our to6s all over the &loor where the6 were last night, or are the6 MMMMM MMMMMH
ECERCISE (6c ; =rite three sentences sin/ the o&,ects in +arentheses$ Be
sre to +t the o&,ects in the ri/ht +%ace$
*. )anice dressed up. Bher son, himC
MMMMM MMMMM.
MMMMM MMMMM.
MMMMM MMMMM.
The sun Fuickly dries up. Bthe water, itC
MMMMM MMMMM.
MMMMM MMMMM.
MMMMM MMMMM.
Filling out isn(t necessary, Bthe entire form, itC
MMMMM MMMMM.
MMMMM MMMMM.
MMMMM MMMMM.
/d put away in an hour. Bsi0 beers, themC
MMMMM MMMMM.
MMMMM MMMMM.
MMMMM MMMMM.
They stuck up. Bnotices, themC
MMMMM MMMMM.
MMMMM MMMMM.
MMMMM MMMMM.
11#
'. 5B2 winding up. E26 clock, itF
MMMMM MMMMM.
MMMMM MMMMM.
MMMMM MMMMM.
ECERCISE (6! ; =rite ans5ers to the >estions sin/ +hrasa% ver&s an!
+artici+%e a!,ectives .ro- this section$ Be sre the +hrasa% ver&s are in the
correct tense$
1. Iake was riding his 2otorc6cle too &ast and not being care&ul. Now he is in the hospital with a broken
leg. "hat happened to IakeH
2. 5t was hard talking to 26 2other because 26 sister kept rudel6 interrupting our conversation. "hat
did 26 sister keep doingH
3. / lot o& rain &ell and 2ade a s2all lake in the &ield. Now, a&ter a week, the water is not there an62ore.
"hat happened to the waterH
#. /le< was pla6ing with his to6 trains. Now the6 are in the bo< where he keeps the2 when he is not
pla6ing with the2. "hat did /le< doH
%. 5n Ouestion #, how would 6ou describe /le<Bs to6sH
'. 5t rained three hours ago, but now there is no 2ore water in the streets. Cow would 6ou describe the
streetsH
(. 5 turned the ke6 in this grand&ather clock, and now it is working. "hat did 5 do to the clockH
8. 5n Ouestion (, how would 6ou describe the clockH
,. 8aniela put on her best clothes &or the dance. "hat did 8aniela doH
11. 5n Ouestion ,, how would 6ou describe 8anielaH
11. )uis wrote all the necessar6 in&or2ation on the &or2. "hat did )uis doH
12. 5n Ouestion 11, how would 6ou describe the &or2H
11%
ECERCISE (6e' Revie5 ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith these +artici+%e a!,ectives .ro-
+revios sections$ To chec0 their -eanin/s' revie5 the section n-&er /iven a.ter
each one$
backed up, 11 cut o&&, 11 hooked up, , screwed up, 11
broken!down, % cut up, ( hung up, , set up, %
burned!out, 8 &illed in, 11 paid &or, # wake!up, 11
caught up, , grown!up, 11 piled up, % worked up, ,
1. he clothes are MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM in the closet.
2. 5 donBt owe an6 2one6 to the bank &or 26 house. 5tBs MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM.
3. 76 V$- is connected to 26 V. 76 V$- is MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM.
#. "e live &ar out in the countr6 awa6 &ro2 town, our &riends, and our &a2ilies. 5 donBt like being so
MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM.
%. 76 carBs MMMMMMMMMMM, so 5 have to take the bus to work.
'. /ll the plans and arrange2ents &or our vacation are read6? ever6thing is MMMMMMMM MM.
(. /ll the spaces in this &or2 have the necessar6 in&or2ation in the2. he &or2 is
8. Nanc6Bs &our!6ear!old son was pla6ing with her co2puter, and now itBs all MMMMM MMMMM.
,. 5 was sick and 2issed several ho2ework assign2ents in school. =ut 5 worked hard and &inished all the
ho2ework 5 2issed, and now 5B2 MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM.
11. 5B2 ver6 nervous and upset about so2ething. 5B2MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM.
11. hese videotapes arenBt &or children > the6Bre MMMMMMMMMMM videotapes.
12. i226Bs 2other used a kni&e to cut his 2eat into 2an6 s2all pieces. i226Bs 2eat is
13. 5B2 tired all the ti2e, 5 hate 26 +ob, and 5 need a vacation. 5B2 MMMMM MMMMMM.
1#. 76 co2puter crashed last night, but &ortunatel6 all 26 i2portant &iles are
1%. he hotel &orgot 26MMMMMMMMMMM call, and 5 2issed 26 plane.
1'. he 2agaDines are MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM in a big stack.
11'
1%. 3*$0S *NG +hrasa% ver&s an! will or be
going to
Aoth will and be going to are used to talk about the future in /nglish, but they are not the same.
Pre!ictions< 5i%% or &e /oin/ to
0se will or be going to &or predictions. "hen 6ou predict the &uture, 6ou sa6 what 6ou think will
happenG
The wind will blow awa% these paper plates.
The wind is going to blow awa% these paper plates.
=i%%in/ness< 5i%%
0se onl6 will &or willingness. "hen 6ou o&&er to do so2ething that 6ou do not have to do, 6ou
are willing to do itG
; will put up the shelves for you.
P%ans< &e /oin/ to
0se onl6 be going to &or plans. "hen 6ou decide to do so2ething in the &uture, whether it is
long and co2plicated or short and si2ple, 6ou plan to do itG
$e is going to head for Me0ico ne0t week.
he &uture with will is &or2ed b6 using will plus the in&initive &or2 o& the verbG
statements# $e will come through !an Francisco.
Fuestion# .ill he come through !an Francisco1
negative# $e will not come through !an Francisco.
These contractions are used with will#
I will Q I(ll
you will Q you(ll
he will Q he(ll
she will Q she(ll
it will Q it(ll
they will Q they(ll
will not Q won(t
"hen two contractions are possible, it is 2ore co22on to contract will with not rather than with
a pronounG
common# $e won(t come through !an Francisco.
uncommon# $e(ll not come through !an Francisco.
he &uture with be going to is &or2ed with a &or2 o& be plus going to plus the in&initive &or2 o& the
verbG
statement# $e is. going to head for Me0ico ne0t week.
Fuestion# Is he going to head for Me0ico ne0t week1
negative# $e is not going to head for Me0ico ne0t week.
*3M
hese contractions are used with be going toG
5 a2 ] 5B2
6ou are ] 6ouBre
he is ] heBs
she is ] sheBs
it is ] itBs
the6 are ] the6Bre
are not ] arenBt
is not ] isnBt
"hen two contractions are possible, both are e.uall6 co22onG
co22onG CeBs not going to hea! .or 7e<ico ne<t week.
co22onG Ce isnBt going to hea! .or 7e<ico ne<t week.
5n in&or2al spoken ;nglish, going to is o&ten pronounced /onna. 5t is not
necessar6 to pronounce going to in this wa6, but it is necessar6 to understand
it.
#nfinitive
present tense -ing form past tense past participle
blow awa%
blow awa% & blows awa% blowing awa% blew awa% blown awa%
($ &%o5$$$ a5a3 p.v. "hen the wind 2oves so2ething awa6 &ro2 where it was, it &%o5s it
a5a3$
5on(t leave the newspaper outside. The wind will blow it awa%. The picnic wasn(t much fun. It was really
windy, and everything kept blowing awa%.
"$ &%o5$$$ a5a3 p.v. Jin&or2alK "hen a person or co2pan6 has an abilit6, product, or service
that is 2uch better than that o& a co2peting person or co2pan6, it &%o5s a5a3 the
co2peting person or co2pan6.
'pple(s new computer is so fast it(s going to blow awa% the competition. I thought I had a chance
to win the race, but /rik just blew me awa%.
*$ &%o5$$$ a5a3 p.v. Jin&or2alK "hen so2ething 6ou have seen or heard 2akes 6ou ver6
shocked, a2aDed, or e2otional, it &%o5s 6ou a5a3$
The first time I saw the ?yramids, they just blew me awa%.
I was blown awa% when my mother told me that I was adopted.
come through
come through & comes through coming through came through come through
($ co-e thro/h p.v. "hen 6ou are in a place and people or things co-e thro/h
it, the6 pass &ro2 one side to the other side where 6ou are.
Aetty came through the door and sat down at our table.
The soldiers were coining through the hole in the wall.
*3K
"$ co-e thro/h p.v. "hen people travel to 6our town, sta6 &or a while, and then leave, the6 co-e
thro/h or co-e thro/h town.
'unt !ally promised she(d come through Milwaukee on her way to Indianapolis.
*$ co-e thro/h p.v. "hen i2portant in&or2ation, authoriDation, or per2ission that 6ou have been
waiting &or is received, it co-es thro/h$
.e can buy the house the loan finally came through.
The e0ecution was stopped when the call from the governor came through.
6$ co-e thro/h EwithF p.v. "hen 6ou pro2ise to do so2ething or produce so2ething and
keep 6our pro2ise, 6ou co-e thro/h or co-e thro/h with what 6ou pro2ised to do
or pro2ised to produce.
.e were all surprised when Aob came through with front row tickets just like he said he would. The state legislature
promised to provide the financing for a new stadium, but they didn(t come through.
7$ co-e thro/h p.v. "hen 6ou co-e thro/h a di&&icult or dangerous e<perience, 6ou survive it.
My Oncle Fred saw lots of action during the war, but he came through without a scratch.
+oming through the earthFuake alive was a miracle.
8$ co-e thro/h p.v. "hen so2eoneBs &eelings, attitudes, or opinions can be perceived b6
so2eone else, the6 co-e thro/h$
The author(s hatred of the dictatorship came through in the novel.
The professor(s enthusiasm for the subject really comes through in his lectures.
#nfinitive
present tense :ing form past tense past participle
dr% out
dr% out & dries out dr%ing out dried out dried out
($ !r3 $$$ot p.v. "hen so2ething !ries ot or so2ething !ries it out, all the water or other li.uid in it
goes awa6.
Aefore you put this tent away, be sure you dr% it out. 'fter the flood, it
took weeks for our house to dr% out.
!rie! ot part.ad+. /&ter all the water or other li.uid in so2ething goes awa6, it is !rie!
ot$
My skin always gets dried out in the winter.
.e shampooed our carpet a week ago, and it(s still not dried out.
fi; up
fi; up & fi;es up fi;ing up fi;ed up fi;ed up
($ .i4$$$ + p.v. "hen 6ou &i< up a place, such as a building, street, or park, 6ou repair and decorate it.
11,
; am going to fi; this place up and try to sell it.
The city decided to fi; up the park.
.i4e! + part.ad+. /&ter 6ou repair and decorate a place, such as a building, street, or park, it is
.i4e! +$
"ow that his house is fi;ed up it looks pretty nice.
.hen you see how fi;ed up )im(s apartment is now, you(ll be surprised.
.i4er9++er n. Jin&or2alK / .i4er9++er is a building in poor condition that can be repaired,
renovated, or redecorated in order to increase its value.
The way to make money in real estate is to buy a fi;er-upper and do as much of the work yourself
as you can.
"$ .i4$$$ + p.v. "hen 6ou .i4 6oursel& +' 6ou st6le 6our hair nicel6 and put on 2ake!
up and nice clothes.
If you(re going to that fancy restaurant, you(d better fi0 yourself up. $eather is upstairs fi;ing
herself up for the prom.
.i4e! + part.ad+. /&ter 6ou st6le 6our hair nicel6 and put on 2ake!up and nice clothes, 6ou are
.i4e! +$
.here(s Gydia going1 !he(s all fi;ed up.
I got all fi;ed up and my boyfriend took me to a demolition derby.
*$ .i4$$$ + EwithF p.v. "hen 6ou .i4 people + with so2ething, 6ou arrange &or the2 to have or
to use so2ething that the6 need or want.
.e told the hotel desk clerk that we wanted their best room, and she fi;ed us up with the honeymoon suite.
The travel agent fi;ed me up with a limo to take me to the resort.
6$ .i4$$$ + EwithF p.v. Jin&or2alK "hen 6ou .i4 people + or .i4 the2 + with so2eone, 6ou
arrange a date &or the2 with a 2e2ber o& the opposite se<.
Ginda and Tom are perfect for each other. I(m going to fi; them up.
I asked )erry if he(d fi; me up with his sister.
#nfinitive
present tense -ing form past tense past participle
go with
go with & goes with going with went with gone with
($ /o 5ith p.v. "hen one thing is usuall6 or alwa6s &ound with another, the6 /o 5ith each
other.
' lot of responsibility goes with being a doctor.
I never wanted to own an old house because of all the maintenance that goes with it.
"$ /o 5ith p.v. "hen two things are part o& one unit or set or are 2eant to be with each other,
the6 /o 5ith each other.
111
=ne of the fringe benefits of that job was the car that went with it. 8ou can(t buy the cup
without the saucer that goes with it.
*$ /o 5ith p.v. "hen one ite2 o& clothing looks nice with another, the6 go with each other.
!he needs to find a blouse that goes with her new skirt.
I like white shirts because they go with everything.
6$ /o 5ith p.v. "hen 6ou /o 5ith people, 6ou agree with and support their idea or plan.
!enator 5olittle has no opinions. $e just goes with the majority. .e(ve decided to
go with the committee(s recommendation.
7$ /o 5ith p.v. "hen 6ou choose so2eone or so2ething &ro2 a group, 6ou /o 5ith 6our choice.
That gray suit was nice, but I think I(m going to go with the black one.
/veryone who applied for the job is highly Fualified. I don(t know who I(m going to go with.
Infinitive
present tense &ing form past tense past participle
head back head back < heads
back
heading back headed back headed back
($ hea! &ac0 EtoF p.v. "hen 6ou hea! &ac0 or hea! &ac0 to a certain location, 6ou return to a place
where 6ou were be&ore. "hen 6ou are hea!e! &ac0 or are hea!in/ &ac0 to a certain location, 6ou
are returning to a place where 6ou were be&ore.
.e(ll spend a month in >alifornia and then head back to 5es Moines. .e got to the beach around *3#33, and we
headed back when it started to get dark.
head
head for & heads for heading for headed for headed for
($ hea! .or p.v. "hen 6ou hea! .or a certain location, 6ou 2ove toward it. "hen 6ou are hea!e! .or
or are hea!in/ .or a certain location, 6ou are planning to go there or 6ou have stopped and will
resu2e going there. Hea! to5ar! is the sa2e as hea! .or$
Tomorrow we(re going to leave 5es Moines and head for >alifornia.
I told the guy at the gas station I was headed for !anta Fe.
"$ hea! .or p.v. "hen 6ou are hea!e! .or or are hea!in/ .or a certain situation, condition, or
conse.uence, it is beco2ing 2ore likel6.
If you don(t shut your mouth you(re headed for trouble.
This is going to be a great vacation we(re heading for a good timeE
111
Infinitive
present tense &ing form past tense past participle
tell on
tell on < tells on telling on told on told on
1. tell on p.v. ,informalused primarily by children- .hen you tell on people, you inform someone in authority, such
as a parent or teacher, that they have made a mistake or broken a rule.
; broke a glass. 8ou(re not going to tell on me, are you1 Timmy didn(t do his
homework, and his sister told on him.
ECERCISE (7a ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith +hrasa% ver&s .ro- this section$ Be sre the
+hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$
1. he &irst ti2e 5 held 26 newborn son in 26 ar2s it +ust MMMMMMMM 2e MMMMMMMM.
2. 5 asked )inda i& she would MMMMMMMM 2e MMMMMMMM with her &riend Nanc6.
3. =ob said he could get us backstage a&ter the concert, and he MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM +ust like he
pro2ised.
#. his house is du2p now, but a&ter 5 MMMMMMMM it MMMMMMMM, itBll look nice.
%. 5 saw 6ou eating cookies be&ore dinner when 7o226 told 6ou not to. 5B2 going to MMMMMMMM
MMMMMMMM 6ou.
'. he co2poserBs love &or his native land reall6 MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM through in his 2usic.
(. $an 6ou help 2eH 5B2 MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMMoronto, but 5B2 lost.
8. 5Bve never been to the opera be&ore. 5 think 5Bd better MMMMMMMM 26sel&MMMMMMMM.
,. he train MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM town three ti2es a week.
11. 5& 6ou keep charging stu&& like craD6 on 6our credit cards, 6ouBre MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM bankruptc6.
11. 8o 6ou think these brown pants MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM this blue shirtH
12. /ll the books da2aged in the &lood have to be MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM.
13. $okeBs new sales pro2otion is going to MMMMMMMM Pepsi MMMMMMMM.
1#. "e sat b6 the phone nervousl6 waiting &or the +udgeBs decision to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM.
112
1%. 76 brother works in a car rental place, and he said he can MMMMMMMM 2e MMMMMMMM with a 7ercedes at
no e<tra cost.
1'. /&ter looking at pictures o& several 2odels, the photographer decided to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM Nicole.
1(. 8r. "ood MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM the door and said hello.
18. /ll the clothes 5 le&t outside to dr6 were MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM b6 the stor2.
1,. 76 &ather hated being a sales2an because o& all the travel that MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM the +ob.
21. wo o& 26 brothers went to Vietna2, but onl6 one MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM it alive.
21. 5 asked the clerk in the co2puter store i& the 2onitor MMMMM MMMMM the co2puter.
22. 5tBs getting late and 5B2 tired. 5 think 5B2 going to MMMMMM MMMMMM to 26 house.
23. Cis proposal 2ade a lot o& sense, so we decided to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM it.
ECERCISE (7& ; =rite ans5ers to the >estions sin/ +hrasa% ver&s an!
+artici+%e a!,ectives .ro- this section$ Use 5i%% or &e /oin/ to 5ith a%% +hrasa%
ver&s$
1. 5 asked the restaurant 2anager &or the best table in the house, and he is going to give us a table
ne<t to the &ireplace. "hat is the restaurant 2anager going to doH
2. )indaBs &ather pro2ised to pa6 &or her wedding, and she is sure that he will. "hat is )inda sure
aboutH
3. -a.uelBs husband is going to be ver6 surprised when she tells hi2 she won N11 2illion in the
lotter6. "hat is the news going to do to her husbandH
#. CeBll repair so2e things in his house and paint it be&ore he puts it on the 2arket. "hat will he doH
%. 5n Ouestion #, how will the house be a&ter he 2akes so2e repairs and paints itH
'. i226 wonBt tell the teacher that Susie didnBt do her ho2ework i& she gives hi2 a cand6 bar. "hat
wonBt i226 doH
(. hose 2obile ho2es arenBt going to be there a&ter the tornado. "hat is the tornado going to doH
113
8. 5& thereBs an earth.uake, no one in this old building will survive. "hat wonBt the people do i& thereBs
an earth.uakeH
,. SheBll put on her nicest out&it and her best +ewelr6 and get a per2. "hat will she doH
11. 5n Ouestion ,, how will she look a&ter she puts on her nicest out&it and her best +ewelr6 and
gets a per2H
11. o2orrow, 6ouBre going to leave San 8iego and go to ucson. "hat are 6ou going to do to2orrowH
12. / 2onth &ro2 now, 6ouBre going to leave ucson and return to San 8iego. "hat are 6ou going to do
a 2onth &ro2 nowH
13. ;rik said he wonBt ask his sister i& she will go on a date with 7ike. "hat wonBt ;rik doH
1#. )6dia is at the paint store to choose a paint color &or her house. She hates the color blue. "hat isnBt
)6dia going to doH
1%. 5=7 has a new chip thatBs twice as &ast as the co2petitionBs &astest chip. "hat is 5=7 going to do to
the co2petitionH
1'. 0ncle 3red is going to visit our town, sta6 &or a short ti2e, and then continue on his trip to 3lorida.
"hat is 0ncle 3red going to doH
1(. his pond is going to slowl6 evaporate and disappear. "hat is the pond going to doH
18. 5n Ouestion 1(, a&ter the pond evaporates, how will it beH
ECERCISE (7c ; =rite ei/ht ori/ina% sentences sin/ +hrasa% ver&s .ro- this section$ Tr3
to se 5i%% an! &e /oin/ to$
1. MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
2. MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
3. MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
#. MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
%. MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
11#
'.MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
(.MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
8.MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
ECERCISE (7!' Revie5 ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith these +hrasa% ver&s .ro-
+revios sections$ Be sre the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$ To chec0 their
-eanin/s' revie5 the section n-&er /iven a.ter each one$
back o&&, 12
call o&&, 13
close o&&, 13
co2e across, 12
co2e up, 12
&all through, 12
hand in, 13
hit on, 13
leave o&&, 13
let o&&, 13
light up, 13
put up, 12
screw on, 12
sign in, 12
sign out, 12
track down, 13
1. 8id 26 e<!husband talk about 2e at the part6H Aes, 6our na2e MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM several ti2es.
2. *ur vacation plans MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM a&ter o2 broke his leg.
3. 5 told 6ou not to MMMMMMMM that cigarette MMMMMMMM in here.
#. 3l6ing 7o2 here &or the holida6s is going to cost N1,111. 76 brother is going to pa6 N311, and 5B2 going
to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM the rest o& the 2one6.
%. So &ar, the police have been unable to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM the stolen paintings.
'. he searchlights MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM the night sk6, looking &or ene26 bo2bers.
(. Aou canBt go in that part o& the 2useu2? itBs been MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM.
8. "hen 6ou travel, alwa6s MMMMMMMM the tops o& 6our toiletries MMMMMMMM tightl6.
,. "e decided to MMMMMMM our ski trip MMMMMMM because there wasnBt enough snow.
11. 5 was getting reall6 angr6, and 5 told hi2 that 5 was going to punch hi2 in the nose i& he didnBt
MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM.
11. he teacher told the students to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM their ho2ework.
12. 5 didnBt agree with that list o& the 111 best 2ovies. he6MMMMMMMMso2e o& 26 &avorites
13. he 2anager re2inded 7aria not to &orget to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM when she co2es to work in the
2orning.
11%
1#. 7rs. Nash isnBt in the o&&ice an62ore. She MMMMMMM MMMMMMM about an hour ago.
1%. he Iudge told Iake that the ne<t ti2e he got in trouble he wouldnBt MMMMMMMM hi2 MMMMMMMM with
a warning.
1'. 5 was going through so2e stu&& in the attic, and 5 MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM so2e interesting old
pictures.
(8$ FOCUS ON< +hrasa% ver&s 5ith /ern! o&,ects' (
Gerunds verbs in the -ing &or2 that &unction as nouns > can serve as ob+ects o& 2an6
phrasal verbs.
5t is 2ore co22on to use gerund ob+ects with nonseparable two! and three!word
phrasal verbsG
She's counting on getting that job.
gerund
I don(t feel up to playing hockey.
gerund
but gerund ob+ects are so2eti2es used with separable phrasal verbsG
; wouldn(t put robbing a bank past him.
gerund
Mr. Taylor wants to give smoking up.
gerund
Infinitive
present tense &ing form past tense past participle
believe in
believe in < believes in believing in believed in believed in
($ &e%ieve in p.v. "hen 6ou &e%ieve in so2ething or &e%ieve in doing so2ething, 6ou have a
strong opinion about so2ething that is i2portant to 6ou.
/ believe in working hard and saving money.
Maria doesn(t believe in se0 before marriage.
"$ &e%ieve in p.v. "hen 6ou &e%ieve in so2ething, 6ou think it e<ists.
5o you believe in ghosts1
"ed is an atheist@ he doesn(t believe in Iod.
11'
*$ &e%ieve in p.v. "hen 6ou &e%ieve in people, 6ou have con&idence in the2 and believe what the6 sa6
because 6ou think the6 are honest, correct, or co2petent.
; don(t care what anyone else says, I still believe in you.
.e want to believe in you, but we need some proof that your invention really works.
#nfinitive
present tense -ing form past tense past participle
carr% on
carr% on & carries on carr%ing on carried on carried on
($ carr3 on p.v. "hen 6ou carr3 on' 6ou continue as be&ore, despite a di&&icult
e<perience in 6our li&e.
8ou(ll have to carr% on for the sake of the children.
It was difficult for Mrs. "elson to carr% on after her husband died.
"$ carr3 on EwithF p.v. "hen 6ou carr3 on' carr3 on with an activit6, or carr3 on doing an activit6, 6ou
continue it or continue doing it.
The men stopped working when Ieneral >hambers entered the room, and he told them to carr% on.
!he plans to carr% on with her career after the baby is born.
They knew I was trying to sleep, but they carried on talking and singing anyway.
*$ carr3 $$$ on p.v. "hen 6ou carr3 so2ething on an airplane, 6ou keep it with 6ou in the passenger
co2part2ent instead o& giving it to an airline agent to put in the baggage co2part2ent.
This suitcase is pretty big. I hope they(ll let me carr% it on.
8ou should carr% your laptop computer on. 8ou don(t want to take any chances.
carr39on n$ Carr39on' carr39on luggage, carr39on baggage, carr39on bags, and so on, are not given to an
airline agent to put in the baggage co2part2ent but are kept in the passenger co2part2ent o& an
airplane.
I(m staying only one night in "ew 8ork, so all I(ll need is a carr%-on bag.
6$ carr3 on EaboutF p.v. Jin&or2alK "hen 6ou carr3 on or carr3 on about so2ething, 6ou are ver6
persistent and vocal about so2ething that upsets 6ou.
; forgot our anniversary, and she carried on all day.
I said I was sorry@ now will you please stop carr%ing on about it1
count on
count on & counts on counting on counted on counted on
($ cont on p.v. "hen 6ou need so2ething i2portant to happen or a certain condition to e<ist, 6ou are
contin/ on it. "hen 6ou need so2eone to do so2ething i2portant, 6ou are contin/ on that person.
I(m counting on getting a ride to the airport with Aetty.
Farmers count on a lot of rain in the spring.
11(
"$ cont on p.v. "hen 6ou rel6 on so2eone or so2ething &or help or support i& 6ou need it,
6ou are contin/ on that thing or that person.
I(m going to sell this car and buy one that always starts. I need a car I can count on.
The governor said that she(s counting on our support in the ne0t election.
*$ cont on p.v. "hen 6ou are certain than so2ething will happen or that a certain condition
will e<ist, 6ou are contin/ on it.
Man;in makes a fool of himself at every party. 8ou can count on it.
8ou can count on crowds and long lines at 5isney .orld if you go in 'ugust.
Infinitive
present tense &ing form past tense past participle
get through
get through < gets through getting through got through gotten;got through
($ /et thro/h EwithF p.v. "hen 6ou /et thro/h' /et thro/h with an activit6, or /et
thro/h doing an activit6, 6ou &inish it or &inish doing it.
; have so much homework that I might not get through with it until midnight.
'fter you get through washing the dishes, you can start ironing.
"$ /et thro/h EtoF p.v. "hen 6ou /et thro/h or /et thro/h to so2eone, usuall6 on a
telephone or radio, 6ou are able to speak to that person.
"ancy tried calling )im last night, but she couldn(t get through.
It wasn(t easy, but I finally got through to my brother in Aorneo.
*$ /et thro/h EtoF p.v. "hen 6ou /et thro/h or /et thro/h to so2eone, 6ou 2ake that
person understand 6our opinion or point o& view.
Mr. Toylor has tried to make his daughter understand why it(s important to work hard in school and get good grades, but he just
can(t get through. I(ve e0plained it a hundred timesE
.hat do I have to do to get through to you1
6$ /et $$$thro/h p.v. Jin&or2alK "hen 6ou /et so2ething thro/h so2eoneBs head, 6ou
2ake that person understand 6our opinion or point o& view. "hen 6ou /et so2ething
thro/h 6our own head, 6ou understand it.
; finally got it through my son(s head that I was serious about sending him to military school.
.hen are you going to get it through your head that our marriage is over1
7$ /et$$$ thro/h p.v. "hen so2ething /ets 6ou thro/h a di&&icult e<perience, it co2&orts
and supports 6ou.
)ulia(s faith in Iod was what got her through the loss of her husband.
$e was very nervous about giving the speech, so he had a drink to help get him through the ordeal.
118
Infinitive
present tense &ing form past tense past participle
go for
go for < goes for going for went for gone for
($ /o .or p.v. Jin&or2alK "hen 6ou go &or so2ething, 6ou like it a lot.
/rik really goes for scuba diving.
Get(s go to a different nightclub. I don(t go for ja66.
"$ /o .or p.v. "hen 6ou /o .or so2ething, 6ou tr6 to achieve it.
The gymnast said she was going to go for the gold at the ne0t =lympics.
'fter she finished her master(s, she went for a ?h.5.
*$ /o .or p.v. Jalwa6s continuousK "hen 6ou have so2ething /oin/ .or 6ou, 6ou have an advantage that
2akes it easier &or 6ou to do so2ething or get so2ething that 6ou want.
!am(s not especially good at basketball, but he has one thing going for him he(s seven feet tall. I have ten years of e0perience
going for me, so I think I have a good chance of getting the job.
6$ /o .or p.v. "hen 6ou sa6 that a state2ent about one person or thing /oes .or another person or thing,
6ou 2ean that it is also true about the other person or thing. "hen 6ou sa6 @hat /oes .or 2e,@ 6ou are
agreeing with so2eone elseBs opinion.
$eather said that Tom was a jerk, and I said that that goes for Tom(s brother Aill, too.
Aetty(s really angry about it, and that goes for me, too.
hold off
hold off & holds off holding off held off held off
($ ho%! o.. p.v. "hen 6ou ho%! o.. or ho%! o.. doing so2ething, 6ou dela6 doing it.
/ held offsetting our house until our youngest child moved out.
8ou(d better hold off accusing Mike until you(re *33 percent sure.
($ ho%! $$$ o.. p.v. "hen 6ou ho%! o.. an attack, 6ou prevent the attacker &ro2 getting close to 6ou or
&ro2 winning the &ight. 5& 6ou ho%! o.. a co2petitor, 6ou prevent the co2petitor &ro2 winning.
The enemy was so strong that there was no way to hold them off.
The champion held off the challenger and won the game.
put past
($ +t$$$ +ast p.v. Jused onl6 in the in&initive &or2 and onl6 in negative sentencesK "hen 6ou want to
sa6 that 6ou think so2eone is capable o& doing so2ething wrong, 6ou sa6 that 6ou wouldnBt +t it
+ast that person. "hen 6ou want to warn so2eone that 6ou think another person is capable o&
doing so2ething wrong, 6ou sa6 @8onBt +t it +ast Ethat personF.@
11,
Is he capable of murder1 .ell, I wouldn(t put killing someone past him. Marvin is evil. There isn(t any crime I
wouldn(t put past him. 8ou don(t think $ank would steal money from his grandmother1 I know him better than
you do don(t put it past him.
#nfinitive
present tense -ing form past tense past participle
think about
think about & thinks about thinking about thought about thought about
($ thin0 a&ot p.v. "hen 6ou thin0 a&ot so2ething or thin0 a&ot doing so2ething, 6ou
consider it be&ore 2aking a decision.
The salesman tried to get me to sign the contract, but I said I(d think about it.
I(m thinking about Fuitting my job.
ECERCISE (8a ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith +hrasa% ver&s .ro- this section$ Be sre
the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$
1. his house is too s2all &or our &a2il6. "eBre MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM 2oving to a bigger one.
2. hese skis are prett6 big. 8o 6ou think the6Bll let 2e MMMMMMMM the2 MMMMMMMMH
3. his work is ver6 i2portant, and 5 know 6ou can do it. 5B2 MMMMMMM MMMMMMM 6ou.
#. /t the ne<t *l62pics, -aulBs going to MMMMM MMMMM a new record in the pole vault.
%. 5 donBt MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM talking about people behind their backs.
'. 5 tried several ti2es to call i2 in i2buktu, but 5 couldnBt MMMMMM MMMMMM.
(. he roller coaster is ver6 popular. 5& 6ou go on the weekend, 6ou can MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM waiting
in line &or three hours.
8. /s soon as 6ou MMMMMMM MMMMMMM washing the car, co2e inside and eat lunch.
,. 5 wanted to bu6 a digital ca2era, but 5 MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM bu6ing one until the prices &ell.
11. 7arvin see2s like a nice gu6, but he isnBt. 5 wouldnBt MMMMMMMM an6thing MMMMMMMM hi2.
11. 8avid asked 2e to bu6 beer when 5 went to the store, but 5 &orgot, and he MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM
about it &or an hour.
12. he de&enders MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM the attackers as long as the6 could.
121
13. 7ike reall6 MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM auto racing when he was 6oung.
1#. Sall6 has a good education and a pleasant personalit6. She has a lot MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM her.
1%. Cow can 5 MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM a&ter this terrible traged6H
1'. 5Bve e<plained the rules a thousand ti2es. "h6 canBt 6ou MMMMMMMM it MMMMMMMM 6our head that 5B2 the
boss around here, not 6ouH
1(. ;ver6one else thinks 8r. CatcherBs ideas are craD6, but 5 MMMMMMMMMMMMMM hi2.
18. 0ncle Iohn was the onl6 one who knew how to run this business. Now that heBs dead, we wonBt be
able to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM.
1,. 5 didnBt used to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM ghosts, but what 5 saw last night changed 26 2ind.
21. 5Bve tried to get her to understand 26 point o& view, but 5 canBt MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM to her.
21. he -epublicans are idiots, and thatMMMMMMMM MMMMMMMMthe 8e2ocrats, too.
22. )etters &ro2 his &a2il6 helped Iake MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM his prison sentence.
23. 5 alwa6s knew that 26 brother was the one person 5 could MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM i& 5 had a proble2.
ECERCISE (8& ; =rite ans5ers to the >estions sin/ +hrasa% ver&s an! nons
.ro- this section$ Be sre the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$
1. Iud6 likes taking pictures a lot. Cow does she &eel about taking picturesH
2. 7aria didnBt &inish stud6ing until 11G11 P.7. "hat didnBt 7aria do until 11G11 P.7.H
3. he *rtegas took two bags with the2 to keep in the passenger co2part2ent when the6 &lew to
New Aork. "hat did the6 do to the two bagsH
#. 5n Ouestion 3, what kind o& bags did the *rtegas keep with the2H
%. Iane is considering spending the su22er in =olivia. "hat is Iane doingH
'. =ill &eels strongl6 that hunting is wrong. Cow does =ill &eel about huntingH
121
(. Paul couldnBt continue his career as a dancer a&ter his accident. "hat couldnBt he do a&ter his
accidentH
8. "e dela6ed having children until a&ter we had done so2e traveling. "hat did we doH
,. Aou think stealing is so2ething Cank would do. "hat do 6ou think about CankH
11. Nanc6 is going to tr6 to call her sister in Nepal tonight. "hat is Nanc6 going to tr6 to do tonightH
11. Cank isnBt reliable. Aou canBt be certain he will do what he sa6s he will do. "hat canBt 6ou do to
CankH
12. 8an was ver6 angr6, and he 6elled and co2plained &or three hours. "hat did 8an do &or three
hoursH
13. Aou canBt be 111 percent certain that the weather will be nice in 3lorida in the winter. "hat canBt 6ou
do to the winter weather in 3loridaH
1#. 7an6 children are sure that 2onsters are real. "hat do 2an6 children think about 2onstersH
ECERCISE (8c ; =rite ei/ht ori/ina% sentences sin/ +hrasa% ver&s .ro- this section$ Tr3 to
se /ern! o&,ects$
1. MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
2. MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
3. MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
#. MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
%. MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
'. MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
(. MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
8. MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
122
ECERCISE (8!' Revie5 ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith these +artici+%e a!,ectives .ro-
+revios sections$ To chec0 their -eanin/s' revie5 the section n-&er /iven a.ter each one$
closed o&&, 13
dressed up, 1#
dried up, 1#
&illed out, 1#
&i<ed up, 1%
lit up, 13
put awa6, 1#
screwed on, 12
stuck!up, 1#
used up, 1#
wound up, 1#
wrapped up, #
*. >harles is so %%%%% %%%%%. $e thinks he(s better than everyone else because he comes from a rich family.
2. Now that 6our house is MMMMM MMMMM, itBs worth a lot 2ore.
3. here isnBt an6 2ore paper &or the copier > itBs MMMMM MMMMM.
#. 5 washed and dried the dishes, and now the6Bre MMMMM MMMMM in the cabinet.
%. 3rankBs reall6 MMMMMM MMMMM about his wedding to2orrow.
'. he presents have wrapping paper on the2. he6Bre MMMMM MMMMM.
(. his &or2 has all the in&or2ation in the correct spaces. 5tBs MMMMM MMMMM.
8. he &loor o& the bathroo2 isnBt wet an62ore? itBs MMMMM MMMMM.
,. "h6 is Sarah all MMMMM MMMMMMH 5s she going out dancingH
11. =e sure the top o& the $oke bottle is MMMMMMMMMM. 5& it isnBt, the $oke will go &lat.
11. Aou canBt go in the east wing o& the palace because itBsMMMMM MMMMM.
12. 5 can see the road easil6 at night when 5B2 driving because itBs MMMMM MMMMMM.
ECERCISE (8e' Revie5 ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith these +hrasa% ver&s .ro-
+revios sections$ Be sre the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$ To chec0
their -eanin/s' revie5 the section n-&er /iven a.ter each one$
break down, % get over with, 3 put up with, 3
break out, , give up, , see about, (
butt in,1# go in &or, 3 take in, (
&eel up to, 3 leave o&&, 13 wind up, 1#
get around to, ' look &orward to, 3 work out, 11
get out o&, ' put up, 12
1. "e couldnBt decide where to go &or dinner last night, so weMMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM sta6ing ho2e.
123
2. Sall6 loves all outdoor sports, and she especiall6 MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM swi22ing.
3. 5 hate cigarettes, and 5 will not MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM s2oking in 26 house:
#. 5tBs been seven 6ears since o2 saw his sister. CeBs reall6MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM seeing
her again.
%. 76 e6esight got so bad that 5 had to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM driving.
'. 5B2 e<hausted. 5 reall6 donBtMMMMMMMMM MMMMMMM MMMMMMMMdoing an6 2ore sightseeing.
(. he heat in 26 apart2ent doesnBt work. 5 need to MMMMMMMM the 2anager MMMMMMMM getting it &i<ed.
8. 5tBs been three hours since 5 asked 6ou. "hen are 6ou going to MMMMMMM MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM taking
out the garbageH
,. 5 pro2ised Sall6 5 would lend her N1,111, but now 5 donBt want to give it to her. Cow can 5 MMMMMMM
MMMMMMM MMMMMMM lending her the 2one6H
11. -aking the leaves is a big +ob, but 5 have to MMMMMMMM it MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM be&ore it snows.
11. he teacher continued her lecture where she MMMMMMMM MMMMMMM the previous week.
12. 5 havenBt MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM all the details, but 5Bve decided to .uit 26 +ob and start 26 own
business.
13. 5 was late to work because 26 car MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM on the e<presswa6.
1#. 76 V was broken, so 5 MMMMMMMM it MMMMMMMM and had it &i<ed.
1%. "hen 6ouBre ca2ping, 6ou should alwa6s MMMMMMMM 6our tent MMMMMMMM be&ore it gets dark.
1'. 3ighting between protesters and govern2ent troops MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM a&ter the general
canceled the election.
1(. he line to bu6 tickets &or the &ootball ga2e was reall6 long, so a lot o& people tried to MMMMMMMM
MMMMMMMM.
12#
(:$ 3*$0S *NG a!ver&s an! +hrasa% ver&s
/dverbs are words that 2odi&6 verbs. 7an6 adverbs end with -ly, &or e<a2ple, quicly, slo!ly,
suddenly, foolishly" but other adverbs, such as al!ays, sometimes, and never, do not. he
place2ent o& adverbs in sentences with phrasal verbs depends on whether the verb is
intransitive or transitive, and i& transitive, whether it is separable or nonseparable. 5n general,
adverbs are placed like ordinar6 one!word verbs with the e<ception o& nonseparable phrasal
verbs, which also allow &or the place2ent o& adverbs between the verb and the particle. /ll
possible place2ents o& adverbs in sentences containing the various t6pes o& phrasal verbs
are shown with LsG
Intransitive +hrasa% ver&s
L sub+ect L verb particle L.
#mmediately he came over.
$e immediately came over.
$e came over immediately.
Se+ara&%e +hrasa% ver&s
L sub+ect L verb particle ob+ect L.
L sub+ect L verb ob+ect particle L.
'ngrily she ripped up the paper.
'ngrily she ripped the paper up.
!he angrily ripped up the paper.
!he angrily ripped the paper up.
!he ripped up the paper angrily.
!he ripped the paper up angrily.
Nonse+ara&%e +hrasa% ver&s
L sub+ect L verb L particle ob+ect L.
Slowl6 we hea!e! into town. "e
slowl6 hea!e! into town. "e
hea!e! slowl6 into town. "e
hea!e! into town slowl6.
Three95or! +hrasa% ver&s
L sub+ect L verbH particleH ob+ect L.
;ventuall6 5 /re5 ot o. the sweater.
5 eventuall6 /re5 ot o. the sweater.
5 /re5 ot o. the sweater eventuall6.
Placing adverbs within three!word phrasal verbs is so2eti2es possible, but it can be proble2atic.
So2eti2es an adverb between the verb and &irst particle sounds acceptable and other ti2es it
does not. So2eti2es, an adverb placed
12%
between the two particles sounds acceptable, and other ti2es it will not. his is 2ore a
2atter o& st6le than o& what is correct or incorrect, so unless 6ou are sure it sounds
oka6, it is better not to place adverbs within three!word verbs.
Infinitive
present tense &ing form past tense past participle
come
come over < comes over coming over came over come over
($ co-e over EtoF p.v. "hen people 2ove &ro2 one side o& a place to the other, where 6ou
are, the6 co-e over or co-e over to where 6ou are.
Co-e over here and sa6 that again.
"hen he saw 2e, he i22ediatel6 ca-e over to 26 table and said hello.
"$ co-e over EtoF p.v. "hen people co2e to 6our house &or a visit, the6 co-e over or co-e
over to 6our house.
"ould 6ou like to co-e over tonightH
Ii2 co-es over to 26 house ever6 night.
*$ co-e over p.v. "hen people cross a river or cross the ocean &ro2 east to west or west to
east, the6 co-e over$
My grandparents came over from !weden in *L3H.
The ferry comes over to this side of the lake every day at D#23 ?.M.
fall apart
fall apart & falls apart falling apart fell apart fallen apart
($ .a%% a+art p.v. "hen the parts o& so2ething beco2e co2pletel6 separated because it is old or in
bad condition, it .a%%s a+art$
These old shoes are starting to fall apart.
There(s no way to fi0 this thing. It has completely fallen apart.
"$ .a%% a+art p.v. "hen a plan, arrange2ent, s6ste2, or agree2ent &ails, it .a%%s a+art$
'fter five difficult years, their marriage totally fell apart.
The peace agreement is slowly falling apart.
*$ .a%% a+art p.v. "hen people suddenl6 lose control and start laughing or beco2e ver6 upset
or e2otional, the6 .a%% a+art$
!ally fell apart when she heard the tragic news.
Tom was so funny at the party last night that I just fell apart laughing.
get back at
get back at & gets back at getting back at got back at gotten/got back at
($ /et &ac0 at p.v. "hen 6ou /et &ac0 at people, 6ou do so2ething bad to the2 because the6
have done so2ething bad to 6ou.
12'
)ohn won(t forget what you did to him. $e(ll definitely get back at you someday.
!he wants to get back at her e0&husband for the way he treated her.
#nfinitive
present tense -ing form past tense past participle
go about
go about & goes about going about went about gone about
($ /o a&ot p.v. "hen 6ou /o a&ot so2ething or /o a&ot doing so2ething, 6ou begin or continue to
&ollow all the steps necessar6 to do it.
; have no idea how to go about opening a restaurant. /veryday he Fuietly went about his business and
never caused any problems.
grow out of
grow out of & grows out of growing out of grew out of grown out of
($$/ro5 ot o. p.v. "hen people beco2e too tall or too big to wear an ite2 o& clothing, the6
/ro5 ot o. the ite2 o& clothing.
; bought !usie(s shoes one si6e too big, but she(s Fuickly growing out of them.
5o you want these clothes for your daughter1 Mine has grown out of them.
"$ /ro5 ot o. p.v. "hen people beco2e too 2ature &or a to6, &or an interest, or &or a &or2 o&
behavior, the6 have /ro5n ot o. it.
)udy had a big crush on a rock star when she was in high school, but after a while she grew out of it.
)im(s son is going through a difficult stage, but he(ll grow out of it in a couple of years.
head into head into & heads into heading into headed into headed into
($ hea! into p.v. "hen 6ou hea! into or are hea!e! into a place or area, 6ou begin to enter it.
; almost had an accident as I was heading into town.
.e scared away the bear, and it headed slowly into the woods.
)im was headed into 'shland when his car broke down.
rip up
rip up & rips up ripping up ripped up ripped up
($ ri+ $$$+ p.v. "hen 6ou tear paper or cloth into 2an6 pieces, 6ou ri+ it +$
"ancy was furious when she read Tom(s letter, and she angrily ripped it up. 'lways rip up a
check before you put it in the wastebasket.
ri++e! + part.ad+. /&ter a piece o& paper or cloth has been torn into 2an6 s2all piece, it is ri++e! +$
'fter the kids opened their >hristmas presents, the floor was covered with ripped up paper.
12(
5n&initive
present tense !ing &or2 past tense past particip
wear down
wear down P wears down wearing down wore down worn down
($ 5ear$$$ !o5n p.v. "hen so2ething 5ears !o5n or when so2eone 5ears so2ething
!o5n' the top or sur&ace graduall6 disappears because o& &riction.
The feet of thousands of visitors a year have worn down the marble steps.
The mechanic told me that my car(s brake pads have worn down badly and need to be replaced.
5orn !o5n part.ad+. /&ter the top or sur&ace o& so2ething has graduall6
disappeared because o& &riction, it is 5orn !o5n$
The marble steps are very old and worn down.
The tread on these tires is dangerously worn down.
"$ 5ear $$$ !o5n p.v. "hen people 5ear 6ou !o5n' the6 graduall6 persuade 6ou, through
persistent pressure, to change 6our 2ind about a decision.
$e wouldn(t tell me the answer, but little by little, I wore him down.
!he still will not give us permission, but I think we(re wearing her down.
ECERCISE (:a ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith +hrasa% ver&s .ro- this section$ Be
sre the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$
1. 5 waved to Ii2 when 5 saw hi2 across the street, and he MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM and talked to 2e.
2. his co2pan6 has been MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM since that idiot was 2ade the 2anager.
3. 8onBt leave the newspaper where the dog can get it. CeBll totall6MMMMMMMM it
#. "e need a lot o& things &ro2 the super2arket. "hen are 6ou MMMMMMM MMMMMMMMM townH
%. Iake told the boss 5 was drinking on the +ob, and 5 got &ired, but 5 MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM
Iake > 5 told his wi&e about his girl&riend.
'. 8uring the /2erican -evolution, the 3rench &leet MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM and helped the /2ericans
&ight the =ritish.
128
(. he heels on 26 boots have MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM badl6, and 5 need to get the2 replaced.
8. $an 6ou help 2e get hooked up to the 5nternetH 5 have no idea how to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMMit.
,. 8onBt spend a lot o& 2one6 on bab6 clothes > sheBll MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM the2 in a &ew
weeks.
11. 5 need a new car. his piece o& +unk is MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM.
11. Sall6 asks her parents &or a pon6 about a hundred ti2es a da6. SheBs tr6ing to MMMMMMMM the2
MMMMMMMM.
12. "hen his wi&e said she wanted a divorce, he +ust MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM.
13. 5& 6ouBre not bus6 tonight, would 6ou like to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM and watch VH
1#. 76 &our!6ear!old son thinks itBs reall6 &unn6 to sa6 bad words. 5 hope he MMMMMMMM
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMit.
ECERCISE (:& ; Re5rite these sentences an! +%ace the a!ver& in +arentheses in t5o +ossi&%e
+ositions$
1. E&re.uentl6F 7s. a6lor co2es over.
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
2. Eso2eti2esF hese cheap to6s &all apart.
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
3. Enervousl6F Ce went about 2aking the bo2b.
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
12,
#. Eeventuall6F Sall6 will grow out o& her childish behavior
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
%. Ereluctantl6F Ii2 headed into the swa2p.
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
'. Esuddenl6F Pat upped up 7ikeBs letter.
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
(. EsoonF 3rank will getback at odd.
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
8. Egraduall6F Ce wore down 26 resistance.
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
ECERCISE (:c ; =rite ans5ers to the >estions sin/ +hrasa% ver&s an!
+artici+%e a!,ectives .ro- this section$ Be sre the +hrasa% ver&s are in the
correct tense$
1. he contract was torn into 2an6 s2all pieces. "hat was done to the contractH
2. 5n Ouestion 1, how would 6ou describe the contractH
3. Cer plan is not working properl6, and thereBs a lot o& con&usion. "hat is happening to her
planH
131
#. 76 &riends visited 2e last night. "hat did 26 &riends do last nightH
%. 7ike doesnBt know an6thing about appl6ing &or a 2ortgage. "hat doesnBt he knowH
'. o2orrow weBre going to drive &ro2 the countr6 to the cit6. "hat are we going to do to2orrowH
(. "hen Iud6 was a teenager, she was ver6 sh6, but sheBs not sh6 an62ore. "hat did she do to her
sh6nessH
8. he old lionBs teeth are not as sharp or as long as the6 used to be."hat has happened to the2H
,. 5n Ouestion 8, how would 6ou describe the lionBs teethH
11. 5 did so2ething bad to 26 brother, and now he has done so2ething bad to 2e. "hat has 26
brother done to 2eH
11. he Vikings crossed the ocean be&ore $olu2bus. "hat did the Vikings do be&ore $olu2busH
12. he teacher walked across the roo2 and looked at 6our paper. "hat did the teacher doH
13. Ii2 beca2e ver6 sad and lost control when he heard that his brother had died. "hat did Ii2
doH
1#. his sweater will be too s2all &or 26 daughter soon."hat will 26 daughter do to the sweater
soonH
1%. he pages are co2ing out o& this old book. "hat is the book doingH
1'. he police are pressuring the suspect to tell the truth. "hat are the police tr6ing to do to the
suspectH
ECERCISE (:!' Revie5 ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith these +hrasa% ver&s .ro-
+revios sections$ Be sre the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$ To chec0 their
-eanin/s' revie5 the section n-&er /iven a.ter each one$
boil down to, ' &ight back, 8 hear o&, 8
chicken out o&, , &ind out, % kick back, 11
co2e down with, ' get along, , 2onke6 around with, '
co2e up, 12 go ahead,11 set up, %
&all over, 8 go through with, ' work in, 8
131
1. 5 donBt know when the train to =oston leaves. 5Bll ask the ticket agent and MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMMM.
2. 5 donBt like our neighbors, and the6 donBt like 2e. "e donBtMMMMMMM MMMMMMMMM.
3. Iulia was nervous about bleaching her hair blond, and she decided not to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMM
MMMMMMMMMit.
#. Sarah was nervous about bleaching her hair blond, and she MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMMit.
%. he a2bassador will tr6 to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM a 2eeting between the president and the rebel
leader.
'. "e have a reall6 bus6 da6 planned, but 5Bd like to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM a visit to the 2useu2.
(. 5& so2eone hits 6ou, 6ou have toMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM.
8. 5 2issed a week o& work when 5 MMMMMM MMMMMM MMMMMM 4er2an 2easles.
,. Caving a 2echanic &i< 26 car will cost a lot o& 2one6, so 5Bll MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM it to
see i& 5 can &i< it 26sel&.
11. he owner o& the construction co2pan6 was MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM thousands o& dollars to the
2a6or.
11. /re 6ou kiddingH hatBs the 2ost ridiculous thing 5Bve ever MMMMMMM MMMMMMMM.
12. he countr6Bs econo2ic proble2s are ver6 co2plicated. $an 6ou tell 2e what it MMMMMMM
MMMMMMMMMM MMMMMMMH
13. 5B2 sorr6 5 have to cancel our lunch date, but so2ething ver6 i2portant has MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM,
and 5 have to return to 26 o&&ice i22ediatel6.
1#. /&ter the car hit the telephone pole, the pole MMMMM MMMMM and crushed the car.
1%. 5 was so angr6 at 26 boss that 5 told hi2 5 was going to .uit, and he said,@MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM, 5
donBt care:@
132
(#$ FOCUS ON< +hrasa% ver&s an! can, could,
will, an! would
%an, could, !ill, and !ould are modal au&iliary verbs, o&ten called models. 7odals
are ver6 i2portant in ;nglish, but the6 can be con&using because the6 are used
to sa6 2an6 di&&erent things. Cere is a basic review o& can, could, !ill, and
!ould and their 2ost co22on uses.
$ould is used as the past tense o& canG
5 canBt co-e over tonight.
5 couldnBt co-e over last night.
"ould is used as the past tense o& will Ethe &uture use o& will has alread6 been discussed in
Section 1%F to talk about so2ething that was &uture in the pastG
; didn(t buy that nice coat for my son because I knew he would Fuickly grow out of it.
"ould is used in place o& will when repeating so2eone elseBs wordsG
She said she would /et ne<t 3rida6 o..$
"ould is used as the past tense o& will to talk about a repeated past actionG
"hen 5 worked as a bank guard, 5 would stan! aron! all da6 doing nothing.
Nor2all6, can, could, will, and would have di&&erent uses, and it is i2portant to use the
correct one? however, in one special case > 2aking re.uests > the6 can be used with
ver6 little di&&erence in 2eaningG
>an you get off the couch1
>ould you get off the couch 1
.ill you get off the couch1
.ould you get off the couch1
$an and could are used, with little di&&erence in 2eaning, to ask &or per2issionG
>an I think about it before I make a decision1
>ould I think about it before I make a decision1
$an, could, will, and would are used in conditional sentences. $onditional 2eans that a
condition, usuall6 stated in an i& clause, 2ust be satis&ied &or the 2ain clause to be true.
"hen the condition is so2ething that is actuall6 possible, the verb in the i& clause is
nor2all6 in the present tense. 5& the condition in the i& clause is so2ething that could not
actuall6 be true, the past tense &or2 o& the verb is used.
"hen the condition in the i& clause is so2ething that is actuall6 possible, can is used in the 2ain
clause to discuss a real abilit6G
5& 5 have a car, 5 can co-e over$
133
"hen the condition in the i& clause is so2ething that is actuall6 possible, will is used in the
2ain clause to discuss a real willingness or intentionG
5& 5 have a car, 5 will co-e over$
"hen the condition in the i& clause is not so2ething that is actuall6 possible, could is used
in the 2ain clause to discuss an unreal or i2aginar6 abilit6G
If I had a car, I could come over.
"hen the condition in the i& clause is not so2ething that is actuall6 possible, would is
used in the 2ain clause to discuss an unreal or i2aginar6 willingness or intentionG
5& 5 had a car, 5 would co-e over$
;ither the i& clause or 2ain clause can occur &irst in a sentence, with a slight change in
punctuationG
5& 5 had a car, 5 would co-e over$ 5
would co-e over i& 5 had a car.
#nfinitive
present tense -ing form past tense past participle
breakthrough
breakthrough & breaks through breaking through broke through broken through
($ &rea0thro/h p.v. "hen 6ou use &orce to go through a wall or other barrier, 6ou &rea0
thro/h it.
The thieves broke through the wall of the jewelry store.
The attackers couldn(t break through the thick walls of the fort.
"$ &rea0thro/h p.v. "hen 6ou cannot do so2ething because o& a proble2 and 6ou &ind a
wa6 to solve or eli2inate the proble2, 6ou &rea0thro/h$
'fter the problem of tissue rejection is broken through organ transplants will become more common.
It took three days of negotiation, but we finally broke through the deadlock.
&rea0thro/h n. /n i2portant discover6 or develop2ent that solves or eli2inates a proble2
that is preventing 6ou &ro2 doing so2ething is a &rea0thro/h$
5r. .ood announced an important breakthrough in the search for a cure for 'I5!.
figure on
figure on & figures on figuring on figured on figured on
($ .i/re on p.v. "hen 6ou .i/re on so2ething, 6ou e<pect it or plan &or it.
; didn(t figure on such cold weather. I wish I(d brought a coat.
8ou can figure on spending a least hundred bucks if you(re going to that restaurant.
13#
Infinitive past participle
present tense &ing form past tense
get off
get off < gets off getting off got off gotten;got off
($ /et o.. p.v. "hen 6ou /et o.. a bus, airplane, or train, 6ou leave it.
The bus stopped and I got off.
8ou can(t get off the train while it(s moving.
"$ /et o.. p.v. "hen 6ou are standing, l6ing, or sitting on so2ething, such as a horse, bic6cle, 2otorc6cle,
stage, plat&or2, or piece o& &urniture, and 6ou step down &ro2 it onto the ground, 6ou /et o.. it.
8ou(re so la6y. .hy don(t you get off the couch and help me1 /et off your bicycle
and come inside.
*$ /et o.. p.v. "hen 6ou are standing within an area o& ground, or on so2ething that covers an area o&
ground, and 6ou 2ove to the side o& it and step o&& o& it, 6ou /et o.. it.
The referee told the player to get off the field. 8ou(re standing on our
beach blanket get off itE
6$ /et$$$ o.. p.v. "hen 6ou /et so2ething o..' 6ou re2ove it even though it 2a6 be di&&icult.
; can(t get this paint off my hands. The top of this bottle is on so tight I
cannot get it off.
7$ /et$$$ o.. p.v. "hen 6ou /et a certain period o& ti2e o..' 6ou are allowed b6 6our e2plo6er to 2iss work
during this period.
?regnant women usually get three months off with pay. >ould I get tomorrow
morning off to go to the doctor1
8$ /et o.. p.v. "hen 6ou /et o..' or /et o.. work, 6ou &inish that da6Bs work and leave 6our place o&
e2plo62ent.
!ally said she wouldn(t get off work until J#33. I haven(t gotten off
early all week.
:$ /et$$$ o.. p.v. "hen 6ou do so2ething wrong but are not punished, or 6ou are punished
onl6 lightl6 &or it, 6ou /et o..$ So2eone who helps 6ou to avoid punish2ent /ets 6ou o..$
$e killed four people, but he got off with only three years in jail. If his lawyer
hadn(t been so incompetent, he would have gotten him off with a lighter
sentence.
#$ /et o.. p.v. "hen 6ou stop talking on the telephone, 6ou /et o.. the telephone.
/et off the phone I need to use itE It(s late, we(d better get off the phone.
*2D
Infinitive
present tense &ing form past tense past participle
go be%ond
go beyond < goes beyond going beyond went beyond gone beyond
($ /o &e3on! p.v. "hen people or things are better or worse, or do so2ething in a better or worse
wa6 than is nor2al or e<pected, the6 /o &e3on! what is nor2al or e<pected.
5id you say )ackson(s new book is good1 I think it goes be%ond good it(s fantasticE !am(s wife discovered
that he wasn(t just friends with his secretary@ their relationship went way be%ond friendship.
lift upon
lift up & lifts up lifting up lifted up lifted up
($ %i.t$$$ + p.v. "hen 6ou %i.t + so2ething, 6ou use 6our hands to raise it above the sur&ace that
it was on.
That rock is too heavy I can(t lift it up. 1ift up the cover
and look in the bo0.
line up
line up & lines up lining up lined up lined up
($ %ine$$$ + p.v. "hen people or things &or2 a row, the6 %ine +$ "hen 6ou arrange people or
things so that the6 &or2 a row, 6ou %ine the2 +$
?eople lined up to buy !uperbowl tickets. Timmy is lining
his toy cars up.
%ine! + part.ad+. People or things that &or2 a row are %ine! +$
?eople have been lined up outside the bo0 office for three days. The children are
lined up for attendance.
"$ %ine$$$ + p.v. "hen so2ething %ines + with so2ething else, or when 6ou %ine + so2ething
with so2ething else, it is positioned correctl6 in relation to so2ething else.
If this bolt doesn(t line up with that hole, the lock won(t work. The holes in part ' have to line up with the holes in
part A before you screw them together.
*$ %ine$$$ + p.v. "hen 6ou arrange &or so2eone or so2ething to be available at a &uture activit6
or event, 6ou %ine that thing or person +$
; couldn(t line a clown up for !usie(s birthday party. .ho have they
lined up for the show1
%ine! + part.ad+. So2eone or so2ething that 6ou have arranged to be available &or a &uture
activit6 or event is %ine! +$
5on(t worry about the show@ everything is lined up.
The singer is lined up but the band isn(t.
*2J
%ine+ n. he people or things planned &or an event are the %ine+$
The network has planned Fuite a lineup of entertainers for the half&time special. There(s always a
trape6e act in the circus lineup.
Infinitive
present tense &ing form past tense past participle
stand around
stand around < stands around standing around stood around stood around
($ stan! aron! p.v. "hen 6ou stan! aron!' 3o stand in a place wasting ti2e and not doing
an6thing use&ul.
; have all this work to do, and you guys just stand around watching me. The manager told them
to stop standing around and get to work.
tell apart
tell apart & tells apart telling apart told apart told apart
($ te%%$$$ a+art p.v. "hen it is possible to see how two si2ilar things are di&&erent, 6ou can te%% the2
a+art$
The twins are identical@ no one can tell them apart. 'll the puppies look the same, and I have a
hard time telling them apart.
ECERCISE (#a ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith +hrasa% ver&s .ro- this section$ Be sre the
+hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$
1. $ould 6ou MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM the phoneH 5 want to 2ake an i2portant call.
2. Neither side would give an inch. here was no wa6 to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM the stale2ate.
3. 5& 6ou put this &ake -ole< watch ne<t to a real one, 6ou can MMMMMMMM the2 MMMMMMMM easil6.
#. Ii2 wanted to go to a 2ovie tonight, but 5 told hi2 5 wouldnBt MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM work until late.
%. 5& the holes donBt MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM, the screws wonBt go in.
'. here werenBt an6 chairs at the part6, so we +ust MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM talking.
(. 5 told 3rank that his drinking proble2 isnBt +ust hurting hi2? it MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM that > itBs hurting his
&a2il6, too.
8. he law6er was sure he could MMMMMM hi2 MMMMMM with onl6 two 6ears in prison.
,. "hen 5 took this +ob a&ter 5 &inished high school, 5 never MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM spending thirt6!&ive 6ears
here.
13(
11. 7other was the last one to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM the airplane.
11. =ob MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM ever6thing in his cabinet so that itBs eas6 to &ind what heBs looking &or.
12. )6dia told 2e she would tr6 to MMMMMMMM three weeks MMMMMMMM so we can go on vacation.
13. here were police barricades around the palace, but so2e o& the protesters MMMMMMMM MMMMMMM.
1#. $hildren, stop +u2ping on the bed with 6our dirt6 shoes. MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM right now:
1%. $an 6ou MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM the V while 5 put the V$- under itH
1'. So2e $8s co2e wrapped in plastic thatBs al2ost i2possible to MMMMMM MMMMMMM.
1(. 5 couldnBt MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM a 2agician &or the birthda6 part6.
18. MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM the carpet. 5 +ust sha2pooed it.
ECERCISE (#& ; =rite ans5ers to the >estions sin/ +hrasa% ver&s an! +artici+%e
a!,ectives .ro- this section$ Be sre the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$
1. Paul said he would re2ove his cat &ro2 the table. "hat did Paul sa6H
2. 5 canBt see an6 di&&erence between the original and the cop6. "hat canBt 5 doH
3. ;rik canBt raise the bo< o& books because itBs too heav6. "hat canBt ;rik doH
#. =ill said he hadnBt e<pected snow in 7a6. "hat did =ill sa6H
%. Nanc6 arranged &or a great band to pla6 at the pro2 ne<t week. "hat did Nanc6 doH
'. 5n Ouestion %, how would 6ou describe the bandH
(. Ierr6 thought the proble2 with his car is that it needs a tune!up, but the 2echanic said itBs worse
than that. "hat did the 2echanic sa6H
8. he soldiers s2ashed a hole in the wall and entered the cit6. "hat did the soldiers do to the wallH
,. $arlos stops working at %G11 ever6da6. "hat does $arlos do at %G11 ever6da6H
138
11. Aou were arrested &or drunken driving, but the +udge gave 6ou onl6 a warning. "hat did 6ou doH
11. he teacher 2oved all the desks in his classroo2 so that the6 were in straight rows. "hat did the
teacher doH
12. 5n Ouestion 11, how would 6ou describe the desksH
13. She asked 2e i& 5 would stop talking on the telephone. "hat did she sa6H
1#. 5 stood at the bus stop &or an hour waiting &or the bus. "hat did 5 do &or an hourH
1%. he personnel 2anager at 26 new +ob said 5 wouldnBt have to work on Sunda6s. "hat did the
personnel 2anager sa6H
1'. "hen 6ou put a doorknob on a door, the two sides have to be directl6 across &ro2 each other. Cow do
the two sides have to beH
1(. Sa2 stepped &ro2 the train. "hat did Sa2 doH
18. 7arkBs &ather told hi2 to 2ove &ro2 the grass to the sidewalk. "hat did 7arkBs &ather tell 7arkH
ECERCISE (#c ; Co-+%ete these sentences' sin/ 3or o5n 5or!s' 5ith +hrasa% ver&s .ro-
this section or +revios sections$
1. )ast week, he couldnBtMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM.
2. "hen 5 was 6ounger, 5 could MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM.
3. CeBll MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM.
#. "hen 5 MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM, 5 would MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM.
%. $ould 6ouMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMH
'. "ould 6ou MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMH
(. $an 5 MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMH
8. $ould 5 MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMH
13,
ECERCISE (#!' Revie5 ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith these +hrasa% ver&s .ro-
+revios sections$ Be sre the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$ To chec0
their -eanin/s' revie5 the section n-&er /iven a.ter each one$
believe in, 1' go along with, 3 hold o&&, 1'
carr6 on, 1' go &or, 1' put past, 1'
co2e over, 1( go with, 1% tell on, 1%
co2e through, 1% grow out o&, 1( think about, 1'
count on, 1' head back, 1%
get through,1' head &or, 1%
1. 5 suggested that we go to Paris, and she reall6 MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM the idea.
2. /&ter 5 MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM it, 5 decided not to take the +ob.
3. 5 MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM bu6ing a new co2puter because 5 thought the6 would be on sale in Ianuar6.
#. 8o 6ou think this 6ellow tie MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM this blue shirtH
%. Cer uncle pro2ised to pa6 &or her wedding, and he MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM.
'. 5tBs ver6 i2portant that 6ou do this work correctl6. 5B2 MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM 6ou.
(. i226 broke a window, and his sister MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM hi2.
8. he detective asked 2e i& Iake had robbed the li.uor store, and 5 said 5 didnBt know but that 5
wouldnBt MMMMMMMM it MMMMMMMM hi2.
,. odd said he would MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM to 26 house a&ter dinner and help 2e with 26 ho2ework.
11. he reason $harles is vice!president o& the co2pan6 is that heMMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM the
boss on ever6 decision.
11. o2orrow 5B2 going to leave "innipeg and MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMMoronto.
12. 5 probabl6 wonBt MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM to "innipeg &or a 2onth or 2ore.
13. 5 didnBt get Sall6 what she wanted &or her birthda6, and she MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM about it all da6.
1#. Aou have so 2uch work to do. "hen do 6ou think 6ouBll MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMMH
1#1
1%. 5 bought these pants &or 26 son a 2onth ago, and heBs MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM the2 alread6.
1'. Ned didnBtMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM03*s until he saw one.
(D$ FOCUS ON< +hrasa% ver&s an! the a!ver& right
he adverb right is o&ten used to intensi&6 the 2eaning o& a phrasal verb. Placed be&ore the
particle, right 2eans directly, immediately, or quicly. 5t is not i2portant whether the
phrasal verb is intransitive, separable, or nonseparable. "hat does 2atter is whether the
action o& the verb is so2ething that can logicall6 be done directl6, i22ediatel6, or .uickl6.
3or e<a2ple, it would be illogical to use right with stand around, or !ear do!n:
'he aimed right at me. EShe ai-e! directl6 at 2e.F
#(ll bring it right over. E5Bll &rin/ it over i22ediatel6.F
)he room warmed right up. Ehe roo2 5ar-e! + .uickl6.F
*ight can be used when a separable phrasal verb is separated b6 its ob+ect? however,
right cannot be used when the ob+ect &ollows the particleG
He brought my radio right back. Ho
brought right back my radio.
In.initive
+resent tense 9in/ .or- +ast tense +ast +artici+%e
aim at
ai- at B ai-s at ai-in/ at ai-e! at ai-e! at
($ ai- $$$ at p.v. "hen 6ou point a weapon at people or things, 6ou ai- it at the2.
The robber aimed the gun right at my head.
$e was aiming the arrow at the apple, but he missed.
"$ ai- at p.v. "hen 6ou ai- at so2ething 6ou want, 6ou do what is necessar6 to get it.
The manager said she was aiming at a *H percent increase in sales ne0t year.
The new taw is aimed at reducing crime in the streets.
*$ ai- $$$ at p.v. "hen 6ou do so2ething designed to a&&ect one class or t6pe o& people, 6ou ai- it at those
people.
>igarette manufacturers were accused of aiming their advertising at young people.
The candidate(s speech was aimed at female voters.
1#1
Infinitive
present tense &ing form past tense past participle
bring back
bring back < brings back bringing back brought back brought back
($ &rin/$$$ &ac0 p.v. "hen 6ou take so2ething to another place and then bring it &ro2 that
place to the place where 6ou were be&ore, 6ou &rin/ it &ac0$
; told Tom to bring my pen right back.
!ally borrowed my blue sweater and brought it back yesterday.
"$ &rin/$$$ &ac0 p.v. "hen so2ething that was popular or current in the past is introduced
again, it is &ro/ht &ac0$
Many schools are bringing back uniforms for children.
/very few years designers try to bring miniskirts back.
*$ &rin/$$$ &ac0 p.v. "hen so2ething causes 6ou to recall 2e2ories and e2otions &ro2 the
past, it &rin/s the 2e2ories and e2otions &ac0$
Gooking at these old pictures brought back wonderful memories.
I had tried to forget that awful incident, but this maga6ine article has brought it all back.
bring over
bring over & brings over bringing over brought over brought over
($ &rin/$$$ over p.v. "hen people take so2ething &ro2 one place to the place where 6ou are,
the6 &rin/ it over$
; called Frank to ask if I could use his electric drill, and he brought it right over.
Ginda is going to bring her wedding pictures over tonight.
cool off
cool off & cools off cooling off cooled off cooled off
($ coo% o.. p.v. "hen the te2perature o& a thing or place beco2es lower, it coo%s o..$
It was really hot yesterday, but it cooled off in the evening.
This is too hot I(ll eat it after it cools off.
"$ coo%$$$ o.. p.v. "hen people or things cause a thing or place to beco2e cooler, the6 coo%
it o..$
The coffee was really hot, but he put an ice cube in it and it cooled right off.
This bath is too hot. ?ut more cold water in it to cool it off.
*$ coo% o.. p.v. "hen 6ou beco2e less angr6 or less e<cited, 6ou coo% o..$
$e(s furious now, but he(ll cool off by morning.
Their passion for each other has cooled off.
1#2
Infinitive
present tense &ing form past tense past participle
go back
go back < goes back going back went back gone back
($ /o &ac0 EtoF p.v. "hen 6ou return to a place where 6ou were be&ore, 6ou /o &ac0 or /o &ac0 to that
place.
That restaurant was terrible. .e(ll never go back.
5orothy left the /merald >ity and went back to 9ansas.
"$ /o &ac0 EtoF p.v. "hen a condition, proble2, practice, or custo2 /oes &ac0 to a
certain ti2e, it began at that ti2e.
The tradition of saluting in the military goes back to the Middle 'ges.
$is drug problem goes back to his college years.
*$ /o &ac0 EtoF p.v. "hen 6ou are discussing the age o& so2ething, 6ou /o &ac0 or /o &ac0 to when it
was created or started.
This table is very valuable. #t goes back to the *MJ3s.
The archeologist found ruins that go back D,333 years.
hand over
hand over & hands over handing over handed over handed over
($ han! $$$over EtoF p.v. "hen 6ou give so2ething to people because the6 de2and it, because the6
re.uire it, or because 6ou are not its right&ul owner, 6ou han! it over or han! it over to the2. Trn
over is si2ilar to han! over$
; found some money in the street, and I handed it over to the police.
That(s my calculator hand it right over!
han!over n. "hen 6ou trans&er ownership or control o& so2ething to so2eone because that person
has de2anded it or because 6ou are not its right&ul owner, a han!over takes place.
The >hinese celebrated Aritain(s handover of $ong 9ong. The ?resident demanded the immediate
handover of the occupied territory.
"$ han! $$$over p.v. "hen 6ou give so2eone responsibilit6 &or an i2portant pro+ect, dut6, or
proble2, 6ou han! that pro+ect, dut6, or proble2 over or han! it over to so2eone.
Mr. .ilson retired and handed control of the company over to his son.
The TV news anchor handed the show over to the reporter at the .hite $ouse.
pull over
pull over & pulls over pulling over pulled over pulled over
($ +%%$$$ over p.v. "hen 6ou are driving and then 2ove 6our vehicle to the side o& the road, reduce 6our
speed, and then stop, 6ou +%% over or +%% 6our vehicle over$
/ pulled over to fi0 a flat tire. .e(re lost.
Get(s pull the car over and ask someone for directions.
*H2
"$ +%%$$$ over p.v. "hen 6ou are driving and a police o&&icer signals 6ou to 2ove 6our
vehicle to the side o& the road, reduce 6our speed, and stop, the police o&&icer +%%s 6ou
over or +%%s the vehicle over$
)im was driving on the wrong side of the road, and he got pulled over by the state police.
.hen the police officer saw the driver go through a red light, he pulled the car right over.
In&initive
present tense !ing &or2 past tense past participle
warm up
war2 up P war2s up war2ing up war2ed up war2ed up
($ 5ar- + p.v. "hen the te2perature o& a thing or place beco2es higher, it 5ar-s +$
It(s cold outside. I hope it warms up before the picnic.
I set the thermostat at eighty degrees, and the house warmed right up.
"$ 5ar-$$$ + p.v. "hen people or things cause a thing or place to beco2e war2er, the6 5ar- it
+$
The fireplace doesn(t really warm the house up much.
That soup is cold. 8ou can warm it up in the microwave.
5ar-e! + part.ad+. /&ter a thing or place has beco2e war2er, it is 5ar-e! +$
4ive the bab6 the bottle with the &lowers on it? itBs 5ar-e! +$
*$ 5ar-$$$ + p.v. "hen 6ou allow a 2echanical device to run &or a short ti2e be&ore being used,
6ou 5ar- it +$ "hen a 2echanical device runs &or a short ti2e be&ore being used, it 5ar-s
+$
8ou should always warm your car up for a few minutes before you go anywhere.
In the winter I always let my car warm up while I eat breakfast.
5ar-e! + part.ad+. /&ter a 2echanical device has been allowed to 5ar- + and is read6 to be
used, it is 5ar-e! +$
.e have to go is the car warmed up yet1
6$ 5ar- + p.v. "hen 6ou do light e<ercises be&ore pla6ing a sport or e<ercising with greater
e&&ort, 6ou 5ar- +$ "hen per&or2ers pla6 2usical instru2ents or sing +ust be&ore a
per&or2ance in order to be read6, the6 5ar- +$
Aefore a race most runners warm up with stretching e0ercises.
The singer warmed up in her dressing room before the concert.
5ar-9+ n. )ight e<ercises done be&ore pla6ing a sport or e<ercising with greater e&&ort are called
a 5ar-9+$ "hen a per&or2er pla6s an instru2ent or sings +ust be&ore a per&or2ance in order
to be read6, this is a 5ar-9+$
The runners got to the stadium early so they would have time for a warm-up.
1##
5ar-9+ n$ =ar-9+ clothes are worn during a 5ar-9+$ =ar-9+ e<ercises are done be&ore
pla6ing a sport or e<ercising. / 5ar-9+ ga2e, round, and so on, is pla6ed in order to 5ar- + &or
the actual ga2e.
The baseball players wore their warm-up jackets when they weren(t on the field.
ECERCISE (Da ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith +hrasa% ver&s .ro- this section$ Be sre the
+hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$
1. he piDDa was cold, so 5 put it in the 2icrowave to MMMMMMMM it MMMMMMMM.
2. 76 car was 2aking a strange noise, so 5 MMMMMMM MMMMMMM to look at the engine.
3. $an 5 use 6our lawn 2owerH 5Bll MMMMMMMM it MMMMMMMM to2orrow.
#. Ii2 alwa6s puts 2ilk in his co&&ee to MMMMMMMM it MMMMMMMM.
%. he roots o& the trouble in the 7iddle ;astMMMMMMMMMMMMMMthousands o& 6ears.
'. he new police chie& said that he thinks that abolishing capital punish2ent was a 2istake and that it
should be MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM.
(. he +udge ordered the thieves to MMMMM MMMMM the stolen 2erchandise i22ediatel6.
8. Cearing 0ncle IohnBs stories about the old countr6 MMMMM MMMMM a lot o& 2e2ories.
,. "ith this new antipollution law weBre MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM reducing the a2ount o& pollution b6 %1
percent in ten 6ears.
11. 5 asked Iud6 i& 5 could use her video ca2era, and she said she wouldMMMMMMMMit right MMMMMMM.
11. he 2echanic reco22ended letting the car MMMMMM MMMMMM be&ore driving it.
12. he robber changed his 2ind when he saw the guard MMMMMMMM his shotgun right MMMMMMMM hi2.
13. he local police chie&MMMMMMMMthe investigation MMMMMMMMto the 3=5 agents.
1#. Aour &atherBs angr6 right now. alk to hi2 about 6our 2iserable report card a&ter heBs MMMMMMM
MMMMMMM.
1%. he changes at the &actor6 are MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM reducing costs and increasing pro&its.
1'. he 26ster6 o& the P6ra2ids MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM nearl6 %,111 6ears.
1(. he coach alwa6s 2akes the pla6ers MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM be&ore the ga2e.
18. /&ter lunch Ierr6 MMMMMMMM right MMMMMMMMto work.
1#%
1,. his co&&ee is too hot. 5 canBt drink it until it MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM.
21. 5 was MMMMMM MMMMMM b6 the sheri&& &or going eight6 2iles per hour in a school Done.
21. 5tBs cold now, but itBll MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM b6 noon.
ECERCISE (D& ; =rite three sentences sin/ the o&,ects in +arentheses$ Be
sre to +t the o&,ects in the ri/ht +%ace$
1. $ould 6ou bring back. E26 tool kit, itF
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
2. 5Bll bring over. E6our tool kit, itF
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
3. he air conditioner .uickl6 cooled o&&. E26 apart2ent, itF
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
#. odd handed over. Ehis wallet, itF
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
%. he sheri&& pulled over. Ethe suspects, the2F
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
'. he drivers are war2ing up. Etheir trucks, the2F
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
1#'
ECERCISE (Dc ; =rite ans5ers to the >estions sin/ +hrasa% ver&s .ro- this
section$ Be sre the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$ Re+%ace the
n!er%ine! a!ver&s 5ith ri/ht$ Re-e-&er that ri/ht can &e se! on%3 5hen the
ver& an! the +artic%e are se+arate!$
1. he6 lit a &ire, and the cabin beca2e war2 .uickl6. "hat did the cabin doH
2. Aou will return to work i22ediatel6. "hat will 6ou doH
3. /&ter the sun set, the back6ard beca2e cooler .uickl6. "hat did the back6ard doH
#. 5& 5 saw the &lashing lights o& the police car, 5 would slow 26 car and stop at the side o& the road
i22ediatel6. "hat would 5 doH
%. Sergeant Iones pointed his ri&le directl6 at the ene26 soldier. "hat did Sergeant Iones doH
'. She told 2e to return her dictionar6 i22ediatel6. "hat did she sa6H
(. )indaBs &ather told her to give hi2 his credit card i22ediatel6. "hat did )indaBs &ather tell her to
doH
8. 5 called )6dia and told her 5 needed 2edicine &or 26 son, and she took the 2edicine &ro2 her
house to 26 house i22ediatel6. "hat did )6dia do to the 2edicineH
ECERCISE (D!' Revie5 ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith these +hrasa% ver&s .ro-
+revios sections$ Be sre the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$ To chec0
their -eanin/s' revie5 the section n-&er /iven a.ter each one$
back o&&, 12 go be6ond, 18 stand around, 18
break through, 18 head into, 1( tell apart, 18
co2e across, 12 hit on, 13 track down, 13
co2e up with, ' let o&&, 13 wind up, 1#
&all through, 12 li&t up, 18
&igure on, 18 put up, 12
1. he prisoners MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM the wall o& the prison and escaped.
2. 5t was eas6 &or the2 to escape because the guards had been MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM s2oking cigarettes.
1#(
3. he warden wasnBt +ust upset with the guards > the proble2 MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM that.
#. he guards used dogs to MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM one o& the escaped prisoners the
ne<t da6.
%. he other prisoner MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM so2e dense &orest.
'. he prisoner tried to steal a 2anBs car, but when he saw the 2anBs large dog, he MMMMMMMM
MMMMMMMM.
(. he police had a 2eeting to tr6 to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM a wa6 to capture the prisoner.
8. he6 &inall6 MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM the idea o& using a helicopter.
,. he helicopter plan MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM because the weather was so bad.
11. he police thought the prisoner would probabl6 MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM at his &a2il6Bs house.
11. he prisoner has a twin brother, and the police couldnBt MMMMMMM the2 MMMMMMM.
12. hat was one proble2 the police didnBt MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM.
13. *ne police o&&icer walked behind the house and MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM so2e garbage cans.
1#. Ce heard a noise &ro2 the garbage can, so he MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMthe top and saw the prisoner.
1%. he prisoner MMMMMMM MMMMMMM a &ight, but the police were able to capture hi2.
1'. =oth prisoners were charged with escaping &ro2 prison, but the +udge MMMMMMMM the2 MMMMMMMM
with a warning.
1#8
")$ FOCUS ON< +hrasa% ver&s .o%%o5e! &3 the -ing
.or-
So2e phrasal verbs can be &ollowed b6 the !ing &or2 o& verbsG
$e ended up staying home.
!he lies around doing, nothing.
he !ing &or2 can be negativeG
$e ended up not going anywhere.
!he lies around not doing anything.
Nouns and pronouns can co2e between the phrasal verb and the !ing &or2G
The doctor went around the hospital visiting his patients.
)im hangs around )anice hoping she(ll fall in love with him.
Prepositional phrases can co2e between the phrasal verb and the !ing &or2G
My luggage ended up on the wrong flight going to the wrong city.
I started out at the bottom working in the mailroom.
*ther adverbs and adverbial e<pressions can co2e between the phrasal verb and the
!ing &or2G
Aill goes around constantly looking for bargains.
!he sta%ed up late watching TV.
# went around all day not knowing I had spinach in my teeth.
$e ended up here asking for money.
(nfinitive
present tense )ing form past tense past participle
end up
end up * ends up ending up ended up ended up
($ en! + p.v. "hen people en! + doing so2ething or en! + a certain wa6, it is the result o& a
series o& decisions, actions, or unplanned and une<pected occurrences. En! + is si2ilar to
5in! +$
' hurricane was approaching Florida, so we ended up coming home from our vacation early.
)udy has never gone skydiving before, so she(ll probably end up in the hospital with two broken legs.
"$ en! + p.v. "hen people or things en! + in a place, this place is where their +ourne6 ends
even though the outco2e 2a6 have been unplanned or une<pected.
$ow did Gondon Aridge end up in 'ri6ona1
The ta0i driver didn(t understand me, and we ended up in "ewark instead of "ew 8ork.
*HL
#nfinitive
present tense -ing form past tense past participle
go around
go around & goes around going around gone around gone around
($ /o aron! p.v. "hen people or things &ollow a circular path and return to the sa2e place, the6
/o aron!$
The horse has gone around the track three times.
It took seven days to go around the island.
"$ /o aron! p.v. "hen people or things &ollow an indirect or curved path in order to avoid an
obstacle or to change direction, the6 /o aron! or /o aron! the
obstacle.
$eather went around the curve too fast, and she ended up in the ditch.
There was some broken glass in the street, but I went around it.
*$ /o aron! p.v. "hen an ob+ect spins or turns, it /oes aron!$
The disk drives in computers go around very fast.
The children have to stay on the merry&go&round until it stops going around.
6$ /o aron! p.v. "hen 6ou /o aron! a place, 6ou visit various parts o& it.
The president went around the state giving the same speech at every stop.
The e0terminator is going around the house looking for rats.
7$ /o aron! p.v. "hen 6ou /o aron! in a certain condition or /o aron! doing so2ething,
6ou go to various places and allow other people see 6ou.
; was so embarrassed I went around all day with my 6ipper open.
're you going to go around all day wearing that stupid hat1
8$ /o aron! p.v. "hen 6ou /o aron! doing so2ething, 6ou go to various places and
deliberatel6 do so2ething that 2a6 bother or upset other people.
The new manager goes around telling everyone how to do their jobs.
5on(t go around sticking your nose in other people(s business.
:$ /o aron! p.v. "hen so2ething /oes aron!' it spreads to various parts o& a larger place.
' rumor went around that the plant was going to close.
$e probably has the flu@ it(s been going around.
#$ /o aron! p.v. "hen so2ething is being distributed to a group o& people and there is enough
&or ever6one, there is enough to /o aron!$
There wasn(t enough food to go around and some of the famine victims got nothing.
5on(t make the pieces of wedding cake too big, otherwise there won(t be enough to go around.
1%1
#nfinitive
present tense -ing form past tense past participle
/o off go off & goes off going off went off gone off
($ /o o.. p.v. "hen a gun /oes o..' it &ires. "hen a bo2b /oes o..' it e<plodes. "hen an
alar2 or alar2 clock /oes o..' it 2akes a loud noise.
The terrorists were killed when the bomb went off accidentally.
I was late for work because my alarm clock didn(t go off.
"$ /o o.. p.v. "hen an electrical device or s6ste2 /oes o..' it stops operating. Co-e on is the opposite o&
/o o..$
The electricity went off at K#23 last night.
' thermostat makes the air conditioner go off if it gets below a certain temperature.
*$ /o o.. EwithF p.v. "hen 6ou /o o.., 6ou leave a place or the people 6ou are with and go to a di&&erent
place. "hen 6ou /o o.. with so2eone, 6ou leave a place or the people 6ou are with and go to a
di&&erent place with the2.
Mark went off not reali6ing he had left his wallet at home.
't the museum !ally went off with her friends to see some things we weren(t interested in.
6$ /o o.. p.v. "hen an event or plan /oes o.. well, s2oothl6, without a proble2, or without a hitch Ea hitch
is a proble2F, it happens as planned.
The drug bust went off without a hitch.
The invasion didn(t go off the way the general planned it.
7$ /o o.. p.v. "hen a road, trail, path, and so on, /oes o..' it leaves the 2ain road, trail, or path, and goes
in a di&&erent direction.
This trail that goes off to the left will take you to the campground.
.e didn(t know which way to go one path went off to the left, the other to the right.
go on
go on & goes on going on went on gone on
($ /o on p.v. "hen an electrical device or s6ste2 /oes on' it begins to operate.
' thermostat makes the air conditioner go on if it gets above a certain temperature. The lights goes on automatically if
someone walks near the door.
"$ /o on p.v. "hen so2ething /oes on' it happens. @"hatBs /oin/ onH? is a co22on in&or2al
greeting.
Tell me what went on at the party last night. If you see anything illegal going on call
the police immediately.
*$ /oon p.v. "hen people go on, the6 continue doing so2ething. So2eti2es, on is repeated &or
e2phasis.
1%1
; asked her to be Fuiet, but she went right on singing.
)ust go on with what you(re doing. I(ll wait until you(re finished.
I told him to stop talking, but he went on and on and on and on.
6$ /o on p.v. "hen an event or activit6 /oes on' it continues.
The party went on until dawn. I hate long meetings that go
on for hours.
7$ /o on p.v. "hen 6ou /o on in&or2ation, 6ou are able to continue an investigation or other
pro+ect because 6ou have this in&or2ation.
The detective said he needs more to go on and asked the public for information.
The auto company won(t recall MD,333 cars because of one accident. That(s just not enough to go on.
8$ /o on p.v. "hen 6ou /o on a diet, 6ou start a plan to lose weight.
# go on a diet every )anuary.
I have to go on a diet@ my high school reunion is in two months.
:$ /o on p.v. "hen 6ou sa6 @4o on@to people, 6ou are encouraging the2 to do so2ething.
8es, caviar is fish eggs, but it(s good go on try it. =h, go on
don(t be afraid.
5n&initive
present tense !ing &or2 past tense past participle
hang around
hang around P hangs around hanging around hung around hung around
($ han/ aron! p.v. Jin&or2alK "hen 6ou han/ aron! or han/ aron! doing so2ething, 6ou
sta6 in a place without a purpose &or being there or because 6ou are waiting &or so2eone or
so2ething.
I had to hang around for three hours waiting for the bus.
Aob(s been hanging around the house all day. 5oesn(t he have anything to do1
"$ han/ aron! p.v. Jin&or2alK "hen people sta6 in a place instead o& leaving, the6 han/
aron!$
.hat(s the hurry1 ,ang around for a while, and when I finish my homework we can watch TV.
5o you have to go or can you hang around for a while1
*$ han/ aron! p.v. Jin&or2alK "hen 6ou han/ aron! people, 6ou spend a lot o& ti2e with
the2. "hen 6ou han/ aron! a place, 6ou spend a lot o& ti2e there.
/rik(s mother is worried. !he doesn(t like the guys he(s hanging around with.
)im and Aill were good friends. They always hung around when they were kids.
1%2
5n&initive
present tense !ing &or2 past tense past participle
lie around
lie around P lies around l6ing around la6 around lain around
($ %ie aron! p.v. "hen 6ou %ie aron! or %ie aron! doing so2ething, 6ou recline and rela< and do
not do an6thing i2portant.
Today is my day off, so don(t ask me to do any work. I(m just going to lie around.
'll my sister ever does is lie around watching soap operas.
"$ %ie aron! p.v. Jalwa6s continuousK "hen so2ething is %3in/ aron!' it is
disorganiDed and no one is using it or pa6ing attention to it.
)ake is a slob. There are empty beer cans and old newspapers l%ing around all over his house.
.e need to do something about all that junk l%ing around in the backyard.
start out
start out & starts out starting out started out started out
($ start ot p.v. "hen 6ou begin so2ething, 6ou start ot$ Start ot is used to discuss how the end o&
so2ething was di&&erent &ro2 its beginning.
The stock market started out in positive territory but closed 733 points lower.
"ancy started out as a secretary, thinking she might have a future with this company, but she doesn(t feel that way
anymore.
sta% up
sta% up & sta%s up sta%ing up sta%ed up sta%ed up
($ sta3 + p.v. "hen so2ething sta3s +' it re2ains in a place that is higher than ground level.
That shelf won(t sta% up if you put all those books on it.
The astronauts sta%ed up for 7H* days.
"$ sta3 + p.v. "hen 6ou sta3 up, 6ou go to bed later than 6ou nor2all6 do.
)udy(s tired because she sta%ed up until dawn studying for a chemistry test.
5on(t sta% up late tomorrow(s a school day.
ECERCISE ")a ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith +hrasa% ver&s .ro- this section$ Be sre the
+hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$
1. his is a dangerous neighborhood > so sta6 with 2e and donBt MMMMM MMMMM b6 6oursel&.
2. Aesterda6 at work )eticia MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM showing ever6one her engage2ent ring.
3. "edding cere2onies in so2e countries can MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM &or da6s.
#. he bo2b will MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM at e<actl6 'G11.
1%3
%. "here are 6ou goingH "h6 donBt 6ou MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM until Ii2 co2es ho2e and then we can
order a piDDa.
'. he driver took a wrong turn, and we MMMMMMM MMMMMMM in the 2iddle o& nowhere.
(. *n Sunda6s 26 husband usuall6 MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM on the couch watching &ootball ga2es.
8. 76 laD6 son MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM the house all da6 not li&ting a &inger to help with an6thing.
,. SheBs going to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM at her new +ob working onl6 part!ti2e, but later sheBll switch to
&ull!ti2e.
11. =u6 lots o& cha2pagne &or the part6? 6ou want to be sure thereBs enough to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM.
11. =ill likes to go to bed earl6 > he canBt MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM past 8G11 P.7.
12. -osa wanted to stud6 2edicine in college, but she MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM stud6ing law instead.
13. he paleontologist was a2aDed to &ind dinosaur eggs +ust MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM in the desert.
1#. 5 canBt believe 6ou MMMMMMMMMMMMMMtown wearing those dirt6 clothes all da6.
1%. 5B2 sorr6 5 2issed the part6. 8id an6thing e<citing MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMH
1'. 5B2 nervous about the wedding. 5 hope it MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM the wa6 we planned it.
1(. / ru2or is MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM the school about two o& the teachers.
18. 5tBs nor2al &or the power to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM during a thunderstor2.
1,. 5& that poster doesnBt MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM with tape, weBll have to use thu2b tacks instead.
21. 5n the 2orning 8r. S2ith usuall6MMMMMMMMMMthe hospital visiting his patients.
21. Ii2 is usuall6 a good bo6, but when he MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM with Iake he gets in trouble.
22. Ce was tr6ing to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM a slow truck when he had the accident.
1%#
23. 5 MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM a diet two weeks ago, and so &ar 5 havenBt lost an ounce.
2#. 5n the past no one believed that the earth MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM the sun.
2%. 5& 6ouBre leaving, what are 6ou waiting &orH MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM, leave:
2'. Cow can 5 2ake such an i2portant decision with so little in&or2ationH 5 need 2ore to MMMMMMMM.
2(. 5B2 surprised that the heat MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM last night > itBs onl6 Septe2ber.
28. 7iguelBs new race car is reall6 &ast. Aesterda6 he MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM the track in record ti2e.
2,. /&ter 6ou cross the bridge, 6ouBll see a gravel road that MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM a lake and heads toward
the 2ountains.
31. 5 donBt want to retire. 5B2 going to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM working as long as 5 can.
ECERCISE ")& ; =rite ans5ers to the >estions sin/ +hrasa% ver&s .ro- this section$ Be
sre the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$
1. AouBre going to spend the da6 on the so&a watching V. "hat are 6ou going to do all da6H
2. )6dia walked to various places in her new house 2aking decorating plans. "hat did )6dia do in her
new houseH
3. he letter was supposed to go to /ustria, but it &inall6 arrived in /ustralia. "hat happened to the
letterH
#. he electricit6 stops working ever6da6 at 2G11. "hat does the electricit6 doH
%. Ioe called and asked what was happening. "hat did Ioe askH
'. =ob goes to ever6 o&&ice at work telling aw&ul +okes. "hat does =ob do at workH
(. Ianice didnBt go to bed all night. "hat did Ianice doH
8. 8an sta6s in his house all da6. Ce doesnBt go an6where or do an6thing. "hat does 8an do all da6H
,. Aou were late to work because 6our alar2 clock didnBt ring this 2orning. "hat didnBt 6our alar2 clock
do this 2orningH
11. Ierr6 went to 2an6 places wearing a Cawaiian shirt. "hat did Ierr6 doH
11. "hen it gets dark the street lights begin to operate auto2aticall6. "hat do the lights doH
12. 5 bought onl6 twent6!&ive hot dogs &or the part6, but thirt6 people showed up, so so2e people didnBt
get a hot dog. "h6 didnBt so2e people get a hot dogH
13. here are a lot o& potholes in the street, and 5 have to avoid the2 while 5B2 driving. "hat do 5 have to
do while 5B2 drivingH
1#. 5 couldnBt decide between the red car and the blue car, but 5 &inall6 decided on the red car. "hat did 5
&inall6 doH
1%. 7r. "atson is the brains o& this co2pan6. 5& he le&t we couldnBt continue. "hat couldnBt we do without
7r. "atsonH
1'. Iane began the pro+ect thinking it would take onl6 a &ew weeks. "hat did Iane doH
ECERCISE ")c ; =rite ori/ina% sentences sin/ these +hrasa% ver&s .ro- this section
an! +revios sections .o%%o5e! &3 the 9in/ .or-$ The .irst n-&er a.ter the ver& is
the sectionJ the secon! n-&er is the -eanin/$ It is on%3 that -eanin/ that can &e
.o%%o5e! &3 the 9in/ .or-$ Tr3 to -a0e so-e o. the sentences si-i%ar to those in the
FOCUS section$
break down, %/3 go on, 21/3 start out, 21/1
co2e over, 1(/1,2,3 hang around, 21/1 sta6 up, 21/2
end up, 21/1 lie around, 21/1 take o&&, 1/(
go around, 21/#,%,' show up, 1/1 wind up, 1#/2
go o&&, 21/3 stand around, 18/11
1. MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
2. MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
3. MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
#. MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
%. MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
'. MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
(. MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
8. MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
,. MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
1%'
11. MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
11. MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
12. MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
13. MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
1#. MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
ECERCISE ")!' Revie5 ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith these +hrasa% ver&s .ro-
+revios sections$ Be sre the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$ To chec0
their -eanin/s' revie5 the section n-&er /iven a.ter each one$
ai2 at, 1, call o&&, 13 go about, 1( rip up, 1(
blow awa6, 1% cool o&&, 1, go back, 1, screw out o&, 3
break out, , dr6 out, 1% hear o&, 8 see a bout, (
bring over, 1, give up, , pa6 &or, # work up, ,
1. 76 teacher 2ade a 2istake when he corrected 26 test and MMMMMMMM 2eMMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM ten
points.
2. AouBd better wear a +acket > it has MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM outside.
3. Cer letter 2ade 2e so 2ad that 5 MMMMMMMM it MMMMMMMM.
#. Aou donBt need to rake the leaves? the wind will MMMMMMMM the2 MMMMMMMM.
%. "e knew we didnBt have an6 hope o& winning the battle, so we MMMMMMM MMMMMMM.
'. Aou canBt run ten 2iles on the &irst da6 o& 6our e<ercise progra2. Aou have to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM to it.
(. 7ichael didnBt see the red light and hit a gasoline truck. Ce MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM his 2istake with his
li&e.
8. Sa2 asked 2e i& 5 knew so2eone na2ed 3rancisco, and 5 said 5 had never MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM hi2.
,. 76 &a2il6 has been in 7assachusetts since the seventeenth centur6. he6 MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM on the
7a6&lower.
11. *ur trip to 7ia2i wasMMMMMMM MMMMMMMMM because o& the hurricane.
11. 5B2 going to MMMMMMMM the dentist MMMMMMMM getting 26 teeth whitened.
12. 8o 6ou know how to MMMMMMM MMMMMMMMM getting a passportH
1%(
13. his rug is wet? letBs take it outside to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM in the sun.
1#. he new restrictions on cigarette advertising are MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM reducing the level o& teenage
s2oking.
1%. he6 MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM o& prison b6 tunneling under the prison wall.
1'. "e donBt have enough plates &or the part6, so 5 called 7aria and asked her to MMMMMMMM so2e
MMMMMMMM.
"($ FOCUS ON< +hrasa% ver&s an! should an!
ought to
Should and ought to have two i2portant 2eanings in ;nglish. *ne is &a2iliar to 2ost students, but the
other is not.
A /oo! i!ea< sho%! an! o/ht to
Should and ought to can be used to sa6 that doing so2ething is a good idea because it will
bene&it the person 6ou are speaking aboutG
8ou should !ip up your coat.
8ou ought to !ip up your coat.
or because the person 6ou are speaking about is e<pected, though not re.uired, to do
so2ethingG
8ou should bring in the groceries for your mother.
8ou ought to bring in the groceries for your mother.
/lthough should and ought are 2odal au<iliar6 verbs, ought 2ust be used with to. 5n other
words, ought does not e.ual should, ought to e.uals should. Never sa6 should to.
Ver3 +ro&a&%e< sho%! an! o/ht to
=oth should and ought to are used to sa6 that so2ething is ver6 probable, ver6 likel6, or ,1
percent sure to happen > that i& ever6thing is nor2al, as e<pected, or as planned, a
condition will ver6 probabl6 e<ist or so2ething will ver6 probabl6 happenG
The rebel territory should settle down once winter comes.
The rebel territory ought to settle down once winter comes.
5n the e<a2ples above, either should or ought to can be used > the6 have the sa2e 2eaning
> however, onl6 should is used in .uestionsG
1%8
!hould Tom !ip up his jacket1
=ught Tom to !ip up his jacket1
and onl6 should not or shouldnBt is used in negative sentencesG
Tom should not !ip up his jacket.
Tom ought not to !ip up his jacket.
Should not Eor shouldnBtF is used to sa6 that so2ething is not probable.
5t 2eans that so2ething is ver6 i2probable, ver6 unlikel6, or ,1
percent sure not to happen > that i& ever6thing is nor2al, as
e<pected, or as planned, a condition will ver6 probabl6 not e<ist or
so2ething will ver6 probabl6 not happenG
I set the thermostat at si0ty&five degrees, and I(m sure it won(t get below seventy
tonight, so the heat shouldn(t go on.
5n&initive
present tense !ing &or2 past tense past participle
look around
look around P looks around looking around looked around looked around
($ %oo0 aron! p.v. "hen 6ou turn 6our head to see what is behind 6ou or around 6ou, 6ou %oo0
aron!$
I heard a sound, and I looked around to see who it was. !ally looked
around the room and didn(t recogni6e anyone.
"$ %oo0 aron! p.v. "hen 6ou %oo0 aron! or %oo0 aron! a place, 6ou go to various parts o& the
place in order to see what it is like or what is there.
8ou should look around before you decide whether you want to buy the house.
Ginda looked around the bookstore but didn(t find anything interesting.
look over
look over & looks over looking over looked over looked over
($ %oo0$$$ over p.v. Jusuall6 separatedK "hen 6ou %oo0 so2ething over' 6ou look at it or
read it care&ull6 and thoroughl6.
$e ought to look the car over before he buys it.
$ere(s the first chapter of my new book@ look it over and tell me what you think.
pick on
pick on & picks on picking on picked on picked on
($ +ic0 on p.v. "hen 6ou +ic0 on people, 6ou continuall6 tease and criticiDe the2.
!usie, you shouldn(t pick on your little brother.
The teacher never critici6es anyone else she picks only on me.
1%,
Infinitive
present tense &ing form past tense past participle
settle down
settle down < settles down settling down settled down settled down
($ sett%e $$$ !o5n p.v. "hen 6ou sett%e !o5n' 6ou beco2e less active, nervous, or upset.
"hen 6ou sett%e other people !o5n' 3o do so2ething to 2ake the2 less active, nervous,
or upset. Ca%- !o5n is si2ilar to sett%e !o5n$
.hy are you so nervous about the test1 )ust settle down@ you(ll do just fine.
>an(t you settle the children down1 'll that noise is driving me cra6y.
"$ sett%e$$$ !o5n p.v. "hen a con&used or violent situation beco2es less con&used or violent,
it sett%es !o5n$ "hen 6ou sett%e a con&used or violent situation !o5n' 6ou 2ake it less
con&used or violent and 2ore cal2. Ca%- !o5n is si2ilar to sett%e !o5n$
Nioting and arson continued for three days before the area settled down.
The head of the union spoke to the angry strikers to try to settle them down.
*$ sett%e !o5n p.v. "hen people sett%e down, the6 start to live a less active li&e and perhaps
get 2arried, bu6 a house, and start a &a2il6.
Mike led a pretty wild life when he was in his early twenties, but he got married when he was 7L and settled
down.
My son is forty&one. I wish he(d settle down and raise a family.
step on
step on & steps on stepping on stepped on stepped on
($ ste+ on p.v. "hen 6ou ste+ on so2ething, 6ou place 6our &oot on it.
If the carpenter steps on a nail, she(ll have to go to the hospital for a tetanus shot.
!am stepped on a cockroach.
"$ ste+ on p.v. Jin&or2alK "hen 6ou sa6 ?Ste+ on it@ to so2eone who is driving a car, 6ou
are telling the driver to drive &aster.
$ank needed to get to the airport in fifteen minutes, so he told the ta0i driver to step on it.
2tep on itE .e have to be at work in ten minutes.
take out on
take out on & takes out on taking out on took out on taken out on
($ ta0e$$$ ot on p.v. "hen 6ou ta0e so2ething ot on people, 6ou un&airl6 criticiDe or
punish the2 because 6ou are angr6 about so2ething that has occurred or about so2ething
that so2eone else has done.
If you(re mad at your boss, you shouldn(t take it out on your wife.
$eyE It(s not my fault you got a speeding ticket. .hy are you taking it out on me1
1'1
Infinitive
present tense &ing form past tense past participle
think ahead
think ahead ! thinks ahead thinking ahead thought ahead thought ahead
($ thin0 ahea! p.v. "hen 6ou thin0 ahea!' 3o plan &ora &uture situation or activit6 so that 6ou
will not have a proble2.
.hen we(re out camping, there won(t be any stores around if you forget something, so think ahead.
.e thought ahead before we drove through the desert@ we took forty liters of water.
!ip up
!ip up & !ips up !ipping up !ipped up !ipped up
($ @i+$$$ + p.v. "hen 6ou @i+ + a coat or other ite2 o& clothing, 6ou close it with a Dipper.
It(s free6ing outside < !ip your coat up.
I can(t 6ip my dress up. >an you1
@i++e! + part.ad+. /&ter 6ou @i+ + a coat or other ite2 o& clothing, it is @i++e! +$
Gook at Timmy out there in the snow without his coat !ipped up.
Aefore you go to the airport, make sure your suitcases are !ipped up.
ECERCISE "( a ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith +hrasa% ver&s .ro- this section$ Be
sre the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$
1. 5tBs not 6our brotherBs &ault 6ou &ailed the 2ath test. Aou shouldnBt MMMMMMMM it MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM
hi2.
2. i226 le&t so2e o& his to6s on the &loor. =e care&ul not to MMMMMMM MMMMMMM the2.
3. hereBs a gu6 in 26 class whoBs reall6 2ean and 2akes +okes about 2e. 5 told the teacher that heBs
alwa6s MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM 2e.
#. So2eone called 26 na2e, and 5 MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM to see who it was.
%. Iane is alread6 thirt6!&our, but sheBs not interested in MMMMMM MMMMM and having children.
'. 5Bve MMMMMM MMMMMM 6our resu2e, and 5 think 6ouBre the right person &or this +ob.
(. i226 and Susie were running around the house like craD6, so 5 pla6ed their &avorite videotape to tr6
to MMMMMMMM the2 MMMMMMMM.
8. Aou should MMMMMMMM 6our backpack MMMMMMMM? otherwise all 6our books are going to &all out.
1'1
,. he two countries have a histor6 o& border clashes, but things have MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM in the
last &ew 6ears.
11. 5Bve never been in 6our house be&ore? 5Bd like to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM and see how 6ouBve
decorated it.
11. Aou donBt want to arrive in ok6o and realiDe 6ou &orgot so2ething i2portant back in Vancouver,
so MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM.
12. "eBre late >MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM it:
ECERCISE "( & ; =rite ans5ers to the >estions sin/ +hrasa% ver&s .ro- this
section$ Be sre the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$
1. 8an ought to look at the car ver6 care&ull6 be&ore he decides whether to bu6 it. "hat should 8an
doH
2. Aou went to a big bookstore and walked around so that 6ou could see what books the6 have.
"hat did 6ou do in the bookstoreH
3. *ur neighbors were arguing all evening, but the6 stopped arguing and got .uieter at around 1G11
/.7. "hat did our neighbors do around 1G11 /.7.H
#. 5tBs &reeDing outside, so 6ou ought to close the Dipper on 6our +acket. "hat should 6ou do to 6our
+acketH
%. 5n Ouestion #, how would 6ou describe the +acket a&ter it is closedH
'. /t the 2eeting, the boss asked =ett6 so2e di&&icult .uestions, and =ett6 wasnBt read6 with the
answers. "hat didnBt =ett6 doH
(. 3rank un&airl6 criticiDes his son. "hat does 3rank do to his sonH
8. 7ark had a bad da6 at work, and when he ca2e ho2e he 6elled at his wi&e. "hat did 7ark do to
his wi&eH
,. "hen 7ike was dancing with Ceather, he put his &oot on her &oot. "hat did 7ike do to
CeatherBs &ootH
1'2
ECERCISE "( c' Revie5 ; Re5rite the n!er%ine! 5or!s in the sentences sin/
these +hrasa% ver&s .ro- +revios sections an! sho%! or o/ht to$ Re-e-&er that
o/ht to is not sa%%3 se! in ne/ative sentences$
break through, 18 cool o&&, 1, hold up, (
burn out, 8 &all o&&, 11 pull through, 2
co2e over, 1( get o&&, 18 war2 up, 1,
co2e through, 1% get through, 1' wind up, 1#
co2e up, 12 go &or, 1'
E4a-+%e< 5& the6 go to that restaurant, the6 will ver6 probabl6 e<pect to pa6 N211.
5& the6 go to that restaurant, the6 should &igure on pa6ing N211.
or
5& the6 go to that restaurant, the6 ought to &igure on pa6ing N211.
1. =usiness in this restaurant will ver6 probabl6 decrease in Ianuar6.
2. he6 are ver6 probabl6 &inishing the investigation.
3. hese cheap shoes will ver6 probabl6 not sta6 in good condition 2ore than three 2onths.
#. Ii2 &lies &ro2 3lorida to =oston ever6 6ear in /pril, and itBs /pril now. Ii2 will ver6 probabl6 travel to
=oston soon.
%. 5t al2ost alwa6s gets cooler in *ctober, and itBs *ctober 1st toda6, so it will ver6 probabl6 get cooler
soon.
'. PaulBs disease is not serious, so he will ver6 probabl6 be well again.
(. 3rancisco al2ost never works past %G11, and itBs #G%1 now. Ce will ver6 probabl6 stop working in a &ew
2inutes.
8. )6dia likes skiing a lot, so i& 6ou suggest that we go skiing ne<t weekend, she will ver6 probabl6 like the
idea.
,. he ene26 soldiers have been tr6ing to s2ash a hole in the wall o& the &ort &or two hours, and the6 will
ver6 probabl6 s2ash a hole in the wall soon.
1'3
11. Sall6 said she would co2e to 26 house at %G31 and itBs %G#1 now. She will ver6 probabl6 co2e to
26 house soon.
**. This work normally takes four hours to finish, so if you start at L#33 you will very probably finish around *#33.
12. he train al2ost alwa6s passes through town at 3G2%, and itBs 3G21 now, so the train will ver6
probabl6 pass through town in &ive 2inutes.
13. 5 put a lot o& wood on the &ire, so it ver6 probabl6 will not stop burning be&ore 2orning.
1#. he car heater is on 2a<i2u2, so it will ver6 probabl6 get war2 soon.
ECERCISE "( !' Revie5 ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith these +hrasa% ver&s .ro-
+revios sections$ Be sre the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$ To chec0
their -eanin/s' revie5 the section n-&er /iven a.ter each one$
bring back, 1, go around, 21 hand over, 1, pull over, 1,
end up, 21 go back, 1, hang around,21 ring up, 8
&all apart, 1( go o&&, 21 lie around, 21 start out, 21
get back at, 1( go on, 21 line up, 18 sta6 up, 21
1. /&ter 7arkBs &ather died, o2 MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM the o&&ice collecting 2one6 to bu6 so2e &lowers
&or the &uneral.
2. "ho said 6ou could use 26 ca2eraH MMMMMMMM it MMMMMMMM right now:
3. he s2oke alar2 in our kitchen MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM ever6 ti2e 5 &r6 chicken.
#. "eBve been driving &or &ive hours straight. )etBs MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM and rest &or a &ew 2inutes.
%. *ur travel agent is tr6ing to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM a hot air balloon to take us to the top o& 7t.
;verest.
'. )ast night 5 MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM late watching $asablanca on V.
(. 76 old bic6cle is in ver6 bad condition. 5 ought to bu6 a new one be&ore it co2pletel6
8. 5B2 2ad at Sarah &or telling 26 husband what happened at the o&&ice part6. 5Bll MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM
MMMMMMMM her so2eda6.
1'#
,. 5 MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM thinking it wouldnBt cost 2ore than N311 to &i< 26 car, but 5Bve alread6 spent
2ore than N(11.
11. Ii226 didnBt used to get in trouble until he started to MMMMMMM MMMMMMMM with Iake.
11. 5& 6ou donBt .uit s2oking and lose so2e weight, 6ouBre going to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM d6ing be&ore
6ouBre &i&t6.
12. Visiting 26 old high school last weekMMMMMMMMMMMMMMa lot o& great 2e2ories.
13. /re 6ou going to do an6thing toda6 or +ust MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM watching VH
1#. 5B2 sorr6 5 interrupted 6our stor6. Please MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM.
1%. he cashier MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM 26 stu&& and said, @hat co2es to N#(.21.@
1'. /l&onso le&t his credit card at the restaurant, so he had to MMMMMM MMMMMM to get it.
""$ FOCUS ON< the +artic%e up an! the a!ver&s
right an! all
he particle up is used in 2an6 phrasal verbs, and one o& its uses is to sa6 that so2ething has
been done thoroughl6 or co2pletel6G
he building &rne!$ Ehe building was da2aged but not destro6ed.F
he building &rne! UP $ Ehe building was co2pletel6 destro6ed.F
-ight, discussed in Section 1,, is o&ten used in phrasal verbs with up to indicate
that the action o& the verb not onl6 happened thoroughl6 and co2pletel6 but also
.uickl6G
They ate it up. BThey ate all the food.C
They ate it right up. BThey ate all the food, and they ate it Fuickly.C
-e2e2ber that right can be used in this wa6 onl6 a&ter an ob+ect that is separating the verb
and particleG
They ate the pi66a right up.
They ate right up the pi66a.
;ven though up indicates that the action o& the verb is thorough and co2plete, all is
so2eti2es used &or &urther e2phasis with participle ad+ectives derived &ro2 phrasal
verbs with upG
My ta0es are all paid up.
The drain is all plugged up.
1'%
Infinitive
present tense &ing form past tense past participle
burn up
burn up < burns up burning up burned up burned up
($ &rn + p.v. "hen so2ething is co2pletel6 destro6ed b6 heat or &ire, it &rns +$
The meteor burned up in the atmosphere.
The rocket(s fuel will burn up after only forty seconds.
"$ &rn$$$ + p.v. "hen people or things destro6 so2ething with heat or &ire, the6 &rn it +$
There(s no more coal. .e burned it all up.
)et engines burn up fuel at a tremendous rate.
&rne! + part.ad+. /&ter so2ething is co2pletel6 destro6ed b6 heat or &ire, it is &rne! +$
There isn(t anymore firewood@ it(s all burned up.
The house is all burned up. There(s no way it can be saved.
*$ &rne! $$$ + p.v. Jin&or2alK "hen so2ething 2akes 6ou ver6 angr6, it &rns 6ou +$
It really burns me up when other people take credit for my work.
I have to say something to !ally about what she did. It(s burning me up.
&rne! + part.ad+. Jin&or2alK "hen 6ou are ver6 angr6, 6ou are &rne! +$
)im was burned up when his boss critici6ed him during the meeting.
Nela0 it(s nothing to get all burned up about.
clear up
clear up & clears up clearing up cleared up cleared up
($ c%ear + p.v. "hen a proble2, 2isunderstanding, or disease goes awa6, it c%ears +$
The misunderstanding cleared up right away after we talked about it.
My rash is clearing up by itself. I don(t need to go to the doctor.
c%eare! + part.ad+. /&ter a proble2, 2isunderstanding, or disease goes awa6, it is
c%eare! +$
; feel great. My sinus infection is all cleared up.
/verything(s okay. It was a big misunderstanding, but it(s cleared up now.
"$ c%ear$$$ + p.v. "hen 6ou do so2ething to solve a proble2 or 2isunderstanding or do
so2ething to cure a disease, 6ou c%ear it +$
/veryone was confused about the new policy, so a memo was issued that cleared everything up.
The medicine 5r. !mith gave me cleared the infection up.
1''
*$ c%ear + p.v. "hen clouds in the sk6 go awa6, the weather c%ears +$
Onless it clears up we(ll have to cancel the picnic.
It was a beautiful day after the sky cleared up.
Infinitive
present tense &ing form past tense past participle
count up
count up < counts up counting up counted up counted up
($ cont$$$ + p.v. "hen 6ou count all o& so2ething to see how 2an6 o& the2 there are, 6ou
cont the2 +$
+ount the money up and tell me what the total is.
+ounting up the yes and no votes is going to take a long time.
eat up
eat up & eats up eating up ate up eaten up
($ eat$$$ + p.v. "hen 6ou eat &ood +' 6ou eat all o& it.
There(s no more pi66a@ 5avid ate it all up. 5on(t eat up the cake
before your father gets a piece.
"$ eat$$$ + p.v. "hen so2ething eats + so2ething else, such as 2one6 or ti2e, it uses all o&
it.
I(m broke. Fi0ing my car last week ate up my entire paycheck.
I don(t want to go shopping with you. It(ll eat up the whole day.
heat up
heat up & heats up heating up heated up heated up
($ heat $$$+ p.v. "hen so2ething or so2eone 2akes so2ething hotter, the6 heat it up.
.aiter, this soup is cold. .ould you heat it up for me1
!ometimes the sun heats up the desert to *73 degrees.
heate! + part.ad+. /&ter so2ething or so2eone 2akes so2ething hotter, it is heate! +$
5on(t give the baby that cold bottle@ give her this heated up one.
The spaghetti has been in the microwave for five minutes, so I(m sure it(s heated up by now.
pa% up
pa% up & pa%s up pa%ing up paid up paid up
($ +a3 + p.v. "hen 6ou +a3 up, 6ou pa6 all the 2one6 6ou owe to a person, bank, and so on,
usuall6 as a result o& pressure to pa6 the 2one6.
' guy from the collection agency called and told me I(d better pa% up.
I wasn(t surprised when the insurance company refused to pa% up.
1'(
+ai! + part.ad+. /&ter 6ou are +ai! up, 6ou have paid all the 2one6 6ou owe to a person,
bank, and so on.
; told the bill collector that he had made a mistake. I(m alt paid up.
Aetty(s VI!' card is paid up so there won(t be any finance charge ne0t month.
plug up
plug up & plugs up plugging up plugged up plugged up
($ +%/$$$ + p.v. "hen people or things block a narrow passage, such as a pipe, drain, or
hole, so that nothing can &low through it, the6 +%/ it +$
5on(t pour bacon grease in the sink@ it(ll plug up the drain.
I need to plug up the hole in the roof where the rain is leaking in.
+%//e! + part.ad+. "hen a narrow passage, such as a pipe, drain, or hole, is
co2pletel6 blocked so that nothing can &low through it, it is +%//e! +$
>all the plumber@ the sink(s plugged up.
My nose is all plugged up and I can(t smell anything.
wipe up
wipe up & wipes up wiping up wiped up wiped up
($ 5i+e $$$ + p.v. "hen 6ou co2pletel6 re2ove a li.uid &ro2 a sur&ace b6 2oving a towel or
sponge across it with a sweeping 2otion, 6ou 5i+e the li.uid +$ F=i+e + is si2ilar to 5i+e
o..J however, 6ou 5i+e + a li.uid, but 6ou 5i+e o&& the sur&ace the li.uid is on.F
!usie spilled her milk, and her mother told her to wipe it all up.
8ou(d better wipe up the water on the bathroom floor before someone falls.
ECERCISE ""a ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith +hrasa% ver&s .ro- this section$ Be
sre the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$
1. 8onBt MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM the potato chips. )eave so2e &or 2e.
2. "e have to MMMMMMMM the hole in this boat MMMMMMMM &ast be&ore it sinks.
3. 5t MMMMMMMM 2e MMMMMMMM when people s2oke in a nons2oking section.
#. here was a lot o& con&usion about the new plan, so we asked o2 to MMMMMMMM it MMMMMMMM
&or us.
%. he bill collector threatened to repossess 26 car i& 5 didnBt MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM.
'. he pain 5 had in 26 shoulder MMMMMM right MMMMMM a&ter 5 tried the new therap6.
(. *ka6, letBs MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM the points to see who won the ga2e.
8. 5t was cloud6 in the 2orning, but around 11G11 it MMMMMMMM right MMMMMMMM.
,. 5t hasnBt rained in 2onths, so this dr6 &orest will reall6 MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM i& thereBs a &ire.
1'8
11. "ould 6ou get a towel and MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM the co&&ee 6ou spilledH
11. 5Bll put 6our dinner in the re&rigerator, and 6ou can MMMMMMMM itMMMMMMMMwhen 6ou co2e ho2e.
12. 5B2 going to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM all these old papers in the &ireplace.
13. 5 didnBt have an6 insurance, so pa6ing &or those hospital bills reall6 MMMMMMMM MMMMMMM all 26 savings.
ECERCISE ""& ; =rite three sentences sin/ the o&,ects in +arentheses$ Be sre to
+t the o&,ects in the ri/ht +%ace$
1. he6 burned up. Ethe wood, itF
2. Ce ought to clear up. Ethe 2isunderstanding, itF
3. "ould 6ou count upH Ethe votes, the2F
#. Cave the6 eaten upH Eall the cand6, itF
D. I can(t plug up. Bthe hole, itC
*JL
'. "ipe up right now: Ethat water, itF
ECERCISE ""c ; =rite ans5ers to the >estions sin/ +hrasa% ver&s an!
+artici+%e a!,ectives .ro- this section$ Be sre the +hrasa% ver&s are in the
correct tense$
1. Aou co2pletel6 blocked the drain so that water couldnBt go through it. "hat did 6ou do to the
drainH
2. 5n Ouestion 1, how would 6ou describe the drainH
3. 5B2 putting 26 co&&ee in the 2icrowave to 2ake it hotter. "hat a2 5 doing to 26 co&&eeH
#. 5n Ouestion 3, how would 6ou describe 26 co&&ee a&ter 5 take it out o& the 2icrowaveH
%. ;rik hasnBt counted all the 2one6. "hat hasnBt ;rik doneH
'. AouBll pa6 all 6our late 2ortgage pa62ents. "hat will 6ou do to 6our 2ortgageH
(. 5n Ouestion ', how will 6ou be regarding 6our 2ortgageH
8. he police used &ire to destro6 all the drugs. "hat did the police doH
,. 5n Ouestion 8, how would 6ou describe the drugs nowH
11. 76 disease went awa6 i22ediatel6. "hat did 26 disease doH
11. Sarah is cleaning up all the orange +uice that she spilled on the &loor. "hat is Sarah doingH
12. $arlos alwa6s eats all his bab6 &ood, and he eats it .uickl6. "hat does $arlos doH
1(1
ECERCISE ""!' Revie5 ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith these +hrasa% ver&s .ro-
+revios sections$ Be sre the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$ To chec0
their -eanin/s' revie5 the section n-&er /iven a.ter each one$
carr6 on, 1' go with, 1% look around, 21 step on, 21
count on,1' hand in, 13 put awa6, 1# take out on, 21
dress up, 1# head back, 1% sign in, 12 think ahead, 21
dr6 up, 1# head &or, 1% sign out, 12 Dip up, 21
1. 5Bll be there when 6ou need 2e. Aou can MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM 2e.
2. 8o 6ou think these shoes MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM 26 dressH
3. MMMMMMM MMMMMMMM so that 6ou have ever6thing 6ou need when 6ou get there.
#. )inda is here in the o&&ice so2ewhere > she MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM at 8G%2.
%. )inda alwa6s leaves at %G11, and itBs al2ost 'G11 now, so 5B2 sure she has alread6 MMMMMMM .
'. hat gu6 is craD6. Ce ought to be MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM.
(. "hen 6ou &inish with the +ob application, 6ou can MMMMMM it MMMMMM to the secretar6.
8. 5 donBt think we should 2ake an6 changes now. )etBs MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM our original plan.
,. he part6 will be casual, so 6ou donBt have to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM.
11. 7aria told 2e she would be in the librar6 between (G11 and 8G11, but 5 MMMMMMMM MMMMMMM and
couldnBt &ind her.
11. hereBs so2e broken glass there > donBt MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM it.
12. 5 hope it rains soon. he lake is starting to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM.
13. MMMMMMMMMMMMMMM6our coat > itBs &i&teen degrees below Dero outside.
1#. Ianice hates her +ob, and she MMMMMMM it MMMMMMM MMMMMMM her husband.
1%. 5B2 MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM San 8iego, and 5 should get there b6 late a&ternoon.
1'. 5Bll sta6 in San 8iego &or a week and then MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM to )os /ngeles.
1(1
"*$ FOCUS ON< t5o95or! +hrasa% ver&s that
re>ire an a!!itiona% +artic%e 5hen se! 5ith an
o&,ect' "
/s we saw in Section ,, 2an6 phrasal verbs that can be used both intransitive%3 and
transitive%3 re.uire a second particle when the6 are used transitivel6, which 2akes the2 three!
word phrasal verbs.
/lthough these phrasal verbs have a three!word version, the6 re2ain classi&ied as two!
word verbs because the two!word and three!word phrasal verbs have the sa2e 2eaning
> the6 are variations o& the sa2e verbG
He .i%%e! in$ Ce .i%%e! in
&or 7ike.
here are, however, three!word phrasal verbs that share the sa2e verb and &irst particle as
another two!word phrasal verb but have an entirel6 di&&erent 2eaning. hese are two
di&&erent phrasal verbs and are classi&ied separatel6G
$e put up a poster.
$e put up with her rudeness.
#nfinitive
present tense -ing form past tense past participle
crack down
crack down & cracks down cracking down cracked down cracked down
($ crac0 !o5n EonF p.v. "hen 6ou crac0 !o5n or crac0 !o5n on so2eone or so2ething,
6ou en&orce rules and laws 2ore than 6ou en&orced the2 be&ore or 6ou 2ake new,
stronger rules and laws.
The chief of police said he was going to crack down on car theft.
The students have been coming to class later and later everyday. It(s time to start cracking
down.
crac0!o5n n. "hen 6ou en&orce rules and laws 2ore than 6ou en&orced the2 be&ore, this
is a crac0!o5n$
The FAI is planning a major crackdown on organi6ed crime.
'fter the crackdown the crime rate plunged.
cut down
cut down & cuts down cutting down cut down cut down
($ ct$$$ !o5n p.v. "hen 6ou ct !o5n a tree, 6ou use a saw or an a<e to cut it
and 2ake it &all to the ground.
8ou should cut that dead tree down before it falls on your house.
The builder was critici6ed for cutting down so many trees when he built the house.
"$ ct$$$ !o5n p.v. Jin&or2al > alwa6s separatedK "hen 6ou ct people !o5n to siDe,
6ou do or sa6 so2ething to 2ake the2 &eel less i2portant or less power&ul.
1(2
I(m tired of that jerk. I(m going to cut him down to si6e.
$ank thinks he(s such a tough guy. !omeone ought to cut him down to si6e.
*$ ct !o5n EonF p.v. "hen 6ou ct !o5n or ct !o5n on so2ething that 6ou consu2e,
6ou use it less. "hen 6ou ct !o5n or ct !o5n on so2ething 6ou do, 6ou do it less. Ct
&ac0 is si2ilar to ct !o5n$
If you can(t Fuit smoking, you should at least cut down.
My doctor said cutting down on fat in my diet would lower my cholesterol.
Infinitive
present tense &ing form past tense past participle
drop out
drop out < drops out dropping out dropped out dropped out
($ !ro+ ot Eo&F p.v. "hen 6ou !ro+ ot or !ro+ ot o& a school, a training course, or other
progra2, 6ou leave be&ore co2pleting it.
The program is very difficult, and about M3 percent of the students drop out.
Ginda(s father was very disappointed when she dropped out of college.
!ro+ot n$ A !ro+ot is so2eone who has le&t school, usuall6 high school or college, be&ore
graduating.
Many successful people are college dropouts.
get awa%
get awa% & gets awa% getting awa% got awa% gotten/got awa%
($ /et a5a3 E&ro2F p.v. "hen 6ou escape &ro2 people who are chasing 6ou because the6 want
to hurt 6ou or because 6ou have co22itted a cri2e, 6ou /et a5a3 or /et a5a3 &ro2 the2.
.hen he took the knife out of his pocket, I got awa% from him fast.
Ay the time the police arrived, the robbers had already gotten awa%.
/eta5a3 n. "hen 6ou escape &ro2 people who want to capture or hurt 6ou, 6ou 2ake a
/eta5a3$
The robbers made their getawa% in a blue Ford.
The car used for the getawa% was found abandoned in the ne0t town.
"$ /et a5a3 EwithF p.v. "hen 6ou do so2ething that is sneak6 or wrong and 6ou are not
punished or criticiDed &or it because no one knows or cares about it, 6ou /et a5a3
with it.
)ake has been cheating on his ta0es for years, and he always gets awa% with it.
$e got awa% with kilting his e0&wife even though everyone knew he was guilty.
*$ /et a5a3 E&ro2F p.v. "hen 6ou /et a5a3 &ro2 people or places, 6ou leave the2 even
though it 2a6 be di&&icult.
I(m tired of this town. I need to get awa%.
Frank was talking and talking, and I couldn(t get awa% from him.
1(3
6$ /et a5a3 p.v. "hen 6ou /et awa6, 6ou go on vacation.
; have a lot of work to do, but I(ll try to get awa% for a week or two.
.e always try to get awa% in )anuary and go skiing.
#nfinitive
present tense -ing form past tense past participle
hold out
hold out & holds out holding out held out held out
($ ho%! $$$ ot p.v. "hen 6ou ho%! ot 6our hand, 6ou e<tend it in &ront o& 6our bod6
so that so2eone can shake hands with 6ou or put so2ething in 6our hand. Ho%! ot
is si2ilar to +t ot$
Maybe Mr. 8oung is mad at me. I held out my hand, but he didn(t shake it.
The street was filled with beggars holding their hands out.
"$ ho%! ot p.v. "hen a suppl6 o& so2ething is enough &or 6our needs, the suppl6 ho%!s
ot$
The beer held out until the end of the party, but we didn(t have enough wine.
This is all the money I have, so it has to hold out until I get paid again.
*$ ho%! ot p.v. "hen 6ou ho%! out, 6ou resist an attack, pressure, or te2ptation or 6ou
continue to survive in a dangerous situation.
More than *,333 enemy soldiers attacked the fort. There were only LK of us inside, but we held out for two
weeks.
I haven(t had a cigarette in three days, and I don(t know how much longer I can hold out.
ho%!ot n. So2eone who resists an attack, pressure, or te2ptation is a ho%!ot$
The enemy soldiers are in control of the country, but there are some holdouts hiding in the mountains.
There are still a few holdouts who don(t have credit cards.
6$ ho%! ot E&orF p.v. "hen 6ou ho%! ot or ho%! ot &or so2ething, 6ou re&use to
co2pro2ise in a negotiation and accept an6thing less than 6our original de2ands.
The basketball player is holding out for a million dollars a game.
The union spokesman said the union members would hold out until their demands were met.
ho%!ot n. "hen 6ou re&use to co2pro2ise in a negotiation and accept an6thing less than
6our original de2ands, 6ou are a ho%!ot$
'll the players have signed contracts e0cept for two holdouts.
make up
make up & makes up making up made up made up
($ -a0e$$$ + p.v. "hen 6ou invent a stor6 to entertain or &ool people, 6ou -a0e the stor6
+$ "hen 6ou invent a lie to deceive people, 6ou -a0e the lie +$
1(#
My son asked me to make up a story about monsters.
$ank told his boss he was late for work because he had to go to the doctor, but he just made that e0cuse
up.
made-up part.adj. .hen a story is invented or fictional, it is made-up. There(s no truth to
any of this it(s just a made-up story.
7. make up BofC p.v. ,often passive- .hen people or things make up a larger thing, they together form that larger
thing. .hen a larger thing is made up of people or things, they together form that larger thing.
>hildren under fifteen make up D3 percent of the population.
'n airplane is made up of thousands of parts.
*$ -a0e$$$ + p.v. "hen 6ou -a0e + 6our 2ind, -a0e + 6our 2ind about
so2ething, or -a0e + 6our 2ind about doing so2ething, 6ou decide which choice
to 2ake or which action to take.
; like both the blue dress and the red dress. I can(t make up my mind.
My daughter still hasn(t made up her mind about which college to attend.
Marsha made her mind up about Fuitting her job and joining the "avy.
-a!e + part.ad+. /&ter 6ou -a0e + 6our 2ind or -a0e + 6our 2ind to do
so2ething, 6our 2ind is -a!e +$
5on(t waste your time talking to Tom about it his mind is made up.
6$ -a0e$$$ + p.v. "hen 6ou have an a2ount o& 2one6 that is not enough &or a certain
re.uire2ent and 6ou add 2ore 2one6 so that it will be enough, 6ou -a0e + the di&&erence
between the a2ount 6ou have and the a2ount 6ou need.
The cashier was supposed to have :MDD at the end of her shift, but she had only :M2D, so she had to make the
shortage up with her own money.
I didn(t have enough saved to pay for college, but my Oncle Fred made up the difference.
7$ -a0e$$$ + p.v. "hen 6ou do so2ething that 6ou were re.uired to do earlier but did not,
such as attend a class, take a test, or co2plete a ho2ework assign2ent, 6ou -a0e it +$
9aren asked the teacher about making up the test that she missed.
The teacher told her she could make it up tomorrow after school.
6. make... up p.v. ,the noun and adjectives derived from this verb are much more commonly used
than the verb itself- .hen you make yourself up you put lipstick, eye shadow, and so on, on your
face.
!he made herself up and went to the party.
make-up n. Make&up is cosmetics# lipstick, mascara, and soon. $eather(s father
thinks she wears too much make-up.
1(%
-a!e9+ part.ad+. /&ter people have put on -a0e9+' the3 are -a!e9+$
5id you see Gydia1 !he(s really beautiful when she(s all made-up.
:$ -a0e + EwithF p.v. "hen two people -a0e + or -a0e + with each other, the6 end
an argu2ent and resu2e &riendl6 relations.
!ally and )im had a big fight, but they made up the ne0t day. Mr. Aaker said he won(t
make up with his wife until she apologi6es.
Infinitive
present tense &ing form past tense past participle
sta% out
stay out < stays out staying out stayed out stayed out
($ sta3 ot p.v. "hen 6ou sta3 ot' 6ou do not return to 6our house.
5o you let your kids sta% out past M#331
I sta%ed out late last night, and I(m really e0hausted.
"$ sta3 ot Eo&F p.v. "hen 6ou sta3 ot o& a place, 6ou do not go inside it.
8our father(s busy cooking dinner, so sta% out of the kitchen.
8ou can(t come in here. 2ta% out!
*$ sta3 ot Eo&F p.v. "hen 6ou sta3 ot o& a situation, such as an argu2ent, &ight, battle, or
war, 6ou do not get involved in it.
This fight doesn(t involve you, so sta% out.
)ake has sta%ed out of trouble since he left prison.
watch out
watch out & watches out watching out watched out watched out
($ 5atch ot E&orF p.v. "hen 6ou 5atch ot or 5atch ot &or so2ething, 6ou re2ain alert &or
so2eone or so2ething that is dangerous or i2portant. "hen 6ou tell people to 5atch ot or
5atch ot &or so2ething, 6ou are warning the2 o& possible danger. =atch ot is the sa2e as
%oo0 ot$
(atch out when you(re crossing a busy street.
9aren said she would meet us here at *7#33, so watch out for her.
(atch out! There(s a snake in the grass.
I dropped a glass in the kitchen, so watch out for broken glass.
ECERCISE "*a ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith +hrasa% ver&s .ro- this section$ Be sre
the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$
1. /re 6ou telling 2e the truth, or did 6ou MMMMMMMMM that MMMMMMMMMH
2. AouBre going to a dangerous area. MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMMM &or 2uggers.
3. 5 have to MMMMMMM MMMMMMM on salt in 26 diet because o& 26 high blood pressure.
#. "e had to MMMMMMM MMMMMMM two trees to 2ake roo2 &or the new swi22ing pool.
1('
%. MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM o& the water > so2eone saw a shark.
'. he soldiers in the &ort couldnBt MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM against such a huge and power&ul ar26.
(. he 0nited States is MMMMMM MMMMMM o& people &ro2 2an6 di&&erent races and cultures.
8. 5t was too hard to work and go to school at the sa2e ti2e, so odd had to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM o&
college.
,. $ar2en can pa6 onl6 hal& o& the 2one6 she owes 2e, but )uis pro2ised to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM the
di&&erence.
11. / group o& concerned citiDens is de2anding that the police MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM on prostitution in
their neighborhood.
11. he bank robbers MMMMMMMMMMMMMM in a white sedan with 3lorida license plates.
12. "hen the President walks past 6ou, MMMMMMMM 6our hand MMMMMMMM and 2a6be heBll shake it.
13. 5 reall6 need a vacation. 5 havenBt MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM in three 6ears.
1#. 5 told 26 son that i& he canBt MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM o& trouble, 5B2 going to send hi2 to 2ilitar6 school.
1%. he airline pilots are MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM &or a 1% percent raise, and the6 will not accept an6thing
less.
1'. he storeBs closing in &ive 2inutes, so 6ou need to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM 6our 2ind about which pair o&
shoes 6ou want.
1(. /&ter &ourteen 6ears he thought he had MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM with the 2urder, but he was wrong.
18. /ll Ioe does is co2plain and criticiDe. 5 need to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM &ro2 hi2.
1,. 7ike didnBt co2e ho2e until #G31 in the 2orning, and his &ather was &urious that he MMMMMMM
MMMMMMMM so late.
21. Ce thinks heBs so s2art. 5 hope so2eone MMMMMMM hi2 MMMMMMM to siDe so2eda6.
21. =e care&ul about how 2uch 6ou spend > this 2one6 has to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM R until payday.
1((
22. =ob and 7arsha had a big argu2ent, but the6 MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM with each other and now
ever6thing is oka6.
23. he pro&essor warned the students that i& the6 2issed the &inal e<a2ination, the6 could not
MMMMMMMMitMMMMMMMM.
ECERCISE "*& ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith the correct secon! +artic%es$
1. he principal is going to crack down MMMMMMMM s2oking in the bathroo2.
2. 5& 6ou want to lose weight, cut down MMMMMMMM cake and cookies.
3. Ce dropped out MMMMMMMM college be&ore graduation.
#. /&ter Iake robbed the li.uor store, he was arrested and sent to +ail. Ce didnBt get awa6 MMMMMMMM
robbing the li.uor store.
%. he 3rench workers are holding outMMMMMMM a 111 percent raise and a two!da6 workweek.
'. here are a lot o& rattlesnakes around here, so watch out MMMMMMMM the2.
(. i226Bs 2other told hi2 to sta6 out MMMMMMMM the cookie +ar.
ECERCISE "*c ; =rite ans5ers to the >estions sin/ +hrasa% ver&s' +artici+%e
a!,ectives' an! nons .ro- this section$ Be sre the +hrasa% ver&s are in the
correct tense$
1. he union 2e2bers are on strike, and so2e will not go back to work unless the6 get the 11
percent raise the6 de2anded in the beginning. "hat are the union 2e2bers doingH
2. So2e union 2e2bers accepted a ( percent raise and went back to work, but not the union
2e2bers in Ouestion 1. "hat would 6ou call the union 2e2bers in Ouestion 1H
3. Ii2 and his sister had a big &ight, but the6 apologiDed to each other, and now ever6thing is oka6.
"hat did Ii2 and his sister doH
#. Iake stopped going to high school be&ore he graduated. "hat did Iake doH
%. 5n Ouestion #, what is IakeH
'. Aou considered bu6ing either a o6ota or a Nissan, and then 6ou 2ade 6our decision. "hat
did 6ou doH
(. 76 elbow is ver6 sore, so 26 doctor told 2e to pla6 less tennis. "hat did 26 doctor tell 2eH
1(8
8. 7ost o& the 8e2ocrats will vote in &avor o& the new law, but a &ew are resisting pressure to vote
6es. "hat are the 8e2ocrats who donBt want to vote 6es doingH
,. 5n Ouestion 8, what are the 8e2ocrats who donBt want to vote 6esH
11. 7r. and 7rs. *rtega went to a part6 and didnBt co2e ho2e until 3G11 /.7. "hat did the6 doH
11. he e<plorerBs suppl6 o& &ood and water has to last &or three 2onths. "hat does the e<plorerBs
suppl6 o& &ood and water have to do &or three 2onthsH
12. ;rik invented a &unn6 stor6 &or his daughter. "hat did ;rik doH
13. 5n Ouestion 12, ;rikBs &unn6 stor6 wasnBt true. Cow would 6ou describe itH
1#. 7r. 3lores cheats on his ta<es, but so &ar he hasnBt been caught. "hat has 7r. 3lores
done so &arH
1%. here are a log o& big trucks on the road, so when 6ou drive, 6ou have to be care&ul. "hat do
6ou have to do when 6ou driveH
1'. he police are going to start working harder to prevent cri2e. "hat are the police going
to doH
1(. 5n Ouestion 1', what can 6ou call the plan to work harder to prevent cri2eH
ECERCISE "*!' Revie5 ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith these +hrasa% ver&s .ro-
+revios sections$ Be sre the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$ To chec0
their -eanin/s' revie5 the section n-&er /iven a.ter each one$
ai2 at, 1, &all apart, 1( stand around, 18
believe in, 1' get through, 1' tell apart, 18
break through, 18 go &or, 1' think about, 1'
burn up, 22 grow out o&, 1( wipe up, 22
co2e over, 1( hold o&&, 1'
count up, 22 put past, 1'
1. 8o 6ou want these bab6 clothesH 76 daughter has MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM MMMMMMM the2.
2. 5tBs alwa6s a good idea to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM installing a new so&tware version until the6 get all
the bugs out.
1(,
3. 4et a paper towel and MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM the grape +uice 6ou spilled.
#. 5B2 not sure what 5 will do. 5 have to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM it.
%. 5 have a lot o& work to do, so 5 probabl6 wonBt MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM until #G11.
'. he twins look e<actl6 like each other. Cow do 6ou MMMMMMMM the2 MMMMMMMMH
(. he walls o& this &ort are ten &eet thick. No one could MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM.
8. "e &inished our card ga2e, and Sean MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM the points.
,. he new law is MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM reducing air pollution.
11. 5 need to &i< this table. 5tBs MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM.
11. -ac^tiel suggested 2oving to the suburbs, and her husband MMMMMMMM MMMMMMM the idea.
12. hat gu6Bs a lunatic. hereBs nothing 5 wouldnBt MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM hi2.
13. "eMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMthe old wood in the &ireplace.
1#. 76 niece is thirteen 6ears old, but she still MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM Santa $laus.
1%. he sign in the store window said the6 open at 11G11, but we had to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM until
11G21 be&ore the6 opened the doors.
1'. "ould 6ou like to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM to 26 house tonight and have dinnerH
2#. 3*$0S *NG +hrasa% ver&s se! as nons' "
/s we saw in Section %, two!word phrasal verbs are so2eti2es accented on the verb
and so2eti2es on the particle. wo!word nouns, however, are alwa6s accented on the
verb even i& it is the particle o& the two!word verb that is accentedG
verbG SHO= o.. nounG SHO=9o.. verbG s%o5
2O=N nounG SLO=!o5n
Infinitive
present tense &ing form past tense past participle
come down
come down < comes down coming down came down come down
($ co-e !o5n EtoF p.v. "hen so2eone 2oves toward 6ou to a lower level position, or &ro2 north to
south, that person co-es !o5n or co-es !o5n to where 6ou are. Co-e + is the opposite o&
co-e !o5n$
181
It(s been raining for an hourE It(s really coming down.
My friend from >anada comes down to visit us in "ew Me0ico once in a while.
"$ co-e !o5n p.v. "hen 6ou 2ove to a lower level sociall6 or &inanciall6 and receive less
respect &ro2 other people because o& this change, 6ou co-e !o5n in li&e.
$ank certainly has come down in life he lost his job, house, and family because of his gambling problem.
Mark used to be so successful, but now he has so many problems. $e has really come down in life.
co-e!o5n n$ A co-e!o5n is a 2ove to a lower level sociall6 or &inanciall6 that
causes 6ou to receive less respect &ro2 other people.
' few years ago he was the manager of this restaurant, but now he(s only a waiter what a
comedown.
*$ co-e !o5n EtoF p.v. "hen 6ou lower the price 6ou are asking &or so2ething, 6ou co-e
!o5n or co-e !o5n to a lower price.
; won(t buy her car unless she comes down to : *7,333.
The union won(t come down a nickel in its salary demands.
Infinitive
present tense &ing form past tense past participle
1et up
let up < lets up letting up let up let up
1. let up BonC p.v. .hen something becomes less strong, less intense, or less severe, it lets up.
The rain finally let up yesterday.
Mike(s parents are very strict with him. $e(s only a boy. They should let up on him.
letup n. . letup is a reduction in how strong, severe, or intense something is.
There was no letup in terrorist bombings after the peace treaty was signed.
print out
print out & prints out printing out printed out printed out
($ +rint $$$ot p.v. "hen 6ou 2ake a co2puter write so2ething on paper, 6ou +rint it
ot$
'fter I finished writing my letter, I printed it out and signed it.
I can=t print this out my printer is broken.
+rintot n. "hen 6ou 2ake a co2puter write so2ething on paper, the paper is a +rintot$
; put the printout of the =ctober sales report on the sales manager(s desk.
sha0e +
shake up < shakes up shaking up shook up shaken up
1. shake... up p.v. .hen something upsets, shocks, or frightens you badly, it shakes you up.
*K*
!eeing all those dead bodies sure shook me up.
I was really shaken up when I learned that my uncle had been killed.
sha0en + part.ad+. "hen so2ething upsets, shocks, or &rightens 6ou badl6, 6ou are
sha0en +$
)eave 3rank atone. Ce +ust got so2e bad news, and heBs a bit sha0en + about it.
"$ sha0e $$$+ p.v. "hen 6ou 2i< so2ething b6 shaking it, 6ou sha0e it +$
8ou have to shake up Italian dressing before you open the bottle.
5id you shake this can of paint up"
*$ sha0e$$$ + p.v. "hen 6ou 2ake 2a+or changes in an organiDation or business, 6ou
sha0e it +$
The new >/= shook up management at my company, and a lot of people lost their jobs or were transferred.
?eople are getting a little la6y around here. It(s time to shake things up.
sha0e9+ n. / 2a+or change in an organiDation or business is a sha0e9+$
There was a big shake-up at my company, and a lot of people lost their jobs or were transferred.
#nfinitive
present tense -ing form past tense past participle
show off
show off & shows off showing off showed off shown off
($ sho5$$$ o.. p.v. "hen 6ou sho5 o..' 6ou let people see so2ething 6ou have or
so2ething 6ou can do in a ver6 obvious and e<cessive wa6.
!ally(s boyfriend gave her a huge diamond engagement ring, and she showed it off to all her friends. The
boy was showing off by riding his bicycle with no hands when he fell and hurt himself.
sho59o.. n. So2eone who sho5s o.. is a sho59o..$
5id you hear 'lfonso speaking French at the party so everyone could hear1
.hat a show-off!
slow down
slow down & slows down slowing down slowed down slowed down
($ s%o5$$$ !o5n p.v. "hen so2ething causes people or things to do so2ething 2ore
slowl6, it s%o5s the2 !o5n$
I was driving pretty fast, but I slowed down after I saw the police car. ?roduction at the
factor% slowed down when half the workers got sick.
s%o5!o5n n. "hen people or things do so2ething 2ore slowl6, a s%o5!o5n occurs.
he snow caused a big s%o5!o5n on the highwa6 this 2orning.
182
#nfinitive
present tense -ing form past tense past participle
stop over
stop over & stops over stopping over stopped over stopped over
($ sto+ over p.v. "hen 6ou interrupt a +ourne6 Eusuall6 an airplane +ourne6F &or a short
sta6 so2ewhere, 6ou sto+ over$
5avid stopped over in Gondon on his flight from "ew 8ork to Moscow.
2topping over in 5ubai on the way to Aangkok wasn(t any fun we couldn(t even leave the airport.
sto+over n. "hen 6ou interrupt a +ourne6 &or a short sta6 so2ewhere, usuall6 an airplane
+ourne6, 6ou 2ake a sto+over$
/ &lew &ro2 5stanbul to Philadelphia with a &our!da6 sto+over in /2sterda2.
"$ sto+ over p.v. "hen 6ou visit so2eone &or a short ti2e, 6ou sto+ over$
.ould you like to stop over after dinner and see our vacation pictures1
>an you vacuum the living room, please1 The 8oungs are stopping over tonight, and I want the place to
look nice.
trade in
trade in & trades in trading in traded in traded in
($ tra!e $$$ in p.v. "hen 6ou give an old car or other piece o& e<pensive e.uip2ent to
so2eone 6ou are bu6ing a new car or piece o& e.uip2ent &ro2 in order to get a lower
price, 6ou tra!e the old car or piece o& e.uip2ent in$
'fter the twins were born, Naul traded his pickup truck in for a station wagon.
.e(ll get a good price on our new photocopier if we trade in our old one.
tra!e9in n. /n old car or piece o& e.uip2ent that 6ou tra!e in &or a newer one is a tra!e9
in$
Most of the used cars sold by dealers are trade-ins.
ECERCISE "6a ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith +hrasa% ver&s .ro- this section$ Be
sre the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$
1. AouBre driving too &ast. Please MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM.
2. MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM that bottle o& salad dressing be&ore 6ou open it.
3. he real estate agent sa6s he thinks the sellers will MMMMMM MMMMMM a little in their asking price.
#. 76 new car cost N2#,111, but 5 MMMMMMMM 26 old car MMMMMMMM &or N1%,111.
%. Ii2 is upstairs. /sk hi2 to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM here &or a 2inute, oka6H
'. MMMMMM MMMMMM in )ondon &or a &ew da6s on 6our wa6 to 5ndia is a good wa6 to get over +et lag.
183
(. 5 was prett6 MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM b6 the news, but now 5B2 oka6.
8. )uis MMMMMMMM his new car MMMMMMMM to his &riends 6esterda6.
,. he bo2bing continued &or &our da6s be&ore it &inall6 MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM.
11. )eticia used to be rich, but she lost all her 2one6 ga2bling, and now she canBt even pa6 her bills.
SheBs reall6 MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM in li&e.
11. "hen 6ou &inish writing that stor6, MMMMMMMM it MMMMMMMM and give it to 2e. 5 want to read it.
12. his co2pan6 was losing 2one6 until the new owners ca2e in and MMMMMMM things MMMMMMMM.
13. 5 have to clean the house because Pat and 7ike 2ight MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM tonight.
ECERCISE "6& ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith nons .ro- this section$
1. 5 worked &or 26 co2pan6 &or thirt6!one 6ears be&ore 5 got &ired in the big MMMMMMMM.
2. 5 had a &our!hour MMMMMMMMMMM in )os /ngeles on 26 wa6 to Cawaii.
3. Nicole used to have her own co2pan6, and now sheBs driving a ta<i. hatBs .uite a MMMMMMMM.
#. he wind blew all night without an6 MMMMMMMMMMMM.
%. New car dealers usuall6 have a lot o& MMMMMMMMMMM &or sale at low prices.
'. he snow caused a big MMMMMMMMMMMM on the interstate this 2orning.
(. /&ter the co2puter &inished with the data, 5 took the MMMMMMMMMMMM upstairs to the sales depart2ent.
8. CeBs lost a lot o& weight, and now he wears reall6 tight pants ever6da6. "hat a MMMMMMMMM he is.
ECERCISE "6c ; =rite three sentences sin/ the o&,ects in +arentheses$ Be sre to +t
the o&,ects in the ri/ht +%ace$
*. The rain slowed down. Btraffic;itC
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
7. $e printed out. Bhis letter, itC
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
2. The bad news has shaken up. B)im and "ancy, themC
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
H. I got :D,333 for trading in. Bmy old car, itC
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
D. >helsea(s parents showed off. Bher perfect report card, itC
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
ECERCISE "6! ; =rite ans5ers to the >estions sin/ +hrasa% ver&s' +artici+%e
a!,ectives' an! nons .ro- this section$ Be sre the +hrasa% ver&s are in the
correct tense$
*. 'fter the computer finished the calculations,E printed the answers on a piece of paper. .hat did I do1
2. 5n Ouestion 1,what would 6ou call the paper with the answersH
3. oddBs &riend in 7innesota is going to visit odd in New *rleans. "hat is oddBs &riend going to
doH
H. "ed walks around without a shirt so the girls can see his muscles. .hat does "ed do1
D. In Puestion H, what is "ed1
18%
'. "hen 5 bu6 26 new car, 5Bll give the dealer 26 old car so that 5 can get a lower price on the new
car. "hat will 5 do with 26 old carH
(. 5n Ouestion ', what would 6ou call 26 old carH
8. he new boss &ired a lot o& e2plo6ees, hired new e2plo6ees, and 2ade a lot o& changes. "hat
did the new boss doH
,. 5n Ouestion 8, what would 6ou call what the new boss didH
1. Sandra used to be 2arried to a prince, but now sheBs divorced and broke. "hat has
Sandra doneH
1. 5n Ouestion 11, what would 6ou call what happened to SandraH
12. 5t rained &or two weeks straight be&ore it stopped. "hat did the rain doH
13. 5n Ouestion 12, what would 6ou call what the rain didH
#. here was a big accident on the highwa6 6esterda6 2orning, and tra&&ic was aw&ul. "hat did the
accident do to the tra&&icH
%. 5n Ouestion 1#, what would 6ou call the tra&&ic situationH
1'. Aou &lew &ro2 8enver to 7ia2i, but 6ou had to spend a &ew hours in /tlanta on the wa6. "hat did
6ou do in /tlantaH
1(. 5n Ouestion 1', what would 6ou call 26 visit to /tlantaH
18. 7ike saw a terrible accident this 2orning while he was driving, and it upset hi2 a lot. "hat did the
accident do to 7ikeH
1,. 5n Ouestion 18, how would 6ou describe 7ike a&ter he saw the accidentH
ECERCISE "6e' Revie5 ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith these nons .ro-
+revios sections$ To chec0 their -eanin/s' revie5 the section n-&er
/iven a.ter each one$
backup, 11 drop!o&&, 11 &ollow!up, 11 tr6out, 11 crackdown, 23
dropout, 23 lineup, 18 workout, 11
1. he doctor said 5 was cured, but he wants 2e to see hi2 in a 6ear &or a MMMMMMMMMM.
18'
2. 8rugs are getting to be a big proble2 in 26 sonBs school. 5 think itBs ti2e &or a MMMMMMMM.
3. "hen 5 was nineteen, 5 was a MMMMMMMMMMMMM with no &uture, but then 5 got s2art and &inished school.
#. /&ter the accident, the hu2an cannonball was dropped &ro2 the circus MMMMMMMMMMMM.
%. he MMMMMMMMMMMMMM &or the basketball tea2 will be ne<t Saturda6 at 11G11 /.7.
'. Ianice +ust got back &ro2 the g62, and sheBs reall6 e<hausted &ro2 her MMMMMMMMMMMM.
(. 5 use the progra2 on the hard disk, but 5 have a MMMMMMMMMMMMMM on a &lopp6.
8. =usiness at the restaurant used to be good, but there was a big MMMMMMMMMMMMMM a&ter that case o&
&ood poisoning.
ECERCISE "6.' Revie5 ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith these +hrasa% ver&s .ro-
+revios sections$ Be sre the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$ To chec0
their -eanin/s' revie5 the section n-&er /iven a.ter each one$
bring over, 1, go be6ond, 18 look around, 21 tell on, 1%
cool o&&, 1, hang up, , settle down, 21 watch out, 23
count up, 22 hold out, 23 sta6 out, 23 wipe up, 22
&igure on, 18 li&t up, 1, step on, 21
1. Aoung 2an, i& 6ou donBtMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM o& trouble at school, 5B2 going to send
6ou to 2ilitar6 school:
2. hese suitcases are so heav6 5 can barel6 MMMMMMMM the2 MMMMMMMM.
3. / good histor6 book doesnBt si2pl6 tell 6ou what happened, it MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM.
that and tells 6ou wh6.
#. odd got in trouble with his 2other a&ter he broke a window and his sisterMMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM hi2.
%. 5& 6ouBre going to that bad neighborhood late at night, please be care&ul and MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM &or
2uggers.
'. hat 2useu2 is huge. 5& 6ou want to see ever6thing, 6ou should MMMMMMMM MMMMMMM spending the
entire da6 there.
(. his co&&eeBs wa6 too hot. $an 6ou get 2e an ice cube so 5 can MMMMMMM it MMMMMMMH
18(
8. hat co2pan6 wants to hire 2e, but 5B2 MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM &or 2ore 2one6.
,. 76 brother is going to visit tonight, and heBs MMMMMMMM his &iancee MMMMMMMM.
11. 5Bve never been to this store be&ore? 5 want to MMMMM MMMMM and see what the6 have.
11. 76 husband was ver6 angr6 when our thirteen!6ear!old daughter ca2e ho2e at #G11 in the
2orning, so 5 told hi2 to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM and let 2e talk to her.
12. "e had onl6 twent6 2inutes to get to the airport, so we told the ta<i driver to MMMMMMM
MMMMMMMMit.
13. /&ter the votes were MMMMMM MMMMMMM, Senator 8olittle was declared the winner.
1#. i226, get a paper towel and MMMMMM MMMMMM this +uice 6ou spilled on the &loor.
1%. )eticia said good!b6e and MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM the telephone.
"7$ FOCUS ON< +hrasa% ver&s an! have to' have
got to, an! must
$ave to, have got to, and must have two i2portant uses in ;nglish. *ne is &a2iliar to
2ost students, the other is not.
=ut be&ore discussing that, letBs pa6 special attention to have got to. Cave to and have
got to 2ean e<actl6 the sa2e thing. =oth are co22onl6 used, and both are acceptable
standard ;nglish. Cave to derives &ro2 have, and have got to derives &ro2 have got. So
wh6 the got in have got toH / good .uestion. 4ot in have got to 2eans nothing and
serves no purpose whatever. Cave got to is a uni.ue, idio2atic variation o& have to.
here is no point in tr6ing to understand the gra22ar o& have got to because there isnBt
an6. )ike other idio2s, it 2ust si2pl6 be 2e2oriDed. hough have to and have got to
2ean the sa2e thing, their &or2s are di&&erent, especiall6 in .uestions and negative
sentences. 5n the e<a2ples below, the contracted &or2s are the 2ost co22on in
ever6da6 spoken ;nglishG
state2en
tG
Aou have to co-e !o5n$ Aou have got to co-e !o5n.
Aou have to co-e !o5n$ AouBve got to co-e !o5n.
.uestionG 8o 6ou have to co-e !o5nH Cave 6ou got to co-e !o5nH
negativeG Aou do not have to co2e down. Aou have not got to co-e
!o5n.
Aou donBt have to co2e down. Aou havenBt got to co-e !o5n.
Re>ire-ent
Cave to, have got to, and 2ust are both used to sa6 that so2ething is re.uired,
necessar6, 2andator6 > there is no choice in the 2atterG
188
8ou have to make up the test.
8ou(ve got to make up the test.
8ou must make up the test.
/lthough 2ost students learn this use o& 2ust earl6 in their studies, it is actuall6 the
least co22on wa6 to use 2ust. =oth have to and have got to are 2uch 2ore
co22onl6 used &or this purpose.
Near certaint3
he other i2portant use o& have to, have got to, and 2ust is to sa6 that so2ething is ,,
percent certain > that based on the &acts and based on what we see and know, no
other conclusion is possible about so2ething. "e are ,, percent certain, and all we
need is con&ir2ation to be 111 percent certainG
)anice, you have been working for *7 hours without a break. 8ou have to be tired. B' logical assumption, but until
)anice confirms that she is tired, the speaker cannot be *33 percent certain.C
; would never take that book out of this room. It(s got to be here somewhere. B' logical assumption, but until the
speaker finds the book, he cannot be *33 percent certain that it is in the room.C That man is from )apan. I(ve never
spoken with him, but he must speak )apanese. B' logical assumption, but until the speaker hears the man speaking
)apanese, he cannot be *33 percent certain.C
.hen have to, have got to, and must are used in this way, it is must that is more common than the others.
$ave to and have got to, when used for this purpose, have greater emphasis and are used for dramatic
effect#
Mark has to be the biggest idiot in the entire world.
.here is Gydia1 !he(s got to be here somewhere.
Infinitive%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
present tense &ing form past tense past participle
do with
($ !o 5ith p.v. Jused onl6 in the in&initive &or2K "hen 6ou sa6 that one thing has so2ething
to !o 5ith another, 6ou 2ean there is a connection between the two.
5on(t blame me for what happened@ I had nothing to do with it.
I(m not sure what this part does, but I think it must have something to do with the transmission.
have on
have on & has on having on had on had on
($ have$$$ on p.v. "hen 6ou wear so2ething, such as an ite2 o& clothing, per&u2e, or
cos2etics, 6ou have it on$
!ally had red pants and a blue shirt on.
I didn(t have a raincoat on and I got all wet.
*KL
"$ have$$$ on p.v. "hen 6ou have an electrical device on' 6ou are using it.
Gast summer was so cool that we had the air conditioner on only two or three times.
.hat(s that sound1 5an must have the radio on.
#nfinitive
present tense -ing form past tense past participle
hurr% up
hurr% up & hurries up hurr%ing up hurried up hurried up
($ hrr3 + p.v. "hen 6ou hrr3 up, 6ou do so2ething .uickl6.
"icole has to hurr% up if she(s going to finish her work before D#33.
If we don(t hurr% up we(re going to miss the beginning of the movie.
"$ hrr3$$$ + p.v. "hen 6ou hrr3 so2ething +' 6ou do it 2ore .uickl6. "hen 6ou hrr3
people up, 6ou urge the2 to do so2ething 2ore .uickl6. "hen 6ou sa6 ?Hrr3 up,@ to people,
6ou are telling the2 to do so2ething 2ore .uickl6.
/veryone was really hungry, so I asked our cook to hurr% dinner up.
There were only five minutes left to finish the test, so the teacher hurried the students up. ,urr%
up! I(m not going to wait for you all day.
knock over
knock over & knocks over knocking over knocked over knocked over
($ 0noc0$$$ over p.v. "hen 6ou 0noc0 people or things over' 6ou use &orce to 2ake the2 &all
to a horiDontal position.
The force of the e0plosion knocked me over.
The children were playing, and they knocked the lamp over.
lighten up
lighten up & lightens up lightening up lightened up lightened up
($ %i/hten + EonF p.v. Jin&or2alK "hen 6ou %i/hten + or %i/hten + on people, 6ou beco2e
less harsh or less strict in 6our treat2ent o& the2.
8ou(re awfully hard on your daughter. Maybe you ought to lighten up on her.
8ou(ve been critici6ing me all day. .ill you please lighten up"
"$ %i/hten $$$+ p.v. "hen 6ou %i/hten up, 6ou change the sub+ect o& conversation &ro2
so2ething serious to so2ething 2ore cheer&ul and pleasant.
/nough talk about business. Get(s lighten things up around here. 1ighten it up you(ve
been talking about death and ta0es all night.
plan ahead
plan ahead & plans ahead planning ahead planned ahead planned ahead
($ +%an ahea! p.v. "hen 6ou +%an ahead, 6ou plan &or a &uture situation or activit6 so that 6ou
will not have a proble2 then. P%an ahea! is si2ilar to thin0 ahea!$
)anice is a good manager. !he always plans ahead in case there(s a problem.
1,1
3lan ahead you don(t want any problems when you(re 733 miles from the nearest town.
#nfinitive
present tense -ing form past tense past participle
settle for
settle for & settles for settling for settled for settled for
($ sett%e .or p.v. "hen 6ou sett%e .or so2ething, 6ou accept it even though it 2a6 not be
e<actl6 what 6ou want or need.
The strikers wanted an K percent pay increase, but they settled for D percent.
5r. !mith has very high standards. $e won(t settle for second best.
think up
think up & thinks up thinking up thought up thought up
($ thin0$$$ + p.v. "hen 6ou think up so2ething, such as an idea, solution, or plan, 6ou use
6our i2agination to create it.
; have to think up a way to solve this problem.
Maria thought up a great way to make some e0tra money.
!top worrying I(ll think something up.
ECERCISE "7a ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith +hrasa% ver&s .ro- this section$ Be sre
the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$
1. "eBre going to be late i& 6ou donBt MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM.
2.1 told the store 2anager that 5 wanted a &ull re&und and that 5 wouldnBt MMMMMMMM ? MMMMMMM an6thing
else.
3. 7r. "ol&e MMMMMMMM a white suit MMMMMMMM last night.
#. IoeBs been angr6 all da6. 5 wish heBd MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM.
%. he truck hit the light pole and MMMMMMMM it MMMMMMMM.
'. Aou have to talk to so2eone in the shipping depart2ent about 6our 2issing order. 5 have nothing
toMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMshipping.
(. 5& 6ouBre going on an i2portant business trip, 6ou should MMMMMMMMM MMMMMMM so 5 that 6ou donBt
&orget so2ething 6ouBll need later.
8. Iake is tr6ing to MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM a wa6 to 2ake 2one6 without working.
,. 4o upstairs and MMMMMMMM 6our sister MMMMMMMM. 5B2 a&raid sheBs going to be late &or school.
11. "eBve been talking politics all night. )etBs MMMMMMMM things MMMMMMMM, oka6H
11. 5 like to MMMMMMMM the radio MMMMMMMM when 5 go to bed.
1,1
ECERCISE "7& ; =rite ans5ers to the >estions sin/ +hrasa% ver&s .ro- this
section$ Be sre the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$
1. $harles wore a red shirt 6esterda6. "hat did $harles doH
2. Sean wants a 1% percent raise, and he wonBt accept less. "hat wonBt Sean doH
3. 8r. "ood is thinking about the i2portant 2eeting she will go to ne<t week so that she will be
read6. "hat is 8r. "ood doingH
#. Iake hit Ierr6 so hard that Ierr6 &ell to the &loor. "hat did Iake do to Ierr6H
%. Ned told odd to work 2ore .uickl6. "hat did Ned tell odd to doH
'. 5 got a letter about 26 inco2e ta<es. "hat was the letter aboutH
(. Sergeant Iones has been 6elling at the soldiers all da6. "hat should Sergeant Iones doH
8. =ett6 needs a Calloween costu2e, and sheBs using her i2agination to create one. "hat is =ett6
doingH
ECERCISE "7c ; =rite ei/ht ori/ina% sentences sin/ +hrasa% ver&s .ro- this
section$
1. MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
2. MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
3. MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
#. MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
%. MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
'. MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
(. MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
8. MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
ECERCISE "7!' Revie5 ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith these +artici+%e a!,ectives .ro-
+revios sections$ To chec0 their -eanin/s' revie5 the section n-&er /iven a.ter
each one$
burned up, 22 lined up, 18 ripped up, 1( Dipped up, 21
cleared up, 22 2ade!up, 23 shaken up, 2#
dried out, 1% paid up, 22 war2ed up, 1,
heated up, 22 plugged up, 22 worn down, 1(
1,2
1. 5tBs &reeDing outside > 2ake sure 6our coat is MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM.
2. 8onBt start driving 6et? the carBs not MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM.
3. "e talked about the proble2, and now ever6thing is MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM.
#,1 need lotion? 26 skin is reall6 MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM.
%. Cank is such a liar. 8onBt believe an6 o& his MMMMMMMM e<cuses.
'. /&ter 5 give =ill ten bucks, 5 wonBt owe hi2 another penn6. 5Bll be totall6 MMMMMMMM MMM.
(. Pat was prett6 MMMMMMMMMMM a&ter the accident.
8. =ill was &urious at his e<!wi&e, and now all his photos o& her are MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM and in the
garbage.
,. People are MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM &or three blocks to bu6 "orld Series tickets.
11. 8onBt drink that co&&ee > itBs not MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM.
11.1 canBt s2ell or taste an6thing? 26 nose is all MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM.
12. 5 was reall6 MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM a&ter he took 26 calculator without asking 2e and then lost it.
13. he heels o& 26 old cowbo6 boots are MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM. 5 need to get the2 &i<ed.
ECERCISE "7e' Revie5 ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith these +hrasa% ver&s .ro-
+revios sections$ Be sre to se the correct tense$ To chec0 their -eanin/s' revie5
the %esson n-&er /iven a.ter each one$
call in,% hand out, 11 screw on, 12 stop over, 2#
clear up, 22 hook up, , show o&&, 2# trade in, 2#
co2e down, 2# let up, 2# slow down, 2# war2 up, 1,
go back, 1, print out, 2# stick up, 1#
1. he car dealer is asking N2(,111 &or the car 5 want, but 5 think he 2ight MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM to
N2#,111.
2. "hile 6ou go to the librar6, 5Bll go to the grocer6 store, and weBll MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM at the corner in
one hour.
3. =e sure 6ou MMMMMMMM the top o& that 2ustard +ar MMMMMMMM tightl6.
#. ;rik checks the ti2e ever6 &ive 2inutes so that he can MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM his new -ole< watch.
1,3
%. 7ike wasnBt at work toda6. CeMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMsick.
'. "hen =ill &lies to )os /ngeles, he alwa6s MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM in =angkok.
(. he car dealer said heBll give 2e a good deal i& 5 MMMMMMM MMMMMMM 26 old car.
8. "e MMMMMMMM the notices MMMMMMMM all over town.
,. he 2e2o &ro2 the personnel o&&ice MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM a lot o& con&usion about the new vacation
polic6.
11. his weather is terrible. 5 wonder i& this stor2 is ever going to MMMMMM MMMMMM.
11. urn the heater on, and the roo2 will MMMMMMMM right MMMMMMMM.
12._BNanc6 was driving too &ast, so 5 told her to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM.
13. he teacher wonBt MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM the tests until the students are .uiet.
1#. /&ter 6ou &inish writing 6our report,MMMMMMMM itMMMMMMMM and give it to 2e.
1%. PaulBs &ro2 $olo2bia, but he hasnBt MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM there &or seven 6ears.
"8$ 3*$0S *NG +hrasa% ver&s an! the a!ver& bac
he adverb back is so2eti2es used with phrasal verbs to 2ean again. he &ollowing sentences
have the sa2e 2eaningG
"e /ot to/ether again. "e /ot
back to/ether$
=ack is alwa6s placed directl6 be&ore the particle. "hen back is used with separable phrasal
verbs, the ob+ect 2ust separate the verb and particle, and back 2ust be placed between the
ob+ect and the particleG
/ put the engine back together. # put back
together the engine.
8o not con&use the adverb back, which 2odi&ies phrasal verbs, with the particle back that is
part o& so2e phrasal verbs Eand has the sa2e 2eaning o& againF.
#nfinitive
present tense -ing form past tense past participle
get together
get together & gets together getting together got together gotten/got together
/et to/ether EwithF p.v. "hen two people /et to/ether' the6 2eet and spend ti2e together.
"hen 6ou /et to/ether with so2eone, 6ou 2eet and spend ti2e with
1,#
that person. "hen a 2an and wo2an resu2e a relationship a&ter separating, the6 /et back
to/ether$
If you(re not busy tomorrow night, would you like to get together"
.e(re going to get together with Aill and "ancy tomorrow.
)udy and !am had separated, but now they(ve gotten back together.
/et9to/ether n. /n in&or2al gathering is a /et9to/ether$
I(m having a little get-together tonight. .ould you like to come1
"$ /et$$$ to/ether p.v. "hen 6ou /et things to/ether' 6ou collect the2 so the6 are in the
sa2e place.
8ou should get all your tools together so you will have them when you need them.
Ginda got all her ta0 records together to show to her accountant.
*$ /et$$$ to/ether p.v. Jin&or2alK "hen 6ou /et 6oursel& to/ether' or /et it to/ether' 6ou
gain control o& 6our e2otions a&ter 6ou have beco2e upset or e2otional.
Aob was very upset before the party, but he got it together before the guests came.
$ey, get yourself togetherE /veryone is watching you.
Infinitive
present tense &ing form past tense past participle
go over
go over < goes over going over went over gone over
($ /o over EtoF p.v. "hen people 2ove &ro2 where 6ou are to a place, thing, or person
that is &arther awa6 &ro2 6ou, the6 /o over or /o over to that place, thing, or person.
I(m busy. /o over there and stop bothering me.
I was hot, so Maria went over to the window and opened it.
"$ /o over EtoF p.v. "hen 6ou go to so2eoneBs house &or a visit, 6ou /o over or /o over
to that personBs house.
$ave you gone over to "icole(s house to see her new baby yet1
I went over to /rik(s for dinner last night.
*$ /o over p.v. "hen 6ou care&ull6 read or review i2portant written 2aterial, 6ou /o over
it.
$ere(s a maga6ine article I just finished writing. /o over it and tell me what you think.
The actor went over his lines before the audition.
/oin/9over n. "hen 6ou e<a2ine or inspect so2ething care&ull6, 6ou give it a /oin/9
over$
I gave his report a good going-over and found a lot of mistakes.
6$ /o over p.v. "hen 6ou care&ull6 e<plain so2ething, usuall6 so2ething that is
co2plicated but i2portant, 6ou /o over it.
1,%
Aefore the trial $ank and his lawyer went over what $ank was going to say.
"o one understood the manager(s plan after he e0plained it, so he went back over it.
7$ /o over p.v. "hen an idea, suggestion, or per&or2ance is accepted and liked b6 other
people, it /oes over$
!enator 5olittle(s plan to raise ta0es didn(t go over with the voters.
The sinaer(s performance went over well with the critics.
Infinitive
present tense &ing form past tense past participle
go up
go up < goes up going up went up gone up
($ /o + EtoF p.v. "hen 6ou 2ove to a higher level or position, or &ro2 south to north, 6ou /o
+ or /o + to that place. Eo !o5n is the opposite o& /o +$
!u6ie came down from her tree house to eat lunch, but she went back up after she finished.
I spend the winters in Me0ico, and go up to my home in =hio in the summer.
"$ /o + EtoF p.v. "hen the cost, rate, .ualit6, .uantit6, or level o& so2ething increases, it
/oes +$ Eo !o5n is the opposite o& /o +$
The price of gas hasn(t gone up in two years.
In the summer the temperature in !audi 'rabia can go up to *7D degrees.
*$ /o + EtoF p.v. "hen a schedule or plan ends at a certain ti2e or date, the schedule or
plan /oes + to that ti2e or date.
5o you have the new schedule1 This one goes up only to the end of 'pril.
The teacher gave the students a syllabus that went up to the midterm.
6$ /o + EtoF p.v. "hen so2ething e<tends to a certain point that is &arther north or at a
higher elevation, it /oes + to that point. Eo !o5n is the opposite o& /o +$
This trail went up to the base camp at the foot of the mountain.
Interstate D goes up to !eattle.
7$ /o + EtoF p.v. "hen 6ou approach a person, 6ou /o + to that person.
There(s !arah, /o up and introduce yourself.
)anice isn(t shy she went right up to the president of the company and asked for a raise.
let in on
let in on & lets in on letting #n on let in on let in on
($ %et$$$ in on p.v. "hen 6ou tell people in&or2ation that is secret or not widel6 known, 6ou %et
that person in on the in&or2ation.
Ieneral >hambers let me in on the top secret information.
I(m going to let you #n on something not many people know about me.
1,'
Infinitive%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
present tense -ing form past tense past participle
open up
open up & opens up opening up opened up opened up
($ o+en $$$+ p.v. "hen 6ou o+en so2ething up, 6ou reveal what is inside so that people
can see it.
!ofia opened the bo0 up and looked inside.
Mike(s going to open up his computer to try to find the problem.
"$ o+en $$$ + p.v. "hen 6ou o+en a roo2 or building +' 6ou unlock or open the doors so
that people can enter.
The office closes at *7#33 for lunch and opens back up at *#33.
The manager was late and didn(t open up the store until *3#23.
*$ o+en $$$ + p.v. "hen a new business starts, it o+ens + or is o+ene! + b6 so2eone.
; was driving through town, and I noticed that a new book store has opened up on Maple !treet.
)immy wants to open up a restaurant near the new office building.
put together
put together & puts together putting together put together put together
($ +t$$$ to/ether p.v. "hen 6ou asse2ble the parts o& so2ething, 6ou +t it
to/ether$ Pt to/ether is the opposite o& ta0e a+art$
!ally got a bicycle for her birthday, and her father put it together after dinner.
It was easy taking my car(s engine apart, but putting it back together was a lot harder.
"$ +t$$$ to/ether p.v. "hen 6ou organiDe so2e ideas, plans, or suggestions in order
to show the2 to so2eone or discuss the2 with so2eone, 6ou +t the2 to/ether$
Mr. and Mrs. Flores want to redecorate their house, so they asked an interior designer to put some ideas together.
I have an interesting idea for a new business, and I(m putting together a proposal.
*$ +t$$$ to/ether p.v. "hen 6ou position people or things so that the6 are close to each
other or touching, 6ou +t the2 to/ether$
The teacher told Timmy and Mike to put their desks together so they could work on their project.
.hen you plan your dinner party seating arrangement, put $eather and )immy together.
shut off
shut off & shuts off shutting off shut off shut off
($ sht$$$ o.. p.v. "hen 6ou sht o.. an electrical or 2echanical device, 6ou cut the power going to
it so that it stops operating. Trn o.. and s5itch o.. are si2ilar to sht o..$
1,(
Timmy(s mother told him to shut off the TV and go to bed.
I(m free6ing. .ould you mind shutting the air conditioner off"
sht o.. part.ad+. /&ter 6ou sht o.. an electrical or 2echanical device, it is sht o..$
Trne! o.. and s5itche! o.. are si2ilar to sht o..$
.ell, no wonder it(s so cold in here the heat(s shut off.
shto.. n. "hen 6ou sht o.. so2ething, or when so2ething shts o..' this action is a
shto..$ "hen 6ou sht o.. so2ething, 6ou use the shto.. switch, button, valve, and so
on.
The electricity shutoff lasted twenty minutes.
In case of emergency, turn this shutoff valve here.
start up
start up & starts up starting up started up started up
>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>
($ start ...up p.v. "hen an electrical or 2echanical device starts + or so2eone starts it
+' it begins to operate.
My car(s engine died at a red light, and it wouldn(t start up again.
8ou push this button here to start the computer up.
start9+ n. "hen 6ou start + so2ething, or so2ething starts +' this action is a
start9+$ "hen 6ou start + so2ething, 6ou use the start9+ switch, button, and soon.
To start the computer up push this start-up button.
If your computer(s hard disk crashes, you can use a floppy as the start-up disk.
"$ start$$$ + p.v. "hen 6ou start + a new business or co2pan6, 6ou take the steps
necessar6 to begin a new business or co2pan6.
8ou should have a detailed business plan before starting a business up.
)ane borrowed the money she needed to start up her business from her uncle.
start9+ n$ A start9+ or start9+ business or co2pan6 is a new business or
co2pan6.
>ost start-up businesses aren(t successful.
ECERCISE "8a ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith +hrasa% ver&s .ro- this section$ Be
sre the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$
1. Aour i2portant papers are all over the house. Aou should MMMMMMMM the2 MMMMM and keep
the2 in a sa&e place.
2. 5t was so cold this 2orning that it took hal& an hour to MMMMMMMM 26 car MMMMMM.
3. his is aw&ull6 co2plicated. $ould 6ou MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM it one 2ore ti2eH
#. he police ordered the people in the house to MMMMMMMM the doorMMMMMMMM.
1,8
%. he sergeant MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM the hill to look &or the ene26 soldiers.
'. he account e<ecutive was asked to MMMMMMMM so2e ideas MMMMMMMM &or a new advertising ca2paign.
(. 5B2 tr6ing to sleep. "ould 6ou please MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM the lightsH
8. )inda saw her &avorite 2ovie star, but she was too sh6 to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM to hi2 and ask &or his
autograph.
,. 5Bll MMMMMMMM 6ou MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM a little secret.
11. 5B2 going toMMMMMMMMMMMto oddBs house to help hi2 with his 2ath ho2ework.
11. his calendar is useless>itMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMonl6 to /ugust.
12. hank 6ou &or 6our application. 5 willMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMit care&ull6 and call
6ou in a &ew da6s.
13. his +igsaw puDDle has 1,111 pieces. 5tBll take &orever to MMMMMMMM it MMMMMMMM.
1#. 5& that big discount store MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM outside o& town, all these little shops will go out o&
business.
1%. he level o& water in the river alwa6s &alls during the su22er but MMMMMMMM back MMMMMMMM the ne<t
spring.
1'. Sa2Bs idea o& giving all the workers a 11 percent pa6 raise didnBt MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMMwell with
2anage2ent.
1(. 5 know 6ouBre upset, but 6ou have to MMMMMMMM 6oursel&MMMMMMMM.
18. *n Saturda6 nights 7ike usuall6 MMMM MMMMM with so2e &riends and pla6s poker.
1,. /s soon as we arrived at the part6, 8avid MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM to the bu&&et table and grabbed a plate.
21. "ithout the co2bination, thereBs no wa6 to MMMMMMMM this sa&e MMMMMMMM.
21. MMMMMMM all 6our Spanish books MMMMMMMM on the sa2e shel&.
22. his road MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM to the ne<t town, but thatBs where it ends.
23. 5Bll need around N2%,111 to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM 26 new business.
1,,
ECERCISE "8& ; =rite three sentences sin/ the o&,ects in +arentheses$ Be sre to
+t the o&,ects in the ri/ht +%ace$
1. 5 wish the6 would open up near 2e. Ea branch o&&ice, oneF
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
7. Gydia put together, Bthe food processor, itC
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
3. 8o 6ou know how to shut o&&H Ethe photocopier, itF
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
H. ?ush this button to start up. Bthe generator, itC
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
ECERCISE "8c ; =rite ans5ers to the >estions sin/ +hrasa% ver&s an! nons
.ro- this section$ Be sre the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$
*. Frank read my report carefully. .hat did Frank do to my report1
7. In Puestion *, what did Frank give my report1
3. Iud6 walked toward the king, stopped ne<t to hi2, and gave hi2 the petition. "hat did Iud6 do
to the kingH
#. 7ike told 2e a secret. "hat did 7ike doH
D. Aill and some friends are going to meet and spend some time together. .hat are Aill and his friends going to do1
211
J. In Puestion D, what is this activity called1
M. My computer begins to operate from the hard disk. .hat does my computer do from the hard disk1
8. 5n Ouestion (, what would 6ou call the hard diskH
L. The mayor(s plan to fight crime in the streets was very successful with the voters. .hat impression did the mayor(s plan have
on the voters1
*3. The heater stops operating automatically when the temperature reaches a certain point. .hat does the heater do
automatically1
**. In Puestion *3, what is the temperature that makes the heater stop operating called1
*7. 8ou Fuit your job so that you could begin your own company. .hy did you Fuit your job1
*2. In Puestion *7, what would you call your new company1
*H. 8ou assembled all the parts of your model airplane. .hat did you do to your model airplane1
*D. This airplane schedule gives flight times until 5ecember 2*. .hat does the airplane schedule do1
*J. The supermarket unlocks its doors and lets people in at M#33 '.M. every day. .hat does the supermarket do at M#33
'.M. every day1
ECERCISE "8!' Revie5 ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith these +hrasa% ver&s .ro-9K
+revios sections$ Be sre the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$ To chec0 their
-eanin/s' revie5 the section n-&er /iven a.ter each one$
do with, 2% have on, 2% look over, 21 settle &or, 2%
end up, 21 hurr6 up, 2% pick on, 21 show o&&, 2#
go o&&, 21 knock over, 2% plan ahead, 2% take out on, 21
go on, 21 lighten up, 2% put on, 1 think up, 2%
*. I(m asking :*3,333 for my car, but I(ll %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% :K,D33.
7. That new manager is really hard on the employees. $e ought to %%%%%% %%%%%%.
2. 't the supermarket, Tom hit the stack of bo0es with his shopping cart and %%%%%%%% them %%%%%%%%.
73*
#. "e had planned to go to 3rance on our vacation, but we MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM going to Spain
instead.
%. "ill 6ou MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM: 5& we donBt leave soon weBre going to be late.
'. 7ark hates his +ob, and he co2es ho2e ever6 night and MMMMMMMM it MMMMMMM MMMMMMMM his
&a2il6.
(. 76 doctor got the test results &ro2 the lab, and she MMMMMMMM the2 MMMMMMMM ver6 care&ull6.
8. MMMMMMMM 6our coat MMMMMMMM. 5tBs cold outside.
,. 8onBt wait until the last 2inute to 2ake 6our vacation airline reservations. Aou have to MMMMMMM
MMMMMMMM.
11. he detective didnBt believe that the gun had MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM accidentall6.
11. 5 hated 26 older brother when 5 was a kid. Ce alwa6s MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM 2e.
12. Cow are we going to get N%11 in two da6sH "e need to MMMMMM MMMMM a good plan.
13. 5 didnBt understand ever6thing the co2puter shop gu6 said, but it had so2ething to MMMMMMMM
MMMMMMMM 2e2or6.
1#. Ii2 tries to answer ever6 .uestion the teacher asks. CeBs alwa6sMMMMM MMMMMM.
1%. hat 2eeting was so boring. 5t see2ed like it was going to MMMMM MMMMM &orever.
1'. he police o&&icer 2ust be o&& dut6? he doesnBt MMMMMMMM his uni&or2 MMMMMMMM.
":$ FOCUS ON< +hrasa% ver&s 5ith the +artic%e
off an! the a!ver& right
he particle o&& is used in 2an6 phrasal verbs to sa6 that so2ething is separated or
re2ovedG
he cup handle &ro0e$ Ehe handle is broken, but it is still attached to the cup.F he
cup handle &ro0e o..$ Ehe handle is no longer attached to the cup.F
-ight, discussed in Section 1,, is o&ten used with these phrasal verbs to indicate that
the action o& the verb happened .uickl6G
212
Ce 5ashe! the dirt o..$ Ehe dirt was re2oved.F Ce 5ashe! the
dirt right o..$ Ehe dirt was re2oved .uickl6.F
-e2e2ber that right can be used in this wa6 onl6 a&ter an ob+ect that separates the
verb and the particleG
$e washed the dirt right off. $o
washed right off the dirt.
#nfinitive
present tense -ing form past tense past participle
bite off
bite off & bites off biting off bit off bitten off
($ &ite$$$ o.. p.v. "hen 6ou bite o&& so2ething, 6ou use 6our teeth to re2ove a piece. "hen
6ou &ite o.. 2ore than 6ou can chew, 6ou agree to do so2ething that 6ou do not have the
ti2e or the abilit6 to do.
The lion bit off a huge piece of the 6ebra(s flesh.
8ou can(t finish that huge project by tomorrow. I think you(ve bitten off more than you can chew.
break off
break off & breaks off breaking off broke off broken off
($ &rea0$$$ o.. p.v. "hen so2ething &rea0s o.. or so2eone &rea0s so2ething o..' a part
or s2aller piece is separated &ro2 so2ething larger b6 &orce.
)im broke off a piece of chocolate and gave it to his girlfriend.
=ne of the arms broke off the statue when it fell off the pedestal.
&ro0en o.. part.ad+. /&ter so2ething &rea0s o..' it is &ro0en o..$
The handle of the coffee cup is broken off.
($ &rea0$$$ o.. p.v. "hen 6ou &rea0 o.. relations or contact with so2eone, 6ou decide to
end relations or contact with that person.
The two countries broke off relations with each other.
I was so angry at my in&laws that I broke off alt contact with them.
dr% off
dr% off & dries off dr%ing off dried off dried off
($ !r3$$$ o.. p.v. "hen so2ething !ries o.. or 6ou !r3 so2ething o..' water or other
li.uids that are on it evaporate.
It rained for only a few minutes, so the streets dried off Fuickly.
Geave your wet clothes outside and let the sun dr% them off.
!rie! o.. part.ad+. /&ter so2ething has !rie! o..' it is !rie! o..$
They can(t play baseball because the field isn(t dried off.
! 213
#nfinitive
present tense -ing form past tense past participle
knock off
knock off & knocks off knocking off knocked off knocked off
($ 0noc0$$$ o.. p.v. "hen 6ou 0noc0 so2ething o..' 6ou either accidentall6 or deliberatel6 use
&orce to 2ake it &all &ro2 a place above the ground to the ground below.
!usie knocked a glass off the table and broke it.
The cat knocked the clock off the shelf.
"$ 0noc0 o.. p.v. Jin&or2alK "hen 6ou 0noc0 o..' 3o &inish working.
I Fuit working at D#33 last night, but !ean didn(t knock off until K#23.
8ou(ve been working all day. .hy don(t you knock off"
*$ 0noc0$$$ o.. p.v. Jin&or2alK "hen 6ou sa3 ?Knoc0 it o..? to people, 6ou want the2 to stop
doing so2ething that is bothering 6ou.
If you don(t knock it off you(ll be sorry.
I(m tired of listening to you critici6e me. ?nock it off!
6$ 0noc0$$$ o.. p.v. "hen 6ou 0noc0 so2ething o..' 6ou 2ake so2ething .uickl6 and not ver6
care&ull6.
The artist knocked off a Fuick sketch and gave it to the waiter.
5an prefers writing novels, but he sometimes knocks off a maga6ine article to make a few bucks.
7$ 0noc0$$$ o.. p.v. Jin&or2alK "hen 6ou 0noc0 people o..' 6ou kill the2.
)ake was sent to prison for knocking off his brother&in&law.
Mario was the head of a gang of criminals until he was knocked off by a rival.
tear off
tear off & tears off tearing off tore off torn off
($ tear$$$ o.. p.v. "hen 6ou use &orce to re2ove a piece o& so2ething that is &le<ible
> paper, cloth, and so on > 6ou tear it o..$
/ tore off a coupon for fro6en pi66a at the supermarket.
'le0 always tears the tags off his shirt collars.
torn o.. part.ad+. /&ter so2ething has been torn o..' it is torn o..$
There aren(t any more coupons. They(re alt torn off.
wash off
wash off & washes off washing off washed off washed off
($ 5ash $$$ o.. p.v. "hen 6ou 5ash so2ething o.. or 5ash the dirt o.. so2ething, 6ou use
water and soap to re2ove dirt or unwanted ite2s &ro2 a sur&ace.
Mike washed off his car.
Mike washed the dirt off his car.
73H
5ashe! o.. part.ad+. /&ter 6ou 5ash so2ething o.. or 5ash the dirt o.. so2ething, it is
5ashe! o..$
The maid said she had washed the grease off the wall, but the wall didn(t look washed off to
me.
Infinitive
present tense &ing form past tense past participle
wear off
wear off < wears off wearing off wore off worn off
($ 5ear o.. p.v. "hen the sur&ace o& so2ething is graduall6 re2oved b6 &riction or e<posure to
the ele2ents so that what is beneath the sur&ace is e<posed, the sur&ace 5ears o..$
8ou could see the wood where the paint had worn off.
The gold wears off this cheap jewelry right away.
5orn o.. part.ad+. /&ter so2ething has worn o&&, it is 5orn o..$
These ancient temples used to be very colorful, but now all the paint is worn off.
"$ 5ear o.. p.v. "hen the e&&ects o& drugs or alcohol graduall6 go awa6, the6 5ear
o..$
The wounded soldier was in great pain after the morphine wore off.
$e(s going to have a big headache after the vodka wears off.
*$ 5ear o.. p.v. "hen an e2otional &eeling graduall6 goes awa6, it 5ears o..$
'fter the shock of getting fired wore off I started to get angry.
.hen I met )im I fell in love immediately, but that wore off Fuickly as I got to know him better.
wipe off
wipe off & wipes off wiping off wiped off wiped off
($ 5i+e $$$o.. p.v. "hen 6ou co2pletel6 re2ove a li.uid &ro2 a sur&ace b6 2oving a towel or
sponge across it with a sweeping 2otion, 6ou 5i+e the sur&ace o&&. Aou can either 5i+e o..
so2ething that is wet or 5i+e o.. the li.uid. =i+e + is si2ilar to 5i+e o..J however, 6ou 5i+e
+ a li.uid, but 6ou 5i+e o.. the sur&ace the li.uid is on.
(ipe off your face.
(ipe the food off your face.
5i+e! o.. part.ad+. /&ter so2ething has been 5i+e! o..' it is 5i+e! o..$ hat
table doesnBt looked 5i+e! o.. to 2e. =i+e it o.. again.
ECERCISE ":a ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith +hrasa% ver&s .ro- this section$ Be sre
the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$
1. -a.uel MMMMMMMM a piece o& paper MMMMMMMM and wrote her phone nu2ber on it.
2. /&ter 5 washed the windows, 5 MMMMMM the2 MMMMMM with so2e old newspapers.
21%
3. Ierr6 has to &inish a lot o& work be&ore he goes ho2e, so he probabl6 wonBt MMMMMMMM
MMMMMMMM until late.
#. 5t rained last night, so donBt pla6 outside until the grass MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM.
%. =e care&ul when 6ou &eed horses. he6 can MMMMMMM 6our &inger right MMMMMMM.
'. he doctor said the sedative would MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM a&ter &our or &ive hours.
(. he shop owner was a&raid to MMMMMMMM the gang gra&&iti MMMMMMMM his wall.
8. /&ter Iake MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM Cank, he was charged with 2urder.
,. 8uring the stor2, a tree branch MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM and &ell on the roo&.
11. Aoustwo kids have been arguing all da6. MMMMMMMM it MMMMMMMM right now:
11. 5 canBt use this old t6pewriter an62ore. he painted letters have MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM the ke6s.
12. he two sides couldnBt agree on a solution, and the negotiations MMMMMMMM
13. 5Bll tr6 to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM a &ew 2ore pages o& 26 book be&ore 5 go to bed.
1#. 5t was a long ti2e be&ore the shock o& his brotherBs death MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM.
1%. 8onBt put 6our glass o& wine so close to the edge o& the table. So2eone 2ight MMMMMM
itMMMMMMMM.
ECERCISE ":& ; =rite three sentences sin/ the o&,ects in +arentheses$ Be sre to
+t the o&,ects in the ri/ht +%ace$ Use ri/ht 5ith >estions " an! 8$
1. /le< has bitten o&&. Ethe head o& the gingerbread 2an, itF
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
2. he 2overs broke o&&. Ethe cup handle, itF
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
21'
2. ?lease dry off. Bthe dishes, themC
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
#. 8onBt knock o&&. Ethe ash tra6, itF
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
D. >an I tear off1 Bthese mattress tags, themC
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
J. The +anitor washed off. Bthe blood, itC
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
M. !he didn(t wipe off. Bthe milk, itC
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
ECERCISE ":c ; =rite ans5ers to the >estions sin/ +hrasa% ver&s an!
+artici+%e a!,ectives .ro- this section$ Tr3 to se ri/ht 5ith so-e o. the
ans5ers$ Be sre the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$
1. 5 used water to re2ove the 2ud &ro2 26 car. "hat did 5 do to 26 carH
2. i226 &orcibl6 re2oved the propellers o& 26 2odel airplane. "hat did i226 do to 26 2odel
airplaneBs propellersH
3. 5n Ouestion 2, how would 6ou describe the 2odel airplaneBs propellersH
21(
#. Aou put 6our ar2 in the water, and the shark re2oved it with its teeth i22ediatel6. "hat did the
shark do to 6our ar2H
%. Aou could see that the ring wasnBt solid gold because the brass under the gold was visible.
"hat happened to the goldH
'. 5n Ouestion %, how would 6ou describe the goldH
(. 5 accidentall6 hit the la2p with 26 ar2, and it &ell to the &loor. "hat did 5 do to the la2pH
8. Aou used a paper towel to re2ove the glass cleaner &ro2 the 2irror. "hat did 6ou do to the
2irrorH
,. 5n Ouestion 8, how would 6ou describe the 2irror a&ter 6ou re2oved the glass
cleanerH
11. Aou have to re2ove the water &ro2 the table be&ore 6ou paint it. "hat do 6ou have to
do to the table be&ore 6ou paint itH
11. 5n Ouestion 11, how would 6ou describe the table a&ter the water is re2ovedH
12. Aou re2oved the gi&t wrapping paper &ro2 the gi&t. "hat did 6ou do to the gi&t wrapping paperH
13. 5n Ouestion 12, a&ter using &orce to re2ove the gi&t wrapping paper, how would 6ou
describe the wrapping paperH
ECERCISE ":!' Revie5 ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith these +hrasa% ver&s .ro-
+revios sections$ Be sre the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$ To chec0
their -eanin/s' revie5 the section n-&er /iven a.ter each one$
clear up, 22 go up, 2' open up, 2' shut o&&, 2'
co2e down, 2# heat up, 22 pa6 up, 22 start up, 2'
eat up, 22 let in on, 2' plug up, 22 think ahead, 21
go over, 2' let up, 2# put together, 2' trade in, 2#
1. 5& 5 donBt co2e up with N231 b6 3rida6, the6Bre going to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM 26 electricit6.
2. he gu6 &ro2 the collection agenc6 de2anded that 7iguel MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM i22ediatel6.
218
3. 5t rained &or &ort6 da6s and &ort6 nights be&ore it MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM.
#. 5& 6ou had MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM,6ou would have ever6thing 6ou need now.
%. "e had a lot o& .uestions about our school pro+ect, but the teacher MMMMMMMM the2 MMMMMMMM.
'. 7ark said his audition didnBt MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM well, and he doesnBt think heBll get the part.
(. Soldiers are trained to take their ri&les apart and MMMMMMMM the2 back MMMMMMMM.
8. 5 think N1%,111 is a little high &or that car. 5& 6ou MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM a little, 5 2ight be interested.
,. he police closed the illegal casino, but it MMMMMMMM right back MMMMMMMM a &ew da6s later.
11. No one at the part6 ate the carrot sticks, but the6 MMMMMMMM the shri2p right
11. 5 hate using the stove on reall6 hot su22er da6s? itMMMMMMMMthe whole house MMMMMMMM.
12. he 2ini2u2 wage hasnBt MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM in 2ore than three 6ears.
13. he senator MMMMMMMM her aides MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM her plan to run &or the presidenc6.
1#. 5 doubt i& 5Bll get 2uch i& 5 MMMMMMMM this old car MMMMMMMM.
1%. he engine MMMMMMMM right MMMMMMMM when 5 turned the ke6.
1'. 76 daughter put one o& her stu&&ed ani2als in the toilet and MMMMMMM it MMMMMMM.
21,
"#$ 3*$0S *NG +assive +hrasa% ver&s' "
"hen separable phrasal verbs are in the passive, the6 cannot be separated b6 the
ob+ect o& the verb because the ob+ect o& the active verb is the sub+ect o& the passive
sentence > there is no ob+ectG
active G Ii2 ca%%e! &ac0 7ike. passive
G
7ike was ca%%e! &ac0.
sub+ect ob+ect sub+ect
active G Ii2 ca%%e! 7ike &ac0.
sub+ect ob+ect
Infinitive
present tense &ing form past tense past participle
beef up
beef up < beefs up beefing up beefed up beefed up
($ &ee.$$$ + p.v. "hen 6ou &ee. + securit6 or so2e other arrange2ent to prevent or deal
with a proble2, 6ou 2ake this arrange2ent stronger.
'fter the terrorist attack, security was beefed up at the embassy.
The hospital decided to beef up its emergency facilities.
The coach is planning to beef the defense up.
&ee.e!9+ part.ad+. /&ter securit6 or so2e other arrange2ent to prevent or deal with a
proble2 has been 2ade stronger, it is &ee.e!9+$
The ambassador is confident that the beefed-up security will prevent any further terrorist attacks.
break up
break up & breaks up breaking up broke up broken up
($ &rea0$$$ + p.v. "hen 6ou &rea0 + a &ight, 6ou stop the &ight.
Two students were fighting, and the teacher broke them up.
There was no way I could break up the fight between the two dogs.
"$ &rea0$$$ + p.v. "hen a gathering o& people separates, it &rea0s +$ "hen the police tell
people who are gathered together in a crowd to separate and leave the area, the police &rea0
the gathering +$
The meeting should break up around 2#33.
The police ordered the gang members to break it up.
The demonstration was broken up by riot police.
*$ &rea0 $$$+ EwithF p.v. "hen two people end a ro2antic relationship, the6 &rea0 +$ "hen
6ou end a ro2antic relationship with another person, 6ou &rea0 + with that person. "hen
other people cause a couple to &rea0 +' the6 &rea0 the couple +$
I was sad to hear that )im and "ancy had broken up.
It was )im(s secretary who broke them up.
7*3
&rea0+ n. "hen two people end a ro2antic relationships &rea0+ occurs. Nanc6
is ver6 upset about the &rea0+$
6$ &rea0$$$ + p.v. "hen so2ething breaks into s2aller pieces, it &rea0s +$ "hen 6ou
break so2ething into s2aller pieces, 6ou &rea0 it +$
The meteor broke up when it entered /arth(s atmosphere.
!ally broke the cookie up before giving it to her baby.
&rea0+ n. "hen so2ething breaks into s2aller pieces, a &rea0+ takes place.
he &rea0+ o& /P created several s2aller telephone co2panies.
7$ &rea0$$$ + p.v. "hen so2ething &rea0s + the da6 or so2e other period o& ti2e, it
interrupts that ti2e and 2akes it less boring.
The bank guard likes to chat with the tellers once in a while to break up the day.
My day was broken up by a going&away party for one of my coworkers.
#nfinitive
present tense -ing form past tense past participle
call back
call back & calls back calling back called backed called back
($ ca%% $$$&ac0 p.v. "hen 6ou ca%% so2eone back, 6ou call a person on the telephone who has
called 6ou earlier.
)anice left a message asking me to call her back.
Aob was called back by the salesman.
"$ ca%%$$$ &ac0 p.v. "hen 6ou leave a place or walk awa6 &ro2 a person and are then asked to
return, 6ou are ca%%e! &ac0$
; remembered something after she walked away, and I called her back.
Mike handed his letter of resignation to his boss, but he was called back after he left the office.
call up
call up & calls up calling up called up called up
($ ca%% $$$+ p.v. "hen 6ou ca%% people up, 6ou call the2 on the telephone.
"icole called me up and asked me to come to her party. /very evening
I(m called up by charities asking for money.
carr% out
carr% out & carries out carr%ing out carried out carried out
($ carr3$$$ ot p.v. "hen 6ou carr6 out a dut6, task, assign2ent, or order, 6ou do it.
!ean will carry your duties out while you(re on vacation.
The boss was furious because his orders hadn(t been carried out.
"$ carr3$$$ ot Eo&F p.v. "hen 6ou carr3 so2ething ot o& a place, 6ou hold it in 6our hands and
take it &ro2 that place.
211
It took four guys to carr% the pool table out.
5avid was so drunk that we had to carr% him out of the bar.
carr3ot n. 3ood that 6ou take &ro2 a restaurant and eat in another place is carr3ot or
carr3ot &ood. Ta0eot and ta0eot &ood are the sa2e as carr3ot and carr3ot &ood.
.e usually take carr%out food when we go to visit 'unt 9athy.
Infinitive
present tense &ing form past tense past participle
give awa%
give away < gives away giving away gave away given away
($ /ive$$$ a5a3 p.v. "hen 6ou /ive so2ething a5a3' 6ou give it to so2eone without asking &or
an6thing in return because 6ou do not want it or because 6ou want to help the person 6ou are
giving it to.
This old furniture isn(t worth very much, so I think I(ll just give it awa%.
$e made nearly a billion dollars, but after he retired he gave most of his money awa%.
"$ /ive$$$ a5a3 p.v. "hen 6ou /ive a secret a5a3' 6ou accidentall6 reveal that
secret.
; haven(t seen that movie yet, so don(t give awa% the ending.
8ou can trust me with the secret. I haven(t given it awa%
*$ /ive$$$ a5a3 p.v. "hen 6ou /ive 6oursel& a5a3' 6ou accidentall6 reveal so2ething secret
about 6oursel&. "hen so2ething /ives 6ou a5a3' it accidentall6 reveals so2ething secret
about 6ou.
Mark tried to keep his affair a secret, but he was given awa% by his credit card bills.
Toad claimed he didn(t care about !ally anymore, but he gave himself away when he asked who she had
gone to the party with.
giveawa% n. . giveawa% is a statement or action that reveals secret information.
; knew I was going to be fired from my job when everyone stopped talking to me that was the
giveawa%.
mess up
mess up & messes up messing up messed up messed up
($ -ess$$$ + p.v. Jin&or2alK "hen 6ou -ess + a place, 6ou 2ake it dirt6 or
disorganiDed.
)im made spaghetti sauce, and he really messed up the kitchen.
8ou kids can play in the living room, but don(t mess it up.
-esse! + part.ad+. /&ter 6ou -ess + a place, it is -esse! +$
It looks like Timmy was the last one in the bathroom it(s really messed up.
"$ -ess$$$ + p.v. Jin&or2alK "hen 6ou -ess + a situation, 6ou create proble2s.
"hen 6ou -ess + a plan or arrange2ent, 6ou inter&ere with it and prevent it &ro2 happening as
planned. Mess + is si2ilar to scre5 +$
212
/verything was perfect until you messed it up.
=ur honeymoon was messed up by the airline strike.
-esse! + part.ad+. "hen 6ou inter&ere with a plan or arrange2ent and prevent it &ro2
happening as planned, it is -esse! +$ Messe! + is si2ilar to scre5e! +$
Aob changed my plan, and now it(s totally messed up.
#nfinitive
present tense -ing form past tense past participle
stand up
stand up & stands up standing up stood up stood up
($ stan! + p.v. "hen 6ou stan! up, 6ou change &ro2 a sitting position to a standing
position. Eet + is si2ilar to stan! +$
/veryone stands up when the judge enters the courtroom.
.hen the students are sleepy, the teacher makes them stand up.
"$ stan!$$$ + p.v. Jin&or2alK "hen 6ou stan! people up, 6ou do not arrive at their house
as 6ou have pro2ised or at a social event or 2eeting where 6ou are e<pected.
$eather had a date with )im last !aturday night, but she was stood up.
The senator was scheduled to speak at our meeting, but he stood us up.
ECERCISE "#a ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith +hrasa% ver&s .ro- this section$ Be
sre the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$
1. 5& 6ou MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM a long airplane &light into two or three shorter &lights, it isnBt as boring.
2. 76 workroo2 was clean and neat, but 26 brother did so2e work and he MMMMMMMM it MMMMMMMM.
3. 5tBs going to be a surprise part6, so donBt MMMMMMMM it MMMMMMMM.
#. he neighborhood council asked the police to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM their patrols in high cri2e
neighborhoods.
%. 5 havenBt talked to Sa2 in a long ti2e. 5 think 5Bll MMMMMMM hi2 MMMMMMM tonight.
'. he general e<pects his orders to be MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM i22ediatel6.
(. 5n so2e countries, students alwa6s MMMMMMM MMMMMMM when the6 speak in class.
8. he huge iceberg MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM when it dri&ted into war2er water.
,. =reaking 26 leg sure MMMMMMMM 26 ski trip MMMMMMMM.
11. Ianice didnBt co2e to 26 house last night as she pro2ised. She MMMMM 2e MMMMM.
213
11. i226 and his &riend were &ighting, and i226Bs 2other MMMMMMMM the &ight MMMMMMMM.
12. hese bo<es are reall6 heav6. $an 6ou help 2e MMMMM the2 MMMMM o& the houseH
13. /&ter the rall6 ended, the crowd .uickl6 MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM and went ho2e.
1#. 5B2 too bus6 to talk on the phone now. $an 6ou MMMMMMMM 2e MMMMMMMM laterH
1%. =ob clai2ed to have an e<cellent education, but he was MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM b6 his poor
gra22ar.
1'. 7ark is ver6 upset. Cis girl&riend +ustMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMwith hi2.
1(. Ii2 told the 4irl Scouts that he didnBt want to bu6 an6 cookies, but as the6 walked awa6 he
changed his 2ind and MMMMMMMM the2 MMMMMMMM.
18. 5nstead o& charging &or the so&tware progra2, the co2pan6 decided to MMMMMMMM it MMMMMMMM
&ree.
ECERCISE "#& ; =rite three sentences sin/ the o&,ects in +arentheses$ Be
sre to +t the o&,ects in the ri/ht +%ace$
1. he "hite Couse bee&ed up. Esecurit6, itF
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
2. he police are breaking up. Ethe protest, itF
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
3. / trained technician ought to carr6 our. Ethe e<peri2ent, itF
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
#. he &oundation gave awa6. Ethe 2one6, itF
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
21#
D. !usie always messes up. Bthe bathroom, itC
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
J. Todd stood up. B$eather, herC
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
ECERCISE "#c ; =rite ans5ers to the >estions sin/ +hrasa% ver&s an!
+artici+%e a!,ectives .ro- this section$ Ma0e a%% the +hrasa% ver&s +assive$
1. 8r. "ood will do the test o& the new drug. "hat will happen to the testH
2. he statue was s2ashed b6 thieves. "hat happened to the gold statueH
3. he children 2ade the house dirt6 and disorganiDed. "hat happened to the houseH
#. 5n Ouestion 3, how would 6ou describe the houseH
%. 7ikeBs &riend pro2ised to co2e to his house, but he didnBt. "hat happened to 7ikeH
J. 9aren called !arah, but !arah was at school. !arah didn(t call 9aren later. .hat didn(t happen to 9aren1
(. / super2arket chain gave the &ood to charit6 and didnBt receive an6 2one6 &or it. "hat happened
to the &oodH
8. he palace is 2aking securit6 stronger. "hat is happening to securit6 at the palaceH
,. 5n Ouestion 8, how would 6ou describe the securit6 nowH
11. he personnel 2anager will call all the candidates &or the +ob. "hat will happen to all the
candidates &or the +obH
21%
ECERCISE "#!' Revie5 ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith these +hrasa% ver&s .ro-
+revios sections$ Be sre the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$ To chec0
their -eanin/s' revie5 the section n-&er /iven a.ter each one$
back up, 11 &i< up, 1% rip up, 1( tear down, 8
blow awa6, 1% hand out, 11 stick up, 1# track down, 13
cut o&&, 11 hold up, ( take in, ( use up, 1#
drop o&&, 11 la6 o&&, 11 take out, 11 wake up, 11
1. he hard disk is MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM b6 the co2puter operator ever6 da6.
2. he old buildings are being MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM to 2ake roo2 &or a new o&&ice building.
3. he isnBt an6 paper in the copier. So2eone MMMMMMMM it MMMMMMMM.
#. )ast night 5 was MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM b6 a loud noise.
%. 5 canBt believe 5 was naive enough to be MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM b6 hi2.
'. he librar6 book 5 wanted had alread6 been MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM.
(. So2ething a2aDing happened 6esterda6. Aou are going to be MMMMMMMM MMMMMMM when 5 tell 6ou
about it.
8. /&ter the old house had been MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM, it looked a lot better.
,. 7an6 e2plo6ees are reall6 worried that the6Bre going to be MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM.
11. 5 was talking to 26 brother on the phone when 5 was suddenl6 MMMMMM MMMMMM.
11. 76 shirt was MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM when 5 &ell o&& 26 bic6cle.
12. he entire building is MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM b6 these &our steel bea2s.
13. he pa2phlets will be MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM in train stations and airports.
1#. he li.uor store wasMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMagain last night.
1%. he &il2 wasMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMat the photo lab.
1'. he escaped prisoner was easil6 MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM b6 the 3=5 agents.
21'
"D$ FOCUS ON< +hrasa% ver&s an! might' may'
an! can
Possi&i%it3< -a3 an! -i/ht
=oth 2a6 and 2ight are used to e<press a 2ediu2 level o& possibilit6. "hen 2a6 and
2ight are used to e<press possibilit6 in the present or &uture, their 2eaning is the sa2e,
but 2a6 has a slightl6 2ore &or2al sound. 7ight is slightl6 2ore co22on in ever6da6
/2erican ;nglishG
"ancy might drop in tonight. "ancy may
drop in tonight.
he speaker believes that the possibilit6 that Nanc6 will !ro+ in and the possibilit6 that
she will not !ro+ in are appro<i2atel6 e.ual.
Re>ests< -a3 an! -i/ht
=oth 2a6 and 2ight are used to 2ake re.uests. 7a6 has a &or2al sound, and is less
co22on than 2ight. $an is the 2ost co22on in /2erican ;nglishG
2ost co22onG $an 5 !ro+ in tonightH
&or2alG 7a6 5 !ro+ in tonightH ver6 rareG
7ight 5 !ro+ in tonightH
Per-ission< -a3 an! can
7a6 and can are also used to give per2ission. 5n this case, 2a6 is 2uch 2ore &or2al
and is 2uch less co22on than can. 7ight is not used &or this purposeG
8ou can drop in after dinner. 8ou may
drop in after dinner.
Infinitive
present tense &ing form past tense pastStidple
ask for
ask for < asks for asking for asked for asked for
($ as0$$$ .or p.v. "hen 6ou as0 .or so2ething, 6ou tell so2eone that 6ou want it.
.e asked the waiter for some more coffee.
My wife might ask for more vacation time instead of a raise.
"$ as0 .or p.v. "hen 6ou sa6 that people are as0in/ .or so2ething or as0in/ .or it, 6ou 2ean that
the6 are doing or sa6ing so2ething that is likel6 to result in punish2ent or a negative conse.uence.
I(m warning you if you keep doing that, you(re asking for trouble.
8ou(re asking for itE 5on(t say that again.
21(
Infinitive
present tense &ing form past tense past participle
come apart
come apart < comes apart coming apart came apart come apart
($ co-e a+art p.v. "hen so2ething co-es apart, the parts separate because it is old or in
bad condition or because the parts were not strongl6 connected to each other.
This toy airplane is such a piece of junk that it came apart in my hand.
Ae careful with this old book. It(s coming apart.
drop in
drop in & drops in dropping in dropped in dropped #n
%L!ro+ in EonF p.v. "hen 6ou !ro+ in on people, 6ou visit the2 une<pectedl6.
If you(re ever in my neighborhood drop in.
!ally dropped in on Marsha last night.
flip out
flip out & flips out flipping out flipped out flipped out
($ .%i+ ot p.v. Jin&or2alK "hen 6ou .%i+ out, 6ou beco2e ver6 upset or ver6 angr6.
Aob flipped out when the city doubled his property ta0es.
9eep your hands off )im(s computer he(ll flip out if you screw it up.
look out
look out & looks out looking out looked out looked out
($ %oo0 ot E&orF p.v. "hen 6ou %oo0 ot or %oo0 ot &or so2ething, 6ou re2ain alert &or
so2eone or so2ething that is dangerous or i2portant. "hen 6ou tell people to %oo0 ot' 6ou
are warning the2 o& possible danger. Loo0 ot is the sa2e as 5atch ot$
1ook out for bears when you camp in the mountains.
There(s a lot of ice on the road, so look out.
%oc0ot n$ A %oc0ot is so2eone who %oo0s ot &or so2eone or so2ething that is
dangerous or i2portant.
The burglars had lockouts on every corner to warn them if the police came.
luck out
luck out & lucks out lucking out lucked out lucked out
($ %c0 ot p.v. Jin&or2alK "hen 6ou %c0 ot' so2ething good happens to 6ou or 6ou avoid
so2ething bad happening to 6ou.
Todd lucked out when he found that lottery ticket on the ground@ it was a : * million winner.
I missed my flight, and the plane crashed. I guess I lucked out.
218
#nfinitive
present tense -ing form past tense past participle
make out
make out & makes out making out made out made out
($ -a0e $$$ot p.v. "hen 6ou can -a0e so2ething out, 6ou can see it or hear it even though it
is di&&icult to do so.
The audio system is so bad in the bus station that I can never make out what the speakers are saying. I think that
might be a mountain goat up there near the top of the mountain. I can just barely make it out with these binoculars.
7. make... out p.v. ,always used with +to be+- .hen you make people or things out to be a certain way or a certain
thing, you describe or consider them to be this way or to be this thing.
!top complaining my food isn(t as bad as you make it out to be.
The critics made the film out to be a real bore, but I liked it.
*$ -a0e$$$ ot EtoF p.v. "hen 6ou write the necessar6 in&or2ation on the &ront o& a check, 6ou
-a0e the check ot$ "hen 6ou write the na2e o& a person, co2pan6, or other organiDation
on the check, 6ou -a0e the check ot to that person, co2pan6, or organiDation.
$ow should I make this check out"
There must be a mistake@ this check is made out to my brother, not to me.
"ancy made a check out to the I?! for : *M,333.
made out part.adj. 'fter the necessary information has been written on the front of a check, the check is made out.
Is the check made out or is it blank1
6$ -a0e ot EonF p.v. "hen 6ou -a0e ot or -a0e ot on so2ething, 6ou do
so2ething success&ull6 or survive a situation even though it 2a6 be di&&icult.
9aren had a job interview yesterday. I wonder how she made out.
/ven though )erry has lost his job, we(ll make out somehow.
$ow did you make out on the test yesterday1
run across
run across & runs across running across ran across run across
($ rn across p.v. "hen people or things rn across a place, roo2, or building, the6
2ove &ro2 one side to the other ver6 .uickl6.
The receiver ran across the field and caught the ball.
It(s cra6y to run across the street through the traffic instead of waiting for the light.
"$ rn across p.v. "hen 6ou rn across people or things, 6ou see or &ind the2
without planning or e<pecting to. Co-e across is si2ilar to rn across$
21,
; don(t go to that supermarket anymore because I may run across my e0&husband. Aob ran across
one of his army buddies at the baseball game.
ECERCISE "Da ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith +hrasa% ver&s .ro- this section$
Be sre the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$
1. $an 6ou tell 2e what this sa6sH 5 canBt MMMMMMM it MMMMMMM without 26 glasses.
2. he store weBre going to is on the right side o& the street, so MMMMMM MMMMMM &or it.
3. Aou didnBt &i< this ver6 well? itBs alread6 MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM again.
#. *ka6, 5Bll give 6ou the 2one6. "ho should 5 MMMMMMMM the check MMMMMMMM toH
%. 5B2 going to be in 8anBs neighborhood to2orrow, so 5 2ightMMMMMMMMMMMMMM on hi2 &ora .uick
visit.
'. /nnBs going to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM when she sees this cigarette burn on her anti.ue table.
(. Sall6 thinks she MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM oka6 on her driving test.
8. 5 wasnBt surprised when 5 MMMMMM MMMMMM Sa2 at the beach? he goes there a lot.
,. hatBs enough: 5& 6ou donBt stop bothering 2e, 6ouBreMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM it.
11. / police o&&icer stopped 2e &or going &ort6 2iles over the li2it, and all he did was give 2e a
warning. 5 reall6MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM.didnBt 5H
11. ;ver6 night people call and MMMMMM MMMMMM 2one6 &or one charit6 or another.
12. )eticia was right about that restaurant. 5t was +ust as good as she MMMMMMMMM it MMMMMMMM to
be.
ECERCISE "D& ; =rite ans5ers to the >estions sin/ +hrasa% ver&s an!
+artici+%e a!,ectives .ro- this section$ Be sre the +hrasa% ver&s are in the
correct tense$
1. Aou got ver6 upset when 5 wrecked 6our car. "hat did 6ou doH
2. i226 2ight tell Santa $laus that he wants a new bic6cle. "hat 2ight i226 doH
3. 5 une<pectedl6 2et 26 college roo22ate at the airport this 2orning. "hat did 5 do at the
airport this 2orningH
#. o2 wrote all the necessar6 in&or2ation on the check. "hat did o2 doH
221
%. 5n Ouestion #, how would 6ou describe the check a&ter o2 wrote all the necessar6
in&or2ation on itH
'. =ett6 isnBt e<pecting 2e, but 5 2ight go to her house this evening to visit her. "hat 2ight 5 do to
=ett6H
(. he pieces o& this chair are beco2ing separated. "hat is the chair doingH
8. Aou didnBt have 6our ho2ework read6, but the teacher didnBt &ind out because she &orgot
to ask 6ou &or it. "hat did 6ou doH
,. 5 canBt read what that sign sa6s because itBs so &ar awa6. "hat canBt 5 doH
11. SusieBs &ather told her to be care&ul about cars when she rides her bic6cle in the street. "hat did
SusieBs &ather tell her to doH
ECERCISE "Dc ; =rite ei/ht ori/ina% sentences sin/ +hrasa% ver&s .ro-
this section$
1.MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
2.MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
3.MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
#.MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
%.MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
'.MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
(.MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
8. MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
crackdown, 23 handover, 1, start!up, 2' war2!up, 1,
cuto&&, 11 holdout, 23 stickup,1#
&i<er!upper, 1% shuto&&, 2' takeout, 11
1, he co2pan6 is accepting applications &or the position until the MMMMMMMMMMM date, March Jth.
77*
2. / MMMMMMMMMMM be&ore e<ercise is a good idea.
3. "e bought a MMMMMMMMMMM, &i<ed a &ew things, added a bathroo2, and sold it a 6ear later &or a nice
pro&it.
#. 7o2 doesnBt &eel like cooking tonight, so weBre getting MMMMMMMMMMM &ood.
%. ;<cept &or a &ew MMMMMMMMMMM hiding in the hills, all the rebels surrendered a&ter the peace treat6.
'. he angr6 citiDens de2anded a MMMMMMMMMMM on cri2e in their neighborhood.
(. 7ost business MMMMMMMMMMM &ail in less than three 6ears.
8. 5& tideBs a proble2 with the 2achine, the MMMMMMMMMMM switch is right here.
,. he pri2e 2inister de2anded the i22ediate MMMMMMMMMMM o& the hostages.
11. he convenience store MMMMMMMMMMM was recorded on videotape.
ECERCISE "De' Revie5 ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith these +hrasa% ver&s .ro-
+revios sections$ Be sre the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$ To chec0
their -eanin/s' revie5 the section n-&er /iven a.ter each one$
break up, 28 do with, 2% go up, 2' settle &or, 2%
call back, 28 dr6 o&&, 2( knock o&&, 2( stand up, 28
call up, 28 give awa6, 28 lighten up, 2% think up, 2%
carr6 out, 28 go over, 2' 2ess up, 28 Dip up, 21
1. he teacher was too strict with her students, and the principal suggested that she MMMMMMMM.
2. o2 was e<pecting Nanc6 to co2e to his house &or dinner, but she MMMMMMMM hi2 MMMMMMMM.
3. )etting i2i!n6 use 26 co2puter was a 2istake. Ce MMMMMMMM it MMMMMMMM, and now it doesnBt
work.
#. he6Bre asking N3#1,111 &or their house, but the6 2ight MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM N311,111.
%. 5 told the school principal that Cank 2ight have so2ething to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM the &ish in the
swi22ing pool.
222
'. /ndrew $arnegie was a ver6 rich 2an, but he MMMMMMMM 2ost o& his 2one6 MMMMMMMM be&ore he
died.
(. 5 gave ;rik 26 telephone nu2ber, and he said he 2ight MMMMMMMM 2e MMMMMMMM tonight.
8. ;rik called while 5 was in the shower, so now 5 need to MMMMMMM hi2 MMMMMMMM.
,. /&ter the Soviet 0nion MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM in 1,,1, several new nations ca2e into e<istence.
11. he coach is worried that the rain!soaked &ootball &ield 2ight not MMMMMMMM MMMMMMM in ti2e &or
the ga2e.
11. he co2pan6 is planning toMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMa 2a+or reorganiDation.
12. 8onBt put the candle there? the cat 2ight MMMMMMM it MMMMMMM and start a &ire.
13. he students didnBt understand the lesson, so the teacher MMMMMM MMMMMM it again.
1#. 5tBs reall6 cold out there > 6ou 2ight want to MMMMMMMM 6our coat MMMMMMMM.
1%. he "ilsons arenBt sure where the6 will spend their vacation. he6 2a6 MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM to
/laska to visit their son.
1'. NedBs a drea2er. CeBs alwa6s tr6ing to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM a wa6 to 2ake 2one6 without
working.
*)$ FOCUS ON< +artici+%e a!,ectives .or-e! .ro-
+hrasa% ver&s' "
/s we saw in Section 1#, the past participles o& 2an6 phrasal verbs can be used as participle
ad+ectives. he adverb all is so2eti2es used to e2phasiDe participle ad+ectives with the 2eaning
o& ver6 or co2pletel6. =ut the sentence 2ust be logical > all is used onl6 to e2phasiDe a
participle ad+ective that describes a condition that can be partial, less than co2plete, and so on.
)ook at this e<a2ple with ver6 and two ordinar6 ad+ectivesG
2akes senseG CeBs ver6 sick. does not 2ake
senseG CeBs ver6 dead.
he &irst sentence above 2akes sense because it is possible to be ver6 sick, but the
second does not 2ake sense because it is not possible to be ver6 dead.
223
2akes senseG he 2an is all s+ace!9ot$ does not
2ake senseG he 2an is all %oc0e! in$
he &irst sentence 2akes sense because it is possible to be slightl6 s+ace!9ot' but
it is not possible to be slightl6 %oc0e! in Ea door is either locked or it isnBtF.
"hen all is used with the 2eaning o& ver6 or co2pletel6 in a sentence with a
plural sub+ect, it is identical in appearance to allBs 2ore co22on 2eaning o& all the
people, all the things, and so on.
The men are a;; spaced-out.
his sentence is a2biguousG it could be understood to 2ean that ever6 2an is
s+ace!9ot or that the 2en are co2pletel6 s+ace!9ot$
#nfinitivte
present tense -ing form past tense past participle
lock in
lock in & locks in locking in locked in locked in
($ %oc0$$$ in p.v. "hen 6ou %oc0 people in' 6ou lock a door or gate so that the6 cannot
leave a roo2, building, or other place.
!even people died because they were locked in the burning building.
It(s dangerous to lock children in a car.
%oc0e! in part.ad+. "hen people cannot leave a roo2, building, or other place
because the door or gate is locked, the6 are %oc0e! in$
"eBre %oc0e! in > weBll have to break a window.
"$ %oc0$$$ in p.v. "hen 6ou %oc0 in an interest rate, price, ti2e slot, and so on, 6ou 2ake it
de&inite so that it will not change in the &uture.
; met with the loan officer at the bank and locked in a mortgage rate.
If you want to use the condo at the beach this weekend, you need to pay a deposit to lock it in.
%oc0e! in part.ad+. /&ter 6ou 2ake an interest rate, price, ti2e slot, and so on, de&inite so that
it will not change in the &uture, it is %oc0e! in$
The farmer isn(t worried about what happens to the price of soybeans because the price of his crop is
locked in.
1ock out
lock out & locks out locking out locked out locked out
($ %oc0$$$ ot Eo&F p.v. "hen 6ou %oc0 people ot or %oc0 people ot o& a place, 6ou lock a
door or gate so that the6 cannot enter a roo2, building, or other place.
The 8oungs got home and found that their son had locked them out of their house.
I hide an e0tra key under the bumper of my car so that I won(t get locked out.
22#
%oc0e! ot part.ad+. "hen people cannot enter a roo2, building, or other place because
the door or gate is locked, the6 are %oc0e! ot$
.e(re locked out5 we(ll just have to wait outside until someone comes home.
"$ %oc0$$$ ot p.v. "hen a business %oc0s ot workers, the workers are prohibited &ro2
working b6 the business 2anage2ent.
Management locked the workers out after they refused to sign the new contract.
.hen the owners heard talk of a strike, they locked the employees out.
%oc0e! ot part.ad+. /&ter a business %oc0s ot workers in order to prohibit the2 &ro2
working, the workers are %oc0e! ot$
.e(re locked out. $ow can we earn a living1
%oc0ot n. "hen a business %oc0s ot workers in order to prohibit the2 &ro2 working, it is
a %oc0ot$
The lockout lasted for three months.
Infinitive
present tense &ing form past tense past participle
punch
in
punch in < punches in punching in punched in punched in
($ +nch$$$ in p.v. "hen 6ou co2e to 6our workplace and put 6our ti2e card in the ti2e
clock to record the ti2e 6ou have arrived, 6ou +nch in$
5on(t forget to punch in as soon as you get to work.
Mark was late, so # punched him in.
+nche! in part.ad+. "hen 6ou are +nche! in' 6ou are at 6our workplace, on dut6, and
being paid.
If you(re punched in you shouldn(t be sitting down smoking a cigarette. punch out
punch out & punches out punching out punched out punched out
($ +nch $$$ ot p.v. "hen 6ou leave 6our workplace and put 6our ti2e card in the ti2e
clock to record the ti2e 6ou have le&t, 6ou +nch ot$
!ally(s not at work@ she punched out at D#3K. )im usually
forgets, so his boss punches him out.
+nche! ot part.ad+. "hen 6ou are +nche! ot' 6ou are not at 6our workplace, or i&
6ou are there, 6ou are o&& dut6 and not being paid.
The manager asked why I wasn(t working, and I told him I was punched out.
put out
put out & puts out putting out put out put out
($ +t$$$ ot p.v. "hen 6ou e<tinguish a &ire or so2ething that is burning, 6ou +t it
ot$
22%
3ut that cigarette out immediately.
It was two hours before the fire was put out.
"$ +t $$$ot p.v. "hen 6ou take so2ething &ro2 inside a building or storage place and leave it
outside &or so2eone to take, use, or deal with, 6ou +t it ot$
The garbage truck comes early tomorrow morning, so put the trash bags out tonight.
)udy put some clothes out for her daughter to wear the ne0t day.
*$ +t$$$ ot p.v. "hen 6ou +t ot 6our hand, ar2, &oot, or leg, 6ou e<tend it &ront o& 6our
bod6.
Mike put out his leg and tripped me.
I put my hand out but she refused to shake it.
6Lt$$$ ot p.v. "hen 6ou +t 6oursel& ot' 6ou tr6 ver6 hard to help so2eone.
!ofia really put herself out to make her new daughter&in&law feel welcome.
5on(t put yourself out. I can make my own dinner.
7$ +t $$$ot p.v. "hen 6ou +t people out, 6ou inconvenience the2.
/rik really put Aill out when he asked him for a ride to the airport at 2#33 in the morning.
8ou(ve done so much to help me. I(m sorry to have put you out.
8$ +t ot p.v. "hen 6ou are +t ot b6 people, 6ou are anno6ed b6 so2ething the6 have
said or done.
; was really put out by having to take a ta0i to work because Mike hadn(t returned my car.
5an was put out by !am(s ungrateful attitude.
+t ot part.ad+. "hen 6ou are anno6ed b6 so2ething that so2eone has said or done, 6ou are
+t ot$
Maria(s put out5 the manager thanked everyone who worked on the project e0cept her.
:$ +t$$$ ot p.v. "hen a book, 2agaDine, newspaper, or 2usical recording is
published or issued, it is +t ot$
The publisher is planning to put a new maga6ine out that will appeal to teenage girls.
Frank !inatra put out several classic recordings in the *LD3s.
Infinitive
present tense &ing form past tense past participle
sort out
sort out < sorts out sorting out sorted out sorted out
($ sort$$$ ot p.v. "hen 6ou sort a group o& things ot' 6ou separate the2 into s2aller
groups according to one or 2ore characteristics.
22'
'fter you take the laundry out of the dryer, you have to sort it out.
The mail arrives at the post office alt mi0ed together, and it has to be sorted out before it can be
delivered.
sorte! ot part.ad+. /&ter 6ou separate things into s2aller groups according to one or 2ore
characteristics, the6 are sorte! ot$
The mail is sorted out and ready to be delivered.
"$ sort$$$ ot p.v. "hen 6ou do so2ething to solve a proble2 or to correct a
2isunderstanding, 6ou sort it ot$
)anice was angry with me about what happened last night, but I called her and we sorted everything out.
/veryone is confused about the new plan. .e ought to talk to Mrs. Taytor and sort everything out.
sorte! ot part.ad+. /&ter 6ou do so2ething to solve a proble2 or to correct a
2isunderstanding, it is sorte! ot$
Mike and Tom had a big fight, but everything is sorted out now.
#nfinitive
present tense -ing form past tense past participle
space
out
space out & spaces out spacing out spaced out spaced out
($ s+ace$$$ ot p.v. Jin&or2al>used 2ostl6 b6 6oung peopleK "hen 6ou space out or when
so2ething s+aces 6ou ot' so2ething or so2eone con&uses 6ou and causes 6ou to &orget
what 6ou were sa6ing or doing at that 2o2ent.
This place is really weird it(s spacing me out. !orry, what did you say1 I
wasn(t listening I spaced out.
s+ace!9ot part.ad+. "hen so2ething or so2eone con&uses 6ou and causes 6ou to &orget
what 6ou were sa6ing or doing at that 2o2ent, 6ou are s+ace!9ot$
$alf of what )erry says doesn(t make any sense@ he(s all spaced-out.
wash up
wash up & washes up washing up washed up washed up
($ 5ash + p.v. "hen 6ou 5ash +, 6ou wash 6our hands thoroughl6.
Io and wash up it(s time for dinner.
The surgeon washed up before the operation.
"$ 5ash + p.v. "hen so2ething in a lake, a river, or the sea 5ashes +' it is carried b6
the water to the land and le&t there.
The police were called when a dead body washed up on the beach.
?ieces of the sunken boat continued to wash up for weeks.
22(
ECERCISE *)a ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith +hrasa% ver&s .ro- this section$
Be sre the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$
1. 5 had to break a window when 5 MMMMMMMM 26sel&MMMMMMMMo& 26 car.
2. Iud6 was MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM b6 her brotherBs criticis2 o& the wa6 sheBs raising her children.
3. he guard MMMMMMMM the prisoner MMMMMMMM her +ail cell.
#. he =akers organiDed a nice part6 &or their daughterBs birthda6. he6 reall6 MMMMMMMM
the2selves MMMMMMMM.
%. 76 brown socks are 2i<ed with 26 black socks. 5 have to MMMMMMM the2 MMMMMM.
'. Ioe was late to work, so the 2anager MMMMMMMM hi2 MMMMMMMM.
(. he &orest &ire was MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM b6 the rain.
8. he restaurant 2anager told the cook toMMMMMMM MMMMMMM be&ore handling &ood.
,. he &actor6 workers &inished their shi&ts and MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM.
11. hanks &or helping 2e 2ove 26 piano. 5B2 sorr6 to MMMMMMMM 6ou MMMMMMMM.
11. "e got a &i<ed!rate 2ortgage so we could MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM a low rate,
12. he workers were MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM b6 2anage2ent during a labor dispute.
13. 5 totall6 MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM and &orgot about the cake in the oven,
1#. Sall6 and her brothers had a big argu2ent, but the6 got ever6thing MMMMM MMMMM.
1%. /s 5 was &alling, 5 MMMMMMMM 26 ar2 MMMMMMMM to protect 26 head.
1'. "reckage &ro2 the crashed airplane MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM on the coast.
1(. Ii2 MMMMMMMM bowls o& peanuts MMMMMMMM &or his guests.
18. he band hasnBt MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM a $8 in three 6ears.
ECERCISE *)& ; =rite three sentences sin/ the o&,ects in +arentheses$ Be
sre to +t the o&,ects in the ri/ht +%ace$
1. Ce locked in. Ethe craD6 gu6, hi2F
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
228
7. )im Iocked out. Bhis wife, herC
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
2. 5id you punch in1 BNosa, herC
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
H. .ould you punch out
M
B)inda and /rik,themC
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
D. They couldn(t put out. Bthe &ire, itC
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
J. The bright lights spaced out. B)anice, herC
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
ECERCISE *)c ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith +artici+%e a!,ectives .ro- this
section$
1. 7ark isnBt working? heBs taking a break. Ce 2ust be MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM.
2. Aou canBt leave the building because 6ouBre MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM.
3. he clothes were all 2i<ed together, but now the6Bre MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM.
#. 5 &orgot 26 ke6, and 5 canBt get in 26 o&&ice. 5B2 MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM.
%. "e had a big 2isunderstanding, but itBs all MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM now.
22,
'. Ioe went to the store, but when he got there, he couldnBt re2e2ber what he wanted. Ce was
MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM.
(. Nanc6 invited her &ather!in!law &or dinner, and a&ter dinner he told Nanc6 that his other
daughter!in!law was a better cook. Nanc6 was reall6 MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM.
8. he 2anager asked, @5& 6ouBreMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM, wh6 arenBt 6ou workingH@
ECERCISE *)! ; =rite ans5ers to the >estions sin/ +hrasa% ver&s an!
+artici+%e a!,ectives .ro- this section$ Be sre the +hrasa% ver&s are in the
correct tense$
1. here was a &ire in the wastebasket, so 5 got so2e water to e<tinguish it. "hat did 5 doH
2. 5 donBt want the children in here while 5B2 working, so 5B2 going to push the button on the
doorknob to lock the door. "hat a2 5 going to do to the childrenH
3. 5n Ouestion 2, how would 6ou describe the children a&ter 5 lock the doorH
#. 8avid &orgot what he was going to sa6. "hat did 8avid doH
%. 5n Ouestion #, how would 6ou describe 8avid when he &orgot what he was going to sa6H
'. Sall6 told 2e to use soap and water to get 26 hands clean be&ore 5 handle &ood. "hat did
Sall6 tell 2e to doH
(. he newspaper is published onl6 once a week. "hat is done to the newspaper onl6 once
a weekH
8. )6dia put Ii2Bs ti2e card in the ti2e clock when Ii2 was late &or work. "hat did )6dia do &or
Ii2H
,. 5n Ouestion 8, how would 6ou describe Ii2 a&ter )6dia put his ti2e card in the ti2e clockH
11. Aour books are all 2i<ed together and 6ou ought to separate the2 into di&&erent groups. "hat
should 6ou do to 6our booksH
11. 5n Ouestion 11, how would 6ou describe 6our books a&ter 6ou separate the2 into di&&erent
groupsH
12. 5 2ade the thie& sta6 until the police ca2e b6 putting hi2 in the closet and using a ke6 to
prevent hi2 &ro2 leaving the closet. "hat did 5 do to the thie&H
231
13. 5n Ouestion 12, how would 6ou describe the thie& a&ter 5 used the ke6 to prevent hi2 &ro2 leaving
the closetH
1#. 5t reall6 anno6ed ;rik when Iane told hi2 that he needed to lose weight. Cow was ;rik a&&ected b6
IaneBs re2arkH
1%. 5n Ouestion 1#, how would 6ou describe ;rik a&ter Iane told hi2 he needed to lose weightH
1'. he e2plo6ees canBt put their ti2e cards in the ti2e clock and go ho2e be&ore #G31. "hat
canBt the e2plo6ees doH
1(. 5n Ouestion 1', a&ter the e2plo6ees put their ti2e cards in the ti2e clock, how would 6ou
describe the2H
18. Iane didnBt tr6 ver6 hard to 2ake her brother and his &a2il6 co2&ortable when the6 sta6ed with her.
"hat didnBt Iane doH
ECERCISE *)e' Revie5 ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith these +artici+%e a!,ectives
.ro- +revios sections$ To chec0 their -eanin/s' revie5 the section n-&er /iven
a.ter each one$
bee&ed up, 28 lit up, 13 shut o&&, 2' worn o&&, 2(
broken o&&, 2( 2ade out, 2, torn o&&, 2(
closed o&&, 13 2ade!up, 23 washed o&&, 2(
dried o&&, 2( 2essed up, 28 wiped o&&, 2(
1. he children baked cookies this 2orning, and the6 le&t the kitchen allMMMMMM MMMMMMMM.
2. he MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM securit6 &orce can handle an6 terrorist attack.
3. $harles didnBt pa6 his bill, and now his electricit6 is MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM.
#. 5 canBt read the sign because the paint is all MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM.
%. here arenBt an6 tags on this 2attress. he6Bre all MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM.
'. hose apples arenBt MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM, so donBt eat the2.
(. Aou canBt drive down that street? itBs MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM.
8. his check isnBt blank? itBs MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM.
,. he $hrist2as tree isnBt MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM now, but when it is itBll be beauti&ul.
11. 5 put the co&&ee cup with the MMMMMMMM MMM handle downstairs. 5B2 going to &i< it later.
231
11. he kitchen counter isnBtMMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM, so donBt put those papers on it > the6 2ight get
grease on the2.
12. hat was .uite a rain we +ust had. 5 donBt think 5Bll drive to work until the roads have
MMMMMMMMMMM.
13. 5 didnBt believe a word he said. 5t was +ust a lot o& MMMMMMMMMMM nonsense.
ECERCISE *).' Revie5 ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith these +hrasa% ver&s .ro-
+revios sections$ Be sre the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$ To chec0
their -eanin/s' revie5 the section n-&er /iven a.ter each one$
ask &or, 2, &ill out, 1# 2ake out, 2, wipe o&&, 2(
butt in,1# have on, 2% open up, 2' work out, 11
carr6 out, 28 head into, 1( stand up, 28
drop in, 2, hurr6 up, 2% trade in, 2#
drop out, 23 knock over, 2% wash o&&, 2(
1. MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM o& school was the du2best thing 5 ever did.
2. he loan application was re+ected because it hadnBt been MMMMMMM MMMMMMMMM properl6.
3. 5B2 going to ask the car dealer how 2uch 5 can MMMMMMMM 26 car MMMMMMMM &or.
#. 76 &eet are killing 2e. 5Bve been MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM all da6.
%. 8id 6ou see what Sall6 was wearing 6esterda6H She MMMMMMMM a green dress and purple
shoes MMMMMMMM.
'. 7ike MMMMMMMM the bartender MMMMMMMM a gin 2artini, but she 2ade a vodka 2artini instead.
(. "eBll have to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM i& weBre going to get to the theater be&ore the 2ovie starts.
8. 8onBt leave that glass there > the bab6 2ight MMMMMMMM it MMMMMMMM.
,. 8adBs hardware store went out o& business a&ter a huge discount store MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM
across the street.
232
11. Aou wonBt be able to MMMMMMMM that paint MMMMMMMM with water? 6ouBll have to use turpentine.
11. 5t was raining, so 5 had to MMMMMMMM the water MMMMMMMM 26 glasses a&ter 5 ca2e inside.
12. Sergeant Iones has alwa6s MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM his orders without &ail.
13. 5& 6ouBre ever in 26 neighborhood,MMMMMMMMMMMMMM? 6ouBre alwa6s welco2e.
1#. hings arenBt MMMMMM MMMMMM at 26 new +ob, and 5 think 5B2 going to .uit soon.
1%. Iud6 le&t her ho2e in the suburbs and MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM the cit6.
1'. "hen 5 2et Ii2 5 was surprised at how nice he was. ;ver6one alwa6s MMMMMMMM hi2 MMMMMMMM to be
a real +erk.
1(. 5 would have been ne<t, but then so2e +erk MMMMMMM MMMMMMM line.
31. 3*$0S *NG +hrasa% ver&s an! /ern! s&,ects
/s we saw in Section 1', gerunds > verbs in the -(ing &or2 that &unction as nouns >
can serve as the ob+ects o& 2an6 phrasal verbs. =ut gerunds can also serve as the
sub+ect o& a sentenceG
Eating meat everyday was something we did without.
gerund
Voting was immediately done awa% with by the dictatorship. gerund
Infinitive
present tense &ing form past tense past participle
care for
care for < cares for caring for cared for cared for
($ care .or p.v. "hen 6ou care .or children or people who are old or sick, 6ou provide
the2 with the &ood or 2edicine the6 need or 6ou do things to help the2. "hen 6ou care
.or 2achines or buildings, 6ou keep the2 in good condition.
The nurses have to care for several very sick patients.
)ohn has been caring for his eighty&three&year&old mother since her stroke.
"$ care .or p.v. "hen 6ou care .or people or things, 6ou like the2.
233
)ane doesn(t care for coffee@ she prefers tea.
I asked !ally to go to the dance, but she said that dancing is not something she cares for.
Infinitive
present tense &ing form past tense past participle
cut out
cut out < cuts out cutting out cut out cutout
($ ct$$$ ot Eo&F p.v. "hen 6ou ct so2ething ot or ct so2ething ot o& a piece o&
paper, cloth, or other 2aterial, 6ou use scissors or a kni&e to re2ove part o& it.
The bank robber had a pillowIcase over his head with two holes cut out.
# cut an interesting story out of the newspaper to show to my father.
ctot n. So2ething that has been ct ot o& a piece o& paper, cloth, or other
2aterial is a ctot$
Timmy made some cardboard cutouts shaped like animals.
"$ ct$$$ ot p.v. "hen 6ou ct ot part o& a &il2, television progra2, book,
2agaDine, and so on, 6ou re2ove that part.
The movie was too long, so the director cut a couple of scenes out. Aefore the book was published,
the parts that were critical of the king had to be cut out of >hapter H.
*$ ct$$$ ot p.v. "hen 6ou ct ot so2ething that 6ou consu2e, 6ou stop using it. "hen
6ou ct ot doing so2ething, 6ou stop doing it. "hen 6ou sa6 @$ut it out@ to people, 6ou
want the2 to stop doing or sa6ing so2ething.
!moking is the first thing you(ve got to cut out if you want to improve your health.
If you want to lose weight, you(ll have to cut cookies and ice cream out.
It bothers me when you do that, so cut it out!
6$ ct ot p.v. "hen a 2otor suddenl6 stops working, it cts ot$
I was driving when the motor suddenly cut out.
This plane has only one engine, so if it cuts out we(re in big trouble.
do awa% with
do awa% with & does awa% with doing awa% with did awa% with done awa% with
($ !o a5a3 5ith p.v. "hen 6ou !o a5a3 5ith so2ething, 6ou eli2inate it or prohibit
it.
&oing awa% with smoking is not something that will happen soon.
!ome people think the electoral college is obsolete and should be done awa% with.
"$ !o a5a3 5ith p.v. "hen 6ou !o a5a3 5ith people, 6ou kill the2.
Marvin inherited a fortune after he did awa% with his older brother.
The woman was accused of doing awa% with her husband with arsenic.
23#
Infinitive
present tense &ing form past tense past participle
do without
do without < does without doing without did without done without
($ !o 5ithot p.v. "hen 6ou do without so2ething, 6ou continue living or working without
so2ething that 6ou want or need because it is not possible or available.
.ashing your hair everyday is something you have to do without when you go camping.
&oing without is something you get used to when you(re poor.
look into
look into & looks into looking into looked into looked into
($ %oo0 into p.v. "hen 6ou %oo0 into so2ething or %oo0 into doing so2ething, 6ou
investigate it or get 2ore in&or2ation about it.
'fter receiving many complaints about the company, the attorney general decided to look into the matter.
Maybe leasing a car is something I should look into.
plan on
plan on & plans on planning on planned on planned on
($ +%an on p.v. "hen 6ou +%an on so2ething, 6ou e<pect it.
They wanted a large family, but having thirteen children sure wasn(t what they planned on.
8ou should plan on at least two years to finish the master(s degree program.
"$ +%an on p.v. "hen 6ou +%an on doing so2ething, 6ou intend to do it.
.hat are you planning on doing tonight1
I plan on fishing and taking a lot of pictures on my vacation.
put off
put off & puts off putting off put off put off
($ +t$$$ o.. p.v. "hen 6ou +t o.. so2ething or +t o.. doing so2ething, 6ou dela6 or
postpone it. "hen 6ou +t people o&&, 6ou dela6 doing so2ething the6 want 6ou to do.
Auying a new house will have to be put off until we can afford it.
The students begged the teacher to put the test off until the ne0t week.
$e pressured me for a decision, but I kept putting him off.
"$ +t$$$ o.. p.v. "hen people +t 6ou o..' the6 do or sa6 so2ething that o&&ends
6ou.
/veryone was put off b% his racist jokes.
Todd went out to dinner with "ancy last night, and the way she treated the waiter really put him off.
23%
+t o.. part.ad+. /&ter people do or sa6 so2ething that o&&ends 6ou, 6ou are +t o..$ "hatBs
wrongH Aou see2 a little put o..$
Infinitive
present tense &ing form past tense past participle
rule out
rule out < rules out ruling out ruled out ruled out
($ r%e$$$ ot p.v. "hen 6ou r%e ot people or things, 6ou eli2inate the2 &ro2 a list. "hen
6ou r%e ot doing so2ething, 6ou decide that it is so2ething 6ou will not do because 6ou
do not want to, because it is i2possible, and so on.
he detective interviewed all the suspects and r%e! ever6one ot e<cept the victi2Bs e<!wi&e.
/ter the hurricane the6 r%e! ot 2oving to 3lorida.
"ith all these 2edical bills to pa6, 2a6be we should consider r%in/ ot bu6ing a new car.
ECERCISE *( a ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith +hrasa% ver&s .ro- this section$ Be
sre the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$
1. 5 suggested 2oving to 7innesota, but 26 wi&e MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM 2oving an6where cold.
2. 76 doctor sa6s 5 should MMMMMMM MMMMMMM scuba diving until 26 ear gets better.
3. he health depart2ent wants to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM s2oking within twent6 6ears.
#. 5 saw a &unn6 cartoon in the paper, so 5 MMMMM it MMMMMM and sent it to 26 brother.
%. So2e countries have an e<cellent health care s6ste2. No one has to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM
2edical treat2ent.
'. 5 was a little MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM b6 his un&riendliness.
(. )etBs go to a di&&erent restaurant? 5 donBt MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM $hinese &ood.
8. 5B2 going to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM this situation to see what the proble2 is.
,. /&ter the revolution, all 2e2bers o& the ro6al &a2il6 were MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMMMMM.
11. Several scenes o& the &il2 had to be MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM be&ore the censors would approve it.
11. Ii2 had to .uit his +ob to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM his sick wi&e.
23'
12. 5 had to take a ta<i to work 6esterda6. 76 carBs 2otor MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM right in the 2iddle o& an
intersection.
13. "hat a surprise: =eing trans&erred to Cawaii is so2ething 5 never MMMMM MMMMM.
1#. 4etting that tooth &i<ed is not so2ething 6ou should MMMMMMMMM MMMMMMMMM.
1%. "hat are 6ou MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM doing with 6our ti2e a&ter 6ou retireH
ECERCISE *( & ; =rite ans5ers to the >estions sin/ +hrasa% ver&s an!
+artici+%e a!,ectives .ro- this section$ Be sre the +hrasa% ver&s are in the
correct tense$
1. Aou changed 6our vacation plans. AouBre not going ne<t week? 6ouBre going to go later. "hat did 6ou
do to 6our vacationH
2. ;ver6one likes Ii2 2ore now that he has stopped acting like such a big shot. "hat did Ii2 doH
3. he President said that nothing has been eli2inated &ro2 the list o& things that 2ight be done about
the crisis. "hat did the President sa6 about what 2ight be done about the crisisH
#. 7ikeBs parents donBt like his new &riend. Cow do 7ikeBs parents &eel about his new &riendH
%. / law was passed that prohibits child labor. "hat does the law do to child laborH
'. here arenBt an6 stores out here in the woods, so i& 6ou &orgot so2ething, 6ouBll +ust have to continue
without it. "hat will 6ou have to do i& 6ou &orgot so2ethingH
(. 5B2 so tired o& this carBs ugl6 color? 5B2 going to investigate having it painted. "hat a2 5 going
to doH
8. 5& 6ou go to $hicago in Ianuar6, 6ou can e<pect to &reeDe to death. "hat can 6ou do i& 6ou go to
$hicago in Ianuar6H
,. =ett6 was a little o&&ended b6 Sa2Bs behavior. Cow did =ett6 react to Sa2Bs behaviorH
11. 5n Ouestion ,, how did Sa2Bs behavior 2ake =ett6 &eelH
11. he police suspected that 7r. 7a6&ield had been killed b6 a coworker. "hat did the police suspect
about 7r. 7a6&ieldH
12. 8r. S2ith re2oved the entire tu2or with a kni&e. "hat did he doH
13. 76 &ather kept his car in good condition, and it lasted &or &ort6 6ears. "hat did 26 &ather do to his carH
23(
ECERCISE *( c ; =rite ei/ht ori/ina% sentences sin/ +hrasa% ver&s .ro- this
section$ Tr3 to se /ern!s as the s&,ects o. so-e o. the sentences$
1. MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
2. MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
3. MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
#. MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
%. MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
'. MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
(. MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
8. MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
ECERCISE *( !$ Revie5 ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith these +hrasa% ver&s .ro-
+revios sections$ Be sre the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$ To chec0
their -eanin/s' revie5 the section n-&er /iven a.ter each one$
ask &or, 2, cut down, 23 get awa6, 23 luck out, 2,
bee& up, 28 drop in, 2, get back at, 1( 2ake out, 2,
co2e apart, 2, &lip out, 2, get o&&, 18 2ake up, 23
crack down, 23 go about, 1( look out, 2, run across, 2,
1. 5B2 thinking about investing in the stock 2arket, but 5B2 not sure how to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMMit.
2. he sound on the language lab tapes is so bad that 5 canBt MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM what the6Bre
sa6ing.
3. he world is MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM o& 2an6 di&&erent countries.
#. "eBll need to bu6 a new suitcase soon. his old one is MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM.
%. hat was a terrible thing he did to 2e > 5Bll MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM hi2 so2eda6.
'. Cank &ell &ro2 a &i&th!&loor window, but he landed in a swi22ing pool and wasnBt hurt at all. Ce
sure MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM, didnBt heH
(. he hocke6 coach said that the tea2Bs o&&ense is good, but the de&ense needs to be
238
8. 76 dentist said 5 should MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM on sweets.
,. 3rank reall6 MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM when he &ound that big snake under his bed.
11. )ook at this interesting old book 5 MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM at a used bookstore.
11. he police depart2ent is going to MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMon cri2e.
12. Aou know what a bad te2per Ioe has. 5& 6ou keep teasing hi2, 6ouBreMMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM
trouble.
13. he accountant tried to e2beDDle N111,111, but he didnBtMMMMMMMMMMMMwith it.
1#. 5snBt that where Iane livesH )etBsMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMand sa6 hello.
1%. Iake was arrested and charged with bank robber6, but he MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM because
none o& the witnesses could identi&6 hi2.
1'. here are a lot o& big trucks on this road. AouBve reall6 got to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMM &or the2
when 6ouBre driving.
*"$ FOCUS ON< +hrasa% ver&s 5ith the +artic%e
out
he particle out is used in 2an6 phrasal verbs and has 2an6 2eanings. /2ong the 2ost
&re.uent 2eanings o& out are to sa6 that so2ething or so2eone literall6 2oves &ro2 the inside
to the outside o& a placeG
$e fell out of a tree.
Melanie came out of the house.
.e always go out through the back door.
.ould you take the garbage out please1
that so2ething is done co2pletel6 or thoroughl6G
# cleaned out the closet.
The people Fuickly cleared out.
!he emptied her purse out on the table.
?lease fill this form out.
that an action or activit6 has endedG
The fire went out.
The light bulb burned out.
$ank dropped out of school.
)ane chickened out of asking her boss for a raise.
23,
that so2ething or so2eone is chosen, organiDed, shared, or distributedG
he 2anager han!e! ot our pa6checks.
o2 +ic0e! a new shirt ot$
he 2a65roo2 clerk sorte! ot the 2ail.
that so2ething is produced b6 or released &ro2 a sourceG
Cis last book ca-e ot two 6ears ago.
8onBt %et the dog ot$
hat group hasnBt +t ot a new $8 in a long ti2e.
that so2ething is re2oved, eli2inated, or e<cludedG
' page was accidentally left out of the book when it was printed.
!he cut a cartoon out of the paper.
The negative test result ruled out cancer.
$is editor took several paragraphs out of the article.
that so2ething is perceived, sensed, &ound, or ac.uiredG
I .i/re! ot the answer.
8id 6ou .in! ot when the 2ovie startsH
hat sign is too &ar awa6 to -a0e ot$
7ike scre5e! -e ot o& a hundred bucks.
that so2ething increases in siDe, capacit6, length, or areaG
?aul started to fill out after he got married.
'fter I gained twenty&five pounds I had to let my pants out.
It(s dangerous to stick %our head out a car window.
that so2ething i2portant or dangerous should be watched &orG
Mike is supposed to meet us here, so watch out for him.
1ook out this is a very busy intersection.
or that so2ething is done &or a length o& ti2eG
The criminals held out for three hours before surrendering.
>ollege is hard work, but you(ve got to stick it out.
Infinitive
present tense &ing form past tense past participle
clean out
clean out < cleans out cleaning out cleaned out cleaned out
($ c%ean $$$ot p.v. "hen 6ou c%ean so2ething out, 6ou clean the inside co2pletel6 so that
no dirt, dust, trash, and so on, re2ains inside.
Mark was fired and told to clean his desk out and leave.
.e clean out our garage every spring.
2#1
c%eane! ot part.ad+. /&ter 6ou clean the inside o& so2ething co2pletel6 so that no dirt, dust, or
trash, and so on, re2ains inside, it is c%eane! ot$
"ow that the garage is cleaned out there(s room for my car.
"$ c%ean $$$ ot Eo&F p.v. Jin&or2alK "hen people c%ean 6ou ot or c%ean 6ou ot o& 6our 2one6, the6
deceive 6ou or pressure 6ou into giving the2 all 6our 2one6 or spending all 6our 2one6 &or their
bene&it. "hen an e<pense c%eans 6ou ot' it re.uires 6ou to spend all 6our 2one6.
' con artist cleaned my grandmother out of :D3,333.
$aving three kids in college at the same time really cleaned me out.
*$ c%ean $$ $ot Eo&F p.v. Jin&or2alK 5& thieves c%ean a place ot or c%ean a place ot o&
so2ething, the6 take ever6thing that is valuable.
I got home and found that my place had been cleaned out.
The thieves cleaned the jewelry store out of all its diamonds and emeralds.
Infinitive
present tense &ing form past tense past participle
clear
out
clear out < clears out clearing out cleared out cleared out
($ c%ear$$ $ot p.v. "hen people c%ear ot or c%ear ot o& a place or the6 are c%eare!
ot o& a place, the6 leave it.
'fter the police threw tear gas, the crowd cleared right out.
+lear out! This is private property.
"$ c%ear$$$ ot p.v. "hen 6ou c%ear ot a place, 6ou re2ove things that are unwanted or in
the wa6 in order to 2ake 2ore roo2 or to 2ake the place cleaner.
Gook how much more room we have in the attic now that we(ve cleared all that junk out. The car dealer had a sale
so that he could clear out some space for the new cars.
come out
come out & comes out coming out came out come out
($ co-e ot Eo&F p.v. "hen people or things leave a place, roo2, or house that 6ou are not
in, the6 co-e ot o& it.
!usie(s friend came to the door and asked her to come out and play.
The police held their fire when they saw the gunman coming out of the house with his hands in the air.
7. come out BofC p.v. .hen something comes out of a certain place or area, it starts there.
This speaker must not be connected@ no sound is coming out.
The most wonderful aroma came out of the kitchen.
*$ co-e ot EtoF p.v. "hen people leave a cit6 and co-e ot to a place outside the cit6
where 6ou are, the6 travel to that place.
2#1
.ould you like to come out and visit our farm1
"ed loves it in the city@ he hasn(t come out to the suburbs in a long time.
6$ co-e ot Eo&F p.v. "hen things or people go through an e<perience or treat2ent, the
condition the6 are le&t in b6 that e<perience or treat2ent or the result o& that e<perience
or treat2ent is how the6 co-e ot$
It was a tough game, but our team came out on top.
$ow did the investigation come out"
# came out of that awful e0perience a wiser person.
7$ co-e ot EwithF p.v. "hen a book, 2agaDine, 2usical recording, 2ovie, or television
show is &inished and 2ade available to the public, it co-es ot$ "hen a book,
2agaDine, 2usical recording, 2ovie, or television show is &inished and 2ade available to
the public, the co2pan6 publishing it or the person who created it co-es ot with it.
The band(s new >5 came out last month, and it(s already number one on the charts.
Aarren(s is coming out with a new book on T=/FG soon.
8$ co-e ot p.v. "hen in&or2ation beco2es known to the public, it co-es ot$
/veryone was shocked when it came out that the butler had murdered the duke.
.hat really happened when ?resident 9ennedy was assassinated may never come out.
:$ co-e ot Eo&F p.v. "hen dirt or a stain is re2oved b6 cleaning, it co-es ot or
co-es ot o& what it is in.
5on(t get grape juice on that white blouse it(ll never come out.
That paint might come out of the carpet if you try turpentine.
#$ co-e ot p.v. "hen &lowers or leaves start to grow, the6 co-e ot$
.e had a very warm winter, and the flowers started coming out in February.
=ak tree leaves always come out later than the leaves of other trees.
D$ co-e ot p.v. "hen clouds 2ove and the sun beco2es visible, it co-es ot$
The rain stopped, the sun came out and there was a beautiful rainbow.
.ait till the sun comes out@ you(ll get a better picture.
()$ co-e ot E&or5in &avor o&5againstF p.v. "hen people with authorit6 and in&luence
co-e ot &or or co-e ot in &avor o& people or things, the6 publicl6 announce support
&or the2. "hen people with authorit6 and in&luence co-e ot against people or things,
the6 publicl6 announce opposition to the2.
.e were surprised when the mayor came out for legali6ing gambling.
The senator from "orth >arolina came out against the tobacco legislation.
2#2
Infinitive
present tense &ing form past tense past participle
empt%
out
empty out < empties out emptying out emptied out emptied out
($ e-+t3$$$ ot p.v. "hen 6ou co2pletel6 re2ove the contents o& a space or container,
6ou e-+t3 it ot$
The police officer told me to empt% out my pockets.
'fter we empt% this room out we can start painting.
e-+tie! ot part.ad+. /&ter the contents o& a container have been co2pletel6 re2oved,
the container is e-+tie! ot$
"ow that the room is emptied out we can start laying the carpet.
($ e-+t3 ot p.v. "hen all the people in a place leave it, the place e-+ties ot$
'fter the concert is over, it(ll be twenty minutes before the auditorium empties out.
There was trash everywhere after the stadium emptied out.
fall out
fall out & falls out falling out fell out fallen out
($ .a%% ot Eo&F p.v. "hen 6ou &all &ro2 or through so2ething that is above ground level to
the ground below, 6ou .a%% ot or .a%% ot o& it.
5id he fall out or was he pushed1
I found a baby bird that had fallen out of its nest.
"$ .a%% ot Ewith5overF p.v. "hen 6ou .a%% ot with people, 6ou beco2e upset or angr6
with the2. "hen two people .a%% ot over so2ething, the6 beco2e upset or angr6 with
each other because o& a disagree2ent about that thing.
'lfonso fell out with his sister when he critici6ed her husband.
Melanie and !arah started a company, but they fell out over who would be president and who would be
vice&president.
.a%%in/9ot n. "hen people have a .a%%in/9ot' the6 beco2e upset or angr6 with each other
and no longer have &riendl6 relations.
he 2anager o& the baseball tea2 .uit a&ter he had a .a%%in/9ot with the owner.
go out
go out & goes out going out went out gone out
($ /o ot Eo&F p.v. "hen people or things leave a place, roo2, or house that 6ou are in,
the6 /o ot or /o ot o& it. Co-e in is the opposite o& /o ot$
I(m trying to study go out and play in the backyard.
"ancy was so sick that she didn(t go out of the house for a week.
"$ /o ot EtoF p.v. "hen people leave a cit6 where 6ou are and /o ot to a place outside
the cit6, the6 travel to that place.
2#3
Gast weekend we went out to )im(s cabin on the lake.
This Thanksgiving I(m going to go out to my brother(s house.
*$ /o ot p.v. "hen so2ething that is burning /oes ot' it stops burning because it has
no 2ore &uel or because so2ething, such as water or lack o& o<6gen, has caused it to stop
burning.
The campfire went out during the night.
The forest fire didn(t go out until it started to rain.
6$ /o ot p.v. "hen an electrical light /oes ot' it stops producing light because it is no
longer receiving power.
The lights in the barracks go out every night at *3#33.
.hen the old tree fell on the power lines, every light in town went out.
7$ /o ot EwithF p.v. "hen two people with a ro2antic interest in each other /o ot' the6
go together to a place o& entertain2ent in order to have &un and spend ti2e together.
Mike(s nervous he(s going out with $eather tonight.
!ally and )im went out for three years before they Fot married.
#nfinitive
present tense -ing form past tense past participle
leave out
leave out & leaves out leaving out left out left out
($ %eave$$$ ot p.v. "hen 6ou %eave people or things ot' 6ou accidentall6 or
deliberatel6 do not include the2 in a group.
The director left out several parts of the book when she made the film.
Tell me the entire story from beginning to end. 5on(t leave anything out.
%e.t ot part.ad+. "hen 6ou &eel %e.t out, 6ou &eel ignored and unappreciated b6 others
in a group.
"o one talked to )erry at the party. $e just sat in the corner feeling left out.
stick out
stick out & sticks out sticking out stuck out stuck out
($ stic0 ot p.v. "hen so2ething stic0s ot' it e<tends &ro2 what it is attached to.
Ae careful walking in the woods, there are a lot of branches sticking out.
I cut myself on a nail that was sticking out of the wall.
"$ stic0$$$ ot p.v. "hen 6ou stic0 so2ething ot' 6ou e<tend it outward.
Timmy stuck his tongue out when his mother gave him spinach.
.e all stuck our heads out the window to get a better look.
*$ stic0$$$ ot p.v. "hen 6ou stic0 ot an unpleasant or di&&icult e<perience, 6ou continue
with it until it is over, rather than .uit.
2##
I hate this job, but I need the money, so I(ll just have to stick it out until I find a better one. >ollege isn(t easy, but if you
stick it out, you(ll be glad you did.
6$ stic0 ot p.v. "hen a characteristic or &eature o& so2ething stic0s ot' that &eature is
ver6 noticeable.
'lan(s nearly seven feet tall and has red hair, so he really sticks out in a crowd.
=ne thing that really stuck out about him was the strange way he laughed.
ECERCISE *"a ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith +hrasa% ver&s .ro- this section$ Be
sre the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$
1. Susie MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM o& her tree house and broke her ar2.
2. he sun &inall6 MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM in the a&ternoon.
3. 5 heard so2e strange voices MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM o& the ne<t roo2.
#. / sharp piece o& wood was MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM, and 5 got a splinter &ro2 it.
%. "hen the truth &inall6 MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM, 6ouBll all be ver6 surprised.
'. 5t was a good thing we had those candles when the lights MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM.
(. his te2porar6 +ob will last onl6 two weeks, so even though 5B2 bored, 5 guess 5 can
MMMMMMMMitMMMMMMMM.
8. hat crook MMMMMMMM 2e MMMMMMMM o& ever6thing 5 owned.
,. 8avidBs stor6 didnBt 2ake an6 sense because he MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM the part about the 2issionaries
and the cannibals.
11. 7ike, itBs starting to rain. MMMMMMMMMMMMMMand close the car windows, please.
11. ake these wastebaskets out to the 8u2pster and MMMMMMMM the2 MMMMMMMM.
12. 5tBs a sure sign o& spring when the tulips start to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM.
13. his wood is green. ;ven i& 6ou can get it to burn, itBll MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM right awa6.
1#. he =akers said the6 would love to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM to visit us here at our ranch so2e weekend.
1%. he soldiers were ordered to MMMMMMMM the protesters MMMMMMMM o& the plaDa.
1'. 7ike and =ob MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM over who would pa6 &or the window the6 broke pla6ing baseball.
2#%
1(. he reporter said that he e<pected the governor to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM against the proposed
legislation.
18. Ii2Bs going to be storing so2e o& his stu&& in the attic, so letBs go up and MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM so2e
space &or it.
1,. Scott MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM o& the trial with his reputation badl6 da2aged.
21. /&ter the bo2b threat was announced, the theater MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM in about two 2inutes.
21. =ett6 has been MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM with ;rik since high school.
22. 5tBs not ver6 s2art to MMMMMMM 6our ar2 MMMMMMM the window o& a 2oving car.
23. 5 like it here in the cit6. "hen 5 MMMMMMMMM MMMMMMMMM to 8avidBs house in the countr6 5 get bored.
2#. he talk show host asked the author about his new book which is MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM soon.
2%. he burglars MMMMMMMMM the coin shop MMMMMMMMM o& its 2ost valuable coins.
2'. 5tBs been an hour. /re 6ou ever going to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM o& the bathroo2H
2(. 8onBt even bother washing this blouse > the ink will never MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM.
28. 7ike wants to sell his car, so heBs going to MMMMMMMM it MMMMMMMM and wash it be&ore an6one looks
at it.
2,. 5 donBt re2e2ber 2uch about Ned, but one thing MMMMMMMMM MMMMMMMMM > he alwa6s wore black.
ECERCISE *"& ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith the correct secon! +artic%es$
1. he crooked law6er cleaned the2 out MMMMMMMM a s2all &ortune.
2. Iake ca2e out MMMMMMMM the bank and surrendered.
3. "ould 6ou like to co2e out MMMMMMMMM 26 place in the countr6H
#. Several publishers are co2ing outMMMMMMMMM books on the sub+ect.
%. he pri2e 2inister liked the idea, so we werenBt surprised when he ca2e outMMMMMMMM the plan.
2#'
'. /s e<pected, the leader o& the opposition ca2e out MMMMMMMM the plan.
(. 7ike &ell out MMMMMMMM his brother MMMMMMMM who would pa6 their &atherBs 2edical bills.
8. i226Bs &ather told hi2 not to go out MMMMMMMMM the house.
,. "eBre going out MMMMMMMMM the suburbs ne<t weekend.
11. CeatherBs going out MMMMMMMMM o2 tonight.
11. Cank &ell outMMMMMMMMMa hot air balloon.
ECERCISE *"c ; =rite three sentences sin/ the o&,ects in +arentheses$ Be sre to
+t the o&,ects in the ri/ht +%ace$
1. 76 son cleaned out. Ethe base2ent, itF
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
2. 5 need to clear out. Ethe storeroo2, itF
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
3. Sarah e2ptied out. Ethe bo<es, the2F
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
#. he &actor6 le&t out. Ean i2portant part, itF
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
2#(
%. 8onBt stick out. E6our neck, itF
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
ECERCISE *"! ; =rite ans5ers to the >estions sin/ +hrasa% ver&s' +artici+%e
a!,ectives' an! nons .ro- this section$ Be sre the +hrasa% ver&s are in the
correct tense$
1. So2e i2portant in&or2ation is being revealed to the public. "hat is happening to the
in&or2ationH
2. /ll the people in the plaDa le&t. "hat did the people doH
3. /ll the people in the plaDa le&t. "hat happened to the plaDaH
#. 5B2 going to take 26 girl&riend to a nightclub. "hat a2 5 going to do with herH
%. he soldier was killed in the battle. "hat didnBt the soldier doH
'. "e didnBt ask 7ark to +oin our club. "hat did we do to 7arkH
(. 5n Ouestion ', how does 7ark &eel because we didnBt ask hi2 to +oin our clubH
8. he 5-S took all 6our 2one6. "hat did the6 do to 6ouH
,. he 2usic co2pan6 released a new $8 last week. "hat did the 2usic co2pan6 doH
11. ;ver6one notices Carr6 because he has ver6 long hair and a long beard. "hat does Carr6 doH
11. he $hicago ribune announced in an editorial that the6 were &or the -epublican candidate.
"hat did the $hicago ribune doH
12. =illBs angr6 with Ii2, and the6Bre not speaking to each other. "hat did =ill do with Ii2H
13. 5n Ouestion 12, what did =ill and Ii2 haveH
2#8
ECERCISE *"e' Revie5 ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith these +hrasa% ver&s .ro-
+revios sections$ Be sre the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$ To chec0
their -eanin/s' revie5 the section n-&er /iven a.ter each one$
care &or, 31 hold out, 23 punch out, 31 sort out, 31
cut out, 31 lock in, 31 put o&&, 31 space out, 31
do awa6 with, 31 look into, 31 put out, 31 wash up, 31
do without, 31 punch in, 31 rule out, 31 watch out, 23
1. Susie, 5 told 6ou to stop hitting 6our sister, so MMMMMMMM it MMMMMMMM:
2. /&ter 5 lost 26 +ob, 5 learned to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM a lot o& things 5 used to think were necessities.
3. "atson 2ade a real 2ess out o& the pro+ect, so the boss asked 2e to MMMMMMMM it MMMMMMMM.
#. 5 totall6 MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM and drove twent6 2iles past where 5 was going.
%. Ce6, thatBs reall6 dangerous, 6ouBd better MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM.
'. 5B2 going to get to work late to2orrow. $an 6ou MMMMMMMM 2e MMMMMMMMH
(. 5B2 reall6 sick o& this cit6. 5B2 going to &l6 to San 3rancisco and MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM the +ob situation
there.
8. 7ost o& the pla6ers have signed their contracts, but a &ew are MMMMMMM MMMMMMM.
,. "ater wonBt MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM an electrical &ire.
11. he 2anager re2inded 2e to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM be&ore going ho2e.
11. 8uring Prohibition, the govern2ent tried toMMMMMMMM MMMMMMMMMM MMMMMM drinking alcohol.
12. he chances that his horse will win the race are ver6 s2all, but 5 wouldnBt MMMMMMMM it MMMMMMMM
co2pletel6.
13. )ook how dirt6 6our hands are: 4oMMMMMM MMMMMMMMMM be&ore 6ou eat dinner.
1#. 5 want to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM a low interest rate be&ore rates go up again.
1%. hanks &or inviting 2e to the concert, but 5 donBtMMMMMMM MMMMMMrap 2usic.
1'. 7illions o& people MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM doing their ta<es until the last 2inute.
2#,
**$ FOCUS ON< +hrasa% ver&s an!
-i!sentence a!ver&s
/s we saw in Section 1(, adverbs are words that 2odi&6 verbs. So2e adverbs are called
2idsentence adverbs because the6 are co22onl6 placed in the 2iddle o& a sentence.
7idsentence adverbs are usuall6 placed be&ore 2ain verbsG
Ce L /oo.s aron!$ She L
he%+e! hi2 ot$
a&ter an6 &or2 o& beG
Ce is L /oo.in/ aron!$ She wasnBt L
he%+in/ hi2 ot$
and between an au<iliar6 EhelpingF verb and the 2ain verbG
Ce will L /oo. aron!$
!he can(t T help him out.
5n .uestions, a 2idsentence adverb is usuall6 placed between the sub+ect and
the 2ain verbG
8oes he L /oo. aron!H
5s he L /oo. in/ aron!H
$as she T helped him out"
he &ollowing are co22on 2idsentence adverbs.
A!ver&s o. .re>enc3
ever typically normally hardly ever
always ordinarily occasionally almost never
constantly often sometimes never
almost always freFuently seldom not ever
usually generally rarely
Other -i!sentence a!ver&s
already merely ultimately probably
just finally eventually most likely
2%1
#nfinitive
present tense -ing form past tense past participle
blow up
blow up & blows up blowing up blew up blown up
($ &%o5$$$ + p.v. "hen so2ething &%o5s + or when so2eone &%o5s so2ething +' it
e<plodes.
!even people were killed when the building blew up.
The hijackers ultimately blew the plane up.
"$ &%o5$$$ + p.v. "hen so2ething &%o5s + or when so2eone &%o5s so2ething +' it
beco2es 2uch larger because air or so2ething else is being &orced into it.
It always takes me an hour or more to blow up the balloons for a party.
$ank blew up a beach ball and threw it in the pool.
*$ &%o5$$$ + p.v. "hen 6ou 2ake a picture or photograph larger, 6ou &%o5 it +$
# blew the photograph up and framed it.
.hen you blow this photo of the car up you can make out the license plate number.
&%o5+ n. / &%o5+ is a picture or photograph that has been 2ade larger.5
2ade a &%o5+ o& the photo and &ra2ed it.
6$ &%o5 + Eat5overF p.v. Jin&or2alK "hen 6ou &%o5 + or &%o5 + at so2eone, 6ou
suddenl6 beco2e ver6 angr6. "hen 6ou &%o5 + over so2ething, 6ou suddenl6 beco2e
ver6 angr6 because o& it.
$eather blew up when she saw her boyfriend dancing with Ginda.
$eather blew up at her boyfriend when she saw him dancing with Ginda.
5ad blew up over the increase in our property ta0es.
catch on
catch on & catches on catching on caught on caught on
($ catch on p.v. "hen a &ashion or habit beco2es popular and is adopted b6 2an6 people, it
catches on$ "hen a product or service beco2es popular and is used or bought b6 2an6
people, it catches on$
Aeta V>Ns never caught on.
If his striped business suits catch on the designer will become famous.
"$ catch on p.v. "hen 6ou eventuall6 begin to understand so2ething or begin to learn a
skill a&ter practicing and stud6ing, 6ou catch on$
.hen !ally studies something, she usually catches on right away.
Gearning to dance the cumbia wasn(t easy, but I eventually caught on.
*$ catch on EtoF p.v. "hen 6ou catch on or catch on to people, 6ou realiDe that the6 are
tr6ing to trick or cheat 6ou.
2%1
If you keep lying to everyone, they(ll eventually catch on.
It took me a while, but I finally caught on to him.
#nfinitive
present tense -ing form past tense past participle
come about
come about & coming about
come about came about come about
($ co-e a&ot p.v. "hen so2ething co-es a&ot' it happens, usuall6 as a result o& a series
o& events and actions.
$e was the richest man in town, and now he(s bankrupt. $ow did that come about"
!everal major medical advances have come about in the last fifty years.
fall behind
fall behind & falls behind falling behind fell behind fallen behind
($ .a%% &ehin! p.v. "hen 6ou are in a group that is walking, running, driving, and so on,
and the6 2ove ahead o& 6ou because 6ou are 2oving 2ore slowl6 than the others, 6ou
.a%% &ehin!$ Kee+ + is the opposite o& .a%% &ehin!$
'lfonso and Tom are walking so fast that I(ve fallen behind.
I was supposed to be following Ginda to the party, but I fell behind and got lost.
($ .a%% &ehin! EinF p.v. "hen 6ou are in a group that is stud6ing, working, and so on, and the6
learn &aster or get 2ore work done because 6ou are learning or working 2ore slowl6 than the
others, 6ou .a%% &ehin! or .a%% &ehin! in 6our work, studies, and so on. "hen 6ou do not
co2plete work as &ast as it was originall6 planned and e<pected, 6ou .a%% &ehin! schedule. Eet
&ehin! is si2ilar to .a%% &ehin!$ Kee+ + is the opposite o. .a%% &ehin!$
Timmy was sick last semester, and he fell behind in his studies.
The sales manager wanted to know why I had fallen behind the rest of the department.
The building project will fall behind schedule if the construction workers go on strike.
*$ .a%% &ehin! EinF p.v. "hen 6ou do not 2ake the regular pa62ents 6ou are re.uired to 2ake,
6ou .a%% &ehin! or .a%% &ehin! in 6our pa62ents.
.hen I lost my job, I fell behind in my mortgage payments.
5on(t fall behind in your payments, or your car will be repossessed.
goof around
goof around & goofs around goofing around goofed around goofed around
($ /oo. aron! p.v. Jin&or2alK "hen 6ou waste ti2e pla6ing or doing sill6 or uni2portant
things, 6ou /oo. aron!$ Foo% aron! is the sa2e as /oo. aron!$
My brother drives his teachers cra6y. $e constantly goofs around and creates problems.
!top goofing around and get to work.
2%2
#nfinitive
present tense -ing form past tense past participle
help out
help out & helps out helping out helped out helped out
($ he%+$$$ ot EwithF p.v. "hen 6ou he%+ ot or he%+ people ot' 6ou assist the2 in doing
so2e work or 6ou lend or give the2 2one6 or so2ething else that the6 need.
>an you help me out" I need a hundred bucks until payday.
.e had a lot of work to do, so Maria helped out.
know about
know about & knows about knowing about knew about known about
($ 0no5 a&ot p.v. "hen 6ou 0no5 a&ot a situation, plan, or other in&or2ation, 6ou are
aware o& it.
)im isn(t here. Maybe he doesn(t know about the schedule change.
Thanks for telling me, but I already know all about it.
"$ 0no5 a&ot p.v. "hen 6ou have studied so2ething and learned it, 6ou 0no5 a&ot it.
I don(t know much about history. I was a business major.
?nowing about art and being an artist are two different things.
pull off
pull off & pulls off pulling off pulled off pulled off
($ +%% $$$o.. p.v. "hen 6ou +%% so2ething o&&, 6ou succeed in doing so2ething di&&icult and
possibl6 sneak6 or illegal even though the chances o& success are not high.
Mike tried to juggle three butcher knives and two bowling balls at the same time, but he couldn(t pull it off.
.hen )ake said he was going to try to rob a Gas Vegas casino, no one believed he could pull it off.
"$ +%% o.. p.v. "hen 6ou are driving and 6ou +%% o&& the road, 6ou drive to the side o& the
road and stop.
If I get sleepy while I(m driving, I always pull off the road and take a nap.
.hen I heard that strange noise, # pulled off to the side and checked the engine.
ECERCISE **a ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith +hrasa% ver&s .ro- this section$ Be
sre the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$
1. 5 need to 2ove so2e &urniture, and itBs too heav6 &or 2e. $ould 6ou MMMMMMMM 2e MMMMMMMM tonightH
2%3
2. elevision was invented in the 1,21s, but it didnBt start to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM until the 1,%1s.
3. 7ath is ver6 di&&icult &or 7ike. 5& he takes the advanced class, heBll 2ost likel6 MMMMMMMM
MMMMMMMM.
#. 5 didnBt think odd could 2anage going to school and working at the sa2e ti2e, but he
MMMMMMMMitMMMMMMMM.
%. "hen Ii2 shows his terrible report card to his 2other, sheBll MMMMMMM MMMMMMM.
'. Nanc6Bs a hard worker. She neverMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM.
(. he terrorists tried to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM the e2bass6.
8. / lot o& changes have MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM in the last &ew 6ears.
,. he truck driver was lost, so he MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM to the side o& the road and checked his
2ap.
11. Sa2 and 8ave are so 2uch &aster on their bikes than 5 a2 that 5 alwa6s MMMMMMM MMMMMMMM.
11. 8onBt ask /nn? she doesnBt MMMMMMMM an6thing MMMMMMMM it.
12. 5 used to be able to trick 26 rich uncle into giving 2e 2one6, but heBs starting to MMMMMMMM
MMMMMMMM to 2e.
13. MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM the balloons now? the part6Bs going to start soon.
1#. =ob started taking dance lessons, and he MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM right awa6.
1%. 5& 6ou MMMMM MMMM in 6our credit card pa62ents, 6ouBll da2age 6our credit rating.
1'. 5 usuall6 ask =ill what he thinks be&ore 5 bu6 a stock. Ce MMMMMMMM a lot MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM
investing.
1(. 5 asked the photo lab to MMMMMMMM the photo MMMMMMMM 311 percent.
ECERCISE **& ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith the correct secon! +artic%es$
1. odd was &ired a&ter he blew up MMMMMMMM his boss.
2. odd is usuall6 so eas6going. "hat did he blow up MMMMMMMMMH
3. 9aren thinks sheBs so clever, but 5B2 starting to catch on MMMMMMMMM her.
2%#
#. 5& 6ou donBt start working harder, 6ouBre going to &all behind MMMMMMMM 2ath.
%. hanks &or helping 2e out MMMMMMMM 26 algebra ho2ework.
ECERCISE **c ; =rite ans5ers to the >estions sin/ +hrasa% ver&s .ro- this
section$ Be sre the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$
1. he co2pan6 started to sell chocolate toothpaste, but it never beca2e popular. "hat didnBt
chocolate toothpaste doH
2. Sa2 has a lot o& work to do be&ore %G11, so )6dia is doing so2e o& it &or hi2 so that he wonBt
have to work late. "hat is )6dia doing &or Sa2H
3. Nobod6 in the cri2inal gang thought the6 could steal an airplane, but the6 did. "hat
did the gang doH
#. /li doesnBt usuall6 do an6 work. Ce usuall6 watches V and listens to 2usic. "hat does /li
usuall6 doH
%. he6 so2eti2es destro6 old buildings b6 2aking the2 e<plode. "hat do the6 so2eti2es do to
old buildingsH
'. he teacher &re.uentl6 gets ver6 angr6 at his students. "hat does the teacher
&re.uentl6 doH
(. Ianice is aware o& the proble2 because so2eone told her about it. "hat can 6ou sa6
about Ianice and the proble2H
8. he co2pan6 was supposed to &inish the pro+ect b6 Septe2ber 1, but the6 didnBt &inish until
Nove2ber 1#. "hat happenedH
,. he pro&essor asked 6ou to e<plain how this situation happened. "hat did the pro&essor ask
6ouH
ECERCISE **!' Revie5 ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith these +hrasa% ver&s .ro-
+revios sections$ Be sre the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$ To chec0
their -eanin/s' revie5 the section n-&er /iven a.ter each one$
co2e out, 32 &all out, 32 look into, 31 rule out, 31
cut out, 31 give awa6, 28 plan on, 31 sort out, 31
do without, 31 go around, 21 put o&&, 31 space out, 31
e2pt6 out, 32 go out, 32 put out, 31 stick out, 32
2%%
1. Iake was in +ail when the cri2e was co22itted, so the police were able to MMMMMMMM hi2
MMMMMMMM as a suspect.
2. 76 &ianceeBs &ather got sick suddenl6, so we had to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM the wedding until later.
3. 5 was a little MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM when 7elanie disagreed with 2e.
#. )indaBs going to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM getting her teeth bleached.
%. No one was surprised when the news MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM.
'. he &a2il6 business had to be sold a&ter the &a2il6 2e2bers MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM with each
other.
(. 5 MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM and &orgot to put socks on this 2orning.
8. 5 &elt like an idiot > 5 had to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM all da6 without socks on.
,. Aou can still eat this apple > +ust MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM the bad part.
11. "hen we decided on the =aha2as &or our hone62oon, we didnBt MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMMa
hurricane.
11.1 was angr6 with 26 sister, but we talked and MMMMMMMM ever6thing MMMMMMMM.
12. i226 told his 2other that he hadnBt eaten an6 cake, but the chocolate &rosting on his &ace
MMMMMMMM hi2 MMMMMMMM.
13. 5& 6ouBre stud6ing a language, 6ou canBt MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM a dictionar6.
1#. Ii2Bs +ob is ver6 dangerous, but i& he MMMMMMMMM it MMMMMMMMM &or another 6ear, he can retire
with a pension.
1%. hese trash cans are getting &ull. $ould 6ou MMMMMMMM the2 MMMMMMMM, pleaseH
1'. Put so2e 2ore wood on the &ire > itBs starting to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM.
2%'
*6$ FOCUS ON< +ronnciation o. t5o9an! three9
5or! +hrasa% ver&s' "
/s we saw in Sections % and ', phrasal verbs are so2eti2es accented on the verb and
so2eti2es accented on the particle. 5t 2ight see2 di&&icult to know whether to accent the
verb or the particle since it depends on whether the phrasal verb is separable or
nonseparable, transitive or intransitive, or a two! or three!word phrasal verb? however, it
boils down to thisG alwa6s accent the particle a&ter the verb unless the phrasal verb is a
nonseparable, transitive, two!word phrasal verb > then accent the verb. -e2e2ber that
so2e verbs can be both transitive and intransitiveG
Nonse+ara&%e' t5o95or!' intransitive
stic0 ROUN2
.%oat ROUN2
Nonse+ara&%e' t5o95or!' transitive
STICK to
STAN2 .or
STICK aron!
FLOAT ron!
Nonse+ara&%e' three95or!' transitive
%ea! UP to
Se+ara&%e' t5o95or!' transitive
ta0e BACK
!o OVER
Se+ara&%e' three95or!' transitive
+t UP to
Initive
present tense &ing form past tense past participle
do over
do over < does over doing over did over done over
($ !o $$$ over p.v. "hen 6ou !o so2ething over' 6ou do it again in order to i2prove it or
to correct 2istakes.
This is all wrong it(ll have to be done over.
I got a bad grade on my paper, but the teacher said I could do it over.
2%(
#nfinitive
present tense -ing form past tense past participle
float around
float around & floats around floating around floated around floated around
($ .%oat aron! p.v. Jusuall6 continuousK "hen so2ething is .%oatin/ aron! a
place, it is there so2ewhere, though 6ou are not sure e<actl6 where.
; don(t know where the stapler is, but it(s floating around here somewhere. The new schedule
was floating around the office yesterday.
"$ .%oat aron! p.v. "hen a ru2or or so2e in&or2ation is .%oatin/ aron!' it is
being repeated and discussed a2ong a group o& people or within a place.
There(s a rumor floating around that the factory(s going to be closed. !omething about a change of
management has been floating around latel%. $ave you heard anything1
lead up to
lead up to & leads up to leading up to led up to led up to
($ %ea! + to p.v. "hen one or 2ore actions, events, or situations %ea! + to a &inal
action, event, or situation, the6 precede and cause or partiall6 cause it.
!everal minor battles led up to a full&scale war. The detective said, +)ake didn(t shoot $ank for no
reason something led up to it.+
"$ %ea! + to p.v. "hen 6ou %ea! + to so2ething when 6ou are speaking or writing,
6ou graduall6 2ove toward an i2portant point b6 sa6ing or writing in&or2ation that will
support that point.
In his speech, the ?resident didn(t immediately announce that he would run for a second term@ he led up to it
by recalling the accomplishments of his first term.
I(ve been listening to you talk for thirty minutes. .hat(s your point1 .hat are you leading up to"
put up to
put up to & puts up to putting up to put up to put up to
($ +t$$$ + to p.v. "hen 6ou persuade or pressure people to do so2ething that is illegal,
dangerous, &oolish, or unwise, 6ou +t the2 + to it.
; didn(t think it was a good idea to demand a raise, but my wife put me up to it.
.hen )ake was arrested for shooting $ank, he said NaFuel had put him up to it by threatening to tell
the police about his other crimes.
stand for
stand for & stands for standing for stood for stood for
($ stan! .or p.v. "hen abbreviations, acron62s, or s62bols represent longer words or
groups o& words, the6 stan! .or the2.
The +5>+ in .ashington, 5>, stands for +5istrict of >olumbia.+
+!cuba+ stands for +self&contained underwater breathing apparatus.+
2%8
"$ stan! .or p.v. "hen people or ob+ects support, represent, or are identi&ied with ideas,
values, or belie&s, the6 stan! .or the2.
This flag stands for freedom. $e was a great man who stood for eFual rights and opportunity for all
people.
*$ stan! .or p.v. "hen 6ou will not stan! .or so2ething that 6ou think is illegal, i2proper,
or un+ust, 6ou will not tolerate it or allow it to happen.
>ruelty to animals is one thing I will never stand for.
I told my son I wouldn(t stand for that kind of language in this house.
Infinitive
present tense &ing form past tense past participle
stick around
stick around < sticks around sticking around stuck around stuck around
($ stic0 aron! p.v. Jin&or2alK "hen 6ou stic0 aron!' 3o sta6 where 6ou are.
>an you stick around" .e(re going to have lunch in an hour.
5on(t go yet stick around until !arah gets here@ she(d love to see you.
stick to
stick to & sticks to sticking to stuck to stuck to
($ stic0 to p.v. "hen one thing stic0s to another, it re2ains attached to it.
The magnet sticks to the chalkboard because there(s metal underneath.
I used the wrong glue, and the tiles didn(t stick to the floor.
"$ stic0 to p.v. "hen 6ou are speaking or writing and 6ou stic0 to a certain sub+ect, 6ou talk or
write about that sub+ect onl6.
The teacher said, +5o this paper over and stick to the point don(t talk about *33 other things that aren(t
important.+
In his news conference, the ?resident stuck to the new ta0 legislation, but the reporters kept asking about the latest
scandal.
*$ stic0 to p.v. "hen 6ou stic0 to a certain belie&, clai2, polic6, habit, plan, t6pe o&
work, and so on, 6ou continue as be&ore, without change. Stic0 5ith is si2ilar to stic0
to$
)ake claimed he was innocent of $ank(s murder. $e stuck to his alibi that he had been at the racetrack when the
murder occurred.
'fter the audition, the director told me I was a terrible actor and that I should stick to singing.
6$ stic0$$$ to p.v. Jin&or2alK "hen 6ou stick it to people, 6ou deliberatel6 tr6 to tease, anno6, or
e2barrass the2 with an accusation, provocative state2ent, or di&&icult .uestion.
!am thinks the new manager is an idiot, and he likes to stick it to him.
=ne woman at the shareholders( meeting really stuck it to the president of the company.
!he asked why he deserved a :*L million bonus even though the company had lost money that year and H,333
workers had been laid off.
7DL
#nfinitive
present tense -ing form past tense past participle
take back
take back & takes back taking back took back taken back
($ ta0e$$$ &ac0 EtoF p.v. "hen 6ou ta0e so2ething &ac0 or ta0e so2ething &ac0 to a place,
6ou take it to where it was be&ore.
5& 6ouBre &inished working on the car, donBt leave 6our tools here? ta0e the2 &ac0 to the
garage.
8o 6ou usuall6 ta0e the shopping carts &ac0 a&ter 6ouBve put 6our groceries in your car?
"$ ta0e$$$ &ac0 EtoF p.v. "hen 6ou take so2ething that 6ou have bought to the place where 6ou
bought it and ask to have it repaired, to e<change it &or so2ething else, or &or the 2one6 6ou
paid &or it, 6ou ta0e it &ac0 or ta0e it &ac0 to the place where 6ou bought it.
; have to take back these pants that I bought yesterday because the 6ipper(s already broken.
That new TV that "ancy bought was a piece of junk@ she took it back to the store and demanded her money
back.
*$ ta0e$$$ &ac0 E&ro2F p.v. "hen 6ou ta0e so2ething &ac0 or ta0e so2ething &ac0 &ro2
so2eone else, 6ou accept it &ro2 the person 6ou gave, sold, or lent it to.
The guy at the store said he wouldn(t take my answering machine back because I had bought it on sale.
The lady I bought this ?ersian rug from said she would be happy to take it back from me if I changed my mind.
6$ ta0e $$$ &ac0 EtoF p.v. "hen 6ou ta0e &ac0 so2ething that 6ou have borrowed or ta0e &ac0
so2ething that 6ou have borrowed to the person or place that 6ou borrowed it &ro2, 6ou return
it.
Gydia borrowed this book from the library si0 months ago, and she still hasn(t taken it back.
I need to take )im(s lawn mower back to him.
7$ ta0e$$$ &ac0 EtoF p.v. "hen 6ou ta0e people &ac0 or ta0e people &ac0 to a place where
the6 were be&ore, 6ou go with the2 to that place.
=ur son was home from college for the summer, and we(re taking him back tomorrow.
Mike got sick again, so we took him back to the hospital.
8$ ta0e $$$ &ac0 p.v. "hen 6ou ta0e &ac0 so2ething that 6ou have said, 6ou ad2it that what
6ou said was untrue, un&air, or rude.
That(s not trueE 8ou take that back right nowE
I(m sorry, that was very rude of me. I take it back.
2'1
:$ ta0e $$$ &ac0 EtoF p.v. "hen so2ething re2inds 6ou o& a place where 6ou were in the
past or o& so2ething 6ou e<perienced in the past, it ta0es 6ou &ac0 or ta0es 6ou &ac0 to
a ti2e in the past.
Gooking through my high school year book sure takes me back.
My grandfather found his old uniform in the attic, and he said it took him back to when he was
stationed in /ngland during the war.
ECERCISE *6a ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith +hrasa% ver&s .ro- this section$ Be
sre the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$
1. /&ter being e2barrassed last night, 5B2 going to MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM a polic6 o& 2inding 26 own
business.
2. Cave 6ou seen the 2anual &or this progra2H 5tBs MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM the o&&ice so2ewhere, but
5 canBt &ind it.
3. 5tBs too bad 6ou canBt MMMMMM MMMMMM. 5 was +ust about to barbecue so2e chicken.
#. )ook at these old pictures. he6 sure MMMMMMMM 2e MMMMMMMM.
%. 5n 26 histor6 class we studied the events that MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM "orld "ar 55.
'. -osa tried to return her engage2ent ring to her &iance, but he wouldnBt MMMM it MMM.
(. he law6er told his client to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM the &acts when she testi&ies.
8. he escaped prisoner was MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM to prison.
,. 5tBs not like ;rik to do such a terrible thing. 5 think so2eone MMMMMMMM hi2 MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMMit.
11. 5 hate it when itBs so hu2id that 6our clothes MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM6our skin.
11. @0/;@ MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM &or 0nited /rab ;2irates.
12. 5 &elt terrible about what 5 said, and 5 MMMMMMMM it MMMMMMMM i22ediatel6.
13. *ne o& the gu6s at work is a real baseball nut &ro2 $hicago, so we love to MMMMMMMM it
MMMMMMMM hi2 about how bad the $ubs are.
1#. 5 donBt have )indaBs electric drill an62ore? 5 MMMMMMMM it MMMMMMMM 6esterda6.
1%. "hen people see our co2pan6Bs logo, the6 know itMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM.ualit6 at a &air price.
1'. he tailor didnBt do what 5 wanted hi2 to do with this dress. 5B2 going to MMMMMMMM it MMMMMMMM to hi2.
1(. he restaurant 2anager told the bartender that she would not MMMMMMMM MMMMMMM drinking on the +ob.
18. 7ark did such a bad +ob painting his house that he had to get a pro&essional house painter to
MMMMMMMMitMMMMMMMM.
1,. /s soon as the co2pan6 president 2entioned the decrease in sales and the need to reduce labor
costs, we knew what he was MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM.
21. 8onBt leave these dirt6 dishes here?MMMMMMMM the2 MMMMMMMM to the kitchen.
21. 8onBt pa6 an6 attention to that ru2or> itBs been MMMMMMMMMMMM&or three 6ears.
ECERCISE *6& ; Revie5 the e4+%anation at the &e/innin/ o. this section o. ho5
t5o9 an! three95or! +hrasa% ver&s are +rononce!$ Then' sa3 each sentence in
E4ercise *6a a%o! an! circ%e the ver& or +artic%e that is accente!$
ECERCISE *6c ; =rite ans5ers to the >estions sin/ +hrasa% ver&s .ro- this
section$ Be sre the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$
1. Ianice said 5 was a cheapskate, but she later ad2itted that it wasnBt true. "hat did Ianice doH
2. / nu2ber o& situations and events helped to cause the $ivil "ar. "hat did those situations an
events doH
3. AouBve rewritten this stor6 &our ti2es, and 6ouBre still not happ6 with it. "hat have 6ou done to the
stor6 &our ti2esH
#. "hen 5 opened the bo< o& cereal, it was &ull o& bugs, so 5 returned it to the store. "hat did 5 do to
the bo< o& cerealH
%. =ill has a s6ste2 &or picking good stocks, and he alwa6s uses it. "hat does =ill do with his
s6ste2H
'. 7r. uckerBs &i&teen!6ear!old daughter wants to get a tattoo, but he absolutel6 will not allow it.
"hat wonBt 7r. ucker doH
(. Visiting his old high school brought back a lot o& 2e2ories. "hat did visiting his old high school
do to hi2H 2'2
8. $arlos ca2e to 26 house and sta6ed &or a while. "hat did $arlos do a&ter he ca2e to
26 houseH
,. People in 26 o&&ice have been reading the latest issue o& i2e 2agaDine and then giving it to
so2eone else. "hat has the 2agaDine been doingH
11. She asked 2e what @Ph.8.@ represents. "hat did she ask 2eH
11,1 &elt ridiculous dressing as a pink dinosaur &or 26 nephewBs birthda6 part6, but 26 brother
persuaded 2e to do it. "hat did 26 brother doH
ECERCISE *6!' Revie5 ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith these +hrasa% ver&s .ro-
+revios sections$ Be sre the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$ To chec0 their
-eanin/s' revie5 the section n-&er /iven a.ter each one$
bite o&&, 2( &all behind, 33 plan ahead, 2% shake up, 2#
catch on, 33 get together, 2' print out, 2# sta6 out, 23
co2e about, 33 goo& around, 33 pull o&&, 33 stop over, 2#
co2e out, 32 let in on, 2' put together, 2' wear o&&, 2(
1.1 asked Sa2 how his +ob interview MMMMMMM MMMMMMM, and he said it went great.
2.1 asked 26 histor6 teacher what led up to the /2erican -evolution, and he said the war
MMMMMMM MMMMMMMM as a result o& several &actors.
3. /&ter the tran.uiliDer MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM, the elephant will wake up.
#. he new owners o& the co2pan6 said the6 planned to MMMMMM things MMMMMMM.
%. "hen 6ouBre an adult, 6ou canBt +ust think about toda6? 6ou have to MMMMM MMMMMM.
'. onight 5B2 going to MMMMMMM MMMMMMM with so2e &riends and watch the ga2e.
(. 7ark has a rich &ather, so 7ark doesnBt work? he +ust MMMMMM MMMMMM 2ost o& ti2e.
8. he &inance 2inister MMMMMM MMMMMM a plan to revive the nationBs econo26.
,. hatBs a prett6 big pro+ect. /re 6ou sure 6ou havenBt MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM 2ore than 6ou can chewH
11. he new s6ste2 at the warehouse was a disaster, and we MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM in &illing orders.
11. 5 didnBt sleep at all last night > 5 MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM dancing until dawn, and 5B2 reall6 beat.
2'3
12. People have been talking about picture phones &or 6ears, but the6Bve never MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM.
13. he boss MMMMMMMM 2e MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM the new strateg6.
1#. 5& 6ouBre not bus6, would 6ou like to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM &or a whileH "e could watch V or pla6
cards.
1%. he crooks tried to steal a (#( b6 pretending to be pilots, but the6 couldnBt MMMMMMMM it MMMMMMMM.
1'. 5 &inished 26 letter, but 5 canBt MMMMMMMM it MMMMMMMM because 5B2 out o& toner.
*7$ 3*$0S *NG /ern! +hrasa% ver&s
5n Section 11 we looked at gerunds as the ob+ects o& phrasal verbs. Now we will look at
phrasal verbs as gerunds the2selves. )ike ordinar6 verbs, gerund phrasal verbs can
be the sub+ect o& a sentenceG
Narrowing down the list !ill be difficult.
sub+ect
the ob+ect o& a sentenceG
"e discussed narro5in/ !o5n the list.
ob+ect
or the ob+ect o& a prepositionG
"e talked about narro5in/ !o5n the list.
object of preposition
Cow and when phrasal verbs can be separated is una&&ected b6 their use as
gerundsG
Narro5in/ it !o5n will be di&&icult.
"e discussed narro5in/ it !o5n$
"e talked about narro5in/ it !o5n$
2'#
Infinitive
present tense &ing form past tense past participle
fool around
fool around < fools around fooling around fooled around fooled around
($ .oo% aron! p.v. "hen 6ou waste ti2e pla6ing or doing sill6 or uni2portant things,
6ou .oo% aron!$ Eoo. aron! is the sa2e as .oo% aron!$
My son is la6y. $e spends his time fooling around instead of looking for a job. My boss said, +I(m
not paying you to fool around get to workE+
($ .oo% aron! EwithF p.v. "hen 6ou .oo% aron! with so2ething, 6ou do so2ething that 2a6
be dangerous or &oolish.
0ooling around with drugs is pretty stupid.
8ou shouldn(t fool around with the insides of your computer unless you know what you(re doing.
*$ .oot aron! EwithF p.v. Jin&or2alK "hen two people .oo% aron! or .oo% aron! with each
other, the6 have se<ual relations, even though one or both o& the2 2a6 be 2arried to so2eone
else or even though their &a2ilies or societ6 2a6 not approve.
!ally(s father caught her and )im fooling around in the basement.
$er husband(s been fooling around with his secretary, and everyone in town knows it.
go b%
go b% & goes b% going b% went b% gone b%
($ /o &3 p.v. "hen people /o &3 a place or thing, the6 pass near that place or thing. "hen
a thing /oes &3 or /oes &3 6ou, it passes near 6ou.
.e watched the parade go b%.
# went by )im(s house to see if his car was in the driveway.
"$ /o &3 p.v. "hen 6ou /o &3 a place, 6ou go there so that 6ou can do so2ething or get
so2ething.
Get(s go b% ?aul(s house to get his tools before we work on your car.
8ou can forget about going b% the dry cleaner to pick up your stuff it(s closed.
*$ /o &3 p.v. "hen a period o& ti2e /oes &3' it passes.
; can(t believe that thirty years have gone b% since I got out of high school.
's time went b% Aetty moved up in the company until she was the head of the finance
department.
6$ /o &3 p.v. "hen 6ou /o &3 a polic6 or standard, 6ou use it as a re&erence or a
guide in 2aking decisions and deter2ining 6our behavior. "hen 6ou /o &3 the book,
6ou &ollow rules, policies, or laws e<actl6.
/oing b% the book has always been my policy.
)im told me to do one thing, and Tom told me to do another, but since Tom is the boss, I(m going to go b%
what he says.
7$ /o &3 p.v. "hen 6ou /o &3 a clock, 6ou use it to tell the ti2e.
5on(t go b% the clock on the wall@ it(s fast. /o b% the clock on the desk.
"o wonder I(m always late for work the clock I(ve been going b% is ten minutes slow.
Infinitive
present tense &ing form past tense past participle
hold against
hold against < holds against holding against held against held against
($ ho%! $$$a/ainst p.v. "hen 6ou ho%! things a/ainst people, 6ou continue to bla2e
the2 &or so2ething and continue to be upset about it.
Ten years ago I got a promotion that "ed thought he deserved, and he(s held it against me ever since.
)ane tost her job because of a mistake Aob made, but she doesn(t hold it against him.
leave behind
leave behind & leaves behind leaving behind left behind left behind
($ %eave$$$ &ehin! p.v. "hen 6ou %eave so2eone or so2ething &ehin!' 6ou go to a different
place.
The e0plorers left the mountains behind and entered the jungle.
The enemy soldiers retreated and left behind a city in ruins.
"$ %eave$$$ &ehin! p.v. "hen 6ou %eave so2ething or so2eone &ehin!' 3o do not take the2
with 6ou because 6ou &orgot or because 6ou cannot or do not want to take the2.
.e packed too much luggage for our trip, so we had to leave some things behind.
1eaving our children behind at a gas station was pretty dumb.
*$ %eave $$$ &ehin! p.v. "hen 6ou 2ove, learn, or work &aster than others in 6our group, 6ou
leave the2 &ehin!$
My husband walks so fast that he always leaves me behind.
If you don(t start working harder, you(re going to be left behind.
Mark was so good at calculus that he soon left the rest of the class behind.
live with
live with & lives with living with lived with lived with
($ %ive 5ith p.v. "hen 6ou %ive 5ith so2eone, 6ou live at the sa2e address. "hen 6ou sa6
that one person %ives 5ith a person o& the opposite se<, 6ou 2ean that the6 live in the sa2e
place but are not 2arried.
1iving with my in&laws is driving me cra6y.
Mike(s been living with his girlfriend for five years. 're they ever going to get married1
"$ %ive 5ith p.v. "hen 6ou %ive 5ith a disease or other proble2, 6ou endure or put up with it.
2''
1iving with this disease is not easy.
t can(t change the situation, so I(ll just have to learn to live with it.
*$ %ive 5ith p.v. "hen 6ou %ive 5ith sha2e, guilt, or a pain&ul 2e2or6, 6ou continue with
6our li&e in spite o& the sha2e, guilt, or pain&ul 2e2or6.
)ake committed suicide rather than live with the shame of what he had done.
$e said he couldn(t go on living with the knowledge that he had caused the death of *H innocent people.
#nfinitive
present tense -ing form past tense past participle
make of
make of & makes of making of made of made of
($ -a0e o. p.v. "hat 6ou -a0e o. so2ething is 6our understanding or opinion o& it.
!o what did you make of the prime minister(s speech1
.hat he said was so strange that I didn(t know what to make of it.
narrow down
narrow down & narrows down narrowing down narrowed down narrowed down
($ narro5$$$ !o5n p.v. "hen 6ou narro5 !o5n things or people in a list or group, 6ou re2ove
so2e o& the2 so that the nu2ber o& things or people is reduced.
'll the candidates for the job have e0cellent Fualifications. )arrowing the list down won(t be easy.
The detective narrowed the suspects down to the butler, the cook, and the maid.
trick into
trick into & tricks into tricking into tricked into tricked into
($ tric0$$$ into p.v. "hen 6ou tric0 people into doing so2ething, 6ou persuade the2 to do
so2ething b6 &ooling or deceiving the2. Con into is si2ilar to tric0 into$
The con artist tricked them into giving him their life savings.
I was an idiot to let $ank trick me into selling him my car for so little money.
ECERCISE *7a ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith +hrasa% ver&s .ro- this section$ Be sre
the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$
1. he 2an who was killed in the accident MMMMMMMM a wi&e and three children MMMMMMMM.
7. The prosecutor %%%%%%%% )ake %%%%%%%% admitting his guilt.
2. I took a job in )apan, and si0 years %%%%%%%% %%%%%%%% before I returned to the Onited !tates.
H. ?aul(s been %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% his parents since his house burned down.
7JM
%. here were &i&t6 contestants at the beginning o& the contest, but the +udges MMMMMMMM it MMMMMMMM to
&ive &inalists.
'. )ook at this strange letter 5 received. -ead it and tell 2e what 6ou MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMMit.
(. 5 was 26 parentsB&avorite, and 26 brother stillMMMMMMMMitMMMMMMMM2e.
8. 3rankBs wi&e &iled &or divorce a&ter she learned that he was MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM with her best &riend.
,. he train alwa6s blows its whistle when it MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM.
11. MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM diabetes 2eans care&ull6 2onitoring 6our blood sugar.
11. .MMMMMMMM 6our &riends and &a2il6 MMMMMMMM when 6ou e2igrate to a new countr6 is ver6 di&&icult.
12. odd &ailed the test because he MMMMMMM MMMMMMM all evening instead o& stud6ing.
13. Sergeant Iones was ver6 strict when he was in the /r26. Ce alwa6s MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM the book.
1#. 8onBt let 6our kids MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM with cigarette lighters? the6 2ight start a &ire.
1%. Cow can 6ou MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM 6oursel& a&ter the terrible thing 6ou didH
1'. 7elanie has 26 biolog6 book, so on the wa6 to school 5 need to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM her house to get
it.
1(. 7ike wasnBt read6 &or the advanced algebra class, and he was .uickl6 MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM b6 the rest
o& the class.
18. 5 MMMMMM MMMMMM 26 wristwatch > not the wall clock > because itBs 2ore accurate.
ECERCISE *7& ; =rite ans5ers to the >estions sin/ +hrasa% ver&s .ro- this
section$ Be sre the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$
1. Cer disease is incurable, so un&ortunatel6 sheBll +ust have to learn to endure it. "hat will she have to
doH
2. Ii2 and 5 worked on a pro+ect together, but Ii2 told ever6one that he did all the work, and 5B2 still
angr6 about it. Cow do 5 &eel about what Ii2 didH
2'8
3. Sall6 and her sisterBs husband go to a 2otel so2eti2es during their lunch hour. "hat are the6
doingH
#. 76 &ather has a lot o& horrible 2e2ories &ro2 the war. "hat does he have to do with the2H
%. =ill 2ade a list o& cities that he 2ight 2ove to, and then he eli2inated those that are too cold or have
high cri2e rates. "hat did =ill do to his list o& citiesH
'. "hen the boss isnBt in the o&&ice, 6ou +ust pla6 co2puter ga2es and 2ake personal phone calls. "hat
do 6ou do when the boss isnBt in the o&&iceH
(. Cank told his sister that he needed 2one6 &or his wi&eBs doctor bills, but he reall6 wanted 2one6 to
bu6 drugs. "hat did Cank do to his sisterH
8. he scientist asked her colleague his opinion o& the test results. "hat did the scientist ask her
colleague about the test resultsH
,. / police car passed 2e while 5 was driving. "hat did the police car doH
11. SusieBs parents are going to take a vacation without her. "hat are SusieBs parents going to do to
herH
11. he last 6ear passed .uickl6. "hat did the last 6ear doH
ECERCISE *7c ; =rite ei/ht ori/ina% sentences sin/ +hrasa% ver&s .ro- this
section$ Tr3 to -a0e a%% the +hrasa% ver&s /ern!s an! to se the- as s&,ects'
o&,ects' or o&,ects o. +re+ositions$
1. MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
2. MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
3. MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
#. MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
%.MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
'. MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
(. MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
8. MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
2',
ECERCISE *7!' Revie5 ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith these +hrasa% ver&s .ro-
+revios sections$ Be sre the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$ To chec0
their -eanin/s' revie5 the section n-&er /iven a.ter each one$
break up, 7K flip out, 7L lie around, 73 stand for, 2H
come apart, 7L float around, 2H luck out, 7L stay up, 73
do over, 2H hang around, 73 mess up, 7K stick around, 2H
end up, 73 lead up to, 2H run across, 7L take back, 2H
*. The robber was only three feet away when he fired the gun at me, but the gun jammed and didn(t fire. I
really%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%.
7. "ancy said being sick wasn(t so bad. !he %%%%%%%% %%%%%%%% in bed all day watching TV and eating ice cream.
2. I(ll %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% if you drop my new camera in the swimming pool.
H. 5an(s daughter was very sick last night, so 5an %%%%%%%% %%%%%%%% all night with her.
D. This is outrageousE I will not %%%%%%%% %%%%%%%% dishonesty in my company.
J. I told Mark that I would never speak to him again if he didn(t %%%%%%%% %%%%%%%% the nasty things he said.
M. If you(re looking for $ank, go to the bar on the corner. That(s where he %%%%%%%% MMMMMMMM.
K. ' number of minor events will %%%%%% %%%%%% %%%%%% the main event.
L. I had a very busy day planned, but I got a flat tire and that %%%%%%%% %%%%%%%% everything.
*3. My boss is a jerkE I worked for three days on this, and just because he found one mistake he made me %%%%%%%% it
%%%%%%%%.
**. !am has been very depressed since he %%%%%%%% %%%%%%%% with his girlfriend.
*7. $ave you seen the dictionary1 It(s %%%%%%%% %%%%%%%% the office somewhere, but I can(t find it.
*2. 5on(t stand on that chair it(s %%%%%%%% %%%%%%%%.
*H. 5o you really have to leave now1 .hy don(t you %%%%%%%% %%%%%%%% for a while.
2(1
1%. =ill was talking about 2oving to 3lorida or Cawaii, but 5B2 not sure where he &inall6 MMMMMMMM
MMMMMMMM.
1'. So2eone told 2e that Sarah is in town, but 5 havenBt MMMMMM MMMMMMM her 6et.
*8$ FOCUS ON< +hrasa% ver&s 5ith the +artic%e
down
he particle down is used in 2an6 phrasal verbs and has 2an6 2eanings. 8own can be used to
sa6 that so2ething literall6 2oves &ro2 a higher position to a lower position or &ro2 north to
southG
Aob went down the ladder.
$is friends came down from >anada.
2it down5 dinner is ready.
that something decreases in si6e, intensity, Fuantity, or Fuality#
$er fever has gone down to *33 degrees.
The doctor gave her a sedative to calm her down.
.e(ve narrowed the list down to three choices.
that so2ething or so2eone is &ought, de&eated, or overpoweredG
$ank backed down when he saw my shotgun.
The police cracked down on street crime.
that so2ething &alls to the groundG
The boy was running and fell down.
The warehouse burned down.
=pen the door or I(ll break it down!
or that a process or activity is ending or has ended#
My car broke down on the highway.
The FAI tracked down the spy.
The campaign is winding down.
Infinitive
present tense &ing form past tense past participle
back
down
back down < backs down backing down backed down backed down
($ &ac0!o5n p.v. "hen one side in a disagree2ent stops 2aking threats and lets the
other have what it wants or do what it wants, the side that stops 2aking threats &ac0s
!o5n$
The dictator didn(t back down after the Onited "ations !ecurity >ouncil voted in favor of sending in troops.
The police officer tried to force me to pay him a bribe, but when I said I would report him to the chief of police,
he backed down.
Infinitive
present tense &ing form past tense past participle
calm down
calm down < calms down calming down calmed down calmed down
($ ca%- $$$ !o5n p.v. "hen 6ou ca%- !o5n' 6ou beco2e less active, nervous, or
upset. "hen 6ou ca%- other people !o5n' 6ou do so2ething to 2ake the2 less
active, nervous, or upset. Sett%e !o5n is si2ilar to ca%- !o5n$
I was very nervous about the test, but I calmed down when I saw how easy it was.
Mike tried to calm his sister down after she had a fight with her husband.
"$ ca%- $$$ !o5n p.v. "hen a con&used or violent situation beco2es less con&used or violent,
it ca%-s !o5n$ "hen 6ou ca%- a con&used or violent situation !o5n' 6ou 2ake it less
con&used or violent and 2ore cal2. Sett%e !o5n is si2ilar to ca%- !o5n$
The neighborhood where the riot occurred calmed down after the army started patrolling the streets.
' conference between the two sides was organi6ed to try to calm the situation down.
fall down
fall down & falls down falling down fell down fallen down
($ .a%% !o5n p.v. "hen people or things &all to the ground &ro2 a higher position, the6 .a%%
!o5n$
I slipped on some ice on the sidewalk and fell down.
'll the dishes on that shelf will fall down if there(s another earthFuake.
go down
go down & goes down going down went down gone down
($ /o !o5n EtoF p.v. "hen 6ou 2ove to a lower level or position or &ro2 north to south,
6ou /o !o5n or /o !o5n to that place. Eo + is the opposite o& /o !o5n$
Toronto is too cold, so we usually go down to Me0ico in the winter.
/oing down the mountain was a lot easier than going up.
"$ /o !o5n EtoF p.v. "hen the cost, rate, .ualit6, .uantit6, or level o& so2ething
decreases, it /oes !o5n$ Eo + is the opposite o& /o !o5n$
The temperature went down to 6ero last night.
The crime rate in "ew 8ork >ity has gone down.
*$ /o !o5n EtoF p.v. "hen so2ething e<tends to a certain point that is &arther south or at
a lower elevation, it /oes !o5n to that point. Eo + is the opposite o& /o !o5n$
$ow far south does this road go down"
5oes this road go down to the south side of town1
'fter dinner we went down to the basement and played ping pong.
7M7
6$ /o !o5n p.v. "hen so2ething /oes !o5n in a certain wa6, people react to or
perceive it in this wa6.
The new no smoking policy didn(t go down very well with the smokers in the office.
The judge(s decision went down well with the prosecutor.
7$ /o !o5n p.v. "hen a co2puter or co2puter network stops working because o& a
proble2 or because it has been disconnected, it /oes !o5n$
I couldn(t withdraw any money at the bank because its computers had gone down.
If your computer terminal goes down %ou can use the one in the ne0t office.
8$ /o !o5n p.v. "hen the sun goes below the horiDon, it /oes !o5n$
'fter the sun goes down it(ll get a little cooler.
The sun went down at K#2H last night.
Infinitive
present tense &ing form past tense past participle
la% down
lay down < lays down laying down laid down laid down
($ %a3$$$ !o5n EonF p.v. "hen 6ou %a3 so2ething !o5n' 6ou put it on a horiDontal sur&ace.
Pt !o5n is si2ilar to %a3 !o5n$
Marsha laid the tray down.
The police ordered )ake to la% down his gun and surrender.
"$ %a3 !o5n p.v. "hen 6ou %a3 !o5n a new law, polic6, rule, and so on, 6ou create and
announce it.
The IN! laid down several new ta0 regulations.
>ongress decided against la%ing down any new campaign financing laws.
put down
put down & puts down putting down put down put down
($ +t $$$!o5n p.v. "hen 6ou +t so2ething !o5n' 3o put so2ething in 6our hand or
so2ething that 6ou are carr6ing on a horiDontal sur&ace.
The suitcase was so heavy that I had to put it down and rest for a minute.
!usie, put that knife down. It(s dangerousE
"$ +t$$$ !o5n p.v. "hen 6ou +t people !o5n' 6ou criticiDe the2.
)im hates his stepfather and puts him down constantly. I(m not inviting !am to any more parties. I hate
the way he puts everyone down.
+t9!o5n n, / +t9!o5n is an insult or critical re2ark.
't the party !am asked "ancy if she had made her dress from an old curtain.
.hat a put-down!
*$ +t$$$ !o5n EonF p.v. "hen 6ou +t 2one6 !o5n or +t 2one6 !o5n on so2ething, 6ou pa6 a
portion o& the cost o& so2ething 6ou want to bu6 to be sure that it will still be available to 6ou when
6ou are able to pa6 the rest o& the cost.
2(3
The real estate agent asked me how much money I want to put down on the house.
I told her that I could put as much as : *D,333 down.
6$ +t$$$ !o5n Eon/&orF p.v. "hen 6ou add so2ething to a list or other written 2aterial,
6ou +t it !o5n or +t it !o5n on the list. "hen 6ou add people to a list in order to
assign so2ething to the2, 6ou +t the2 !o5n or +t the2 !o5n &or that assign2ent.
Melanie(s collecting money for charity, so I told her to put me down for :D3.
I(m making a list of volunteers to help reelect !enator 5olittle. >an I put your name down on the
list1
7$ +t$$$ !o5n EonF p.v. "hen an airplane +ts !o5n or a pilot +ts an airplane !o5n'
the airplane lands.
'fter the engine Fuit, the pilot looked for a place to put down.
Fortunately, the pilot was able to put the plane down on a fro6en lake.
Infinitive
present tense &ing form past tense past participle
run down
run down < runs down running down ran down run down
($ rn !o5n EtoF p.v. "hen 6ou 2ove .uickl6 to a lower level or place, 6ou rn !o5n or rn
!o5n to that place.
Mike was running down the stairs when he fell and broke his leg.
I saw someone trying to steal my car, and I ran down to the street to try to stop him.
"$ rn $$$ !o5n p.v. "hen vehicles or people driving vehicles hit and in+ure or kill so2eone,
the6 rn that person !o5n$
The man was run down and killed by a speeding ta0i.
'li was arrested after he ran three people down.
*$ rn !o5n p.v. "hen 6ou discuss or review ite2s on a list &ro2 the &irst to the last, 6ou rn
!o5n the list.
Get(s run down the >hristmas list and decide what to give everyone.
The teacher ran down the list of students and marked the ones who are failing.
rundown n. . rundown is a discussion or review of items on a list.
The consultant gave the manager a rundown of the problems she had found.
6$ rn !o5n p.v. "hen batteries or 2achines rn !o5n or are rn !o5n &3 someone, they
gradually lose power or energy.
5on(t leave the car lights on for too long when the car isn(t running or the battery will run down.
.hat time is it1 My watch ran down last night.
rn!o5n part.ad+. / person or thing that is rn!o5n is e<hausted, without power or
energ6.
2(#
Maybe I need to go to the doctor@ I feel so rundown all the time.
rn!o5n part.ad+. / rn!o5n building or neighborhood is in poor condition because
it has not been 2aintained.
I went back to my old neighborhood, and I was shocked to see how rundown it had become.
Infinitive
present tense &ing form past tense past participle
sit down
sit down < sits down sitting down sat down sat down
($ sit !o5n p.v. "hen 6ou sit !o5n' 3o change &ro2 a standing position to a sitting
position.
The teacher told his students to sit down and open their books.
I(m e0hausted@ I haven(t sat down all day.
"$ sit$$$ !o5n p.v. "hen 6ou sit people !o5n' 6ou order the2 to sit, usuall6 so that 6ou
can have a serious discussion.
.hen I found marijuana in my daughter(s purse, I sat her down and had a serious talk with her.
The detective sat $ank down and began to interrogate him.
ECERCISE *8a ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith +hrasa% ver&s .ro- this section$ Be
sre the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$
1. Ceather thinks sheBs so high!class. SheMMMMMMMMMMMMother people all the ti2e.
2. he situation MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM a&ter the cease!&ire was declared.
3. he sun co2es up around 'G11, and it MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM around 8G11.
#. CereBs the list o& candidates &or the pro2otion. )etBs MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM the list and decide.
%. he old water tower MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM during the stor2.
'. Aou 2ust be e<hausted. "h6 donBt 6ou MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM and take it eas6H
(. 5 saw a tow truck looking &or illegall6 parked cars, so 5 MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM to 26 car and 2oved it.
8. 76 o&&ice is on the ninetieth &loor, so so2eti2es it takes 2e &i&teen 2inutes to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM to
the lobb6.
,. 5tBs hard to write s62path6 notes. 5 never know what to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM.
2(%
11. he co2pan6 tried to reduce bene&its, but the6 MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM when the union threatened to go
on strike.
11. he /ppalachian rail starts in 7aine and MMMMM all the wa6 MMMMM to 4eorgia.
12. 8onBt MMMMMMMM the bab6 MMMMMMMM there > she 2ight &all.
13. 5 was &urious about what 8an said, and 5 MMMMMMMM hi2 MMMMMMMM and told hi2 e<actl6 what 5 thought
about it.
1#. 5& 6ou MMMMMMMM N 111,111 MMMMMMMM on that house, 6ou wonBt need a ver6 large 2ortgage.
1%. "hat are 6ou so worried aboutH IustMMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM > ever6thingBs going to be all right.
1'. he unionBs proposal to reduce the workweek to &our da6s didnBtMMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM well with the
co2pan6.
1(. he 3ood and 8rug /d2inistration is e<pected to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM a new set o& regulations
regarding sea&ood inspection.
18. he price o& co2puters has MMMMMMM MMMMMMM dra2aticall6 in the last &ew 6ears.
1,. hose bo<es are too heav6 &or 6ou. MMMMMMMM the2 MMMMMMMM and let 2e carr6 the2 &or 6ou.
21. / pedestrian was MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM b6 a truck on )incoln /venue.
21. he stock e<change had to stop trading when its co2puters MMMMMMM MMMMMM.
22. MMMMMMMM a +et MMMMMMMM on an aircra&t carrier at night is ver6 di&&icult.
23. So2eone le&t this &lashlight on all night, and the batteries have MMMMMM MMMMMM.
ECERCISE *8& ; =rite three sentences sin/ the o&,ects in +arentheses$ Be
sre to +t the o&,ects in the ri/ht +%ace$
1. he +ocke6 cal2ed down. Ethe horse, itF
2('
2. he 2echanic laid down. Eher tools, the2F
3. 5 put down. E26 books, the2F
#. he ta<i ran down. Ethe tra&&ic cop, hi2F
ECERCISE *8c ; =rite ans5ers to the >estions sin/ +hrasa% ver&s' +artici+%e
a!,ectives' an! nons .ro- this section$ Be sre the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct
tense$
1. he car dealer reviewed the list o& the carBs options with 2e. "hat did the car dealer doH
2. 5n Ouestion 1,what did the car dealer give 2eH
3. he king visited the area where the two tribes were &ighting, and the &ighting stopped. "hat did the
king do to the areaH
#. he houses in this part o& town are in ver6 bad condition. Cow can 6ou describe this part o&
townH
%. 7anage2entBs plan got a good reaction &ro2 the workers. "hat i2pression did the plan 2ake on the
workersH
'. 3rank told Nanc6 that she was low!class. "hat did 3rank do to Nanc6H
(. 5n Ouestion ', what was 3rankBs co22entH
8. Sa2 sat in a chair. "hat did Sa2 doH
2((
,. he co2pan6Bs 2anage2ent stopped threatening to &ire the workers and agreed to raise their
wages. "hat did the co2pan6 doH
11. he dentistBs secretar6 wrote 26 na2e in her appoint2ent book. "hat did the secretar6 doH
11. he soldiers stopped &ighting and put their ri&les on the ground. "hat did the soldiers do with their
ri&lesH
12. Aou slipped and landed on the ground. "hat did 6ou doH
ECERCISE *8!' Revie5 ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith these +artici+%e a!,ectives
.ro- +revios sections$ To chec0 their -eanin/s' revie5 the section n-&er /iven
a.ter each one$
burned up, 22 locked in, 31 punched in,31 spaced!out, 31
cleaned out, 32 locked out, 31 punched out, 31 sorted out, 31
e2ptied out, 32 paid up, 22 put out, 31 torn o&&, 2(
le&t out, 32 plugged up, 22 shaken up, 2#
1. 8avidBs totall6 MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM toda6. Ce has even &orgotten his girl&riendBs na2e.
2. 5 like this coat, but 5 donBt know what siDe it is because the tagBsMMMMMMMM MMMMMMM,
3. 5 donBt know wh6 that gu6 &ro2 the collection agenc6 called 2e > all 26 bills are MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM.
#. Nicole hasnBt MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM 6et. ;ither sheBs late &or work or she &orgot.
%. 7ark borrowed =obBs car and had an accident, and 7arkBs reall6 MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM about it.
'. he 2anager wondered wh6 5 wasnBt working, but a&ter 5 told her 5 was MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM, she said it
was oka6.
(. ake this 2edicine. 5tBs great &or MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM noses.
8. 8o 6ou have a ke6H 5B2 MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM and canBt get out.
,. 8o 6ou have a ke6H 5B2 MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM and canBt get in.
11. IaneBs reall6 MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM. She +ust &ound out that her brother was 2urdered.
11. Ii2Bs socks are 2i<ed with his brotherBs socks. he6Bre not MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM.
2(8
12. No one wants to sit with 2e in the school lunchroo2, and it 2akes 2e &eel MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM.
13. 76 2other was reall6 MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM when /unt 9ath6 said our house wasnBt ver6 clean.
1#. "h6 isnBt the base2ent MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM 6etH 5 told 6ou 5B2 tired o& looking at this +unk:
1%. hereBs nothing in the roo2. 5tBs all MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM.
ECERCISE *8e' Revie5 ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith these +hrasa% ver&s .ro-
+revios sections$ Be sre the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$ To chec0 their
-eanin/s' revie5 the section n-&er /iven a.ter each one$
blow up, 33 co2e about, 33 2ake o&, 3% pull o&&, 33
care &or, 31 do without, 31 2ake out, 2, put o&&, 31
catch on, 33 go out, 32 narrow down, 3% stick to, 3#
clean out, 32 lock out, 31 plan on, 31 wash up, 31
1. Several bodies &ro2 the crashed plane MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM the da6 a&ter the crash.
2. /&ter 2other had a stroke, we had to hire nurses to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM her.
3. 76 &ather was sevent6!two 6ears old when he got his &irst co2puter, but he MMMMMMMM MMMMMMM right
awa6, and now he uses it all the ti2e.
#. he President had a lot o& big plans when he took o&&ice, but &ew o& the2 ever MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM.
%. 7ark wasnBt success&ul as a singer. Ce should have MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM songwriting > thatBs what
he does best.
'. Cow did 6ou MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM on 6our &inal e<a2H
(. 5 had to crawl in through the window a&ter 26 daughter closed the door and MMMMMMMM 2e MMMMMMMM
o& the house.
8. his situation is ver6 strange. 5 donBt know what to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM it.
,.1 have to &inish 26 pro+ect tonight, and 5 havenBt even started it. 5 MMMMMMMM it MMMMMMM until the last
2inute.
11. No one thought 3rank could run a 2ile in less than &our 2inutes, but he MMMMMMMM it MMMMMMMM.
2(,
11. 5 reall6 depend on 26 laptop co2puter when 5 travel on business. 5 donBt know how 5 ever
MMMMMMM MMMMMMMMMit.
12. 4eorge and )inda MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM &or three 6ears be&ore the6 got 2arried.
13. Several people were killed when the bo2b MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM.
1#. =ob and 7arsha arenBtMMMMMMMM MMMMMMMMspending 2ore than N2%1,111 &or their
new house.
1%. 76 divorce settle2ent cost 2e a lot o& 2one6. 5t al2ost MMMMMMM 2e MMMMMMM.
1'. he 3=5 started with a list o& si< suspects, but the6 MMMMMMM it MMMMMMMM to two.
*:$ FOCUS ON< +hrasa% ver&s se! as nons' *
"hen phrasal verbs are used as nouns, the verb is usuall6 in the in&initive &or2?
however, a s2all nu2ber use a di&&erent &or2 o& the verb.
3or e<a2ple, %e.t over and /ro5 + use the past participleG
.e ate leftovers the day after Thanksgiving.
The grown-ups sat at one table, and the children sat at another.
ta%0 to and /o over use the !in/ &or2G
Mr. 8oung gave his son a good talking-to.
Aefore I buy this car, I(m going to give it a good going-over.
and /ro5n9+ uses the past participleG
*nl6 /ro5n9+s are allowed to drive.
Infinitive
present tense &ing form past tense past participle
brush off
brush off < brushes off brushing off brushed off brushed off
($ &rsh $$$o.. p.v. "hen 6ou &rsh people o&&, 6ou ignore the2 or re&use to listen to the2
because 6ou are not interested in or do not like what the6 are sa6ing.
My boss just brushes me off when I try to tell her how to increase our profits.
The reporters tried to ask him some Fuestions, but he brushed them off.
&rsh9o.. n. "hen 6ou give people the &rsh9o..' 3o ignore the2 or re&use to listen to
the2 because 6ou are not interested in or do not like what the6 are sa6ing.
he boss +ust gave 2e the &rsh9o.. when 5 tried to give hi2 so2e advice. "$ &rsh $$$ o.. p.v.
"hen 6ou &rsh o.. a critical re2ark or proble2, 6ou ignore it
and continue as be&ore without letting it a&&ect 6ou.
I told 5r. !mith that he had made a mistake, but he brushed it off.
My father(s cholesterol is very high, but he just brushes it off.
Infinitive
present tense &ing form past tense past participle
come on
come on < comes on coming on came on come on
($ co-e on p.v. "hen an electrical device or 2achine co-es on' it begins to
operate, usuall6 auto2aticall6. Eo o.. is the opposite o& co-e on$
It was so cold that the heat came on last night.
.hen you open the refrigerator door, the light comes on automatically.
"$ co-e on p.v. "hen a television or radio progra2 co-es on' it begins.
5o you know when the news will come on"
The late movie comes on at *#33 '.M.
*$ co-e on p.v. "hen 6ou want to encourage people to do so2ething or when 6ou want
the2 to do so2ething .uickl6, 6ou sa3 ?Co-e onN?
Aelieve me, you(re going to love this garlic ice cream. +ome on try itE
+ome on! I can(t wait all day.
6$ co-e on p.v. Jin&or2alK "hen 6ou think that people have done or said so2ething
i2proper or unreasonable, 6ou sa3 ?Co-e on$?
Tom didn(t study for one minute, and you(re telling me he got *33 on the test1 =h, come on.
$ey, come on! I told you not to do that again.
7$ co-e on p.v. Jalwa6s continuousK "hen 6ou begin to &eel a headache or an illness
developing, 6ou &eel the headache or illness co-in/ on$
I might be sick tomorrow@ I feel something coming on.
I feel a headache coming on. 5o you have any aspirin1
8$ co-e on p.v. "hen 6ou co-e on a certain wa6, 6ou speak or deal with people in that
wa6.
?aul needs to learn to be more of a gentleman. $e comes on too strong, and women don(t like that.
Aob comes on kind of arrogant, but he(s actually a nice guy.
:$ co-e on EtoF p.v. Jin&or2alK "hen 6ou co-e on to people, 6ou approach the2 and tr6
to interest the2 in ro2ance or se<.
Toad came on to )udy at the party, and she told him to get lost.
I can(t stand that guy "ed. $e(s always coming on to me.
co-e9on n. Jin&or2alK / provocative co22ent or action intended to interest a person in ro2ance or
se< is a co-e9on$
281
Todd uses the same come-on with all the girls, and it never works.
co-e9on n. / discount or special o&&er designed to get people to bu6 so2ething is a
co-e9on$
The bank is offering a free V>N as a come-on if you open an account with them.
Infinitive
present tense &ing form past tense past partic
cover up
cover up < covers up covering up covered up covered u
($ cover$$$ + p.v. "hen 6ou cover so2ething co2pletel6, 6ou cover it +$
I covered the cake up so no bugs would land on it.
+over this stuff up I don(t want anyone to see it.
covere! + part.ad+. /&ter so2ething has been co2pletel6 covered, it is covere! +$ 5s
the 2eat covere! +H 5 donBt want &lies to land on it.
"$ cover$$$ + p.v. "hen 6ou cover + a cri2e, 6ou do so2ething to tr6 to prevent other
people &ro2 learning o& it.
There(s no point in trying to cover up the crime. Too many people already know about it.
The mayor was accused of covering up his ties to organi6ed crime.
cover9+ n. So2ething 6ou do in order to prevent a cri2e &ro2 beco2ing known is a
cover9+$
The mayor denied being part of a cover-up and claimed he was innocent.
hang out
hang out & hangs out hanging out hung out hung out
($ han/ ot p.v. Jin&or2alK "hen 6ou han/ ot at a place, 6ou spend ti2e there
without an6 i2portant purpose. Han/ aron! is si2ilar to han/ ot$
5oesn(t "ancy have a job1 It seems as if she hangs out at the beach every day.
I don(t have anyplace to go. 5o you mind if I hang out here for a while1
han/ot n. Jin&or2alK / han/ot is a place where 6ou spend ti2e without an6
i2portant purpose.
The police closed the bar, saying it was a hangout for crooks and gang members.
leave over left over
($ %eave over p.v. Jalwa6s passiveK "hen so2ething is %e.t over' it re2ains a&ter
people have used or taken as 2uch o& it as the6 need or want.
I guess I made too much food@ look how much is left over.
I paid all my bills and had only : *M left over.
282
%e.tover part.ad+. So2ething that is %e.t over re2ains a&ter people have used or taken
as 2uch o& it as the6 need or want.
8ou can have this leftover pasta for lunch tomorrow.
%e.tovers n. Jalwa6s pluralK 3ood ite2s that re2ain uneaten a&ter people have &inished
eating are %e.tovers$
1eftovers again1 .hen are we going to have something different for dinner1
#nfinitive
present tense -ing form past tense past participle
1et down
let down & lets down letting down let down let down
($ %et $$$!o5n p.v. "hen 6ou pro2ise people 6ou will do so2ething and then &ail to do it,
6ou %et the2 !o5n$
My son promised to stop using drugs, but he let me down.
I really need you to help me move tomorrow. ?lease don(t let me down.
%et !o5n part.ad+. "hen people pro2ise 6ou the6 will do so2ething and then &ail to do it,
6ou &eel %et !o5n$ "hen 6ou are disappointed because 6ou cannot have so2ething 6ou
want to have, because 6ou cannot do so2ething 6ou want to do, or because so2ething is
less e<citing than 6ou e<pected it to be, 6ou &eel %et !o5n$
8ou broke your promise to me that you would Fuit smoking. I feel very let down.
%et!o5n n. "hen 6ou sa6 that so2ething is a %et!o5n' 3o are disappointed because 6ou
cannot have or cannot do so2ething 6ou want to or because so2ething is less e<citing than
6ou e<pected it to be.
I had tickets for the fifth game of the .orld !eries, but my team lost in four games. .hat a letdown.
'fter the way everyone talked about how great the movie was, I thought it was something of a letdown.
+a3o.. pa% off & pa%s off pa%ing off paid off paid off
($ +a3$$$ o.. p.v. "hen 6ou +a3 o.. 2one6 that 6ou owe or +a3 o.. the person 6ou owe the
2one6 to, 6ou pa6 all the 2one6 that 6ou owe.
I wasn(t happy with the people we hired to paint our house. # paid them off and told them not to return.
It took ten years, but I finally paid off my school loan.
+ai! o.. part.ad+. /&ter 6ou pa6 all the 2one6 that 6ou owe to so2eone or to a lending
institution, the debt or loan is +ai! o..$
I made my last payment yesterday, and now my car loan is paid off.
"$ +a3$$$ o.. p.v. "hen 6ou pa6 people 2one6 so that the6 will do so2ething illegal or allow
6ou to do so2ething illegal, 6ou +a3 the2 o..$
283
The politician tried to cover up the crime b% pa%ing off the witnesses.
5on(t e0pect the police in this city to do anything about gambling they(re being paid off.
+a3o.. n$ A +a3o.. is 2one6 paid to so2eone to do so2ething illegal or to allow 6ou to do
so2ething illegal.
The chief of police was videotaped accepting a pa%off.
*$ +a3 o.. p.v. "hen so2ething 6ou do +a3s o..' it is success&ul and is worth the e&&ort
6ou 2ade.
Medical school is a lot of hard work, but it(ll pa% off someday.
The restaurant changed its menu, and it really paid off. Ausiness increased by 23 percent.
+a3o.. n. / bene&it 6ou gain because o& an e&&ort 6ou 2ake is a +a3o..$
Ginda doesn(t get paid for the volunteer work she does.
The pa%off is knowing that she has helped other people.
Infinitive
present tense &ing form past tense past participle
talk to
talk to < talks to talking to talked to talked to
($ ta%0 to p.v. "hen 6ou ta%0 to people, 6ou have a conversation with the2.
're you talking to me1
I don(t like Aob. $e talks to me like I(m some kind of idiot.
ta%0in/9to n$ A ta%0in/9to is a serious discussion in which 6ou scold or lecture
so2eone.
5an(s behavior is outrageous. !omeone should give him a good talking-to.
ECERCISE *:a ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith +hrasa% ver&s .ro- this section$ Be
sre the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$
1. 5 &orgot to MMMMMMM the chicken MMMMMMM a&ter we &inished dinner, and the cat ate it.
2. / patient died a&ter 8r. S2ith gave her the wrong 2edicine, and the hospital tried to
MMMMMMMMitMMMMMMMM.
3. 5 donBt care what Nanc6 thinks o& 2e. 5& she criticiDes 2e, 5Bll +ust MMMMMMMM her MMMMMMMM.
#. 5 worked &or nine 6ears to get 26 Ph.8., and now 5 canBt &ind a +ob in 26 &ield. /ll that work sure didnBt
MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM.
28#
%.1 set the ther2ostat so that the air conditioner MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM i& it gets over eight6 degrees. ',
Aou can trust ;rik to keep his pro2ises. Ce wonBt MMMMMMMM 6ou MMMMMMMM.
(. 5 didnBt like that car sales2an we talked to last night. Ce MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM too strong. 8. 5 called
Ceather last night, but 5 didnBt MMMMM MMMMM her? she was in the shower.
,. MMMMMMM MMMMMMMM in bars isnBt 26 idea o& &un.
11. 5 tried to apologiDe to Iane, but she +ust MMMMM 2e MMMMM and continued walking.
11. 5 want to MMMMMMMM 26 2ortgage MMMMMMMM earl6, so 5B2 2aking two pa62ents ever6 2onth.
12. )ook at V 4uide to see when the show MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM.
13. 9aren sure isnBt sh6. 8id 6ou see how she was MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM to 26 brother at the part6H
1#. /&ter hanksgiving so 2uch turke6 will beMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMthat weBll be eating it &or two weeks.
1%. 5 hope 5B2 not getting sick. 5 &eel a cold MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM.
1'. he contractor was accused o& MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM cit6 o&&icials in e<change &or contracts.
ECERCISE *:& ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith nons .ro- this section$
1, Aou need to &inish school. he MMMMMMMMMMM wonBt co2e &or 6ears, but itBs worth it.
2,1 didnBt have ti2e to 2ake an6thing &or dinner, so weBre having MMMMMMMM tonight.
3. his place isnBt as beauti&ul as it looked in the pictures. "hat a MMMMMMMMMMM.
#. Iud6 isnBt interested in an6thing 5 sa6? she alwa6s gives 2e the MMMMMMMMMMM.
%. he senator was convicted o& taking a MMMMMMMMMMM.
'. he low interest rate the credit card co2pan6 o&&ers i& 6ou switch to their card is +ust a
MMMMMMMMMM. /&ter si< 2onths the6 increase it to 18 percent.
(. he politician was accused o& being part o& a MMMMMMMMMMM.
. 28%
8. Aou can usuall6 &ind Ioe at the nightclub across the street. hatBs his &avorite MMMMM.
,. i226Bs not causing an6 proble2s toda6. 7a6be so2eone gave hi2 a MMMMMMMMM.
ECERCISE *:c ; =rite ans5ers to the >estions sin/ +hrasa% ver&s' +artici+%e
a!,ectives' an! nons .ro- this section$ Be sre the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct
tense$
1. Ned spends a lot o& ti2e at IoeBs 8iner rela<ing and talking to his &riends. "hat does Ned do at
IoeBs 8inerH
2. 5n Ouestion 1, what is IoeBs 8iner to NedH
3. 7ark said so2ething that 5 thought was ridiculous, and 5 told hi2 to be serious and reasonable,
"hat did 5 sa6 to 7arkH
#. Aou had N#11, but a&ter 6ou went shopping, 6ou had N111 re2aining. "hat did 6ou haveH
%. 76 &avorite V show begins at ,G11. "hat does 26 &avorite show do at ,G11H
'. 8an pro2ised his daughter that he would take her to the circus, but he couldnBt get o&& work that
da6. "hat did 8an do to his daughterH
(. 7aria is going to pa6 her last car loan pa62ent. "hat is she going to do to her car loanH
8. 5n Ouestion (, how would 6ou describe 7ariaBs car loan a&ter she 2akes the last pa62entH
,. Nicole spoke with her brother about his drinking proble2. "hat did she do to her brotherH
11. 5n Ouestion ,, what did Nicole give to her brotherH
11. he heat in our house starts to operate when the te2perature gets below si<t6 degrees. "hat
does the heat in our house doH
12. 3or lunch 6ou ate the spaghetti that 6our &a2il6 didnBt eat the night be&ore. "hat did 6ou eat &or
lunchH
13. he restaurant owner gave the health inspector N211 to ignore the rats in the kitchen. "hat did
the restaurant owner do to the health inspectorH
1#. 5n Ouestion 13, what was the N211 that the restaurant owner gave the health inspectorH
28'
1%. he head o& the health depart2ent tried to keep the pa6o&&s in his depart2ent a secret. "hat did the
head o& the health depart2ent do to the pa6o&&sH
1'. 5n Ouestion 1%, what would 6ou call the head o& the health depart2entBs atte2pt to keep the pa6o&&s in
his depart2ent a secretH
1(. )inda co2plained to the cit6 about the garbage in the streets, but the wo2an she talked to wasnBt
interested and told her to write to the 2a6or. "hat did the wo2an )inda talked to doH
18. 5n Ouestion 1(, what did the wo2an that )inda talked to give herH
1,. i226Bs &riend wanted hi2 to walk &aster, and he told i226 to hurr6. "hat did i226Bs &riend sa6 to
i226H
21. Ioe told 2e again and again how good his &avorite restaurant is, but when 5 went there, 5 didnBt think it
was that good. "hat was 26 visit to the restaurantH
21. 5n Ouestion 21, how did 5 &eel a&ter 26 visit to IoeBs &avorite restaurantH
ECERCISE *:!' Revie5 ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith these nons .ro- +revios
sections$ To chec0 their -eanin/s' revie5 the section n-&er /iven a.ter each one$
blowup, 33 get!together, 2' grown!up, 11 put!down, 3'
breakup, 28 giveawa6, 28 lockout, 31 rundown, 3'
cutout, 31 going!over, 2' lockout, 2,
1. he 2ovie critic told the director that watching his new 2ovie was worse than going to the dentist.
hat was .uite a MMMMMMMMMMM.
2. he MMMMMMMMMMM o& the huge co2pan6 created several s2aller co2panies.
3. "eBre having a little MMMMMMMMMMM tonight. "ould 6ou like to co2eH
#. *nl6 MMMMMMMMMMM are allowed to drink alcohol.
%. he MMMMMMMMMMM ended a&ter the workers agreed to a 11 percent pa6 increase.
'. 5 heard a big MMMMMMMMMMM in Nanc6Bs o&&ice. 5 wonder what the proble2 was.
(. he drug dealers had a MMMMMMMMMMM on ever6 corner.
28(
8. i226 told his 2other that he hadnBt eaten an6 cookies, but he had chocolate all over his &ace, so she
knew he was l6ing. he chocolate on his &ace was the MMMMMMMMMMM.
,. =e&ore 6ou spend N13,111 on a used car, 5 suggest that 6ou give it a thorough MMMMMM.
11. $arlos 2ade paper MMMMMMMMMMM shaped like dinosaurs.
11. he police chie& gave the 2a6or a MMMMMMM o& the previous 2onthBs cri2e statistics.
ECERCISE *:e' Revie5 ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith these +hrasa% ver&s .ro-
+revios sections$ Be sre the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$ To chec0 their
-eanin/s' revie5 the section n-&er /iven a.ter each one$
cal2 down, 3' &all down, 3' hold against, 3% narrow down, 3%
catch on, 33 &ool around, 3% leave behind, 3% pull o&&, 33
do awa6 with, 31 go b6, 3% live with, 3% put down, 3'
e2pt6 out, 32 go down, 3' 2ake o&, 3% sit down, 3'
1. 76 best &riend, Ceather, reall6 likes 7ike, but 7ike asked 2e to go to the dance with hi2. 5 hope
Ceather doesnBt MMMMMMMM it MMMMMMMM 2e.
2. he real estate agent has shown us several houses, but weBve MMMMMMMM it MMMMMMM to three that we
reall6 like.
3. 7ike took the wastebaskets outside and MMMMMMMM the2 MMMMMMMM.
#. =e&ore we go to the beach, letBs MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMMo2Bs house and see i& he
wants to co2e with us.
%. 7ariaBs a &ast learner. She had never pla6ed chess be&ore, but she MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM right awa6.
'. No one thought 5 could get 111 on the test, but 5 MMMMMMMM it MMMMMMMM.
(. Nothing like that ever happened be&ore. 5 didnBt know what to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMM it,
8. Aou can reall6 screw up 6our co2puter with that progra2, so donBt MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM with it unless
6ou know what 6ouBre doing.
,. Pets arenBt allowed where weBre 2oving, so weBre going to have to MMMMMMMM our dog MMMMMMMM.
11. Polio has been al2ost co2pletel6 MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM.
288
11. MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM that +erk &or &i&teen 6ears was horrible.
12. Ioe was so upset a&ter the accident that it was twent6 2inutes be&ore he MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM enough
to tell the police o&&icer what happened.
13. =e care&ul on that ic6 sidewalk > 6ou donBt want to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM and break 6our neck.
1#. 5n the su22er the sun doesnBt MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM until ,G11 in the evening.
1%. 5B2 going to MMMMMMMM N#,111 MMMMMMMM on 26 new car and &inance the rest.
1'. 5Bve been standing all da6. 5 need to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM.
*#$ FOCUS ON< the ver& keep an! a!ver&s an!
a!ver&ia%s sho5in/ !e/rees o. varia&i%it3
Phrasa% ver&s 5ith keep
Several phrasal verbs are based on the verb keep, and it is i2portant to understand that
the essential 2eaning o& keep in these phrasal verbs is no change. /s 6ou stud6 these
verbs, re2e2ber than in each 2eaning o& each verb so2ething is not changing,
so2ething is continuing in the sa2e direction or in the sa2e 2anner, or so2ething is
sta6ing in the sa2e place or in the sa2e condition.
A!ver&s an! a!ver&ia%s sho5in/ !e/rees o. varia&i%it3
/ variet6 o& adverbs and adverbial groups o& words that together &unction as adverbs are
used to 2odi&6 phrasal verbs that relate to so2ething variable, such as distance, ti2e,
cost, speed, te2perature, a2ount, or .uantit6.
/dverbs and adverbials allow the speaker to be 2ore precise about what is being
2easured > to sa6 whether it was a little or a /o& or to be precise about e<actl6 how
2uch. =ut the verb 2ust be so2ething that is variable. 5n cannot be so2ething either/or,
such as shut o&&, &or e<a2ple Ea V is either on or o&& > it cannot be in betweenF. /dverbs
and adverbials are used to strengthen the 2eaning o& the verbG
$e fell asleep on the train and went well be%ond his stop.
!he fell way behind in her work when she was sick.
?eep far awa% from the fire.
to weaken the 2eaning o& the verbG
I went a bit over my budget.
?eep slightly to the right on that road.
,e fell a little behind.
The meeting may run somewhat over. 7KL
or to be e<actG
.e planned two weeks ahead.
/o three floors up.
!ometimes, in informal /nglish, way is repeated for e0tra emphasis#
.hat )im said went way, way, way be%ond impolite it was outrageous.
Infinitive
present tense &ing form past tense past participle
keep at
keep at < keeps at keeping at kept at kept at
($ 0ee+ at p.v. "hen 6ou 0ee+ at it, 6ou continue with an activit6 even though it 2a6 be
di&&icult. "hen 6ou sa3 ?Kee+ at it@ to people, 6ou encourage the2 to &inish with an activit6
that is di&&icult.
I know this work is difficult, but you have to keep at it.
?eep at it@ you(re almost finished.
keep awa%
keep awa% & keeps awa% keeping awa% kept awa% kept awa%
($ 0ee+ a5a3 E&ro2F p.v. "hen 6ou 0ee+ a5a3 or 0ee+ a5a3 &ro2 people, 6ou do not
co2e close to the2 or associate with the2. "hen 6ou 0ee+ a5a3 or 0ee+ a5a3 &ro2
things, 6ou do not touch the2, co2e close to the2, or use the2. "hen 6ou 0ee+ a5a3 or
0ee+ a5a3 &ro2 places, 6ou do not co2e close to the2 or go to the2.
Mark was very sick yesterday, so everyone kept awa% from him.
.e(re going to eat dinner in a few minutes, so keep awa% from those cookies.
That(s a bad neighborhood, so keep awa% from it,
"$ 0ee+$$$ a5a3 E&ro2F p.v. "hen 6ou 0ee+ people or things a5a3 or 0ee+ the2 a5a3
&ro2 so2ething or so2eone else, 6ou do not allow the2 to co2e close to or associate
with so2eone or co2e close to or touch so2ething.
That dog is dangerous, so keep it awa%.
?aul has an alcohol problem, so keep him awa% from the bar at the party tomorrow.
keep down
keep down & keeps down keeping down kept down kept down
($ 0ee+ $$$ !o5n p.v. "hen 6ou 0ee+ the cost, .uantit6, or a2ount o& so2ething !o5n'
6ou keep it a low level.
The company tried to keep its prices down.
They wanted a smalt wedding, but they have such large families that it was hard to keep the number of guests
down.
"$ 0ee+$$$ !o5n p.v. "hen 6ou 0ee+ the volu2e o& noise, 2usic, or conversation !o5n'
3o keep it at a low level. "hen people are being nois6 and 6ou want the2 to be .uieter,
6ou tell the2 to 0ee+ it !o5n$
2,1
.ill you please keep it down5 I(m trying to study.
8ou kids can watch TV, but keep the volume down your mother is taking a nap.
#nfinitive
present tense -ing form past tense past participle
keep from
keep from & keeps from keeping from kept from kept from
($ 0ee+ .ro- p.v. "hen 6ou 0ee+ .ro- doing so2ething, 6ou do not do it even
though it is hard not to.
I was so angry that I don(t know how I kept from punching that guy in the nose.
The movie was so sad that I couldn(t keep from crying.
"$ 0ee+$$$ .ro- p.v. "hen 6ou 0ee+ people .ro- doing so2ething, 6ou stop the2 &ro2 doing
it.
)im(s girlfriend(s parents don(t like him, and they try to keep him from seeing her.
.hen I was young, my poor health kept me from doing a lot of things the other kids did.
keep off
keep off & keeps off keeping off kept off kept off
($ 0ee+$$$ o.. p.v. "hen 6ou 0ee+ o.. so2ething, 6ou do not walk or stand on it. "hen 6ou
0ee+ other people or things o.. so2ething, 6ou do not allow the2 to walk or stand on it.
The sign says 9?eep off the grass.+ 8ou should keep your kids off
the streets and in school.
"$ 0ee+$$$ o.. p.v. "hen 6ou 0ee+ o.. drugs, cigarettes, or other addictive substances,
6ou do not use the2. "hen 6ou 0ee+ people o.. drugs, cigarettes, or other addictive
substances, 6ou prevent the2 &ro2 using the2.
!ince getting out of jail, $ank has been able to keep off drugs.
"ed is a nice guy as long as you can keep him off boo6e.
keep on
keep on & keeps on keeping on kept on kept on
($ 0ee+ on p.v. "hen 6ou 0ee+ on doing so2ething, 6ou continue doing it.
I told her to be Fuiet, but she just kept right on talking.
5on(t stop keep on going.
"$ 0ee+$$$ on p.v. "hen 6ou 0ee+ people on at their place o& e2plo62ent, 6ou continue to
e2plo6 the2.
The company decided against laying all the workers off and will instead keep a few on to maintain eFuipment until
business improves.
/veryone on the hotel staff was fired after the hotel went out of business, e0cept for two guys who were kept on to
clean and paint the building.
2,1
#nfinitive
present tense -ing form past tense past participle
keep to
keep to & keeps to keeping to kept to kept to
($ 0ee+$$$ to p.v. "hen 6ou 0ee+ in&or2ation to 6oursel&, 6ou do not tell an6one.
This is a secret, so keep it to yourself.
I wish she would keep her racist comments to herself@ I don(t want to hear them.
"$ 0ee+$$$ to p.v. "hen 6ou 0ee+ so2ething to a certain cost, .uantit6, or a2ount, 6ou do
not let the cost, .uantit6, or a2ount go higher than that level.
$ere(s my credit card, but keep your spending to a minimum don(t go cra6y with it.
The room doesn(t hold a great many people, so we have to keep the number of guests to 733.
*$ 0ee+ to p.v. "hen 6ou 0ee+ to the right or le&t, 6ou continue 2oving to the right or le&t.
.hen you pass a big red barn on the highway, keep to the right@ the e0it is right after the barn.
Faster cars are supposed to keep to the left.
keep up
keep up & keeps up keeping up kept up kept up
($ 0ee+$$$ + p.v. "hen 6ou 0ee+ an activit6 +' 6ou continue doing it.
Geopards can run e0tremely fast, but they can(t keep it up longer than a minute or two.
I told you to stop doing that. If you keep it up I(m going to get angry.
"$ 0ee+ + EwithF p.v. "hen 6ou are in a group that is stud6ing, working, and so on, and
6ou are able to learn or work at the sa2e rate as the others, 6ou 0ee+ + or 0ee+ + with
the group. Fa%% &ehin! is the opposite o& 0ee+ +$
Gydia missed several days of school last month, and now she(s having a hard time keeping up with the rest of the
class.
The assembly line was going so fast that no one could keep up.
*$ 0ee+ + EwithF p.v. "hen 6ou 0ee+ + or 0ee+ + with people or things that are
2oving, 6ou are able to 2ove at the sa2e rate. Fa%% &ehin! is the opposite o& 0ee+ +$
Aob walks so fast that it(s hard to keep up with him.
The wounded soldiers couldn(t keep up with the rest of the army.
6$ 0ee+ + EwithF p.v. "hen 6ou can understand and respond to a situation that is
changing, 6ou are able to 0ee+ + with the situation.
>omputer technology is changing so fast. $ow can anyone keep up with it1
)ane always has some new idea. I can(t keep up with her.
2,2
7$ 0ee+$$$ + p.v. "hen people or things 0ee+ 6ou +' the6 prevent 6ou &ro2 going to bed, or i&
6ou are in bed, the6 prevent 6ou &ro2 &alling asleep.
"ed just would not leave last night@ he kept me up until 7#33 in the morning.
That noisy party across the alley kept me up all night.
ECERCISE *#a ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith +hrasa% ver&s .ro- this section$ Be sre
the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$
1. he studentBs e<cuse &or not doing his ho2ework was so ridiculous that his teacher couldnBt MMMMMMMM
MMMMMMMM laughing.
2. "hat 5B2 going to tell 6ou is highl6 con&idential, so MMMMMM it MMMMMM 6oursel&.
3. he bab6Bs cr6ing MMMMMMMM Iud6 MMMMMMMM hal& the night.
#. 8onBt .uit now > 6ouBre al2ost &inished. MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM it.
%. he co2pan6 increased its pro&its b6 MMMMMMMM costs MMMMMMMM.
'. 5Bve tried to .uit s2oking a hundred ti2es, but 5 +ust canBt MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM cigarettes longer than a
da6.
(. Slower tra&&ic should MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM the right.
8. Now that 5 live in New Aork, 5 canBt MMMMM MMMM with local news in 26 ho2etown.
,. Sall6 is reall6 angr6 at 6our brother, so it would be a good idea to MMMMMMMM hi2 MMMMMMMM &ro2 her.
11. 76 algebra class is too di&&icult &or 2e. 5 canBtMMMMMMM MMMMMMMMM.
11. AouBre going to have to walk &aster than that i& 6ou want to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM with us.
12. PleaseMMMMMMMM6our dogMMMMMMMMour lawn.
13. 5& 6ou donBtMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM6our e<ercise progra2, 6ouBre going to gain all the weight back.
1#. $ould 6ou MMMMMMMM the 2usic MMMMMMMMH Aour 2otherBs tr6ing to sleep.
1%. Parents tr6 to MMMMMMMM their children MMMMMMMM 2aking 2istakes, but so2eti2es it isnBt eas6.
1'. 5& 6ou MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMeating so 2uch butter and so 2an6 eggs, 6ouBre going to have a heart
attack.
2,3
1(. he new owner said the co2pan6 was losing too 2uch 2one6 to MMMMMMMM all the workers
MMMMMMMM and that so2e would have to be laid o&&.
18. )ook at the prices on this 2enu: )etBs tr6 to MMMMMMMM it MMMMMMMM a hundred bucks, oka6H
1,. 5 donBt want to talk to 6ou ever again, so MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM &ro2 2e:
ECERCISE *#& ; =rite ans5ers to the >estions sin/ +hrasa% ver&s .ro- this
section$ Be sre the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$
1. 76 &ather asked 2e to speak 2ore .uietl6. "hat did 26 &ather ask 2e to doH
2. 5 told the travel agent that we have onl6 N#,111 to spend on our vacation, so she has to 2ake sure the
cost doesnBt go over that. "hat did 5 ask the travel agent to doH
3. 76 geo2etr6 class is so boring that 5 canBt stop 26sel& &ro2 &alling asleep. "hat canBt 5 do in 26
geo2etr6 classH
#. 76 teacher told 2e that calculus is di&&icult but that 5 have to continue tr6ing to understand it. "hat did
26 teacher tell 2eH
%. he political situation in "ashington changes ever6 da6, and itBs hard to understand what is
happening. "hat is it hard to doH
'. Sarah and 5 were running. 5 .uit a&ter three 2iles, but she continued running. "hat did Sarah doH
(. AouBve got to re2ain at a great distance &ro2 this area because it is radioactive. "hat have 6ou got to
do about the radioactive areaH
8. Ceather thinks 7ike isnBt telling her ever6thing. "hat does Ceather think about 7ikeH
,. Ianice got e<cellent grades in her &irst 6ear o& college. 5 hope she can continue to do well. "hat do 5
hope Ianice can doH
11. 5 asked 26 husband not to let the children near 26 co2puter. "hat did 5 ask 26 husbandH
11. he econo2ist said itBs i2portant not to let in&lation go higher. "hat did the econo2ist sa6H
12. =ill hasnBt used drugs &or &ive 6ears. "hat has =ill doneH
2,#
13. 76 son is eighteen, so 5 canBt stop hi2 i& he wants to +oin the /r26. "hat canBt 5 do to 26 sonH
*H. !arah(s having a little trouble in school. It(s hard for her to stay at the same level as the other students. .hat is hard for
!arah1
ECERCISE *#c ; =rite ei/ht ori/ina% sentences sin/ +hrasa% ver&s .ro- this
section$
1. MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
2. MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
3.MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
#. MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
%.MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
'. MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
(. MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
8. MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
ECERCISE *#!' Revie5 ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith these +hrasa% ver&s .ro-
+revios sections$ Be sre the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$ To chec0
their -eanin/s' revie5 the section n-&er /iven a.ter each one$
back down, 3' co2e on, 3( goo& around, 33 leave over, 3(
brush o&&, 3( &all behind, 33 hang out, 3( run down, 3'
cal2 down, 3' &all down, 3' know about, 33 sit down, 3'
co2e about, 33 go down, 3' la6 down, 3' talk to, 3(
*. Naul is constantly critici6ing me, but I usually just %%%%%%%% him %%%%%%%%.
7. I can barely hear this radio. The batteries must be %%%%%%% %%%%%%%%%.
2. .hen the electricians went on strike, the entire construction project %%%%%%%% %%%%%%%% schedule.
H. )ake(s claim that he accidentally shot Tony si0 times didn(t %%%%%%%% %%%%%%%% well with the jury.
D. The dictator %%%%%%%% %%%%%%%% after three aircraft carriers started sailing toward his country.
2,%
'. 5 need to check the &urnace. he te2perature got below si<t6 degrees last night, but the heat didnBt
MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM.
(. / big, old tree MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM last night and s2ashed a hole in our roo&.
8. MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM > thereBs nothing to get upset about.
,. Several 2a+or changes in societ6 MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM as a result o& the industrial revolution.
11. /re 6ou going to do an6 work at all toda6 or will 6ou +ust MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMMH
11. 8onBt waste 6our ti2e asking ;rik? he doesnBt MMMMMMMM an6thing MMMMMMMM it.
12. i226Bs 2other MMMMMMM hi2 MMMMMMM and talked to hi2 about his bad grades.
13. Cow 2uch 2one6 was MMMMMM MMMMMM a&ter 6ou &inished pa6ing &or ever6thingH
1#. Aou can MMMMMMMM those papers MMMMMMMM over there.
1%. 5 donBt have an6thing to do toda6. 5B2 +ust going to MMMMM MMMMM here and rela<.
1'. 5B2 so 2ad at her. 5Bll never MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM her again:
*D$ FOCUS ON< +assive +hrasa% ver&s' *
/s we saw in Section 13, the passive is &or2ed with be and the past participle o& the verb. /
nu2ber o& 2odal au<iliar6 verbs and si2ilar constructions are co22onl6 used with beG
The meat will be chopped up by the cook.
Mark would never be picked up at the airport by a limo.
This mess can be straightened out only by me.
!uch a huge country couldn(t be taken over easily.
$er name should be crossed off the list.
The gas tank ought to be filled up before you return the car.
The concert might be sold out.
8our paychecks may not be picked up until after D#33.
The enemy must be wiped out.
I have to be picked up on time.
The fruit has to be chopped up with a clean knife.
This screwup had better be straightened out soon or you will be firedE
This stuff was supposed to be taken over to "ancy(s house yesterday.
2,'
-ecall &ro2 Section 28 that phrasal verbs in the passive cannot be separated b6 an
ob+ect because in a passive sentence there is no ob+ect.
Infinitive
present tense &ing form past tense past participle
chop up
chop up < chops up chopping up chopped up chopped up
($ cho+$$$ + p.v. "hen 6ou cho+ so2ething +' 6ou cut it into s2all pieces with a kni&e or
other sharp instru2ent.
5oes this meat have to be chopped up"
+hop it up into pieces about half an inch in si6e.
cho++e! + part.ad+. /&ter so2ething has been cut into s2all pieces with a kni&e or other sharp
instru2ent, it is cho++e! +$
Mi0 the chopped-up onions and celery with the mayonnaise.
cross off
cross off & crosses off crossing off crossed off crossed off
($ cross$$$ o.. p.v. "hen 6ou cross so2ething o.. a list, 6ou draw a line through it to re2ove it
&ro2 the list.
.hy was my name crossed off the invitation list1
+rossing it off was a mistake.
crosse! o.. part.ad+. /&ter a line has been drawn through so2ething on a list to re2ove it
&ro2 the list, it is crosse! o..$
$ere(s the grocery list, but don(t get this crossed-off stuff I already got it.
fill up
fill up & fills up filling up filled up filled up
($ .i%% $$$+ p.v. "hen 6ou .i%% so2ething up, 6ou &ill it co2pletel6.
My radiator must be leaking@ it has to be filled up with water every day.
.e always fill the tank up when we(re in Indiana because gas is cheaper there.
.i%%e! + part.ad+. /&ter so2ething has been co2pletel6 .i%%e! +' it is .i%%e! +$
These water containers don(t weigh very much. 're you sure they(re completely filled up1
"$ .i%%$$$ + EonF p.v. "hen 6ou .i%% + or .i%% + on so2ething, 6ou eat so 2uch that 6ou are no
longer hungr6 and cannot eat an6 2ore.
5on(t fill up on salad you won(t have any room for dinner.
I filled up on candy and was really sick about an hour later.
*$ .i%% + p.v. "hen a roo2 or other area .i%%s +' people enter it until it is &ull.
2,(
The dance floor filled up Fuickly when the band began to play.
The hotels in Nio de )aneiro always fill up at carnival time.
Infinitive
present tense &ing form past tense past participle
pick up
pick up < picks up picking up picked up picked up
($ +ic0$$$ + p.v. "hen 6ou pick so2ething up, 6ou li&t it with 6our hand.
'll this trash has to be picked up.
!am picked up his briefcase and left his office.
"$ +ic0$$$ + p.v. "hen 6ou go to a place to get so2ething that was created,
prepared, or le&t &or 6ou and is now read6, 6ou +ic0 it +$
The garbage is supposed to be picked up before L#33 'M.
The travel agent said I could pick the tickets up tomorrow.
+ic0+ n. So2ething that is to be +ic0e! + or the process o& +ic0in/ it + is a
+ic0+$
The restaurant uses the back door for pickups and deliveries.
*$ +ic0$$$ + p.v. "hen 6ou +ic0 people +' 6ou stop 6our vehicle and give the2 a ride awa6
&ro2 that place.
8ou(ll be picked up at the airport by the hotel van.
3icking up hitchhikers is dangerous.
+ic0+ n. So2eone who is to be +ic0e! + or the process o& +ic0in/ so2eone + is a
+ic0+$
The ta0i driver went to 7*77 ". dark !treet for a pickup.
6$ +ic0$$$ + p.v. "hen 6ou +ic0 so2ething + in a store, 6ou .uickl6 go into a store to bu6
so2ething 6ou need.
I need to pick up some milk on the way home.
>ould you pick a loaf of bread up on your way over1
7$ +ic0$$$ + p. v. "hen 6ou +ic0+ a skill, 6ou learn it easil6. "hen 6ou +ic0 + a
habit, you aFuire the habit.
>hildren can pick up a new language very Fuickly. My son is picking
some bad habits up from his friends.
8$ +ic0$$$ + p.v. "hen 6ou resu2e doing so2ething at the point where 6ou stopped
doing it earlier, 6ou +ic0 + at that point.
The teacher started the class by picking up where she had left off the previous week.
.hen you return to work after a long vacation, it(s hard to know where to pick up.
:$ +ic0$$$ + p.v. "hen 6ou +ic0 + a radio or television station or a certain
&re.uenc6 on a receiver, 6ou are able to tune it to that station or &re.uenc6.
2,8
.hen the weather is right,you can pick radio stations up that are hundreds of miles away.
Ieneral )ohnston(s radio transmission was picked up by the enemy.
#$ +ic0$$$ + p.v. "hen the police or other authorities arrest people, the6 +ic0 the2 +$
The border patrol picks up several people every day trying to bring drugs into the country.
>harles was picked up for driving under the influence of alcohol.
D$ +ic0$$$ + p.v. "hen 6ou get so2ething b6 chance without looking &or it, 6ou +ic0 it +$
# picked up a few stock tips from a guy I met on the plane.
Marsha picked up some interesting books at a used bookstore.
()$ +ic0$$$ + p.v. "hen 6ou +ic0 + the check or the tab Ea tab is a list o& 2one6 that
so2eone owesF in a restaurant or other place, 6ou pa6 it.
Tom(s a real cheapskate@ he never picks up the check.
$eather(s father picked up the tab for the entire wedding.
(($ +ic0 + p.v. "hen the speed, level, or condition o& so2ething increases or
i2proves, it +ic0s +$
Ausiness is stow this time of year, but it should pick up in 5ecember.
The song starts out slowly, but then it picks up.
+ic0+ n. /n i2prove2ent in the speed, level, or condition o& so2ething is a +ic0+$ 5& a
2otor vehicle is able to accelerate .uickl6, it has +ic0+$
The company(s profits increased after a pickup in sales.
I need to take my truck to the mechanic. It doesn(t have an% pickup.
("$ +ic0$$$ + p.v. "hen 6ou +ic0 + a place that is 2ess6, 6ou organiDe or tid6 it.
Timmy(s mother told him he couldn(t play outside until he picked up his room.
Get(s pick this place up it(s a mess.
(*$ +ic0$$$ + p.v. Jin&or2alK "hen 6ou +ic0 + 2e2bers o& the opposite se<, 6ou
approach and success&ull6 interest the2 in a se<ual or ro2antic encounter.
$ank tried to pick up Frank(s sister at the party last night, but she wasn(t interested.
?at picked up someone, and they went to a cheap motel.
#nfinitive
present tense -ing form past tense past participle
sell out
sell out & sells out selling out sold out sold out
($ se%% ot Eo&F Jo&ten passiveK p.v. "hen a store se%%s ot o& so2ething or is so%! ot o& so2ething,
it sells all o& it.
2,,
The toy store sold out of antigravity boots in two days.
I wanted to buy that new computer game, but every store I went to was sold out of it.
so%! ot part.ad+. /&ter all o& so2ething &or sale in a store has been sold, the ite2 is so%!
ot$
I saw the most beautiful shoes at the mall, but my si6e was all sold out.
so%! ot part.ad+. /&ter all the tickets to a concert, pla6, or other public per&or2ance have
been sold, the event is so%! ot$
8ou(ll never get a ticket for the !uperbowl it(s been sold out for weeks.
#nfinitive
present tense -ing form past tense past participle
straighten out
straighten out & straightens out straightening out straightened out straightened out
($ strai/hten $$$ ot p.v. "hen so2ething is bent, crooked, or curved and 6ou 2ake it
straight, 6ou strai/hten it ot$
My elbow is so swollen that I can(t straighten my arm out.
's the city grew, many of the winding streets were straightened out.
"$ strai/hten $$$ ot p.v. "hen 6ou strai/hten ot a con&used situation or 2isun!
derstanding, 6ou take steps to 2ake it understandable and satis&actor6 to ever6one
involved. Sort ot is si2ilar to strai/hten ot$
My hotel had me booked for the wrong days in the wrong room, but the manager straightened everything out.
!ave your Fuestions for the meeting. /verything will be straightened out then.
strai/htene! ot part.ad+. /&ter a con&used situation or 2isunderstanding has been 2ade
understandable and satis&actor6 to ever6one involved, it is strai/htene! ot$ Sorte! ot
is si2ilar to strai/htene! ot$
/rik was upset with 5an, but they had a talk and now everything is straightened out.
*$ strai/hten $$$ ot p.v. "hen 6ou strai/hten ot people who are acting &oolishl6, 6ou do
or sa6 so2ething that causes the2 to act 2ore responsibl6. "hen 6ou strai/hten ot
people who are con&used, 6ou help the2 to understand.
I told my son that if he gets in trouble one more time, I(m going to send him to military school. That really
straightened him out.
I(m totally confused about what I(m supposed to do. >an you straighten me out"
take over
take over & takes over taking over took over taken over
($ ta0e$$$ over EtoF p.v. "hen 6ou take so2ething &ro2 one place to another, 6ou ta0e it
over or ta0e it over to a person or place.
)ane(s at home sick, so I(m going to take some chicken soup over.
'fter I finished my report, I took it over to the finance department.
311
"$ ta0e$$$ over p.v. "hen people, groups, or countries take control o& a place b6 &orce,
the6 ta0e it over$
'fter the government troops fled, the country was taken over by the rebels.
The hijackers took over the plane and ordered the pilot to fly to $avana.
ta0eover n$ A ta0eover is an action to take control o& a countr6, cit6, building, or other
place b6 &orce.
If the situation doesn(t stabili6e soon, there(s a real chance of a military takeover.
*$ ta0e over E&ro2/asF p.v. "hen people are elected, appointed, or hired to take control
o& a countr6, state, cit6, business, school, building, and so on, and to replace the people
in control, the6 ta0e over' ta0e over as so2ething, or ta0e over &ro2 so2eone.
>artos =rtega will be taking over as sales manager ne0t year.
=rtega took over from Margaret >ummings, who had been the sales manager for *H years.
ta0eover n. "hen people who are elected, appointed, or hired take control o& a countr6,
state, cit6, business, school, building, and so on, and replace the people in control, a
ta0eover occurs.
'fter the takeover the new president made a lot of changes.
6$ ta0e over E&orF p.v. "hen 6ou start to do a +ob or so2e work that other people are
doing in order to allow the2 to take a break or because the previous shi&t has ended and
a new shi&t has begun, 6ou ta0e over$ "hen 6ou assu2e an obligation or accept
responsibilit6 &ro2 so2eone, 6ou ta0e it over$
.e work from H#33 ?.M. to midnight, and then the graveyard shift takes over.
.hen Ginda was sick she couldn(t care for her children, so her sister took over for her until she
was well again.
Infinitive
present tense &ing form past tense past participle
wipe out
wipe out < wipes out wiping out wiped out wiped out
($ 5i+e$$$ ot p.v. "hen 6ou re2ove dirt or li.uid &ro2 the inside o& a container with
a cloth, sponge, or paper towel, 6ou 5i+e it ot$
(ipe the microwave out it(s got spaghetti sauce inside it.
I wiped out the inside of the glasses so they wouldn(t dry with spots.
"$ 5i+e$$$ ot p.v. "hen 6ou are tr6ing to kill people, weeds, insects, and so on, and
6ou kill all o& the2, 6ou wipe the2 ot$
'n entire regiment was wiped out in the battle.
The general said he would wipe out the rebels.
5i+eot n. / situation in which all people, weeds, insects, and so on, are killed is a
5i+eot$
The battle was a complete wipeout. "ot a single soldier survived.
23*
ECERCISE *Da ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith +hrasa% ver&s .ro- this section$
Be sre the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$
1. Aour pictures are read6 and can be MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM between 11G11 /.7. and 'G11 P.7.
2. 5 didnBt get the book 5 wanted because the store was MMMMMMM MMMMMMM o& the2.
3. hereBs a lot o& con&usion about the new polic6. "e need to have a 2eeting to MMMMMMM
ever6thing MMMMMMMM.
#. he vice!president MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM a&ter the president died.
%. Susie, 6our roo2 is ver6 2ess6. $o2e in here and MMMMMMM it MMMMMMM right now:
'. 7r. Nelson asked 2e to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM &or )6dia while sheBs on vacation.
(. Sales o& air conditioners alwa6s MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM in the spring.
8. 5& we get a bigger antenna, we 2ight be able to MMMMM a lot 2ore stations MMMMMM.
,. 5t took 2e an hour to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM ever6thing &or the bee& stew.
11. he soldiers were ordered to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM the rebels.
11. Sall6 called and asked 2e to MMMMMMM MMMMMMM a &ew things on the wa6 ho2e.
12. / countr6 this s2all could be MMMMMMMMM MMMMMMMMM in a &ew da6s.
13. 5 wish 5 hadnBt MMMMMMMMM MMMMMMMMM on bread. Now 5 canBt &inish 26 dinner.
1#. 5B2 going to pla6 gol& with $harles ne<t week. CeBs reall6 good, so 2a6be 5 can MMMMMM
MMMMMMMM a &ew wa6s to i2prove 26 ga2e.
1%. he theater MMMMMMMMM MMMMMMMMM ten 2inutes be&ore the start o& the opera.
1'. 76 carBs &ra2e was so badl6 da2aged in the accident that there was no wa6 it could be
MMMMMMMM.
1(. Aou donBt need to take an6 2one6 to the restaurant. 9aren said she would MMMMMM MMMMMMMM
the check.
18. 8onBt +ust clean the outsides o& the desks > MMMMMMMM the insides MMMMMMMM, too.
1,. 5Bll be arriving at 3G#1 /.7. "ould MMMMMMM 2e MMMMMMM that earl6 be a proble2H
21. CankBs giving orders like heBs the president o& the co2pan6. So2eone needs to MMMMM MMM
hi2 MMMMMMMM.
312
21. S2oking is a bad habit that 5 MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM in the Nav6.
22. )etBs MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM these canteens be&ore we begin our hike.
23. his couch is reall6 heav6. $an 6ou help 2e MMMMMMMM it MMMMMMMMH
2#. /&ter 6ou get 6our pa6check, 6ou can MMMMMMM it MMMMMM to the cashier to cash it.
2%. $an 6ou believe what Cank didH Ce tried toMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMthe bossBs daughter at the co2pan6
picnic.
2'. 5 &inished page #( 6esterda6, so 5Bll MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM on page #8 toda6.
2(. Aou can MMMMMMMM 26 na2e MMMMMMMM the list? 5Bve changed 26 2ind.
ECERCISE *D& ; =rite three sentences sin/ the o&,ects in +arentheses$ Be sre to
+t the o&,ects in the ri/ht +%ace$
1. Cave 6ou chopped upH Ethe onions, the2F
2. Aou can cross off. E)indaBs na2e, herF
3. +ill up with water, Ethe a.uariu2, itF
#. 5 need to pic up at the train station, E26 parents, the2F
313
%. $an 6ou straighten outH Ethis 2ess, itF
'. he rebels too over. Ethe ro6al palace, itF
(. he6 !iped out. Ethe palace guard, the2F
ECERCISE *Dc ; =rite ans5ers to the >estions sin/ +hrasa% ver&s' +artici+%e
a!,ectives' an! nons .ro- this section$ Be sre the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct
tense$
1. he construction business alwa6s i2proves in the spring. "hat does the construction
business alwa6s doH
2. Pirates 2ight take control o& the ship. "hat 2ight happen to the shipH
3. 5n Ouestion 2, i& pirates took control o& the ship, what would this action be calledH
#. here was a 2isunderstanding at work, but Nicole e<plained ever6thing to the people involved,
and now the6 understand. "hat did she doH
%. 5n Ouestion #, how would 6ou describe the 2isunderstanding nowH
'. 3rank was supposed to go to the &actor6 so he could give Ned a ride ho2e. "hat was
supposed to happen to NedH
(. /ll the people in the town will be killed when the ene26 captures it. "hat will happen to all the
people in the townH
31#
8. So2eone ought to draw a line through 9arenBs na2e on the list. "hat ought to be done to 9arenBs
na2eH
,. 5n Ouestion 8, how would 6ou describe 9arenBs na2e a&ter so2eone draws a line through itH
11. Sarah went to the store to bu6 a $8, but the6 had all been sold. "hat did the store doH
11. 5n Ouestion 11, how would 6ou describe the $8sH
12. o2 tried to bu6 a ticket &or the concert, but all the tickets had been sold. "h6 couldnBt o2 bu6 a ticket
&or the concertH
13. Aou cut so2e bacon into ver6 s2all pieces be&ore 6ou put it on 6our salad. "hat was done to the
baconH
1#. he laundr6 closes at 'G11, so Iane has to go there be&ore 'G11 to get her dress. "hat has to be done
to the dressH
1%. he copilot &lew the plane so that the pilot could eat dinner. "hat did the copilot doH
1'. odd o&ten asks 2e to stop at the store and bu6 a newspaper. "hat does odd o&ten ask 2e to
doH
1(. 5Bll tell Susie not to 2ake the water in the bathtub rise all the wa6 to the top. "hat will 5 tell
SusieH
18. 5 stopped writing 26 book at page ,# and later started writing again on page ,%. "hat did 5
doH
ECERCISE *D!' Revie5 ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith these +hrasa% ver&s .ro-
+revios sections$ Be sre the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$ To chec0
their -eanin/s' revie5 the section n-&er /iven a.ter each one$
bite o&&, 2( co2e out, 32 leave out, 32 pull over, 1,
blow up, 33 cut down, 23 look over, 21 settle down, 21
break o&&, 2( hand over, 1, 2ake up, 23 slow down, 2#
bring back, 1, knock o&&, 2( pick on, 21 wear down, 1(
1. 8avidBs 2other told hi2 sheBd like so2e grandchildren, but heBs having too 2uch &un as a
bachelor and isnBt interested in MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM.
31%
2. 5 didnBt &inish 26 work because 5 was training a new e2plo6ee, and e<plaining ever6thing reall6
MMMMMMMM 2e MMMMMMMM.
3. =obBs doctor told hi2 he was doing too 2uch weight li&ting and that he should MMMMMMM MMMMMM.
#. he 2ovie wasnBt the sa2e as the novel. Several characters were MMMMMM MMMMMM.
%. "hen 5 caught 26 si<teen!6ear!old daughter s2oking cigarettes, 5 reall6 MMMMMMMM MMMMMM.
'. 5 didnBt sa6 6ou could use 26 car. MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM those ke6s right now:
(. here 2ust be so2ething wrong with 26 ca2era > none o& the pictures 5 took MMMMMMMM
MMMMMM.
8. $an 5 borrow 6our &ood processorH 5 pro2ise 5Bll MMMMMMM it MMMMMMM to2orrow.
,. "eBve been working since (G11 /.7. )etBsMMMMMMMMMMMMMMand &inish to2orrow.
11. ;ver6thing on the 2enu looks delicious. 5 +ust canBt MMMMMMM MMMMMMM 26 2ind.
11. 5& 6ou donBt stop MMMMMMMMM MMMMMMMMM 2e, 5B2 going to tell 7o226.
12. 5 told 7ark not to pet the lion, but he didnBt listen, and his hand was MMMMMMMM MMMMMM.
13. Ce realiDed he was lost, so he MMMMMMMMM his car MMMMMMMMM and looked at a 2ap.
1#. 76 son asked 2e &or a 2otorc6cle &or his birthda6, but 5 told hi2 no, so heBs tr6ing to MMMMMMMM 2e
MMMMMMMM b6 asking 2e again and again and again.
1%. 5 gave 26 +ob application to the hu2an resources director, and he said heBd MMMMMMMM it MMMMMMMM
and give 2e a call.
1'. 8o 6ou have an6 glueH *ne o& the ar2s has MMMMMMM MMMMMMMthis cera2ic doll.
31'
6)$ FOCUS ON< /ern! +hrasa% ver&s vs$ +hrasa%
ver&s .o%%o5e! &3 the 9in/ .or-
"e have seen in previous sections that phrasal verbs are so2eti2es &ollowed b6 the -ing &or2.
"e have also seen that transitive phrasal verbs so2eti2es take gerund ob+ects. /t a glance,
there see2s to be no di&&erence between these two constructionsG
,im went away singing.
!ing &or2
,im stuck with singing.
gerund
=ut because a gerund is a verb &unctioning as a noun, it can be replaced with an ordinar6
nongerund noun. Cowever, this is not true o& the -ing &or2G
,im went away it. ,im
stuck with it.
5n&initive
present tense !ing &or2 past tense past participle
blow off
blow o&& P blows o&& blowing o&& blew o&& blown o&&
($ &%o5$$$ o.. p.v. [informal] "hen 6ou do not do so2ething that 6ou are supposed to do
because 6ou do not want to or because 6ou do not think it is i2portant, 6ou &%o5 it o..$
l was supposed to report for jury duty Monday morning, but blew it off.
!ob had a hangover, so he blew off helping Marsha fi" her car.
&rin/ +
bring up & brings up bringing up brought up brought up
($ &rin/ $$$+ EtoF p.v. "hen people bring so2ething &ro2 a higher level or position or &ro2
south to north to where 6ou are, the6 &rin/ it + or &rin/ it + to where 6ou are.
#ould you please go downstairs and bring up the package that was just delivered$
%he rescue workers brought morphine up to the injured mountain climber.
"$ &rin/ $$$ + p.v. "hen 6ou introduce a new topic into a conversation, 6ou &rin/ it
+$
&ast night during dinner, 'ad brought up the idea of saving money by staying home instead of taking a vacation this
year.
(ou and your big mouth) #e were having a great time until you brought that up.
*$ &rin/ $$$ + EtoF p.v. "hen 6ou &rin/ + children, 6ou care &or the2 as the6 grow to adulthood.
"hen 6ou &rin/ + children to believe so2ething or to behave in a certain wa6, 6ou tr6 to teach this
belie& or behavior to the2.
31(
%om was born in *anada, but he was brought up in the +nited States.
Bringing ,uadruplets up is a lot of work.
was brought up to believe in honesty and compassion.
Infinitive
present tense &ing form past tense past participle
burst out
burst out < bursts out bursting out burst out burst out
($ &rst ot p.v. "hen 6ou &rst ot laughing or cr6ing, 6ou begin laughing or cr6ing
loudl6 and suddenl6.
Heather burst out laughing when fell into the swimming pool.
#hen Sam heard the news, he burst out crying.
come back
come back & comes back coming back came back come back
($ co-e &ac0 Etol&ro2F p.v. "hen people return to a place where 6ou are, the6 co-e &ac0 or
co-e &ac0 to that place or co-e &ac0 &ro2 the place where the6 were be&ore.
%odd went to -lorida thinking it would be hot and sunny, but he came back talking about how cold and rainy it
was.
'm never coming back to this awful place again.
"$ co-e&ac0 p.v. "hen people, organiDations, co2panies, or athletes overco2e di&&iculties
and beco2e success&ul again, the6 co-e &ac0$
My home team came back from last place and won the championship.
Senator 'olittle lost in ./00, but he came back to win in .//H.
co-e&ac0 n. "hen people, organiDations, co2panies, or sports tea2s overco2e di&&iculties
and beco2e success&ul again, the6 2ake a co-e&ac0$
%he !ulls were down by 12 points but won the game with an .03point lead 4 what a
comeback!
*$ co-e &ac0 p.v. "hen a condition, proble2, situation, or activit6 returns or greatl6 increases,
it co-es &ac0$
l need to see the doctor. %he pain in my shoulder has come back.
%here isn't much chance that double3digit inflation will come back any time soon.
co-e&ac0 n. "hen a condition, proble2, situation, or activit6 returns or greatl6
increases, it 2akes a co-e&ac0$
Health officials are concerned that tuberculosis is making a comeback.
6$ co-e &ac0 p.v. "hen a &ashion or &ad co-es &ac0' it beco2es popular again.
Miniskirts are coming back this year.
#estern movies and %5 shows go out of style and then come back every few years.
318
co-e&ac0 n. "hen a &ashion or &ad beco2es popular again, it 2akes a co-e&ac0$ l
saved all my !ide necties because # ne! they(d mae a comeback someday.
Infinitive
present tense &ing form past tense past participle
get off on
get off on < gets off on
getting off on got off on gotten off on
($ /et o.. on p.v. [informal] "hen 6ou /et o.. on so2ething or /et o.. on doing so2ething, 6ou
&ind it en+o6able and e<citing.
Sally loves winter sports, and she especially gets off on snowboarding.
Mountain climbing is what get off on.
go awa%
go awa% & goes awa% going awa% went awa% gone awa%
($ /o a5a3 p.v. "hen 6ou leave a place or leave a person, 6ou /o a5a3$
/o away! 'm trying to study.
Mark went away not reali6ing he had left his briefcase behind.
"$ /o a5a3 E&orF p.v. "hen 6ou travel &or a period o& ti2e, 6ou /o a5a3 &or this ti2e.
#e always go away for a few weeks in the winter.
&ydia is going to go away for a while.
*$ /o a5a3 EtoF p.v. "hen 6ou leave 6our ho2e and live te2poraril6 at another place,
such as a school, 6ou /o a5a3 to that place.
7ane didn't go away to school8 she went to a school near her home.
Some young people are nervous about going away to school, but others look forward to it.
6$ /o a5a3 p.v. "hen a condition, proble2, situation, or activit6 disappears or greatl6
decreases, it /oes a5a3$
l have a pain in my back that never goes away.
f the rain doesn't go away, we'll have to call off the game.
run around
run around & runs around running around ran around run around
($ rn aron! p.v. "hen 6ou rn aron! a place, 6ou run to various parts o& it.
)he cat ran around the room chasing the mouse.
)he children !ere running around the museum, and the guard told them to stop.
"$ rn aron! p.v. "hen 6ou rn aron! doing so2ething, 6ou go to various places tr6ing
urgentl6 to acco2plish so2ething that is i2portant to 6ou.
%he woman was running around the store looking for her lost child.
#e ran around the house trying to rescue whatever we could from the rising floodwater.
31,
rnaron! n. "hen people are not honest with 6ou or help&ul to 6ou, the6 give 6ou the
rnaron!$
#hy didn't you just tell me the truth instead of giving me the runaround?
Infinitive
present tense &ing form past tense past participle
stick with
stick with < sticks with sticking with stuck with stuck with
($ stic0 5ith p.v. "hen 6ou stic0 5ith a habit, plan, or t6pe o& work, 6ou continue as be&ore,
without change. Stic0 to is si2ilar to stic0 5ith$
l don't like computers. 'll stick with writing letters by hand.
%odd thought about a career change but decided to stick with teaching.
"$ stic0 5ith p.v. "hen 6ou stic0 5ith so2ething that 6ou use, 6ou continue to use
it.
My wife wants me to switch to decaffeinated coffee, but 'm going to stick with regular.
My mother has stuck with vory soap for forty years.
*$ stic0 5ith p.v. "hen 6ou stic0 5ith people, 6ou re2ain with the2 or re2ain lo6al to the2.
t'll be very crowded at the festival, so stick with me so you don't get lost.
%hat other guy running for senator has some good ideas, but 'm going to stick with Senator 'olittle.
6$ stic0 $$$ 5ith p.v. "hen 6ou stic0 people 5ith so2ething, 6ou &orce the2 to take
so2ething or deal with so2ething undesirable or unpleasant.
'm sorry to stick you with all this work, but you're the only one who can do it.
%he shoes bought don't fit, but the store where bought them doesn't accept returns, so guess 'm
stuck with them.
ECERCISE 6)a ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith +hrasa% ver&s .ro- this section$ Be sre
the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$
1. 5 didnBt know an6one at the part6 e<cept )eticia, so 5 MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM her.
2. /ll i226Bs &riends are MMMMMM MMMMMM &or the su22er, so he wonBt have an6one to pla6 with.
3. 5 have a +ob interview at 8G31 7onda6 2orning, but thatBs too earl6 &or 2e, so 2a6be 5Bll +ust
MMMMMMMMitMMMMMMMM.
#. 7iguel was surprised how 2uch he en+o6ed watching &igure skating. Ce reall6 MMMMMMM MMMMMMM
MMMMMMMMit.
311
%. )inda MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM &ro2 the part6 talking about what a good ti2e she had.
'. SusieBs birthda6 part6 e<hausted 2e. he kids were MMMMMMMMM MMMMMMMMM 6elling and screa2ing &or
hours.
(. 5 gave 26 grand&ather a co2puter, but he said heBd rather MMMMMM MMMMMM his old t6pewriter.
8. 76 grand2other was MMMMMM M MMMMM on a &ar2, but she 2oved to the cit6 when she got 2arried.
,. 8an MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM bu6ing a 2otorboat, but his wi&e said it was a craD6 idea.
11. 5 know running is great e<ercise, but 5B2 going to MMMMMMM MMMMMMM swi22ing.
11. 5 hope high!heel shoes never MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM? the6Bre so unco2&ortable.
12. he strange noise in 26 engine has MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMMMM, so 5B2 going to take the car to a 2echanic
again.
13. 5 asked the 2echanic wh6 the sound keeps MMMMMMM MMMMMMM and co2ing back.
1#. =obBs +oke was prett6 &unn6. ;ver6oneMMMMMMMMM MMMMMMMMlaughing.
1%. =ett6 s2elled s2oke, and she MMMMMM MMMMMMM the house &ranticall6 looking &or
the source.
1'. "h6 does the boss MMMMMMMMM 2e MMMMMMMMM 2aking co&&ee ever6 2orningH "h6 canBt so2eone
else do itH
1(. 5 saved 26 &ather a lot o& 2one6 b6 not MMMMMMMMM MMMMMMMMM to school.
18. /&ter his de&eat, the &or2er cha2pion said he would MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM.
1,. 3rank ca2e to 26 door with &lowers and an apolog6, but 5 told hi2 to MMMM MMMM.
21. "henever 26 brother in 3lorida visits 2e here in 7innesota, he MMMMMMMM so2e oranges
ECERCISE 6)& ; =rite ans5ers to the >estions sin/ +hrasa% ver&s an! nons
.ro- this section$ Be sre the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$
1. he6Bre not &ollowing the original plan. "hat arenBt the6 doingH
2. 5 took so2e aspirin, and 26 headache was gone &or a while, but now 5 have a headache again. "hat
did 26 headache doH
311
3. Aou started to cr6 suddenl6 and loudl6. "hat did 6ou doH
#. Cank was supposed to 2eet with his parole o&&icer in the 2orning, but he didnBt go because he
wanted to sleep late. "hat did Cank do to his 2eeting with his parole o&&icerH
%. he hotel desk clerk didnBt tell 2e he had canceled 26 reservation b6 2istake. 5nstead he invented
a lot o& craD6 e<cuses that he knew werenBt true. "hat did the hotel desk clerk doH
'. oddBs sister was ver6 upset, and he asked what the proble2 was, but she told hi2 to leave her
alone. "hat did oddBs sister ask hi2 to doH
(. Skiing is what Ceather likes 2ore than an6thing. Cow does Ceather &eel about skiingH
8. ;ver6one in the &actor6 was bus6, so when the deliver6 truck ca2e, 8avid was &orced to unload it
b6 hi2sel&. "hat happened to 8avidH
,. Nanc6 began talking about +oining the Peace $orps. "hat did Nanc6 doH
11. he nu2ber o& people with 2alaria decreased, but now the nu2ber is increasing ever6 6ear. "hat
is 2alaria doingH
11. Povert6 is a proble2 that never decreases or disappears. "hat doesnBt povert6 doH
12. Aou went on a business trip three weeks ago, and 6ou havenBt returned 6et. "hat havenBt 6ou done
6etH
13. Ned had to call his broker i22ediatel6, so he ran to various places looking &or a telephone. "hat
did Ned doH
1#. 5t would be nice to leave this cit6 &or a week or two. "hat would be niceH
1%. "hen 5 was 6oung, 26 parents taught 2e to believe in the golden rule. "hat did 26
parents doH
ECERCISE 6)c ; =rite ei/ht ori/ina% sentences sin/ +hrasa% ver&s .ro- this
section$ Tr3 to se either /ern!s or the -ing .or-$
1. MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM.
2. MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM.
3.MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM.
#. MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM.
%.MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
'. MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
(.MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
8.MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
ECERCISE 6)!' Revie5 ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith these +hrasa% ver&s .ro-
+revios sections$ Be sre the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$ To chec0
their -eanin/s' revie5 the section n-&er /iven a.ter each one$
back down, 3' go down, 3' lead up to, 3# stick around, 3#
do over, 3# go out, 32 2ake o&, 3% stick to, 3#
&ool around, 3% hold against, 3% put up to, 3# take back, 3#
go b6, 3% la6 down, 3' run down, 3' trick into, 3%
1. /t school, )uis got into a lot o& trouble &or so2ething 5 did, and now heMMMMMMMMit MMMMMMMM 2e.
2. 5& 5 could MMMMMMMM it MMMMMMMM again, 5Bd do it di&&erentl6.
3. he price o& gas is e<pected toMMMMMMMMMMMMMMtoN1 a gallon within a 2onth.
#. he light suddenl6 MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM, and 5 couldnBt see a thing.
%. 8o 6ou have to go alread6H $anBt 6ou MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM &or a &ew 2inutesH
'. "e donBt want to &orget an6thing, so letBs MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM the list one 2ore ti2e to be sure.
(. he announce2ent was a real surprise. 5B2 not sure what to MMMMMM MMMMMMM it.
8. his book 5 bought is 2issing so2e pages. $an 6ou MMMMMMMM it MMMMMMMM to the bookstore &or 2e
to2orrowH
,. $ri2e was getting out o& control, so a new sheri&& was elected who pro2ised to MMMMMMMM
MMMMMMMM the law.
11. hat gun is loaded, so 5 wouldnBt MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM with it i& 5 were 6ou.
11. /&ter 5 threatened to go to the police and tell the2 ever6thing, he MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM and
stopped 2aking threats.
12. 76 brother alwa6s thought 5 would be a &ailure, so now that 5B2 rich, 5 love to MMMMM it MMMMM hi2
b6 co2plaining about how hard it is to keep a thirt6!roo2 house clean.
13. 76 son is a good bo6. 5& he was shopli&ting, 5B2 sure so2eone MMMMMMMM hi2
MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMit.
1#. 5n 26 histor6 class we studied the various things that MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM the current
situation.
1%. he 2onth we spent in 5tal6 was a lot o& &un, but it see2ed to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMM so .uickl6.
1'. 76 brother!in!law is so sneak6. Ce tried to MMMMMMMM 2e MMMMMMMM telling hi2 the co2bination to
26 sa&e.
6($ FOCUS ON< t5o95or! +hrasa% ver&s 5ith the +artic%e in that re>ire into 5hen se!
5ith an o&,ect
"e have seen in Sections , and 23 that so2e two!word phrasal verbs re.uire a second particle
when the6 are transitive, which 2akes the2 three!word phrasal verbs. 7an6 phrasal verbs with
the particle in have a 2eaning that relates to entering or penetrating. "hen what is being entered
or penetrated is na2ed, these verbs beco2e transitive? however, this is not done b6 adding a
second particle but b6 changing in to into. /nother wa6 to look at it is to consider intro two
particles, in and to, written as one wordG
%he thief broke in.
%he thieves broke into the jewelry store.
=ut this is true onl6 &or 2eanings o& the phrasal verb that relate to entering or penetrating,
not &or all 2eanings. So2e 2eanings with in have no into version Eand are included in this
sectionF, and so2e 2eanings with into have no in version Eand are not included in this
sectionF. 7oreover, so2eti2es into is optional, and the verb can be used transitivel6 with
either in or into.
"e see also in this section that there is o&ten a phrasal verb with an opposite
2eaning with in and into corresponding to out and out of:
# sneaked in.
# sneaked out.
sneaked into the house.
sneaked out of the house.
31#
Infinitive
present tense &ing form past tense past participle
break in
break in < breaks in breaking in broke in broken in
($ &rea0 inlinto p.v. "hen 6ou &rea0 in or &rea0 into a place, 6ou enter illegall6 using &orce or
deception.
9 thief broke in and stole my %5.
#hen saw the smashed glass in the street, knew my car had been broken into.
break-in n. . break-in is an illegal entry into a place using force or deception. %he police investigated
a break-in at the li,uor store.
"$ &rea0$$$ in p.v. "hen 6ou &rea0 in a new 2echanical device or a car, 6ou use it slowl6 and
care&ull6 until 6ou are sure it read6 &or heavier use. "hen 6ou &rea0 in a pair o& shoes, 6ou
wear the2 onl6 occasionall6 and &or a short ti2e until the6 are co2&ortable. "hen 6ou &rea0 in
people at a new +ob, 6ou train and supervise the2 and give the2 less than the nor2al a2ount
o& work until the6 are read6 &or so2ething 2ore di&&icult.
l don't want to wear these boots on the e"pedition. haven't broken them in yet.
#e're breaking in a new secretary, so things have been a bit confused at our office lately.
&ro0en in part.adj. /&ter 6ou &rea0 in a new 2echanical device or a car, a pair o&
shoes, or people at a new +ob, the6 are &ro0en in$
l don't want to wear those shoes to the dance. %hey're not broken in yet.
chec0 in
check in & checks in checking in checked in checked in
($ chec0 inlinto p.v. "hen 6ou arrive at a hotel and arrange &or a roo2, 6ou chec0 in or chec0
into the hotel.
9fter arrive in 'enver, 'll go straight to my hotel and check in.
7im checked into the hotel while called home to check on the kids.
"$ chec0$$$ in p.v. "hen 6ou arrive at an airport and give 6our ticket to an agent and receive a
boarding pass, 6ou chec0 in$
(ou should check in at least two hours be fore your flight.
(ou can wait over there in the lobby while check you in.
chec09in n. he counter at an airport where 6ou give 6our ticket to an agent and receive a
boarding pass is the chec09in or the chec09in counter. he process o& chec0in/ in is chec09in$
!efore your flight you have to go to the check-in counter.
*$ chec0$$$ in p.v. "hen 6ou give 6our luggage to an airline agent so that it will be carried in the
baggage co2part2ent rather than the passenger co2part2ent, 6ou chec0 it in$
31%
%hat bag is too big for carry3on 4 you'll have to check it in.
chec0e! in part.adj. )uggage that has been chec0e! in or passengers that have chec0e! in
are chec0e! in$
:ow that we're checked in, we can wait in the boarding lounge.
6$ chec0 in EwithF p.v. "hen 6ou visit or call people brie&l6 and regularl6 because 6ou want to
get or receive i2portant in&or2ation &ro2 the2 or to 2ake sure that a situation 6ou are both
interested in is satis&actor6, 6ou chec0 in or chec0 in with the2.
9fter surgery, you'll need to check in once in a while to make sure the bone is healing properly.
f Hank doesn't check in with his parole officer every week, the police will arrest him.
Infinitive
present tense &ing form past tense past participle
+heck out
check out < checks out checking out checked out checked out
($ chec0 ot Eo&F p.v. "hen 6ou pa6 6our bill, return 6our ke6, and leave a hotel, 6ou chec0
ot or chec0 ot o& the hotel.
%here's always a long line of people waiting to check out at that time of the morning.
Mrs. ;orcia checked out of her hotel and took a ta"i to the airport.
checked out part.adj. 'fter you have paid your bill, returned your key, and left a hotel, you are checked
out.
<kay, we're checked out; now let's get a ta"i and go to the airport.
chec0ot n. he ti2e be&ore which 6ou 2ust chec0 ot o& a hotel in order to avoid pa6ing &or
another da6 is the chec0ot ti2e.
#e can sleep late tomorrow8 checkout time isn't until .=>> ?.M.
($ chec0$$$ ot p.v. "hen 6ou chec0 a place or thing ot' 6ou inspect it care&ull6 or learn
2ore about it.
%hat new Me"ican restaurant is great 4 you should check it out.
Hey ;eorge, check out that car %oad is driving. #hen did he buy it$
*$ chec0 $$$ ot p.v. "hen 6ou chec0 people ot' 6ou investigate the2 in order to learn 2ore
about the2. 5& 6ou sa6 that people chec0 ot' 6ou 2ean that the in&or2ation the6 have given
6ou about the2selves, such as their education and work e<perience, has been investigated
and &ound to be accurate.
9pplicants for child care jobs should be thoroughly checked out.
!efore you give that guy money to invest, you should check him out.
-rank didn't get the job he wanted with the *9. Some things on his resume didn't check out.
6$ chec0 ot p.v. "hen 6ou chec0 ot at a store, 6ou bring the ite2s 6ou want to buy to the
cashier and pay for them.
31'
%he store's closing in a few minutes. #e'd better check out.
&ook at this line. t's going to take forever to check out.
chec0ot n. he chec0ot or the chec0ot counter is where 6ou pa6 &or ite2s in a
store.
(ou get the bathroom stuff, 'll get the groceries, and we'll meet at the checkout counter.
Infinitive
present tense &ing form past tense past participle
/o in
go in < goes in going in went in gone in
($ /o inlinto p.v. "hen 6ou /o in or /o into a place, building, roo2, and so on, 6ou enter it.
t's getting too dark to play tennis. &et's go in.
-rank went into the kitchen to get a cup of coffee.
"$ /o in p.v. "hen so2ething /oes in or /oes into a place, container, enclosure, and so
on, it belongs there, &its there, or can be put there.
%hat dish goes in the cabinet ne"t to the stove.
9ll those clothes will never go in this small suitcase.
*$ /o in p.v. "hen soldiers enter co2bat or an area where co2bat is likel6, the6 /o in$ P%%
ot is the opposite o. /o in$
%he :ational ;uard was ordered to go in and stop the riot.
%he marine shouted, @#e're going in)@ as he jumped from the landing craft.
let in
let in & lets in letting in let in let in
($ %et $$$inlinto p.v. "hen 6ou %et people or things in or %et people or things into a place,
building, roo2, and so on, 6ou allow the2 to enter b6 giving the2 per2ission to enter or
b6 opening a door, gate, and so on.
#hen the guests arrived, the butler opened the door to let them in.
%he guard wouldn't let me into the stadium because had forgotten my ticket.
"$ %et$$$ inlinto p.v. "hen an opening, such as a window, door, hole, crack, and so on,
allows so2ething to enter, it %ets it in$
%hat small window doesn't let in enough light to read by.
%he hole in the screen is letting the mos,uitoes into the house.
+%/ in
plug in & plugs in plugging in plugged in plugged in
($ +%/ $$$inlinto p.v. "hen 6ou connect an electrical device to an electrical outlet, 6ou +%/
it in or +%/ it into the outlet. "hen 6ou connect an6 cord or cable to asocket designed to
receive it, 6ou +%/ it in or +%/ it into the socket.
31(
l plugged my ..>3volt %5 into a AA>3volt outlet and ruined it.
%his phone isn't broken8 you just forgot to plug the phone cord in.
+%//e! in part.adj. "hen an electrical device is connected to an electrical outlet, it is
+%//e! in$
!e careful with that iron 4 it's plugged in.
Infinitive
present tense &ing form past tense past participle
snea0 in
sneak in < sneaks in sneaking in sneaked in sneaked in
($ snea0 inlinto p.v. "hen 6ou enter a place without an6one seeing or hearing 6ou, 6ou
snea0 in or snea0 into the place.
#hen was a kid used to sneak into the movie theater through the emergency e"it.
f you don't have a ticket for the game, you'll have to sneak in.
snea0 ot
sneak out & sneaks out sneaking out sneaked out sneaked out
($ snea0 ot Eo&F p.v. "hen 6ou leave a place without an6one seeing or hearing 6ou, 6ou
snea0 ot or snea0 ot o& the place.
Susie's father told her to stay upstairs in her room, but she sneaked out through the window.
%he principal caught me sneaking out of my chemistry class.
ECERCISE 6( a ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith +hrasa% ver&s .ro- this section$ Be
sre the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$
1. $lose the door: AouBre MMMMMMMM the bugs MMMMMMMM.
2. *ne o& the students MMMMMMM MMMMMMM and stole the answers &or the &inal e<a2.
3. 76 grand&ather alwa6s MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM a new car b6 not driving it over %1 2iles per hour until
it had gone 1,111 2iles.
#. 7ark told 2e he bought a large!screen V. )etBs go to his house and MMMMMM it MMMMMM.
%. 76 laptop co2puter is in this bag, so 5 think it would be better to keep it with 2e on the &light than
to MMMMMMMM it MMMMMMMM.
'. hese speakers MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM sockets in the back o& the stereo.
(. /re 6ou sure this is the right ke6 &or this lockH 5t wonBt MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM.
8. "hen 5B2 awa6 on a business trip, 5 alwa6s MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM with 26 o&&ice ever6 2orning. 318
,. 5 was late &or class, so 5 waited until the teacher wasnBt looking and MMMMMMM MMMMMMM.
11. he soldiers were ordered to MMMMMMMMMMMMMM and capture the ene26 position.
11.1 donBt trust that gu6 26 daughter wants to 2arr6. 5B2 going to MMMMMMMM hi2 MMMMMMM.
12. 8inner is being served. )etBsMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMthe dining roo2.
13. hereBs a crack in the base2ent wall thatBs MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM water.
1#. /t the super2arket 6ou can MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM in the e<press line onl6 i& 6ou have &ewer than 1%
ite2s.
1%. "eBll MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM the 4rand Cotel on "ednesda6.
1'. /&ter a week at the hotel, weBll MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM and go ho2e.
1(. /n6 burglar who tries to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM 26 house is going to get a big surprise > 5Bve got three
big dogs that arenBt ver6 &riendl6.
18. 5 MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM onl6 1% 2inutes be&ore 26 &light ti2e, and 5 al2ost 2issed the plane.
ECERCISE 6( & ; =rite ans5ers to the >estions sin/ +hrasa% ver&s' +artici+%e
a!,ectives' an! nons .ro- this section$ Be sre the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct
tense$
1. Ianice entered the house .uietl6 so that no one would hear her. "hat did Ianice doH
2. )6dia unlocked the door so that her brother could enter the house. "hat did )6dia doH
3. 7s. $u22ings paid her hotel bill and le&t. "hat did 7s. $u22ings doH
#. 5n Ouestion 3, 7s. $u22ings had to leave the hotel be&ore noon so that she would not have to pa6 &or
another da6. "hat is noon at the hotelH
%. he window o& Nanc6Bs house was broken, and her +ewelr6, V, and co2puter were gone. "hat
happened to Nanc6Bs houseH
'. 5n Ouestion %, what happened at Nanc6Bs houseH
(. "hen 5 arrive at the airport, 5Bll give 26 ticket to the agent, and sheBll give 2e a boarding pass. "hat
will 5 do at the airportH
31,
8. 5n Ouestion (, where will 5 go in the airportH
,. he roo2 is &ull o& cigarette s2oke, and 9aren doesnBt want to enter it. "hat doesnBt 9aren want to
doH
11. 5 saw an interesting house with a @&or sale@ sign on Pine Street as 5 was driving ho2e. o2orrow 5Bll
stop and learn 2ore about it. "hat will 5 do to the house to2orrowH
11. "hen ;rik &lies to $olorado to go skiing, he alwa6s gives his skis to the airline agent so that the6
will be put in the baggage co2part2ent. "hat does ;rik alwa6s do with his skisH
12. 5n Ouestion 11, how would 6ou describe ;rikBs skis a&ter he gives the2 to the airline agentH
13. Aou opened the window .uietl6, when no one was looking, and le&t 6our house. "hat did 6ou doH
1#. 7r. =aker hasnBt arrived at his hotel and arranged &or a roo2 6et. "hat hasnBt 7r. =aker done
6etH
1%. Cank bought a new $8 pla6er and connected the plug to the outlet. "hat did Cank doH
1'. 5n Ouestion 1%, how would 6ou describe CankBs new $8 pla6erH
1(. =e&ore Ned was hired &or his +ob in a nursing ho2e, the hu2an resources 2anager at the nursing
ho2e called his previous e2plo6er and asked .uestions about Ned. "hat was done to NedH
18. 76 &eet are killing 2e. 5t wasnBt ver6 s2art to wear new hiking boots that arenBt so&t and
co2&ortable. "h6 are 26 &eet killing 2eH
ECERCISE 6( c ; =rite seven ori/ina% sentences sin/ +hrasa% ver&s .ro- this
section$
1. MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
2. MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
3. MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
#. MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
%. MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
'. MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
(. MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
321
ECERCISE 6( !' Revie5 ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith these +hrasa% ver&s .ro-
+revios sections$ Be sre the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$ To chec0
their -eanin/s' revie5 the section n-&er /iven a.ter each one$
blow o&&, #1 help out, 33 start out, 21
co2e on, 3( leave over, 3( straighten out, 3,
&ill up, 3, let down,3( take over, 3 ,
get o&& on,#1 live with, 3% talk to, 3(
go awa6, #1 narrow down, 3%
hang out, 3( put down, 3'
1. 5 hope 6ou like spaghetti, because so 2uch was MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM a&ter the part6 that weBre going to
be eating it &or a week.
2. 76 son has pro2ised 2e a hundred ti2es that heBll sta6 out o& trouble and work harder in school, but
he alwa6s MMMMMMMM 2e MMMMMMMM.
3. 5 want to watch the news. 5tBs going to MMMMM MMMMM as soon as this ga2e is over.
#. ;ven though 6ou donBt like 6our brother, 6ou shouldnBt MMMMMMMM hi2 MMMMMMMM in &ront o& his children.
%. oda6 MMMMMM MMMMM cold and rain6, but now the sun is out, and itBs a lot war2er.
'. 5 canBt drive because o& 26 broken leg, but $ar2en said sheBd MMMMMMMM 2e MMMMMMMM i& 5 need
an6thing.
(. 5Bve got an appoint2ent to get 26 teeth cleaned to2orrow at #G11, but i& 6ou want to go to the beach, 5
can MMMMMMMM 26 appoint2ent MMMMMMMM.
8. he co2pan6 was considering eight cities &or the new &actor6, but the6Bve MMMMMMMM it MMMMMMMM to
three.
,. / lot o& the e2plo6ees are con&used about the new contract. "e should ask 2anage2ent to have a
2eeting so that we can MMMMMMMM ever6thing MMMMMMMM.
11. )6dia is going toMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM&or Iud6 during her 2aternit6 leave.
11. Cer husband said he wasnBt going to stop s2oking and that she would +ust have to learn to MMMMMMM
MMMMMMMMMit.
12. he co22ercial on V said that i& 6ou MMMMMMMM6our carBs gas tankMMMMMMMMwith their gas, 6ouBd get
better 2ileage and a cleaner engine.
321
13. "eBre planning to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM &or a &ew weeks. "ould 6ou 2ind watering our plants until
we returnH
1#. 8avid put a pool table and a pinball 2achine in his base2ent. 5tBs a great place to MMMMMMMM
MMMMMMMM and rela<.
1%. $an 6ou believe how rude that gu6 was to 2eH Nobod6 has ever MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM 2e like that
be&ore.
1'. =ob is ver6 kind and generous. Ce MMMMM MMMMMM MMMMMM helping other people.
6"$ 3*$0S *NG +hrasa% ver&s 5ith get, (
7an6 phrasal verbs are based on the verb get, and it is i2portant to understand that the 2eaning
o& get in these verbs is not the sa2e as the nonphrasal &or2 o& get, 2eaning receive. 5nstead, get
has a 2eaning si2ilar to become or change to:
I got up at -:.../0 was not up be&ore, and then 5 beca2e up > 5 changed
&ro2 not being up to being up.F
7an6 phrasal verbs with get that relate to a change in ph6sical location 2ight see2
identical in 2eaning to a variet6 o& phrasal verbs using co2e, go, and other verbs that
describe ph6sical 2ove2ent, such as !al, run, move, and so on, and o&ten the6 can be
used with little di&&erence in 2eaningG
l came back last night. # got
back last night.
=ut there is a di&&erenceG get e2phasiDes the change in location? co2e, go, and so on,
e2phasiDe the 2ove2ent &ro2 one location to another.
5t is ver6 co22on to use the adverbs right and bac with get phrasal verbs. o review
the adverb right, see Sections 1, and 22. o review the adverb bac, review Section 2'
Eand do not con&use the adverb bac with the particle bac1.
Note that two &or2s o& the past participle o& get are shownG gotten and got. Gotten is
2ore co22on in /2erican ;nglish, but got is occasionall6 used. =oth are correct.
Infinitive
present tense &ing form past tense past participle
/et &ac0
get back < gets back getting back got back gottenlgot back
($ /et &ac0 EtoF p.v. "hen 6ou return to a level or place where 6ou were be&ore, 6ou /et
&ac0 or /et &ac0 to that place.
322
#e left three weeks ago, and we didn't get back until yesterday.
#here are you going$ Get right back here)
Mark lost a tot of weight when he was sick, and it took him a long time to get back
to his old weight.
"$ /et$$$ &ac0 EtoF p.v. "hen 6ou /et so2ething &ac0 or /et so2ething &ac0 to a person
or place, 6ou return it to that person or place.
7im uses his mother's car in the morning, but she needs it to go to work at 2=1>, so he has to get it back before then.
have to get these books back to the library 4 they're overdue.
*$ /et$$$ &ac0 E&ro2F p.v. "hen 6ou /et so2ething &ac0 or /et so2ething &ac0 &ro2
so2eone or so2eplace, 6ou have so2ething that 6ou had be&ore.
l couldn't believe got my stolen car back.
7im borrowed a book from me three years ago, and still haven't gotten it back from him.
6$ /et &ac0 E&ro2F p.v. "hen 6ou /et &ac0 or /et &ac0 &ro2 so2ething that is ver6 hot or
dangerous or that 6ou should not be near, 6ou 2ove awa6 &ro2 it so that there is 2ore
distance between 6ou and it.
Get back from the edge of the cliff) (ou might fall.
9s the ?resident came closer, the police told the crowd to get back.
Infinitive
present tense &ing form past tense past participle
/et
&ehin!
get behind < gets behind getting behind got behind gottenlgot behind
($ /et &ehin! EinF p.v. "hen 6ou are in a group that is stud6ing or working, and so on, and
the6 learn &aster or get 2ore work done because 6ou are learning or working 2ore slowl6
than the others, 6ou /et &ehin! or /et &ehin! in 6our studies or work. "hen 6ou do not
co2plete work as &ast as originall6 planned and e<pected, 6ou /et &ehin! schedule. Kee+
+ is the opposite o& /et &ehin!$ Fa%% &ehin! is si2ilar to /et &ehin!$
&inda had some problems last semester, and she got behind in her studies.
#ith all the bad weather we've been having, the construction project has gotten way behind schedule.
/et &3
get b% & gets b% getting b% got b% gottenlgot b%
($/et &3 p.v. "hen 6ou /et &3 or /et &3 so2ething, 6ou pass so2ething or so2eone
while 6ou are walking or driving even though it 2a6 be di&&icult because there is not
enough roo2.
*an you move all that junk in the hallway please$ t's hard for people to get by.
%here was an accident on the highway, and no one could get by.
"$ /et &3 EonF p.v. "hen 6ou /et &3 or /et &3 on a certain a2ount o& 2one6, 6ou continue with
6our work or continue with 6our li&e even though it 2a6 be di&&icult.
323
'on't worry about me8 'll get by somehow.
t's not easy getting by on BAC> a week.
*$ /et &3 p.v. "hen so2ething, such as a 2istake or a proble2, /ets &3 6ou, 6ou do not
notice it.
've got a great editor8 no mistakes get by her.
checked this report twice. How did all these misspellings get by me$
#nfinitive
present tense -ing form past tense past participle
get down
get down & gets down getting down got down gottenlgot down
($ /et !o5n EtoF p.v. "hen 6ou 2ove to a lower level or place or &ro2 north to south, 6ou
/et !o5n or /et !o5n to that level or place. Eet + is the opposite o. /et !o5n$ Eo
!o5n is si2ilar to /et !o5n$
(ou're going to fall out of that tree and break your neck. Get down right now)
%he first thing did after got down to Miami was go to the beach.
"$ /et$$$ !o5n E&ro2F p.v. "hen 6ou /et things or people !o5n' 6ou 2ove the2 &ro2 a
higher level or place to a lower one.
#hy do you always put the dishes on the top shelf$ can't get them down.
%he fire fighters got the people down from the roof of the burning building.
*$ /et !o5n p.v. "hen 6ou bend 6our bod6 and lower 6our head to avoid danger or to
prevent people &ro2 seeing 6ou, 6ou /et !o5n$
#hen the enemy soldiers started shooting, the sergeant ordered his men to get down.
Get down! f the police catch us here we'll be in a lot of trouble.
6$ /et$$$ !o5n p.v. "hen things or people /et 6ou !o5n' the6 2ake 6ou sad or
depressed.
'on't let your troubles get you down. Everything will be all right.
7im's marriage problems are really getting him down.
get in
get in & gets in getting in got in gottenlgot in
($ /et inlinto p.v. "hen 6ou /et in or /et into a place, building, roo2, car, boat, and so
on, 6ou enter it.
Get in the car) #e're going now.
#e'd better get into the school 4 the bell's going to ring soon.
"$ /et$$$ inlinto p.v. "hen 6ou /et in or /et into a place, building, club, restaurant,
2eeting, and so on, 6ou obtain per2ission to enter. "hen 6ou /et other people in or /et
other people into a building, club, restaurant, 2eeting, and so on, 6ou arrange &or the2 to
enter.
#e'll never get into that club8 we don't know the right people.
l didn't have an invitation to the party, but :ancy got me in.
27H
*$ /et$$$ inlinto p.v. "hen 6ou /et so2ething in or /et so2ething into a place, building,
roo2, container, enclosure, and so on, 6ou get the ob+ect inside even though it is di&&icult.
%he shoes are too small 4 can't get my feet in.
How did they get that elephant into its cage$
6$ /et$$$ inlinto p.v. "hen 6ou /et in trouble or /et into a di&&icult situation or a 2ess Ea
mess is a con&used or di&&icult situationF, 6ou beco2e involved in it. "hen 6ou /et people
in trouble or /et the2 into a di&&icult situation or a 2ess, 6ou cause the2 to beco2e
involved in it.
Susie got in a lot of trouble at school today.
don't see any solution to this problem. How did ever get into this mess$
7$ /et inlinto p.v. "hen 6ou /et in or /et into a place, 6ou arrive. "hen the vehicle 6ou
are in /ets in or /ets into a place, it arrives. Co-e in is si2ilar to /et in$
'm e"hausted. got in really late last night.
'll be waiting for you at the station when your train gets into the station.
8$ /et$$$ in p.v. "hen a store /ets so2ething in' it receives a deliver6 o& so2ething that it
will o&&er &or sale.
Daren asked the sales clerk when the store was going to get some summer dresses in.
wanted to buy that new book, but the bookstore hasn't gotten it in yet.
:$ /et$$$ in p.v. "hen 6ou /et an activit6 in' 6ou &ind the ti2e &or it or 2ake the ti2e &or it.
'inner isn't until E=1>, so we've got time to get a tennis game in.
#henever go to San -rancisco on business, try to get a baseball game in.
Infinitive
present tense &ing form past tense past participle
/et ot
get out < gets out getting out got out gottenlgot out
($ /et ot Eo&F p.v. "hen 6ou /et ot or /et ot o& a place, building, roo2, car, boat, and
so on, 6ou leave or escape &ro2 it.
#hen !ob heard his car's engine making a strange noise, he got out and looked under the hood.
#e smelled gas and got out of the building just seconds before it e"ploded.
"$ /et ot EtoF p.v. "hen 6ou go to a place that is west o& where 6ou are or to a place
outside a large cit6, 6ou /et ot or /et ot to that place.
l love it here in the city. almost never get out to the suburbs anymore.
told my friend in :ew (ork, @f you ever get out to *alifornia, please visit me.@
*$ /et$$$ ot Eo&F p.v. "hen 6ou /et people ot or /et the2 ot o& a place, 6ou take the2
out or 6ou arrange &or the2 to leave.
32%
%he soldiers were surrounded, so they called for a helicopter to get them out.
9fter Hank was arrested, his lawyer got him out of jail.
6$ /et$$$ ot Eo&F p.v. "hen 6ou /et ot or /et ot o& a dangerous, awkward, or di&&icult
situation, 6ou avoid it. "hen 6ou /et people ot o& a dangerous, awkward, or di&&icult
situation, 6ou help the2 to avoid it.
Erik made a date with two girls for the same night. How is he going to get out of this mess$
(ou got me into this mess 4 you get me out!
7$ /et$$$ ot Eo&F p.v. "hen 6ou /et so2ething ot or /et so2ething ot o& a
container or place, 6ou re2ove it.
Mother's coming for dinner tonight, so let's get the good china out.
%he videotape is jammed8 can't get it out of the 5*F.
8$ /et$$$ ot Eo&F p.v. "hen 6ou /et dirt or a stain ot or /et dirt or a stain ot o& a
2aterial, 6ou re2ove it b6 cleaning.
%his detergent's ad claims it'll get dirt out even in cold water.
'o you think bleach will get this wine stain out of my white blouse$
:$ /et ot p.v. "hen in&or2ation /ets ot' it beco2es known to people who are not
supposed to know it.
!e careful 4 we'll be in a lot of trouble if this information gets out.
%here was a huge scandal after the news got out.
#$ /et ot Eo&F p.v. "hen 6ou leave 6our house and do things that are rela<ing and &un,
6ou /et ot or /et ot o& the house.
(ou work too hard8 you should get out more.
:ed doesn't get out of the house much8 he prefers to stay home and play computer games.
Infinitive
present tense &ing form past tense past participle
/et over
get over < gets over getting over got over gottenlgot over
($ /et over EtoF p.v. "hen 6ou /et over to a place, 6ou go there. "hen 6ou tell people to
/et over here, 6ou want the2 to co2e where 6ou are.
-rancisco called and he said he needs you to help him with something, so get over to his house right way.
Susie, get over here and clean up this mess immediately)
"$ /et over p.v. "hen 6ou /et over a proble2, illness, or e2otionall6 pain&ul
e<perience, 6ou stop letting it a&&ect 6ou and continue with 6our li&e.
've got a bad cold. 've been sick for a week, and still haven't gotten over it.
(ou can't feel sorry for yourself forever 4 you've got to get over it and get on with your life.
27J
*$ /et over p.v. "hen so2ething happens that surprises 6ou or 2akes 6ou angr6, and 6ou
cannot stop thinking about it, 6ou cannot /et over it.
l can't get over seeing my e"3wife with her new husband.
%he coach couldn't get over losing the state championship 2E to >.
Infinitive
present tense &ing form past tense past participle
/et +
get up < gets up getting up got up gottenlgot up
($/et + EtoF p.v. "hen 6ou 2ove to a higher level or place, or &ro2 south to north, 6ou
/et + or /et + to that level or place. Eet !o5n is the opposite o& /et +$ Eo + is
si2ilar to /et +$
%om, your brother is in the basement. ?lease go tell him to get right up here and start doing his homework.
haven't gotten up to my brother's house in *anada for a long time.
"$ /et$$$ + p.v. "hen 6ou /et + or so2eone /ets 6ou +' 6ou rise &ro2 6our bed. "hen
6ou /et people up, 6ou cause the2 to rise &ro2 their beds.
l don't usually get up until ..=>> on weekends.
make breakfast8 getting the children up and ready for school in the morning is !ill's job.
*$ /et + p.v. "hen 6ou change &ro2 a sitting or l6ing position to a standing position,
6ou /et +$ Stan! + is si2ilar to /et +$
%he teacher told the sleeping students to get up.
9fter he hit me, got right up and hit him back.
ECERCISE 6"a ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith +hrasa% ver&s .ro- this section$ Be
sre the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$
1. hat bo2b 2ight e<plode. 7a6be we should MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM a little.
2. /s soon as the car stopped, 5 MMMMMMM right MMMMMMM and went inside the house.
3. 5Bll lose 26 +ob i& this in&or2ation MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM, so donBt tell an6one.
#. MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM Ii2Bs death took 2e a long ti2e.
%. Now the police are outside. )ook at all the trouble 6ouBve MMMMM 2e MMMM:
'. 5 thought these pants were ruined a&ter 5 got ink on the2, but this detergent MMMMMMMM the ink right
MMMMMMMM.
(. 5 was working in 26 o&&ice on the third &loor, and 26 boss called &ro2 his o&&ice on the si<th &loor and told
2e to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM there i22ediatel6.
32(
8. "ork, work, work > thatBs all 6ou do. Aou need to MMMMMMM MMMMMMM 2ore o&ten.
,. 5tBs #G11. 5& we hurr6, we 2ightMMMMMMa round o& gol&MMMMMMbe&ore it gets dark.
11. 5 was tr6ing to leave work a little earl6, but 26 boss said, @Aou canBt go ho2e until %G11. MMMMMMMM
back MMMMMMMM here:@
11. "ould 6ou like to go shopping at "al!7art to2orrowH he6 +ustMMMMMMMM so2e new
stu&&MMMMMMMM.
12. he ga2e is sold out, but 5 know so2eone who 2ight be able to MMMMM us MMMMM.
13. "hat ti2e did 6our plane MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM last nightH
1#. Cank is in a lot o& trouble. 5& heMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMo& it, itBll be a 2iracle.
1%. Nicole does her work ver6 care&ull6 and never 2akes 2istakes. Nothing MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMMher.
1'. Aour sisterBs upstairs sleeping. 4o tell her to MMMMMMMM right MMMMMMMM here and eat break&ast.
1(. )ook, thereBs a bear: MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM > it 2ight see us.
18. 76 husband spent his whole pa6check on beer and lotter6 tickets. 5 donBt know how weBre going to
MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM this 2onth.
1,. 5 wish 5 hadnBt MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM late. 5 2issed the bus, and now 5 have to walk to school.
21. his is a ver6 di&&icult class. 5& 6ou donBt stud6 hard, 6ouBll MMMMMMM MMMMMMM.
21. he teacher said, @Aour 2idter2 score wasnBt ver6 good, but 5B2 sure i& 6ou stud6 hard, 6ouBll do a
lot better on the &inal. 8onBt let it MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM 6ou.@
22. ;<cuse 2e, could 6ou 2oveH 5 canBtMMMMMMM MMMMMMMMM.
23. 7ike usuall6 leaves around 8G11 in the 2orning and MMMMM MMMMMM around %G31.
2#. 76 cat has been in that tree &or three da6s. $an 6ou help 2e MMMMM her MMMMMMH
2%. 5tBs a2aDing. 5 canBt MMMMMM MMMMMM how great o2 looks. 5Bll bet heBs lost &ort6 pounds.
2'. 5& 6ou lose 6our receipt,MMMMMMMM 6our 2one6MMMMMMMM &or so2ething 6ou bought is usuall6
i2possible.
328
2(. i226Bs 2other said,@"ho said 6ou could leave the tableH MMMMMMMMM back MMMMMMMM here and &inish
6our vegetables:@
28. *ur neighbor called and saidlBAour dog is in 26 garden. MMMMMM it MMMMMM:@
2,. he situation in that countr6 is ver6 dangerous, so "ashington is 2aking plans to MMMMMMMM its
e2bass6 sta&&MMMMMMMM.
31. 8avid was so sick he couldnBt even MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM o& bed.
31. 5t isnBt eas6 to MMMMMMMMMthis big car MMMMMMMMMthat s2all garage.
ECERCISE 6"& ; =rite ans5ers to the >estions sin/ +hrasa% ver&s .ro- this
section$ Be sre the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$
1. 76 &ather ca2e into 26 bedroo2, shook 26 shoulder, and told 2e that break&ast was al2ost read6.
"hat did 26 &ather doH
2. 5 live in New *rleans, and itBs di&&icult to &ind the ti2e to travel to 7innesota to visit 26 sister. "hat is
di&&icultH
3. /&ter 6ou were arrested &or drunken driving, 6ou were in a lot o& trouble. "hat did 6ou doH
#. Aou need to return to 6our ho2e ver6 .uickl6. "hat do 6ou need to doH
%. /&ter Iud6 pa6s her bills, she +ust barel6 has enough 2one6 to survive until the end o& the 2onth. "hat
can Iud6 +ust barel6 doH
'. 5& Ceather doesnBt work harder in her 2ath class, she will not be able to sta6 at the sa2e level as the
other students. "hat will happen to Ceather i& she doesnBt work harderH
M. It(s been five years, but Frank is still sad about his brother(s death. .hat hasn(t Frank done yet1
8. 5 was trapped in 26 car a&ter an accident, but a rescue worker re2oved 2e &ro2 26 car. "hat did the
rescue worker doH
,. /le< is re2oving his to6 train &ro2 the closet. "hat is /le< doing to his to6 trainH
11. $arlos is standing on a table so that he can get the to6 airplane that he threw on top o& the re&rigerator.
"hat is $arlos doingH
11. he so&a was too big, and the 2overs couldnBt bring it inside our new house. "hat couldnBt the 2overs
doH
32,
12. here is a huge truck in &ront o& us, and we canBt pass it. "hat canBt we doH
13. )6dia le&t the building when she heard the &ire alar2. "hat did )6dia doH
1#. /&ter getting out o& her car, Ianice entered it again. "hat did Ianice doH
1%. ;rikBs bic6cle was stolen, but now he has it again. "hat did ;rik doH
1'. he pilot had 2echanical proble2s with her airplane, but the controllers on the ground helped
her land. "hat did the controllers do to the pilotH
1(. =ill called and asked 2e to co2e to his house ver6 .uickl6. "hat did =ill ask 2e to doH
ECERCISE 6"c' Revie5 ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith these +hrasa% ver&s .ro-
+revios sections$ Be sre the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$ To chec0
their -eanin/s' revie5 the section n-&er /iven a.ter each one$
brush o&&, 3( &loat around, 3# punch in, 31 sneak out, #1
call back, 28 go inlinto, #1 punch out, 31 start up, 2'
call up, 28 leave behind, 3% run around, #1
clear out, 32 pick up, 3, sell out, 3,
cross o&&, 3, plug inlinto, #1 sneak inlinto, #1
1. hereBs nothing to eat &or dinner tonight. $an 6ou MMMMMMMM so2e takeout &ood MMMMMMMM when
6ou co2e ho2e &ro2 work tonightH
2. 76 brother wants to store so2e o& his stu&& in 26 attic, so tonight 5B2 going to MMMMMMMM so2e o&
the +unk up there MMMMMMMM to 2ake 2ore roo2.
3. 5& 6ou want to get a ticket &or the Superbowl, 6ouBll need to hurr6 > the6Bre MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM
&ast.
#. "hen 5 go on vacation, 5 want to rela< at the beach and MMMMM 26 worries MMMMM.
%. Ned is worried. hereBs a ru2or MMMMMM MMMMMM that so2eone is going to get &ired.
'. 5 canBt &ind the to6 26 daughter wants &or her birthda6 an6where. 5Bve been MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM
all da6 looking &or it.
(. 5B2 going to be late &or work. "ould 6ou 2ind MMMMMMMMM 2e MMMMMMMMMH
8. 8an 2ust still be here in the o&&ice so2ewhere. Ce hasnBt MMMMMMM MMMMMMM 6et.
,. 5 havenBt talked to Nanc6 in a long ti2e. 5 think 5Bll MMMMMM her MMMMMM tonight.
331
11. Nanc6 was in the shower when 5 called, but her brother said sheBd MMMMMMMM 2e right MMMMMMMM.
11. /re 6ou sure this is the right ke6H 5t wonBt MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM the lock.
12. 7argaret $u22ings decided to leave her +ob with a big co2pan6 and MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM her own
co2pan6.
13. MMMMMMM MMMMMMMMMthe theater was eas6. *ne o& our &riends went inside and opened the &ire e<it &or
the rest o& us.
1#. 76 &ather wonBt let 2e go to the dance, so 5B2 going to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM a&ter he goes to bed.
1%. None o& the bad things people sa6 about $harles bother hi2. Ce +ust MMMMMMMM it MMMMMMMM.
1'. 5 2ade a list o& people to invite to 26 wedding, but a&ter 5 heard all those nast6 things Sarah said
about 26 &iance, 5 MMMMMMMM her na2e MMMMMMMM the list.
1(. "ell, 5 think 5Bve &i<ed the vacuu2 cleaner. )etBs MMMMMMMM it MMMMMMMM and see i& it works now.
6*$ FOCUS ON< -o!a%s an! +resent +er.ect +hrasa% ver&s
-e2e2ber that the present per&ect is &or2ed with have or the contraction (ve and the past participle.
he onl6 di&&erence is that has is not used &or the third person singularG
He has run up a big bill. He would have
run up a big bill.
he 2eanings o& the 2odal and se2i2odal au<iliaries are unchanged in the
present per&ect, e<cept &or may and might.
Past s+ec%ation an! 3o !o not 0no5 5hat ha++ene!< might have or may have
"hen discussing so2ething that was possible in the past and 6ou do not know what
happened, either might have or may have can be usedG
331
l wonder where 7im is. He might have stopped off at the bar. wonder where
7im is. He may have stopped off at the bar.
=ecause 6ou do not know whether Ii2 stopped o&& at the bar, either might have or may
have can be used.
Past s+ec%ation an! 3o 0no5 5hat ha++ene!< on%3 might have
"hen discussing so2ething that was possible in the past and 6ou know what happened,
onl6 might have can be usedG
*limbing that tree was stupid. (ou might have fallen out. *limbing that
tree was stupid. (ou may have fallen out.
=ecause 5 know that the person 5 a2 talking to did not &all out o& the tree, onl6 might have
can be used.
Infinitive
present tense &ing form past tense past participle
&%o5 ot
blowout < blows out blowing out blew out blown out
($ &%o5$$$ ot p.v. "hen a &la2e &%o5s ot or is &%o5n ot b6 a strong wind, it stops
burning. "hen 6ou &%o5 ot a &la2e, 6ou use 6our breath to 2ake the &la2e stop
burning.
'on't open the window 4 the candles will blow out.
couldn't light my cigarette8 the wind kept blowing the match out.
%he stove isn't working. Maybe the pilot light has blown out.
"$ &%o5 $$$ot Eo&F p.v. "hen so2ething is 2oved outward awa6 &ro2 where it was b6 an
e<plosion or a ver6 strong wind, it is &%o5n ot or &%o5n ot o& where it was be&ore.
%he force of the e"plosion blew all the windows out.
&ook, there's a dead bird. %he wind might have blown it out of its nest.
&%o5ot n. "hen a tire bursts and suddenl6 loses its air while 6ou are driving, 6ou have a
&%o5ot$
Maria had a blowout while she was driving, lost control of her car, and hit a tree.
*$ &%o5$$$ ot p.v. "hen a piece o& electrical e.uip2ent or a &use &%o5s ot' it &ails
because too 2uch electricit6 is passing through it.
'on't be surprised if the fuse blows out 4 you have seven lights, your computer, and your %5 all plugged into
one outlet.
#hen lightning hit our house, it blew all the telephones out.
332
#nfinitive
present tense -ing form past tense past participle
give out
give out & gives out giving out gave out given out
($ /ive $$$ot EtoF p.v. "hen 6ou distribute so2ething to other people, 6ou /ive it ot or
/ive it ot to the2. Han! ot is si2ilar to /ive ot$
%hey gave out free hats to the first C,>>> fans to enter the stadium.
%he aid workers would have given more food out to the famine victims, but they didn't have enough.
"$ /ive ot EonF p.v. "hen a 2echanical or electrical device stops working, it /ives ot or
/ives ot on 6ou. "hen a suppl6 o& so2ething is co2pletel6 used, it /ives ot or /ives
ot on 6ou.
%he e"plorers tost their way in the desert and died after their water gave out.
bought a *hevrolet in ./G2 and drove it more than 1>>,>>> miles before it finally gave out on me.
gross out
gross out & grosses out grossing out grossed out grossed out
($ /ross $$$ot p.v. [informal] "hen so2ething /rosses 6ou ot' it upsets 6ou or 2akes
6ou sick because 6ou think it is disgusting.
(ou had to dissect a cadaver in your biology class$ (uk, that would've really grossed me out.
9le" hates changing his little brother's diapers 4 it grosses him out.
/rosse! ot part.adj. "hen so2ething upsets 6ou or 2akes 6ou sick because 6ou think it
is disgusting, 6ou are /rosse! ot$
l was eating an apple, and found half a worm in it. was so grossed out that almost threw up. head toward
head toward & heads toward heading toward headed toward headed toward
($ hea! to5ar! p.v. "hen 6ou hea! to5ar! a certain location, 6ou 2ove toward it. "hen 6ou
sa6 that 6ou are hea!e! to5ar! or are hea!in/ to5ar! a certain location, 6ou 2ean that 6ou
are planning to go there or that 6ou are going there but have interrupted 6our +ourne6 and will
resu2e it. Hea! .or is the sa2e as hea! to5ar!$
%he escaped convicts must have headed toward Me"ico.
'm heading toward ?ortland. #here are you going$
run up
run up & runs up running up ran up run up
($ rn + EtoF p.v. "hen 6ou run to a higher level or place, 6ou rn + or rn + to that place.
un up and answer the phone if it rings, okay$
f 'd heard the baby crying, would have run up to his bedroom.
222
"$ rn $$$ + p.v. "hen 6ou accu2ulate a nu2ber o& debts, resulting in a total debt o& a
certain a2ount, 6ou rn + a bill &or that a2ount.
;iving my son a credit card was a mistake 4 he ran up a BA,C>> bill in only one month.
*alling your family every week from 9ustralia must have run a big phone bill up.
rn9+ n. / large, sudden increase in the price, value, or cost o& so2ething is a
rn9+$
!ill was lucky to buy C>> shares of the stock just before the big run-up.
*$ rn + EtoF p.v. "hen 6ou run toward people, 6ou rn + or rn + to the2.
%he prince didn't have any bodyguards. 9nyone could have run up and attacked him.
9fter the e"plosion, a man covered with blood ran up to me and asked for help.
Infinitive
present tense &ing form past tense past participle
shut up
shut up < shuts up shutting up shut up shut up
($ sht + EaboutF p.v. [informal] "hen people stop talking, the6 sht + or sht + about
so2ething the6 are talking about. "hen 6ou are angr6 and want people to stop talking, 6ou
tell the2 to sht +$
Marvin talks and talks and talks 4 he never shuts up.
said was sorry about crashing your car. :ow will you please shut up about it)
($ sht$$$ + p.v. [informal] "hen people or things cause 6ou to stop talking, the6 sht 6ou
+$
%oad was making jokes about his wife at the party until she gave him a look that shut him right up.
can't hear the %5 4 can you shut those kids up?
stop off
stop off ! stops off stopping off stopped off stopped off
($ sto+ o.. EatlinF p.v. "hen 6ou sto+ o.. at a place or sto+ o.. in an area on the wa6 to
another place, 6ou stop there brie&l6 be&ore continuing 6our +ourne6.
l would have stopped off at Sally's house this morning, but was late for work.
"topping off in *airo on our way to ndia would be fun.
tr% on
tr% on & tries on tr%ing on tried on tried on
($ tr3$$$ on p.v. "hen 6ou tr3 on an ite2 o& clothing be&ore deciding whether 6ou will bu6 it
or borrow it &ro2 so2eone in order to see i& it &its or to see i& 6ou like it, 6ou tr3 it on$
She must have tried on twenty pairs of shoes before making up her mind.
#ould you like to borrow this dress for the dance tonight$ Here, try it on.
33#
ECERCISE 6*a ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith +hrasa% ver&s .ro- this section$ Be
sre the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$
1. 5 got into /tlanta last night, and to2orrow 5B2 going to MMMMMMM MMMMMMM 7ia2i.
2. 5 shouldBve MMMMMMMM this sweater MMMMMMMM be&ore 5 bought it. 5tBs too s2all, and now 5 have to return
it.
3. Nicole &igured out wh6 all the lights were o&&G a &use MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM.
#. Sa2 couldnBt have &inished the 2arathon? his strength co2pletel6 MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM.
%. 5tBs a good thing )inda has health insurance? she has MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM a huge bill at the hospital.
'. "hen the gas e<ploded, all the doors and windows MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM.
(. 7arshaBs alwa6s bragging about how s2art she is and teasing 2e about 26 bad grades, but when 5
got 111 on the algebra test and she got %2, it reall6 MMMMMMMM her MMMMMMMM.
8. "eBre not &l6ing directl6 to Iapan? weBre going to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM in Cawaii &or a &ew da6s.
,. CankBs bad breath MMMMMMMM ever6one MMMMMMMM.
11. MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM: 5B2 tired o& listening to 6our constant criticis2.
11. 5 was so e<cited to see 9aren a&ter so 2an6 6ears that 5 MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM to her and gave her a big
hug.
12. his gas stove isnBt working. 5 think the pilot light 2a6 have MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM when 6ou opened the
window.
13. Iob applications were MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM to ever6one standing in line.
1#. "hen 5 saw s2oke co2ing &ro2 the third &loor window, 5MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMto look &or the &ire.
ECERCISE 6*& ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith the correct secon! +artic%es$
1. he &light attendant was blo!n out MMMMMMMM the hole in the airplaneBs &uselage.
2. 3ree sa2ples will be given out MMMMMMM ever6 custo2er who walks through the door.
3. Cis diseased heart &inall6 gave out MMMMMMMM hi2.
33%
#. 5 was so angr6 that when 5 saw hi2 5 ran up MMMMMMM hi2 and hit hi2.
%. 4eorge and o2 2ight have stopped offMMMMMMMM New Aork.
'. 7a6be the6 stopped offMMMMMMMM Ii2Bs house in the suburbs.
ECERCISE 6*c =rite three sentences sin/ the o&,ects in +arentheses$ Be sre to
+t the o&,ects in the ri/ht +%ace$
1. he wind ble! out. Ethe candle, itF
2. he6 gave out. Ein&or2ation, itF
3. She ran up. Ea N#,111 bill, itF
#. $an 5 try on2 Ethese pants, theseF
%. he s2ell grossed out. Eever6one, the2F
33'
ECERCISE 6*! ; =rite ans5ers to the >estions sin/ +hrasa% ver&s' +artici+%e
a!,ectives' an! nons .ro- this section$ Be sre the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct
tense$
1. -osa bought a coat, but itBs too s2all. "hat should -osa have doneH
2. Aour carBs trans2ission &inall6 stopped working a&ter several da6s o& proble2s. "hat did 6our _k carBs
trans2ission doH
3. he price o& gold increased a lot ver6 .uickl6. "hat would 6ou call this increase in the price o& goldH
#. odd didnBt know that the taco he ate at 7iguelBs house was 2ade with cow brains. "hen 7iguel told
odd what he had eaten, what 2ust that have done to oddH
%. 5n Ouestion #, how 2ust odd have beenH
'. he children ran toward =ett6 ver6 .uickl6. "hat did the children doH
(. he truck driver wouldnBt have traveled toward 8etroit. "hat wouldnBt the truck driver have
doneH
8. Ianice used her breath to stop the kerosene la2p &ro2 burning. "hat did Ianice doH
,. Stopping 7arvin &ro2 talking is nearl6 i2possible. "hat is i2possibleH
11. Sall6 asked her brother how he could have accu2ulated such a large credit card bill. "hat did Sall6
ask her brotherH
11. 8avid sta6ed &ora couple o& nights in 8enver be&ore continuing to )asVegas. "hat did 8avid
doH
12. 76 tire burst while 5 was driving. "hat did 5 haveH
ECERCISE 6*e' Revie5 ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith these +artici+%e a!,ectives
.ro- +revios sections$ To chec0 their -eanin/s' revie5 the section n-&er /iven
a.ter each one$
broken in, #1 crossed o&&, 3, plugged in, #1
checked in,#1 &illed up, 3, put o&&, 31
checked out, #1 le&tover, 3( rundown, 3'
chopped up, 3, let down, 3( sold out, 3,
covered up, 3( paid o&&, 3( straightened out, 3,
33(
1. 5& 6ouBre hungr6, thereBs so2e MMMMMMMMMMM piDDa in the re&rigerator.
2. his 2eat isnBt MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM enough? the pieces are too big.
3. hat &ood isnBt MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMMM? &lies are going to land on it.
#. So2eda6 Iohn wants to 2ove &ro2 this MMMMMMMMMMM neighborhood to a better one.
%. 76 &eet reall6 hurt because these shoes arenBt MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM 6et.
'. 76 car loan is MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM? 5 2ade 26 &inal pa62ent last 2onth.
(. /&ter &ort6!&ive 6ears with the co2pan6, 5 thought the6 would give 2e 2ore than this cheap pen
at 26 retire2ent part6. 5 &eel MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM.
8. here arenBt eight na2es on the list? there are onl6 &ive > three are MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM.
,. "eBre MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM now? we can take our luggage up to our hotel roo2.
11. "e can get a ta<i &or the airport now? weBre MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM.
11. he ga2e isnBt MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM? there are plent6 o& tickets le&t.
12. No wonder this radio doesnBt work > itBs not MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM.
13. he tank isnBt MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM 6et? thereBs roo2 &or another gallon or two.
1#. 5s ever6thing MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM, or do 5 need to e<plain it againH
1%. "h6 are 6ou so MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMMH 8id 5 sa6 so2ething that o&&ended 6ouH
ECERCISE 6*.' Revie5 ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith these +hrasa% ver&s .ro-
+revios sections$ Be sre the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$ To chec0
their -eanin/s' revie5 the section n-&er /iven a.ter each one$
burst out, #1 go inlinto, #1 keep &ro2, 38 keep up, 38
co2e back, #1 keep at, 38 keep o&&, 38 sneak inlinto, #1
get back, #2 keep awa6, 38 keep on, 38 sneak out o&, #1
get behind, #2 keep down, 38 keep to, 38 wipe out, 3,
1. Susie MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM the kitchen and took a cookie when her 2other wasnBt looking.
2. "hen 5 was a teenager, 5 used to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM o& the house and 2eet 26 &riends a&ter
26 parents went to bed.
338
3. 5 +ust sha2pooed the carpet in the living roo2, so MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM it.
#. 5 need to see 26 ph6sical therapist. hat pain 5 used to have in 26 knee is MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM.
%. 8o 6ou have a bigger envelopeH his letter wonBt MMMMMMM MMMMMMM this s2all one.
'. =ett6 asked the bus driver to stop, but he didnBt hear her and MMMMMMMM right MMMMMMMM going.
(. 7aria leaves &or work at (G11 in the 2orning, and she doesnBt usuall6 MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM to her
house until a&ter 8G11 in the evening.
8. Ii2 has MMMMMMMM wa6 MMMMMMMM in his studies because heBs been in the hospital &or several
weeks.
,. 7arvin was acting like such an idiot when he was angr6 that 5 couldnBt MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM
laughing.
11. 8onBt give up now>MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMit:
11. 5t was hard to MMMMMMMM 26 2agaDine article MMMMMMMM onl6 2,111 words > there was so 2uch 5
wanted to sa6.
12. 7ike MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM cr6ing when his wi&e told hi2 she wanted a divorce.
13. 5 tr6 to take notes in 26 histor6 class, but the teacher talks so &ast that 5 canBt MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM.
1#. he ene26 soldiers were al2ost co2pletel6 MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM in the attack.
1%. hat dog o& 6ours is dangerous, so pleaseMMMMMMM itMMMMMMM&ro2 26 children.
1'. he cand6 co2pan6 has MMMMMMMM the cost o& its products MMMMMMMM despite the rise in the cost o&
sugar.
33,
66$ FOCUS ON< +artici+%e a!,ectives an! +assive +hrasa% ver&s 5ith the ver& get
5t is i2portant to understand two di&&erent but related uses of get in &or2ing the
passive voice.
get + a!,ectives< get = become
5t is ver6 co22on in ;nglish to use get &ollowed b6 an ad+ective. his is not the
passive. 5n this case get is si2ilar to become:
She got sick yesterday.
She became sick yesterday.
get + +ast +artici+%es< a .or- o. the +assive
5t is also ver6 co22on to use get in place o& be to &or2 the passive voice. he
construction is the sa2e? get is &ollowed b6 the past participleG
7udy got kicked out of school.
7udy was kicked out of school.
here is a di&&erence, however, between the passive &or2ed with be and the passive
&or2ed with get: "hen the passive is &or2ed with get, there is o&ten Ebut not alwa6sF
a suggestion that the sub+ect o& the sentence was so2ehow responsible or partiall6
responsible &or what happenedG
7udy got kicked out of school.
/ person hearing the sentence above 2ight think that perhaps Iud6 did so2ething
wrong that resulted in her getting 0ic0e! ot o& school. So2eti2es, to leave no
doubt that the sub+ect is responsible &or what happened, a re&le<ive pronoun is
usedG
,udy got herself iced out of school. get + +artici+%e
a!,ectives< a!,ective or +assiveH
/s we have seen, in ;nglish the past participles o& 2an6 verbs are used as ad+ectives. "hen get
is &ollowed b6 a past participle, it is not alwa6s clear whether the sentence is passive or whether
the past participle is &unctioning as an ad+ectiveG
3#1
l got mied up last !ee.
# became mied up last !ee.
5n the e<a2ples above, we can see that the past participle is clearl6 &unctioning as an
ad+ective since get can be replaced with become, but notice that the sentence can also pass
the b6 test Ediscussed in Section 13F, which indicates that it is passiveG
l got mi#ed up by all the confusing road signs last week.
/gain, we see how closel6 related ad+ectives and past participles are in ;nglish and how it
is not alwa6s eas6 to distinguish between the two. 3ortunatel6, it is not usuall6 ver6
i2portant. "hat is i2portant is to be co2&ortable using past participles as ad+ectives, and
the ke6 to doing so is not to understand the di&&erence between true ad+ectives derived &ro2
past participles and past participles with an ad+ective &unction but instead to understand that
there o&ten is no di&&erence.
Infinitive
present tense &ing form past tense past participle
beat up
beat up < beats up beating up beat up beaten up
($ &eat$$$ + p.v. [informal] "hen 6ou &eat people +' 6ou hit the2 or kick the2
repeatedl6.
%he muggers stole my money and then beat me up.
%immy got beaten up at school today.
&eat9+ part.adj. "hen so2ething is in bad condition because o& heav6 use, it is &eat9
+$
My car is an old, beat-up piece of junk.
carr% awa% carried awa%
($ carr3 a5a3 EwithF p.v. [al!ays passive] "hen 6ou get carrie! a5a3 or carrie!
a5a3 with so2ething, 6ou do 2ore than is necessar6 or proper because 6ou en+o6 it or
because 6ou think it is i2portant.
l was going to make a do6en cupcakes for desert tonight, but got carried away and ended up making forty.
(ou should always start a new e"ercise program slowly. f you get carried away with it, you might hurt yourself.
kick out
kick out & kicks out kicked out kicking out kicking out
($ 0ic0$$$ ot Eo&F p.v. "hen 6ou 0ic0 people ot or 0ic0 people ot o& a group, place,
building, roo2, and so on, 6ou order the2 to leave. Thro5 ot is si2ilar to 0ic0 ot$
3#1
'avid drank too much and got himself kicked out of the bar.
!ob's in our car pool, but he's always arguing with the other guys about something, so we're going to
kick him out.
#nfinitive
present tense :ing form past tense past participle
lock up lock up ! locks up locking up locked up locked up
($ %oc0$$$ + p.v. "hen 6ou lock all the doors and windows o& a building, 6ou %oc0 it +$
%he manager always locks up before he goes home.
#e locked our house up before we went on vacation.
%oc0e! + part.adj. /&ter all the doors and windows o& a building have been locked, it is
%oc0e! +$
(ou can't get in the house 4 it's locked up.
"$ %oc0$$$ + p.v. "hen 6ou %oc0 people +' 6ou put the2 in prison.
%he police locked Hank up after they caught him shoplifting.
#hoever committed that terrible crime ought to be locked up forever.
%oc0e! + part.adj. So2eone who has been put in prison is %oc0e! +$
3eing locked up in jail !as a terrible e&perience.
%oc0+ n. / prison or other place where people are %oc0e! + is a %oc0+$
<mar was put in the lockup after he was arrested for drunken driving.
mi; up
mi; up & mi;es up mi;ing up mi;ed up mi;ed up
($ -i4$$$ + p.v. "hen 6ou -i4 so2ething + that has two or 2ore ingredients, 6ou stir it so
that the ingredients will be thoroughl6 co2bined.
?ut in the eggs, butter, sugar, flour, and water and then mi# it up well.
9n electric mi"er will mi# up the ingredients better than a hand mi"er.
"$ -i4$$$ + p.v. "hen 6ou -i4 two things up, 6ou con&use the2 with each other.
7erry and his twin brother look e"actly the same, and everyone mi#es them up.
:ewborn babies sometimes get mi#ed up in the hospital.
-i4e! + part.adj. "hen 6ou are con&used about so2ething that 6ou want to understand, or
when 6ou have e2otional or behavioral proble2s, 6ou are -i4e! +$
*an you help me with my calculus homework$ 'm really mi#ed up.
7immy is a mi#ed-up kid who gets in trouble with the police a lot.
-i49+ n. / 2istake, 2isunderstanding, or con&used situation is a -i49+$
#aiter, think there's been a mi#-up. asked you for a chicken salad sandwich, but you brought me a tuna salad
sandwich.
2H7
Infinitive
present tense &ing form past tense past participle
piss off
piss off < pisses off pissing off pissed off pissed off
($ +iss$$$ o.. p.v. [informal and offensive to some people] "hen 6ou 2ake people angr6, 6ou
+iss the2 o..$
(ou'd better stop that) (ou're pissing me off.
'on't make a lot of noise when Mark is trying to study8 it pisses him off.
+isse! o.. part.adj. "hen 6ou are angr6, 6ou are +isse! o..$
Melon ie got really pissed off at Heather for borrowing her necklace without asking and then losing it.
rip off
rip off & rips off ripping off ripped off ripped off
($ ri+ $$$o.. p.v. [informal] "hen 6ou ri+ people o&&, 6ou steal so2ething &ro2 the2, cheat the2,
or charge the2 2ore 2one6 &or so2ething than it is worth.
'on't do business with Marvin8 he rips everyone off. Hank got
ripped off by the drug dealer.
ri+9o.. n. "hen so2eone steals so2ething &ro2 6ou, cheats 6ou, or charges too 2uch
&or so2ething, this is a ri+9o..$
paid nine dollars to see that awful movie$ #hat a rip-off! stress out
stress out & stresses out stressing out stressed out stressed out
($ stress$$$ ot p.v. [informal] "hen people or things stress 6ou ot' the6 2ake 6ou worried,
nervous, or tense.
Having that new manager around watching me all the time is stressing me out.
Sally's sister has to take care of ,uadruplets all day without any help. %hat must stress her out.
stresse!9ot part.adj. "hen 6ou are worried, nervous, or tense, 6ou are
stresse!9ot$
l had to make a speech at work today, and was so stressed-out afterward that took the rest of the day
off.
ECERCISE 66a ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith +hrasa% ver&s .ro- this section$ Be sre
the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$
1. he prison guard put Iake in a cell and MMMMMMMM hi2 MMMMMMMM.
2. o2 asked the barber to +ust cut his hair a little bit, but when he looked in the 2irror, he could
see that the barber was getting MMMMM MMMMM and cutting his hair too short.
3#3
3. ;rik pro2ised 2e that he would co2e to 26 house to help 2e 2ove so2e stu&& this 2orning, but
he still hasnBt shown up. CeBs alwa6s doing things like that, and it reall6MMMMMMMM 2e
#. 5& Ianice doesnBt pass her che2istr6 test to2orrow, she wonBt graduate with the rest o& her lass,
and worr6ing about it so 2uch is reall6 MMMMMMMM her MMMMMMMM.
%. 5 got MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM o& school a&ter 5 got caught cheating on the test.
'. he robbers MMMMM MMMMM the shop owner so badl6 that she had to be hospitaliDed.
(. /dd a cup o& water and &our eggs to the cake 2i< and MMMMMMM it MMMMMMM well.
8. he night 2anager &orgot to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM when she le&t the restaurant.
,. he +ewelr6 store MMMMMMMM 2e MMMMMMMM 5 paid N%,111 &or a dia2ond ring 2ade o& glass.
11. he teacher has two students with the sa2e na2e, and she alwa6s MMMMMMMM the2
ECERCISE 66& ; =rite three sentences sin/ the o&,ects in +arentheses$
Be sre to +t the o&,ects in the ri/ht +%ace$
1. he thugs beat up. Ethe wo2an, herF
2. he hotel 2anager iced out. Ethe rock group, the2F
3. he cops are going to loc up. Ethe crook, herF
3##
#. 4i&ing up is eas6. Ethe twins, the2F
%. 4etting a tattoo 2ust have pissed off. E6our &ather, hi2F
'. he contractor was accused o& ripping off. Eho2eowners, the2F
(. /ll these proble2s are stressing out. Ethe sta&&, the2F
ECERCISE 66c ; =rite ans5ers to the >estions sin/ +hrasa% ver&s' +artici+%e
a!,ectives' an! nons .ro- this section$ Be sre the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct
tense$
1. o2 paid a 2echanic to replace his carBs generator with a new one, but the 2echanic put a
used generator in and still charged o2 &or a new one. "hat did the 2echanic do to o2H
2. 5n Ouestion 1, what would 6ou call what the 2echanic did to o2H
3. 5& the6 donBt stop 2aking so 2uch noise, the 2anager is going to tell the2 to leave. "hat is the
2anager going to doH
#. Aou locked all the doors and windows in 6our house. "hat did 6ou doH
%. 5n Ouestion #, how would 6ou describe 6our house a&ter 6ou locked all the doors and windowsH
'. 7an6 cars look the sa2e these da6s, and itBs hard to tell the2 apart. 5& it is hard to tell the2 apart,
what is it eas6 to doH
3#%
(. Scratching 26 brotherBs new car reall6 2ade hi2 angr6. "hat did scratching 26 brotherBs new car
do to 26 brotherH
8. 5n Ouestion (, how would 6ou describe 26 brotherH
,. )inda is ver6 con&used about how to use her co2puter. Cow would 6ou describe )indaH
11. 8riving in all this tra&&ic is 2aking 6ou nervous and tense. "hat is driving in all this tra&&ic doing to
6ouH
11. 5n Ouestion 11, how would 6ou describe 6oursel&H
12. 5 let $harles use 26 skis, and when he returned the2, the6 were in ver6 bad condition. Cow were
26 skis when $harles returned the2H
13. Sa2Bs &ather was sent to prison &or bank robber6. "hat happened to Sa2Bs &atherH
1#. 5n Ouestion 13, how would 6ou describe Sa2Bs &atherH
1%. 9aren went to the store planning to bu6 a pair o& shoes, but she ended up bu6ing &ive pairs o&
shoes, three dresses, &our blouses, and a new winter coat. "hat happened to 9arenH
1'. "hen the angr6 people caught the thie&, the6 hit and kicked hi2 again and again. "hat did the
angr6 crowd doH
1(. "hen 6ou put all the ingredients in, 6ou have to stir the2 so the6 will be co2bined. "hat do 6ou
have to doH
ECERCISE 66!' Revie5 ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith these +hrasa% ver&s .ro-
+revios sections$ Be sre the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$ To chec0
their -eanin/s' revie5 the section n-&er /iven a.ter each one$
break inlinto, #1 keep at, 38 keep o&&, 38 pa6 o&&, 3(
bring up, #1 keep awa6, 38 keep on, 38 put up to, 3#
cover up, 3( keep down, 38 keep to, 38 stick with, #1
help out, 33 keep &ro2, 38 keep up, 38 take over, 3,
1. he newspaper stor6 clai2ed that the governor had taken a bribe and had then tried to
MMMMMMMMitMMMMMMMM.
2. hat stock 5 bought reall6 MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM. 5t went up nearl6 111 percent in onl6 three 2onths.
3#'
3. /&ter the new 2anager MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM ne<t 2onth, 6ou can e<pect a lot o& changes.
#. "ill 6ou kids MMMMMMMM it MMMMMMMM, pleaseH 5B2 on the phone.
%. 5 told 6ou to stop. 5& 6ou MMMMMMM MMMMMMM doing that, 5B2 going to get pissed o&&.
'. he police think the burglars 2a6 have MMMMMMM MMMMMMM through the back door.
(. 5& 6ou kids go outside to pla6,MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM&ro2 that pile o& +unk>itBs &ull o& broken glass.
8. 5 need to talk to Ierr6 about his bad breath, but 5B2 nervous about MMMMM it MMMMM.
,. 8an is so sad about what happened that he canBt MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM cr6ing.
11. "hen 5 went to the car rental o&&ice, the6 had alread6 rented all the good cars, and the6
MMMMMMMM 2e MMMMMMMM a beat!up piece o& +unk.
11. he legislature passed a tough new law designed to MMMMMMMM drunken drivers MMMMMMMM the
streets.
12. "hen 6ouBre depressed 6ou should talk to people about whatBs troubling 6ou, not MMMMMMMM it
MMMMMMMM 6oursel&.
13. 5B2 broke > do 6ou think 6ou could MMMMMMMM 2e MMMMMMMM till pa6da6H
1#. Nothing the inventor tried worked, but he MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM it until he solved the proble2.
1%. 5 canBt believe that 26 daughter would steal 2one6 &ro2 2e. hat aw&ul bo6&riend o& hers 2ust
have MMMMMMMM her MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM it.
1'. Iane did ver6 well in her &irst se2ester o& college. 5 hope she can MMMMMMMM it MMMMMMMM &or the
ne<t &our 6ears.
3#(
67$ FOCUS ON< +hrasa% ver&s 5ith the ver& turn
7an6 phrasal verbs are based on the verb turn. 5n 2ost cases, phrasal verbs with turn involve two
options and a change &ro2 one option to the other or, when it is possible, a 2ove closer to one
option and &arther awa6 &ro2 the other. 5n other words, choosing either / or = or, when it is
possible to be so2ewhere between / and =, 2oving closer to / and &arther awa6 &ro2 =, or vice
versa.
Infinitive
present tense &ing form past tense past participle
turn down
turn down < turns down turning down turned down turned down
($ trn $$$!o5n p.v. "hen 6ou trn !o5n an electrical or 2echanical device, 6ou change
the controls to decrease the level o& what it is producing or doing. Trn + is the opposite
o. trn !o5n$
*ould you turn the radio down? 'm trying to sleep.
f it gets too cold, 'll turn down the air conditioner.
"$ trn $$$ !o5n p.v. "hen 6ou den6 a re.uest, 6ou trn !o5n the re.uest or trn !o5n
the person who has 2ade the re.uest.
l asked :ancy to go to the dance with me, but she turned me down.
My re,uest for a pay raise was turned down.
;etting turned down every time apply for a job is getting me down.
turn in
turn in & turns in turning in turned in turned in
($ trn $$$ in EtoF p.v. "hen 6ou in&or2 the police that certain people have co22itted
cri2es or tell the police where the6 are, 6ou trn the2 in or trn the2 in to the police.
%he escaped prisoner got tired of running and turned himself in.
#hen 7ake told me that he had murdered &uis, knew had to turn him in to the police.
"$ trn $$$ in EtoF p.v. "hen 6ou return so2ething that was given to 6ou b6 a person in
authorit6, 6ou trn that thing in or trn it in to a person in authorit6. Han! in is si2ilar to trn in$
%he police officer was ordered to turn in her badge after she was caught taking a bribe.
%he delivery truck drivers have to turn their keys in to the dispatcher before they go home.
*$ trn $$$ in EtoF p.v. "hen 6ou co2plete a test, report, or pro+ect and 6ou give it to the
person who assigned the work to 6ou, 6ou trn it in or trn it in to the person who assigned the
work. Han! in is si2ilar to trn in$
3#8
Melan'ie asked her teacher if she could turn her project in late.
have to finish this report and turn it in to the sales manager by tomorrow.
6$ trn in p.v. "hen 6ou go to bed, 6ou trn in$
'm really tired8 'm going to turn in early.
t's getting late8 'm turning in.
Infinitive
present tense &ing form past tense past participle
turn into
turn into < turns into turning into turned into turned into
($ trn into p.v. "hen so2ething trns into so2ething else, it beco2es that thing.
t was cold and rainy this morning, but it turned into a nice day.
t's ama6ing that this small seed can turn into a huge tree.
"$ trn $$$into p.v. "hen 6ou trn so2ething into so2ething else, 6ou change it into that
thing.
%he (oungs are thinking of turning their house in the country into a hotel.
%he children turned the big bo" into a playhouse.
turn off
turn off & turns off turning off turned off turned off
($ trn $$$ o.. p.v. "hen 6ou trn o.. an electrical or 2echanical device, 6ou change the
controls to stop it &ro2 producing or doing so2ething. urn on is the opposite o& trn o..$
S5itch o.. and sht o.. are si2ilar to trn o..$
#ould you turn the light off? want to go to bed.
#hen 'm driving and have to wait for a long freight train to pass, always turn my car off.
trne! o.. part.adj. /&ter 6ou have changed the controls o& an electrical or 2echanical
device to stop it &ro2 producing or doing so2ething, it is trne! o..$ Trne! on is the
opposite o& trne! o..$ S5itche! o.. and sht o.. are si2ilar to trne! o..$
l can't see anything 4 the lights are turned off.
"$ trn $$$ o.. p.v. [informal] So2ething that trns 6ou o.. o&&ends 6ou and causes 6ou to
lose interest in so2ething or so2eone. So2ething about a person o& the opposite se< that
trns 6ou o.. causes 6ou to lose se<ual or ro2antic interest in that person. Trn on is the
opposite o. trn o..$
#hen met 'an thought he was a nice guy, but his racist comments turned me off.
got turned off when she lit a cigarette.
trne! o.. part.adj. "hen so2ething about a person o& the opposite se< causes 6ou to lose
se<ual or ro2antic interest in that person, 6ou are trne! o..$ Trne! on is the opposite o&
trne! o..$
#hat's wrong with :icole$ She was having a good time with -rank a little while ago, but now she seems kind of turned
off.
2HL
trno.. n. So2ething that o&&ends 6ou and causes 6ou to lose interest in so2ething or
so2eone is a trno..$ So2ething about a person o& the opposite se< that causes 6ou to
lose se<ual or ro2antic interest in that person is a trno..$ A trn9on is the opposite o. a
trno..$
l don't like tattoos. %o me they're a real turnoff.
*$ trn o.. p.v. "hen 6ou trn o.. a road or path that 6ou are traveling on, 6ou leave it and
start to travel on another road or path. "hen a road or path leaves another road or path
and travels in a di&&erent direction, it trns o..'
!e careful you don't turn off the main road 4 you'll get lost.
%he path to the cabin turns off just after the big tree stump.
trno.. n. / road or path that leaves another road or path and travels in a di&&erent
direction is a trno..$
#e're lost 4 think we should have taken that turnoff we passed a few miles back.
Infinitive
present tense &ing form past tense past participle
turn on
turn on < turns on turning on turned on turned on
($ trn $$$ on p.v. "hen 6ou trn on an electrical or 2echanical device, 6ou change the
controls to 2ake it start producing or doing so2ething. Trn o.. is the opposite o. trn
on$ S5itch on is the sa2e as trn on$
*an you turn the light on please$ t's dark in here.
%his <ctober has been so warm that haven't turned the heat on once yet.
trne! on part.adj. /&ter 6ou have changed the controls o& an electrical or 2echanical
device to 2ake it start producing or doing so2ething, it is trne! on$ Trne! o.. is the
opposite o. trne! on$ S5itche! on is si2ilar to trne! on$
!e careful of the stove 4 it's turned on.
"$ trn $$$ on p.v. [informal] So2ething that trns 6ou on pleases 6ou and causes 6ou to
gain interest in so2ething or so2eone. So2ething about a person o& the opposite se<
that trns 6ou on causes 6ou to beco2e se<uall6 or ro2anticall6 interested in that erson.
Trn o.. is the opposite o. trn on$
#hen saw this house from the outside, didn't think would buy it, but the beautiful woodwork inside really
turned me on.
Erik's blue eyes turn on his wife.
trne! on part.adj. "hen so2ething about a person o& the opposite se< causes 6ou to
beco2e se<uall6 or ro2anticall6 interested in that person, 6ou are trne! on$ Trne! o..
is the opposite o. trne! on$
?aul was really turned on after seeing all the beautiful women in the Victoria(s !ecret catalog.
3%1
trn9on n. So2ething that pleases 6ou and causes 6ou to gain interest in so2ething or
so2eone is a trn9on$ So2ething about a person o& the opposite se< that causes 6ou to
beco2e se<uall6 or ro2anticall6 interested in that person is a trn9on$ A trno.. is the opposite
o& a trn9on$
l bought my wife an ankle bracelet for 5alentines 'ay8 think they're a turn-on.
*$ trn on p.v. "hen people or ani2als that 6ou had good relations with trn on 6ou, the6 stop
being &riendl6 and tr6 to hurt 6ou.
&ydia used to be my friend, but now she's telling people terrible things about me.
wonder why she turned on me like that$
#ild animals don't make good pets. %hey can be friendly one minute and turn on you the ne"t.
6$ trn$$$ on EtoF p.v. [informal] "hen 6ou trn people on to so2ething, 6ou tell the2 about
so2ething 6ou think the6 will like or so2ething that will help the2.
Maria turned me on to a great *olombian restaurant.
%his was a good book. %hanks for turning me on to it.
#nfinitive
present tense -ing form past tense past participle
turn out
turn out & turns out turning out turned out turned out
1. turn out p.v. Husually followed by @to be@ plus an adjective, an infinitive verb plus a noun, or a complete sentenceI
.hen things or people turn out to be a certain way, it is discovered or considered that they are that way. .hen
things or people turn out to be something, it is discovered or considered that they are that thing. .hen you say that
it turns out BthatC or turned out BthatC and then make a statement of fact, you mean that this information, which is
contrary to what you believed or e0pected, was discovered to be true.
l didn't think would like my brother's new wife, but she turned out to be very nice.
!efore met Fusty's son, 'anny, assumed he had red hair like his father, but 'anny turned out to
have black hair.
thought Sam bought a Mercedes3!en6, but it turns out that he bought a !M#.
thought Sam bought a Mercedes3!en6, but it turned out that he bought a !M#.
"$ trn ot p.v. "hen so2ething trns ot' it beco2es what 6ou want it to beco2e. "hen
so2ething trns ot a certain wa6, it beco2es that wa6.
'id the pictures you took at the wedding turn out$
%he pictures turned out perfectly.
(our plan was e"cellent, but it didn't turn out well.
*$ trn$$$ ot p.v. "hen people, co2panies, &actories, workshops, and so on, turn ot
so2ething, the6 2anu&acture it or produce it.
%his new factory will turn out C>,>>> units per year.
High schools in 9merica are turning out people who can barely read.
3%1
6$ trn ot E&orF p.v. "hen people trn ot or trn ot &or an event, the6 attend or
participate in the event. "hen people trn ot to do so2ething, the6 go to a place to do
it.
9re you nuts$ How many people do you think would turn out for an outdoor concert n the middle of winter$
%housands of people turned out to see the ?ope when he visited.
trnot n. he nu2ber o& people who attend or participate in an event is the
trnot$
5oter turnout for the election was only around 1> percent.
#nfinitive
present tense -ing form past tense past participle
turn over
turn over & turns over turning over turned over turned over
($ trn $$$ over p.v. "hen 6ou trn so2ething over' 6ou 2ove it so that the side that was
on the botto2 is on the top, and vice versa. "hen so2ething trns over' it 2oves so that
the side that was on the botto2 is on the top, and vice versa.
#hen one side of the steak is cooked, turn it over and cook the other side.
%he driver was killed when his car turned over.
"$ trn $$$ over EtoF p.v. "hen 6ou give so2ething to so2eone because that person
de2ands or re.uires it or because 6ou are not its right&ul owner, 6ou trn it over or trn it
over to that person. Han! over is si2ilar to trn over$
%he detective always turns the evidence from the crime scene over to the lab for analysis.
9fter the thieves are captured, the stolen items will be turned over to the rightful owners.
*$ trn $$$ over EtoF p.v. "hen the police or other authorities are looking &or people and 6ou
take these people or trans&er control o& the2 to the police or authorities, 6ou trn the2
over or trn the2 over to the police or authorities.
l caught a burglar in my basement, and turned him over to the police.
%he local police chief was relieved to turn the terrorist over to the -!.
6$ trn over p.v. "hen e2plo6ees o& a co2pan6 leave their +obs and are replaced b6 new
e2plo6ees, the6 trn over$
*onditions at the factory were so bad that employees turned over at a high rate. #e have a very stable
work force in our plant. Employees turn over very slowly.
trnover n. he rate at which e2plo6ees o& a co2pan6 leave and are replaced b6 new
e2plo6ees is the trnover$
%he new personnel manager said her top priority would be reducing the high turnover.
3%2
7$ trn over p.v. "hen a business trns over so2ething that it sells, it continuall6 sells it
and replaces it with new 2erchandise.
#e're turning over forty cases of bananas a week in this supermarket.
Snowtnobiles and skis turn over very slowly in the summer.
trnover n. Cow 2uch 2one6 a business has 2ade in a certain ti2e period is its
trnover$
%he company's annual turnover increased by 1G percent compared to the previous year.
Infinitive
present tense &ing form past tense past participle
turn up
turn up < turns up turning up turned up turned up
($ trn $$$+ p.v. "hen 6ou trn + an electrical or 2echanical device, 6ou change the
controls to increase the level o& what it is producing or doing. Trn !o5n is the opposite o&
turn up.
#ill you turn up the %5$ can't hear it.
t was free6ing in here last night, so turned up the beat.
"$ trn$$$ + p.v. "hen 6ou trn + so2ething, 6ou &ind it or learn o& it as a result o& an
investigation or search. "hen so2ething trns +' it is &ound or is learned o& as a result o& an
investigation or search.
%he police turned up enough evidence to convict 7ake of murder.
'espite a thorough search, the murder weapon still hasn't turned up.
*$ trn + p.v. "hen people or things trn + at a place, the6 appear there. Sho5
+ is si2ilar to trn +$
t's hard to plan a picnic when don't know how many people will turn up.
Every few years my worthless brother turns up at my door asking for money.
ECERCISE 67a ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith +hrasa% ver&s .ro- this section$ Be sre
the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$
1. 5 thought going ca2ping would be a lot o& &un, but it sure didnBt MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM that wa6.
2. 5tBs 2G31 in the 2orning > donBt 6ou think 6ou ought to MMMMMMM MMMMMMM soonH
3. Ceather was sort o& interested in o2, but his childish behavior MMMMM her MMMMM.
#. he store 2anager said that she usuall6 MMMM MMMM onl6 twent6 or twent6!&ive units per 2onth.
3%3
%. Iake thought Cank was his best &riend, but Cank MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM Iake and now the6Bre
ene2ies.
'. /ll the 2edical students 2ust MMMMMMMM their lab e.uip2ent MMMMMMMM be&ore leaving the lab.
(. /n6 spies caught behind ene26 lines will be MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM to the 2ilitar6 &or .uestioning.
8. he investigation MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM evidence o& corruption in $it6 Call.
,. his old house looks prett6 bad now, but with enough ti2e and 2one6, 6ou could MMMMMMMM it
MMMMMMMM so2ething reall6 nice.
11. 5 want to watch V? please MMMMMMMM it MMMMMMMM.
11. he volu2e is too low? please MMMMMMMM it MMMMMMMM.
12. Now the volu2e is too high? please MMMMMMMM it MMMMMMMM.
13. hereBs nothing good on V? please MMMMMMMM it MMMMMMMM.
1#. he &irst thing 5 noticed when 5 2et 26 wi&e &or the &irst ti2e was her beauti&ul s2ile? it reall6
MMMMMMMM2eMMMMMMMM.
1%. ;2plo6ees MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM at a ver6 high rate in this industr6.
1'. Not 2an6 people are likel6 to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM &or the parade in this 2iserable weather.
1(. he bo6 was given a reward &or MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM the bag o& 2one6 that he &ound in the street.
18. o get to 0ncle IohnBs house, 6ou have to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM the 2ain road a&ter 6ou cross the
bridge and drive north &or three 2iles.
1,. 7ark knows a lot about wine. CeBs MMMMMMMM 2e MMMMMMMM to so2e e<cellent wines &ro2
$ali&ornia.
21. 76 supervisor MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM 26 re.uest to be trans&erred to San 8iego.
21. he &irst &ew chapters o& this novel were a little boring, but now that 5B2 near the end, itBs MMMMMMMM
MMMMMMMM to be a prett6 good book.
22. Please MMMMMMMM the carpet MMMMMMMM. 5 want to read the label on the back.
3%#
23. / huge crowd is e<pected to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM at the airport to welco2e the returning Stanle6
$up cha2pions.
2#. his co2pan6 has been MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM &irst!rate 2erchandise &or a hundred 6ears.
2%. 5 told the teacher that 5Bd been in the hospital and wouldnBt be able to MMMMMMMM
MMMMMMMM 26 pro+ect on ti2e.
2'. "eBve had one proble2 a&ter another > this is MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM to be a bad day.
5(. "hen Iake told his 2other that he had 2urdered so2eone, she told hi2 he had to MMMMMMMM
hi2sel&MMMMMMMM.
ECERCISE 67& ; =rite ans5ers to the >estions sin/ +hrasa% ver&s' +artici+%e
a!,ectives' an! nons .ro- this section$ Be sre the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct
tense$
1. $aterpillars beco2e butter&lies. "hat do caterpillars doH
2. 8an appeared at his uncleBs &uneral. "hat did 8an doH
3. 3rank was thinking o& asking Iane &or a date, but when he saw her s2oking one cigarette a&ter
another, he changed his 2ind. "hat did IaneBs s2oking do to 3rankH
#. 5n Ouestion 3, what does 3rank think s2oking isH
%. 5n Ouestion 3, how did 3rank &eel when he saw Iane s2okingH
'. "henever 26 wi&e wears 26 &avorite per&u2e, 5 &eel ro2antic. "hat does the per&u2e do to
2eH
(. 5n Ouestion ', what do 5 think the per&u2e isH
8. 5n Ouestion ', how do 5 &eel whenever 26 wi&e wears 26 &avorite per&u2eH
,. AouBre changing the controls o& the heater to 2ake it war2er. "hat are 6ou doingH
11. he rate at which old e2plo6ees are replaced with new e2plo6ees in 26 co2pan6 is ver6 low.
"hat is ver6 low at 26 co2pan6H
**. This factory manufactures 7D,333 cars every year. .hat does the factory do1
12. Nicole didnBt change the controls o& her radio to 2ake it louder. "hat didnBt Nicole doH
13. he detective asked ever6 bank e2plo6ee a lot o& .uestions about the 2issing 2one6, but she
hasnBt discovered an6thing. "hat hasnBt the detective doneH
1#. /&ter the gas station went out o& business, it was bought and changed into a $hinese
restaurant. "hat happened to the gas stationH
1%. Sall6 wanted to d6e her hair red, but it beca2e orange. "hat did Sall6Bs hair doH
1'. 9arenBs &ather asked her i& he could borrow enough 2one6 to pa6 his propert6 ta<es, and 9aren
couldnBt sa6 no to hi2. "hat couldnBt 9aren doH
1(. oddBs co2pan6 will probabl6 2ake N# 2illion this 6ear. "hat will oddBs co2pan6 probabl6 do this
6earH
18. Ned hasnBt given his paper to his teacher. "hat hasnBt Ned doneH
1,. )6dia knows that her brother robbed a bank, but sheBs not going to tell the police. "hat isnBt )6dia
going to do to her brotherH
21. So 2an6 people attended the political rall6 that there wasnBt enough roo2 in the auditoriu2. "h6
wasnBt there enough roo2 at the political rall6H
21. 5n Ouestion 21, the nu2ber o& people who attended the rall6 was large. "hat was largeH
22. 8avid was too laD6 to wash the rug, so he put the dirt6 side on the botto2 and the clean side on the
top. "hat did 8avid do to the rugH
ECERCISE 67c ; =rite ei/ht ori/ina% sentences sin/ +hrasa% ver&s .ro-
this section$
1. MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
2. MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
3. MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
#. MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
%. MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
'. MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
(. MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
8. MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
3%'
ECERCISE 67!' Revie5 ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith these +hrasa% ver&s .ro-
+revios sections$ Be sre the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$ To chec0
their -eanin/s' revie5 the section n-&er /iven a.ter each one$
beat up, ## get b6, #2 get over, #2 lock up, ##
carr6 awa6, ## get down, #2 get up, #2 run up, #3
get back, #2 get inlinto, #2 gross out, #3 stop o&&, #3
get behind, #2 get out, #2 head toward, #3 tr6 on, #3
*. I lost a very e0pensive gold watch, and I(ll be very surprised if I ever %%%%%%%% it %%%%%%%%.
2. 5 had dinner with so2e &riends, and we MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM a N%11 tab.
3. Cave 6ou MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM to see 6our parents in /laska latel6H
#. 5 should have MMMMMM these pants MMMMMM be&ore bu6ing the2 > the6Bre too s2all.
%. $arlos was hitting his brother /le<, so /le< said to $arlos,@MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM o& here:@
'. 5 called 26 brother in 7ia2i and told hi2 that 5 was leaving =oston at 8G#1 in the 2orning and that 5
should MMMMMM MMMMMM there around 1G11 in the a&ternoon.
(. 5 wish 6ouBd chew with 6our 2outh closed > 6ouBre MMMMMMMM 2e MMMMMMMM.
8. *ur &light wonBt MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM Santa 3e until a&ter 2idnight.
,. /&ter 5 leave e<as, 5B2 going to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM 7ississippi.
11. 9arenBs e<pecting 2e &or dinner tonight at her house wa6 out in the suburbs, but 26 car is in the
shop. 5 donBt know how 5B2 going to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM there.
11. he night 2anager has to leave earl6 tonight, so 5B2 going to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM &or hi2.
12. Cank had a &ight with a gu6 in a bar and gotMMMMMMMMMMMMMMprett6 badl6.
13. 5 had a bad da6 at work, so 5 MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM at a bar &or a drink be&ore going ho2e.
1#. So&ia is having a lot o& trouble in her histor6 class and isMMMMMMMM&urther and &urther %%%%%%%%.
*D. 'fter her husband died, she had a hard time %%%%%%%% %%%%%%%% it.
*J. 8ou can use my credit card to buy a few things, but don(t get %%%%%% %%%%%%.
68$ FOCUS ON< +ronnciation o. +hrasa% ver&s 5ith the +artic%e into
/s we saw in Section ', three!word phrasal verbs are nor2all6 accented on the second, or 2iddle,
particle whether the6 are separable or nonseparable. his also applies to phrasal verbs that
convert in to ln&o when the6 are used with an ob+ect. /lthough these verbs are not 2ade up o&
three words, recall that into is actuall6 a co2bination o& the particles in and to two words written
as one. 3or this reason, it is the &irst s6llable o& into that is accentedG
%he speakers are built $%to the wall.
his is also true o& phrasal verbs using into that do not have an in versionG
l bumped INto an old friend.
#nfinitive
present tense -ing form past tense past participle
build in
build in & builds in building in built in built in
($ &i%! $$$inlinto p.v. "hen 6ou &i%! so2ething in or &i%! so2ething into
so2ething else, 6ou put it in the ite2 6ou are 2aking during its construction or
asse2bl6 rather than adding it later.
l told the builder that wanted him to build some shelves in.
n the past, -M radios weren't built into cars 4 you had to add one later if you wanted one.
&i%t9in part.adj. "hen so2ething has been put into so2ething else during its construction
or asse2bl6, rather than being added later, it is &i%t9in$
%he sound from the stereo goes to built-in speakers in every room of the house.
bump into
bump into & bumps into bumping into bumped into bumped into
($ &-+ into p.v. "hen 6ou &-+ into things or people, 6ou accidentall6 hit the2 with
6our bod6.
l couldn't see where was going in the dark, and bumped into the door.
#ould you please move these bo"es 4 keep bumping into them.
"$ &-+ into p.v. "hen 6ou 2eet people une<pectedl6 or unintentionall6, 6ou &-+ into
the2. Rn into is the sa2e as &-+ into$
#e bumped into Sarah at the mall today.
Bumping into one of my neighbors while was in Fome sure was a surprise.
3%8
Infinitive
present tense &ing form past tense past participle
con into
con into < cons into conning into conned into conned into
($ con $$$into p.v. [informal] "hen 6ou con people into so2ething or con people into
doing so2ething, 6ou persuade the2 to do it b6 &ooling or deceiving the2, Tric0 into is
si2ilar to con into$
%hey weren't sure that it was a good idea to give all their money to Marv'm, but he conned them into it.
%hat crooked mechanic tried to con me into paying for a lot of repairs my car didn't need.
con out of
con out of & cons out of conning out of conned out of conned out of
($ con $$$ ot o. p.v. [informal] "hen 6ou con people ot o. so2ething, 6ou persuade the2
to give it to 6ou b6 &ooling or deceiving the2.
Marvin conned them out of their life savings.
%hat crooked mechanic tried to con me out of BC2M.
freak out
freak out & freaks out freaking out freaked out freaked out
($ .rea0$$$ ot p.v. [informal] "hen 6ou .rea0 ot' 6ou beco2e ver6 upset or ver6 angr6.
"hen 6ou .rea0 other people out, 6ou cause the2 to beco2e ver6 upset or ver6 angr6.
Melanie freaked out when she learned that her husband had been arrested for murder.
wish you would take that Halloween mask off4 you're freaking me out.
make for
make for & makes for making for made for made for
($ -a0e .or p.v. "hen so2ething causes another thing, situation, or event to have a
certain .ualit6 or characteristic, it -a0es .or the other thing, situation, or event.
!eer, pi66a, football, and the kids staying with their grandparents make for a perfect Sunday afternoon.
9lcohol and teenage drivers make for trouble.
"$ -a0e .or p.v. [informal] "hen 6ou -a0e .or a place, 6ou go there in a hurr6.
9fter the robbery, the bank robbers made for the border.
%he enemy soldiers are getting closer 4 let's make for the hills.
talk into
talk into & talks into talking into talked into talked into
($ ta%0$$$ into p.v. "hen 6ou ta%0 people into so2ething or ta%0 people into doing
so2ething, 6ou persuade the2 to do it.
3%,
My father didn't want to let me use his car -riday night, but talked him into it.
%his museum is really boring. wish hadn't let you talk me into coming here with you.
talk out of
talk out of & talks out of talking out of talked out of talked out of
($ ta%0$$$ ot o. p.v. "hen 6ou ta%0 people ot o. so2ething or ta%0 people ot o. doing
so2ething, 6ou persuade the2 not to do it.
%hat man was going to jump off the building, but the police officer talked him out of it.
Erik's parents talked him out of changing his major from business to philosophy.
ECERCISE 68a ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith +hrasa% ver&s .ro- this section$ Be
sre the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$
1. 76 daughter is tr6ing to MMMMMMMM 2e MMMMMMMM getting her a pon6, but 5 keep telling her we
canBt a&&ord one.
2. "hen 5 ordered 26 co2puter, 5 had the2 MMMMMMM MMMMMMM so2e e<tra 2e2or6.
3. 5t was a nice surprise to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM /unt 9ath6 toda6. 5 hadnBt seen her in 6ears.
#. 8onBt tell 6our 2other 6ouBre going to shave 6our head > sheBll MMMMMMMM %%%%%%%%.
%. Ioe sa6s heBs going to .uit school, and we canBt MMMMMMMM hi2 MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMMit.
'. heir sleaD6 son!in!lawMMMMMMMMthe2MMMMMMMMlending hi2 N1#,111.
(. 5t was so dark last night that 5 MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM a tree and broke 26 nose.
8. Nanc6 and o2 donBt have an6thing in co22on > that doesnBt MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM a happ6
2arriage.
,. 8onBt trust 7arvin > heBll MMMMMMM 6ou MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM 6our last penn6.
11. "hen the ene26 soldiers attacked, we MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM the woods.
3'1
ECERCISE 68& ; =rite ans5ers to the >estions sin/ +hrasa% ver&s an!
+artici+%e a!,ectives .ro- this section$ Be sre the +hrasa% ver&s are in the
correct tense$
1. 9aren is tr6ing to persuade 2e to help her paint her house. "hat is 9aren tr6ing to doH
2. 3rancisco une<pectedl6 2et -aul downtown a couple o& da6s ago. "hat did 3rancisco doH
3. hat law6er is l6ing to 6ou and tr6ing to persuade 6ou to give hi2 ever6thing 6ou own. "hat is
the law6er tr6ing to doH
#. Caving both o& 26 e<!wives at the part6 will 2ake the evening ver6 unco2&ortable. "hat will
having both o& 26 e<!wives at the part6 doH
%. hat dishonest gu6 deceived 26 /unt 9ath6 to get her to sell her house &or a lot less than itBs
worth. "hat did the dishonest gu6 do to 26 /unt 9ath6H
'. $ar2en is upset and ver6 nervous because she canBt &ind her children at the shopping center.
"hat is $ar2en doingH
(. "hen 26 house was constructed, a shel& &or a V was 2ade in the wall. "hat was done to
the wallH
8. 5n Ouestion (, how would 6ou describe the shel&H
,. =ob has decided to .uit his +ob, and no one can persuade hi2 not to. "hat can no one do to =obH
ECERCISE 68c ; =rite ei/ht ori/ina% sentences sin/ +hrasa% ver&s .ro-
this section$
1. MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
2. MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
3. MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
#. MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
%. MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
'. MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
(. MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
8. MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM
3'1
ECERCISE 68!' Revie5 ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith these nons .ro-
+revios sections$ To chec0 their -eanin/s' revie5 the section n-&er
/iven a.ter each one$
blowout, #3 checkout, #1 2i<!up, ## takeover, 3,
break!in, #1 co2eback, #1 pickup, 3, wipeout, 3,
check!in, #1 lockup, ## run!up, #3
1. he gu6 that got arrested didnBt have enough 2one6 &or bail, so he was put in the %%%%%%%%.
2. he baseball pla6er had a &ew bad 6ears, but last 6ear he 2ade an a2aDing MMMMMMMMMMM and
had his best 6ear ever.
3. Not one person was le&t alive a&ter the battle > it was a co2plete MMMMMMMMMMM.
#. MMMMMMMMMMM is two hours be&ore the &light.
%. he hotelBs MMMMMMMMMMMM ti2e is 11G11 /.7.
'. here was a tragic MMMMMMMMMMM at the hospital > a patientBs health6 le&t kidne6 was re2oved
instead o& his diseased right kidne6.
(. he detective asked the store owner &or a co2plete list o& ite2s stolen during the %%%%%%%%.
8. 5s this a MMMMMMMMMMM or a deliver6H
,. /&ter the 2ilitar6 MMMMMMMMMMM, hundreds o& people were e<ecuted.
11. 0n&ortunatel6, 5 sold 26 house be&ore the big MMMMMMMMMMM in real estate prices.
11. he truck driver was killed in an accident a&ter she had a MMMMMMMMMMM on the highwa6.
ECERCISE 68e' Revie5 ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith these +hrasa% ver&s .ro-
+revios sections$ Be sre the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$ To chec0
their -eanin/s' revie5 the section n-&er /iven a.ter each one$
blow o&&, #1 give out, #3 lock up, ## stick with, #1
bring up, #1 go awa6, #1 piss o&&, ## stress out, ##
burst out, #1 kick out, ## shut up, #3 turn in, #%
get b6, #2 let inlinto, #1 stand &or, 3# turn into, #%
1. Sooner or later heBll get tired o& running &ro2 the police, and heBll MMMMMMMM hi2sel& %%%%%%%%.
3'2
2. 5 MMMMMMMM 26 children MMMMMMMM to be honest.
3. "hen we leave our su22er ho2e to go back to the cit6, we alwa6s MMMMMMMM it MMMMMMMM securel6.
#. 5 took three aspirin, but this headache still hasnBt MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM.
%. 8o 6ou know what @Ph.8.@MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMH
'. 5 usuall6 check 26 work prett6 care&ull6. 5 donBt know how this 2istake MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM2e.
(. "orr6ing about how 5B2 going to &ind the 2one6 to pa6 26 ta<es is reall6 MMMMMMMM 2e %%%%%%%%.
8. 5B2 tired o& listening to 26 brother talk about winning &our 2illion dollars in the lotter6. 5 wish he would
+ust MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM.
,. hose new co2puters are reall6 &ast, but 5B2 going to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM the one 5 have? itBs &ine &or
writing letters.
11. he tennis pla6er had to retire when his elbow MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM.
11. 5B2 going to talk to 26 husband about MMMMMMMM the garage MMMMMMMM an apart2ent &or 26 2other.
12. Ioe pro2ised that heBd help 2e &i< 26 car 6esterda6, but he never ca2e? he +ust MMMMMMMM
2eMMMMMMMM.
13. Ioe does that sort o& thing all the ti2e, and itBs ver6 rude. Ce reall6.MMMMMMMM 2e %%%%%%%%.
1#. he door was locked, so 5 knocked on it again and again until so2eone MMMMMMMM 2e %%%%%%%%.
1%. "hat did Nanc6 do to get hersel& MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM o& schoolH
1'. "hen 5 heard about the craD6 thing that Nanc6 had done at school, 5 MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM laughing.
3'3
6:$ FOCUS ON< +artic%es se! 5ithot ver&s
he particles o& 2an6 phrasal verbs, especiall6 phrasal verbs that relate to ph6sical 2ove2ent,
are &re.uentl6 used alone with a &or2 o& be. his is ver6 co22on in conversation when the verb
has alread6 been stated at least once and does not need to be repeatedG
$usto2erG $ave you run out of coffee2 Store clerkG 6e(re out of
regular coffee, but !e(re not out of instant.
7arshaG 6hen do you have to move out of your apartment2
Nanc6G l have to be out by ne&t 6ednesday.
Ii2G 7id you turn the air conditioner on! =obG
8o, it !as on !hen # came in.
Mother# Has your sister woken up yet$ !usie# :o,
she's still not up.
0sing the particle without a verb is also co22on when a phrasal verb can be
understood &ro2 the conte<t. So2eti2es, onl6 one verb is obviousG
-a u 5G 9re you through 2
oddG 8o, # !on(t be through until after ::...
5& this conversation occurred at a place o& e2plo62ent, the phrasal verb could onl6 be /et
thro/h$ =ut o&ten, in a particular situation, 2ore than one verb 2ight be understood, but
to the speakers it is not i2portant or necessar6 to be speci&ic about which oneG
$arlosG #s. ;aren in2
PaulG 8o. she isn(t.
5& this conversation occurred in an o&&ice building, several verbs 2ight be
understoodG co-e in' /o in' /et in' EbeF %et in$
Infinitive
present tense &ing form past tense past participle
brush up
brush up J brushes up brushing up brushed up brushed up
($ &rsh + EonF p.v. "hen 6ou &rsh + or &rsh + on so2ething, 6ou stud6 or
practice a skill or sub+ect 6ou used to know but have &orgotten or partl6 &orgotten.
t's been a long time since studied algebra, but 'm going to need it if go back to school to study for my
master's degree, so 'd better brush up.
-rank's going to ?eru ne"t month, so he's been brushing up on his Spanish.
%'#
#nfinitive
present tense -ing form past tense past participle
come in
come in & comes in coming in came in come in
($ co-e inlinto p.v. "hen people or things enter a place, roo2, house, and so on that
6ou are in, the6 co-e in or co-e into it. Eo ot is the opposite o& co-e in$
#elcome to my house. ?lease come in.
%he burglar came into the house through the back door.
"$ co-e in p.v. "hen a train, bus, airplane, or ship co-es in' it arrives. Eet in is
si2ilar to co-e in$
5o you know when the train from Dankakee comes in$
'avid's plane hasn't come in yet.
*$ co-e in p.v. "hen people arrive at the place where the6 work, the6 co-e in$ Eet in is
si2ilar to co-e in$
The manager is angry with &inda because she comes in late every day.
called to tell the boss that was sick and wouldn't be coming in.
6$ co-e in p.v. "hen so2ething that a store will sell co-es in' it is delivered to the
store.
&et's go shopping at Macy's tomorrow8 the summer clothes have come in.
couldn't buy that new book wanted8 it hasn't come in yet.
7$ co-e in p.v. "hen a thing or skill co-es in hand6, it is so2ething use&ul that 6ou like
to have available when 6ou need it.
#hen travel, always take a small sewing kit with me8 it really comes in handy if a button falls off.
don't know how to speak 7apanese, but knowing how to say the numbers and @please@ and @thank you@ when
was in 7apan sure came in handy.
cut back
cut back & cuts back cutting back cut back cut back
($ ct &ac0 EonF p.v. "hen 6ou ct &ac0' or ct &ac0 on the a2ount o& 2one6 6ouspend,
6ou spend less.
The ?resident said he was against cutting back on spending for education.
My father said that we're spending too much and have to cut back.
ct&ac0 n$ A ct&ac0 is a reduction in the a2ount o& 2one6 6ou spend on
so2ething.
The people who work on the air force base are worried that they'll lose their jobs
because of military spending cutbacks.
"$ ct &ac0 EonF p.v. "hen 6ou ct &ac0 or ct &ac0 on so2ething that 6ou
consu2e, 6ou use it less. "hen 6ou ct &ac0 or ct &ac0 on so2ething that 6ou
do, 6ou do it less. Ct !o5n is si2ilar to ct &ac0$
Mark hasn't been able to ,uit smoking, but he has cut back a bit.
(ou're getting a little overweight8 maybe you should cut back on sweets.
#nfinitive
present tense -ing form past tense past participle
move in
move in & moves in moving in moved in moved in
($ -ove inlinto p.v. "hen 6ou -ove in or -ove into a place, 6ou bring 6our &urniture
and other personal possessions into a place where 6ou will live. Move ot is the
opposite o& -ove inlinto$
)he landlord said !e could move right in if !e !ant to.
<ri(s moving into a bigger apartment ne&t !ee.
"$ -ove$$$ inlinto p.v. "hen 6ou -ove people in or -ove the2 into a place, 6ou bring
their &urniture and other personal possessions into a place where the6 will live. "hen 6ou
-ove things in or -ove the2 into a place, 6ou take the2 in. Move ot is the opposite o&
-ove inlinto$
%he movers moved me in in less than two hours.
&oving all this furniture into a fifth3floor apartment isn't going to be easy.
*$ -ove in EwithF p.v. "hen 6ou -ove in or -ove in with people, 6ou bring 6our &urniture
and other personal possessions into a place where 6ou will live.
!ill moved out of his house for a while when he separated from his wife, but yesterday he moved back in.
My 9unt Dathy might move in with her son and his family.
move out
move out & moves out moving out moved out moved out
($ -ove ot Eo&F p.v. "hen 6ou -ove ot or -ove ot o& a place, 6ou take 6our &urniture
and other personal possessions out o& a place where 6ou lived. Move inlinto is the
opposite o& -ove ot$
*ould you help me move out? have to be out by the end of the month.
Mr. and Mrs. !aker moved out of their big house and into a smaller place after their children grew up.
($ -ove$$$ ot Eo&F p.v. "hen 6ou -ove people ot or -ove the2 ot o& a place, 6ou take
their &urniture and other personal possessions out o& a place where the6 lived. "hen 6ou
-ove things ot or -ove the2 ot o& a place, 6ou take the2 out. Move inlinto is the
opposite o& -ove ot$
<ne of our roommates wasn't paying his rent, so we moved his stuff out while he was at work.
%he company had a sale to try to move some merchandise out of the warehouse.
3''
Infinitive
present tense &ing form past tense past participle
pull out
pull out < pulls out pulling out pulled out pulled out
($ +%% ot Eo&F p.v. "hen a car, truck, or other vehicle +%%s ot or +%%s ot o& a
parking space, it leaves the place where it was parked and starts driving in the street. "hen
the drivers o& cars, trucks, or other vehicles +%% ot or +%% ot o& a parking space, the6 leave
the place where the6 were parked and start driving in the street.
%he accident happened when the 'ord pulled out in front of the *hevy.
(ou should fasten your seat belt before you pull out of the parking space.
"$ +%% ot Eo&F p.v. "hen 6ou +%% ot or +%% ot o& an agree2ent or arrange2ent, 6ou
leave it because 6ou decide that 6ou do not want to participate an6 longer.
%he -rench company reconsidered its agreement to build a plant in *anada and decided to pull out.
wish hadn(t pulled out of that business deal. :ow everyone who stayed in is making a lot of money.
*$ +%%$$$ ot Eo&F p.v. "hen soldiers leave a co2bat Done or an area where co2bat is
likel6, the6 +%% ot or are +%%e! ot$ Eo in is the opposite o& +%% ot$
#hen Sergeant 7ones saw the enemy soldiers getting closer, he ordered his men to pull out.
;eneral 7ohnston pulled all the troops out of the occupied territory.
+%%ot n. "hen soldiers leave a co2bat Done or an area where co2bat is likel6, a
+%%ot takes place.
;eneral 7ohnston ordered an immediate pullout of all troops in the occupied territory.
put in
put in & puts in putting in put in put in
($ +t $$$inlinto p.v. "hen 6ou +t so2ething in or +t so2ething into a container, storage
place, or building, 6ou place it inside. Ta0e ot is the opposite o& +t inlinto$
?lease put your clothes in the closet.
%he clerk put the bottle into the bag and gave me a receipt.
"$ +t$$$ inlinto p.v. "hen 6ou +t 2one6 in or +t 2one6 into a bank or anaccount at
a bank, 6ou deposit the 2one6. Pt inlinto is the opposite o. ta0e ot$
'm going to the bank today. How much money do you think should put in?
#e put B .>,>>> into our savings account.
*$ +t$$$ inlinto p.v. "hen 6ou +t people in or +t the2 into a prison, hospital, school,
or other institution, 6ou take the2 there or re.uire the2 to go there.
7ake got put in jail for twenty years. Marvin should be put into a mental institution.
2JM
6$ +t$$$ inlinto p.v. "hen 6ou +t ti2e or e&&ort in or +t ti2e or e&&ort into so2ething, 6ou
spend ti2e and work hard to acco2plish it.
9t the *hristmas party, the manager thanked his employees for all the work they had put in.
$ put a lot of time into becoming a doctor.
7$ +t$$$ inlinto p.v. "hen 6ou +t 2one6 in or +t 2one6 into so2ething, 6ou contribute
2one6 to help pa6 &or so2ething or as an invest2ent 6ou hope will return a pro&it.
#hen the check came for dinner, we each put BAC in.
've already put B.>>,>>> into this business. hope it starts making money soon.
8$ +t $$$in p.v. "hen 6ou construct or install so2ething in a building, 6ou +t it in$
#e're having new carpeting put in ne"t week.
Erik and :ancy are thinking about putting in central air conditioning.
:$ +t$$$ in p.v. "hen 6ou cause people to be in a situation, position, or condition, 6ou +t
the2 in that situation, position, or condition.
(ou've put 7im in a very awkward situation.
Margaret *ummings was put in charge of the sales department.
Infinitive
present tense Uing form past tense past participle
run out
run out < runs out running out ran out run out
($ rn ot Eo&F p.v. "hen people or things rn ot or rn ot o& a place, roo2, building,
and so on, the6 leave it ver6 .uickl6. Rn inlinto is the opposite o& rn ot$
%here's Sofia across the street 4 run out and ask her to come over here.
#hen opened the door, the dog ran out of the house.
"$ rn ot Eo&F p.v. "hen 6ou do not have an6 2ore o& so2ething because 6ou have used,
consu2ed, or sold all o& it, 6ou rn ot or rn ot o& it.
'm sorry can't give you sugar for your coffee 4 've run out.
Sam was late to work this morning because he ran out of gas.
*$ rn ot p.v. "hen so2ething is co2pletel6 used, consu2ed, or sold, it rns ot$
l played poker last night, and for a while was ahead by B1,>>>. !ut then my luck ran out, and ended up losing it
all.
My brother is too la6y to look for a job. He asks me for money, and when the money runs out he comes back for
more.
ECERCISE 6:a ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith +hrasa% ver&s .ro- this section$ Be
sre the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$
1. "e have a lot o& shopping to do, but the store closes in twent6 2inutes, so letBs tr6 to &inish
be&ore we MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM o& ti2e.
3'8
2. 7ichael MMMMMMMM a lot o& ti2e MMMMMMMM getting his pilotBs license.
3. he govern2ent threatened to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM o& the cease!&ire agree2ent a&ter the latest terrorist
bo2bing.
#. his little &lashlight on 26 ke6 chain MMMMM MMMMM hand6 when itBs dark outside.
%. 5 havenBt stopped drinking co2pletel6, but 5 have MMMMMMMM wa6 MMMMMMMM.
'. "hen i226Bs 2other saw hi2 outside throwing rocks at cars, she MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMMand stopped hi2.
(. "e bought a house in 7ilwaukee, and weBre MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM it ne<t 2onth.
8. 5nstead o& spending all 6our 2one6, 2a6be 6ou should MMMMMMMM so2e o& it MMMMMMMM the bank.
,. 5B2 starting a new +ob as a secretar6 ne<t week, so 5 need to MMMMM MMMMM on 26 t6ping.
11. /&ter 26 2other died, 5 asked 26 &ather to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM with 2e.
11. 5Bll be waiting &or 6ou at the station when 6our train MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM.
12. /ll these proble2s are MMMMMMMM 2e MMMMMMMM a bad 2ood.
13. Cow 2uch 2one6 are 6ou going toMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMthis invest2ent &undH
1#. "eBre ver6 bus6 at work, so 26 boss asked 2e to MMMMMM MMMMMM earl6 to2orrow.
1%. 5 need to &ind a new place to live soon. 5 have to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM o& the place 5B2 in now b6 the end
o& the 2onth.
1'. hese co2puters are being sold at 1% percent o&& the regular price &or three da6s onl6, so hurr6 be&ore
ti2e MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM.
1(. )inda hired a carpenter to MMMMMMMM so2e shelves MMMMMMMM her sonBs roo2.
18. "e lost the ke6 &or the &ront door, so ever6oneBs been MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM through the back door all
da6.
1,. Since Ii2 lost his +ob, weBve had toMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMa lot on our spending.
21. he troops were MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM o& Vietna2 and sent back to the 0nited States.
3',
21. 5 bought a new bed &or Susie, so 5B2 going to MMMMMMMM her old bed MMMMMMMM o& her roo2 and
into her brotherBs roo2.
22. /&ter 26 surger6, 5 was MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM the intensive care unit.
23. he store clerk sa6s the new co2puter 5 want is supposed to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM to2orrow.
2#. 76 couch is huge > thereBs no wa6 5 can MMMMMMMM it MMMMMMMM 26 new place without help.
2%. ;rik MMMMMMMM too 2uch salt MMMMMMMM the soup, and now it tastes terrible.
2'. Sa&e drivers alwa6s look both wa6s be&ore the6 MMMMMMM MMMMMMM and drive awa6.
ECERCISE 6:& ; =rite ans5ers to the >estions sin/ +hrasa% ver&s an! nons
.ro- this section$ Be sre the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$
1. o2 is going to live with his 0ncle Iohn. "hat is o2 going to doH
2. he govern2ent is spending less on the 2ilitar6. "hat is the govern2ent doingH
3. 5n Ouestion 2, what would 6ou call this reduction in 2ilitar6 spendingH
#. 5 canBt &igure out where the 2os.uitoes are entering 26 house. "hat canBt 5 &igure
outH
%. 76 plane didnBt arrive on ti2e. "hat didnBt 26 plane doH
'. =obBs taking all his &urniture out o& his old apart2ent. "hat is =ob doingH
(. Aou spent all 6our 2one6, and now 6ouBre broke. "hat did 6ou doH
8. Nanc6Bs truck was parked, but now sheBs driving it into the street. "hat is
Nanc6 doingH
,. Sarah shouldnBt have built a pool in such a s2all back6ard. "hat shouldnBt Sarah have
doneH
11. 8aniela hasnBt studied 5talian since high school, but sheBs been stud6ing it again latel6
because sheBs going to 5tal6 soon. "hat is 8aniela doingH
11. $harles 2ight change his 2ind and decide not to participate in a business deal. "hat
2ight $harles doH
12. Aour dentist told 6ou that 6ou should eat less cand6. "hat did 6our dentist tell 6ouH
13. Ned is going to arrive at work late to2orrow. "hat is Ned going to doH
1#. Iane is working ver6 hard to learn $hinese. "hat is Iane doingH
1%. he basketball ga2e ended be&ore Ii2Bs tea2 could score enough points to win it. "h6 didnBt
Ii2Bs tea2 win the ga2eH
1'. Ioe hasnBt placed his clothes in the washing 2achine. "hat hasnBt Ioe doneH
1(. o2 asked Sall6 when she was taking her &urniture into her new apart2ent. "hat did o2 ask
Sall6H
18. =ill deposits N1,111 ever6 2onth in his checking account. "hat does =ill do ever6 2onthH
ECERCISE 6:c' Revie5 ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith these +hrasa% ver&s .ro-
+revios sections$ Be sre the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$ To chec0
their -eanin/s' revie5 the section n-&er /iven a.ter each one$
bu2p into, #' get down, #2 kick out, #3 stop o&&, #3
con into, #' get inlinto, #2 2ake &or, #' talkinto,#'
con out o&, #' get out, #2 rip o&&, ## talk out o&, #'
&reak out, #' get up, #2 shut up, #3 tr6 on, #3
1. /l&onso 2ust have MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM thirt6 pairs o& pants be&ore picking one out.
2. =ob got MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM o& the bar a&ter he started a &ight.
3. Aou canBt trust 7arvin at all. Ce MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM ever6one he does business with.
#. 5 canBt reach those books on the top shel&. "ould 6ou MMMMMMMM the2 MMMMMMMM &or 2e, pleaseH
%. hat sneak6 real estate agent MMMMMMMM 2e MMMMMMMM selling her 26 house &or a lot less than it was
worth.
'. 76 parents live between 26 +ob and 26 ho2e, so so2eti2es on the wa6 ho2e &ro2 work 5 MMMMMMMM
MMMMMMMM &or a visit.
(. Sa2Bs wi&e didnBt want to go ca2ping with hi2, but he &inall6 MMMMMMMM her MMMMMMMMMM it.
3(1
8. 76 &ather!in!law was MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM N811 b6 a house painter
who took the 2one6 but never ca2e back to start painting the house.
,. "hen 5 was a child, 26 2other was on drugs and 26 &ather was in +ail. hat situation didnBt
MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM a ver6 happ6 childhood.
11. $arlos MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM the table, and a glass o& wine &ell on the &loor.
11. /ll 6ou ever do is talk, talk, talk. "ill 6ou please MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMMH
12. 5t sure was hot 6esterda6. 5t 2ust have MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM to 111 degrees.
13. *ur daughter has decided to get her nose pierced, and thereBs no wa6 we can MMMMMMMM her
MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM it.
1#. 5 &ound 26 old ar26 uni&or2 in the attic, and 5 can still MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM it even though itBs
twent6!&ive 6ears old.
1%. 76 teacher caught 2e cheating on the test toda6, and he said heBs going to call 26 parents
to2orrow to tell the2. Cow a2 5 going to MMMMMMM MMMMMMM o& this 2essH
1'. 5 saw a gu6 toda6 who looked e<actl6 like 26 dead brother. 5t reall6 MMMMMMMM 2e %%%%%%%%.
6#$ FOCUS ON< -o!a%s an! +resent +er.ect +assive +hrasa% ver&s
5n Section #3, we discussed the use o& several 2odal and se2i2odal au<iliaries in the present per&ect.
hese sa2e 2odals and se2i2odals are co22onl6 used in passive sentences. he 2odal or
se2i2odal is &ollowed b6 have or the contraction (ve, been, and the past participleG
could K have K been K past participle would V have K been K past
participle should V have K been K past participle have to K have K been V
past participle must K have K been K past participle might K have K been K
past participle may K have K been K past participle
)etBs co2pare a present per&ect active sentence containing a 2odal with a present per&ect
passive sentence containing a 2odalG
3(2
active# 7ane might have switched on the light. passive# %he light
might have been switched on.
/s we have seen, the ob+ect o& the active sentence beco2es the sub+ect o& the passive
sentence. /lso, there is no ob+ect in the passive sentence, so the passive phrasal verb
cannot be separated. he ob+ect o& the active sentence can be used in a by phraseG
active# 7ane might have switched on the light. passive# %he light might
have been switched on Bby )aneC.
/nd once again we see that it is not alwa6s eas6 to distinguish between a
past participleG
%he burglar alarm must have been switched off
Lby the night manager because he(s the only one with a keyC.
and a participle ad+ectiveG
)he burglar alarm must have been switched o&& Ebecause i& it had been on,
ever6one in the neighborhood would have heard it when the burglars
s2ashed the window o& the +ewelr6 storeF.
Infinitive
present tense &ing form past tense past participle
close down
close down < closes down closing down closed down closed down
($ c%ose$$$ !o5n p.v. "hen 6ou c%ose !o5n a business or a business is
c%ose! !o5n' it closes per2anentl6 or &or a long ti2e.
%he restaurant was closed down by the health department.
%he ski resort will close down for the summer on May *.
knock out
knock out & knocks out knocking out knocked out knocked out
($ 0noc0$$$ ot p.v. "hen 6ou 0noc0 people ot' 6ou hit the2 hard enough to cause the2
to lose consciousness. "hen people are 0noc0e! out, the6 are hit b6 so2eone or
so2ething hard enough to cause the2 to lose consciousness.
%he bo"er knocked his opponent out with a blow to the head.
'avid fell and hit his head on the sidewalk so hard that it knocked him out.
0noc0ot n. / hit hard enough to cause so2eone to lose consciousness is a
0noc0ot$
9t the count often the referee declared a knockout.
7. knock... out p.v. If something knocks you out it impresses or surprises you a lot.
3(3
%om's new house is fabulous) t really knocked me out.
%he (oungs'daughter is only twelve and she's already in college$ %hat just knocks me out.
0noc0ot n. A 0noc0ot is so2ething that i2presses or surprises 6ou a lot.
$ave you seen <ri(s ne! girlfriend2 'he(s a real knockout.
*$ 0noc0$$$ ot p.v. "hen 6ou tr6 ver6 hard to please other people, 6ou 0noc0 6oursel&
ot or 0noc0 6oursel& ot to do so2ething.
Marsha's %hanksgiving dinner was fabulous. She really knocked herself out.
%hanks for inviting me to spend the weekend with you, but don't knock yourself out 4 don't mind
sleeping on the couch.
6$ 0noc0$$$ ot p.v. "hen soldiers 0noc0 ot a piece o& the ene26Bs e.uip2ent, the6
destro6 it or da2age it enough so that it no longer operates.
%he enemy radar installation was knocked out by a C>>3pound bomb.
can't contact head,uarters. think our communications system might have been knocked out
during the attack.
#nfinitive
present tense -ing form past tense past participle
look down on
look down on & looks down on looking down on looked down on looked down on
($ %oo0 !o5n on p.v. "hen 6ou %oo0 !o5n on people, 6ou consider the2 to be less
intelligent, less educated, or &ro2 a lower level o& societ6 than 6ou.
!ome people look down on Hank because his father was in prison.
)ooking down on people because of things they have no control over is stupid.
look up to
look up to & looks up to looking up to looked up to looked up to
($ %oo0 + to p.v. "hen 6ou %oo0 + to people, 6ou ad2ire and respect the2.
've always looked up to my father because of his honesty and concern for others.
(ou should look up to people who have overcome difficulties to become successful.
put back
put back & puts back putting back put back put back
($ +t$$$ &ac0 p.v. "hen 6ou +t so2ething &ac0' 6ou return it to where it was
be&ore.
9fter you finish listening to my *'s, please put them back.
Susie, told you we're eating dinner in ten minutes, so put that cookie right back!
"$ +t$$$ &ac0 p.v. "hen so2ething slows the develop2ent or progress o& pro+ect, it +ts
the pro+ect &ac0 or it +ts the people involved in the pro+ect &ac0$
%he hurricane put the hotel construction project back by at least three months.
had planned to finish college last year, but being hospitali6ed for several months put me back.
2MH
*$ +t$$$ &ac0 p.v. "hen 6ou +t &ac0 the date that 6ou plan to do or co2plete so2ething b6,
6ou postpone it.
%he closing on the house 'm selling might have to be put back if the buyers can't get their loan approved in time.
%he graduation date will have to be put back if the teachers strike doesn't end soon.
6$ +t$$$ &ac0 p.v. [informal] "hen 6ou +t &ac0 alcoholic beverages, 6ou drink a lot o& the2.
'id you see how much 'avid was drinking last night$ He sure can put it back.
'm not surprised he has a hangover 4 he must have put back half a bottle of te,uila.
#nfinitive
present tense -ing form past tense past participle
switch off
switch off & switches off switching off switched off switched off
($ s5itch $$$o.. p.v. "hen 6ou s5itch o.. an electrical or 2echanical device, 6ou change
the controls to stop it &ro2 producing or doing so2ething. urn o.. is si2ilar to s5itch o..$
S5itch on is the opposite o& s5itch o..$
%ry to remember to switch off the lights when you leave the room.
switched the engine off and got out of the car.
s5itche! o.. part.adj. /&ter 6ou have changed the controls o& an electrical or 2echanical
device to stop it &ro2 producing or doing so2ething, it is s5itche! o..$ S5itche! on is the
opposite o& s5itche! o..$ Trne! o.. is si2ilar to s5itche! o..$
&ast night the light in the hallway was switched off, and fell down the stairs. switch on
switch on & switches on switching on switched on switched on
($ s5itch $$$on p.v. "hen 6ou s5itch on an electrical or 2echanical device, 6ou change
the controls to 2ake it start producing or doing so2ething. Trn on is si2ilar to s5itch on$
S5itch o.. is the opposite o& s5itch on$
?ush this button to switch the computer on.
%he sign should have been switched on by the manager in the morning.
s5itche! on part.adj. /&ter 6ou have changed the controls o& an electrical or 2echanical
device to 2ake it start producing or doing so2ething, it is s5itche! on$ S5itche! o.. is the
opposite o& s5itche! on$ Trne! on is si2ilar to s5itche! on$
#hen drove by the restaurant, noticed that the sign wasn't switched on.
throw out
throw out & throws out throwing out threw out thrown out
($ thro5$$$ ot p.v. "hen 6ou thro5 so2ething ot' 6ou dispose o& it b6 putting it in the
wastebasket, trash, and so on. Thro5 a5a3 is the sa2e as thro5 ot$
l can't find some important papers, and think they might've been accidentally thrown out.
'on't throw that newspaper out 4 haven't read it yet.
2MD
"$ thro5$$$ ot Eo&F p.v. "hen 6ou thro5 people ot or thro5 people ot o& a group, place,
building, or roo2, 6ou order the2 to leave. Kic0 ot is si2ilar to thro5 ot$
-rank started a fight and got thrown out of the bar.
haven't paid the rent in si" months, and 'm worried that the sheriff will come and throw us
out.
ECERCISE 6#a ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith +hrasa% ver&s .ro- this section$ Be
sre the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$
1. "e 2ight MMMMMMMM our wedding MMMMMMMM until Septe2ber so that -osaBs parents can attend.
2. Please MMMMMMMM the lights MMMMMMMM > 5B2 tr6ing to sleep.
3. =ob was MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM when the baseball hit hi2 in the head.
#. "hen 5 was a little girl, 5 MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM 26 grand&ather and wanted to be like hi2.
%. Sa2 2ust have MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM three gin and tonics in about a hal& an hour last night.
'. 5tBs cold in here > the air conditioner shouldnBt have been MMMMMMM MMMMMMMMM.
(. 7rs. 3lores was so angr6 with her husband that she MMMMMMMM hi2 right MMMMMMMM o& the house.
8. 76 wi&e thinks 5 &orgot our anniversar6 again, so sheBs going to be MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM when 5 give
her this gold bracelet.
,. he bliDDard has MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM our e&&orts to &ind the crashed plane, but weBll keep looking
until we &ind it.
11. 5B2 tired o& looking at all this +unk > wh6 donBt 6ou MMMMMMMM it MMMMMMMMH
11. $itiDens o& the neighborhood have de2anded that the nois6 bar be MMMMM MMMMM.
12. $harles MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM an6one who co2es &ro2 the poor side o& town.
13. 5& 6ouBre &inished with these tools, MMMMMMMM the2 MMMMMMMM.
1#. he soldier used a baDooka to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM an ene26 tank.
3('
*D. Timmy(s mother planned a really nice birthday party for Timmy and all his friends. !he really %%%%%%%% herself%%%%%%%%.
ECERCISE 6#& ; =rite three sentences sin/ the o&,ects in +arentheses$ Be
sre to +t the o&,ects in the ri/ht +%ace$
*. The health department should close down. Bthe restaurant, itC
7. 'li(s left hook knocked out. B)oe, himC
2. Ieneral )ohnston had to put back. Bthe attack, itC
H. $ave you switched on1 Bthe TV, itC
D. 're you going to switch off$ Bthe lights, themC
J. %hrowing out is going to be a big job. Ball this junk, itC
3((
ECERCISE 6#c ; =rite ans5ers to the >estions sin/ +hrasa% ver&s' +artici+%e
a!,ectives' an! nons .ro- this section$ Be sre the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct
tense$
1. he +udgeBs decision has slowed our &ight &or +ustice. "hat has the +udgeBs decision done to usH
2. Ii2 respects his uncle and wants to be like hi2. "hat does Ii2 do to his uncleH
3. odd was reall6 a2aDed at how good ;rikBs new book is. "hat did ;rikBs book do tooddH
#. 5n Ouestion 3, what would odd call ;rikBs bookH
%. Aou pushed the button on the re2ote, and now the V is on. "hat did 6ou do to the VH
'. 5n Ouestion %, how would 6ou describe the V a&ter 5 pushed the button on the re2oteH
(. he lights were on, but the6Bre not on an62ore. "hat 2ust have been done to the lightsH
8. 5n Ouestion (, how would 6ou describe the lights nowH
,. he bar owner will be ordered to close his bar per2anentl6. "hat will be done to the barH
11. $harles thinks people &ro2 that part o& town are low!class. "hat does $harles do to people &ro2 that
part o& townH
11. Ioe would have been ordered to leave his house i& he hadnBt paid his late 2ortgage pa62ents. "hat
would have happened to Ioe i& he hadnBt paid his late 2ortgage pa62entsH
ECERCISE 6#!' Revie5 ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith these nons .ro-
+revios sections$ To chec0 their -eanin/s' revie5 the section n-&er
/iven a.ter each one$
carr6out, 28 lockout, 2, turno&&,#% turnover, #%
cutback, #( 2ake!up, 23 turn!on, #% rip!o&&, ##
&alling!out, 32 pullout,#( turnout, #% runaround.#1
1. Ceather kind o& liked /nnBs brother until she saw hi2 s2oking. o her thatBs a big %%%%%%%%.
2. he Senate voted against a MMMMMMMMMMM in spending &or /58S research.
3. )6dia doesnBt want an6one to take pictures o& her without her MMMMMMMMMMM on.
#. =ill thinks that NicoleBs short skirt is a MMMMMMMMMMM.
3(8
%. he soldiers were ordered to prepare &or a MMMMMMMMMMM.
'. 5 hate cooking, so we eat MMMMMMMMMMM &ood al2ost ever6 night.
(. 5Bve gone to ever6 o&&ice in $it6 Call about 26 proble2, but no will help 2e. he6 +ust give 2e the
MMMMMMMMMMM.
8. he co2pan6Bs high MMMMMMMMMMM rate is one reason wh6 it lost 2one6 last 6ear.
,. $an 6ou believe the &ra2es &or these glasses cost N311H "hat a MMMMMMMMMMM.
11. *ne thie& broke into the store while the other sta6ed outside as a MMMMMMMMMMM.
11. he MMMMMMMM &or the parade would have been a lot bigger i& it hadnBt been raining,
12. 4eorge had a MMMMMMMMMMM with his brother and hasnBt spoken with hi2 &or &i&teen 6ears.
ECERCISE 6#e' Revie5 ; Co-+%ete the sentences 5ith these +hrasa% ver&s .ro-
+revios sections$ Be sre the +hrasa% ver&s are in the correct tense$ To chec0
their -eanin/s' revie5 the section n-&er /iven a.ter each one$
blow out, #3 con into, #' pull out, #( talkinto,#'
brush up, #( con out o&, #' put inlinto, #( talk out o&, #'
bu2p into, #' 2ove inlinto, #( stick out, 32 turn over, #%
carr6 awa6, ## 2ove out, #( stress out, ## turn up, #%
1. Aour work isnBt ver6 good. Aou ought to MMMMMMMM 2ore e&&ort MMMMMMMM it.
2. 5 was so 2ad at 26 boss that 5 al2ost .uit 26 +ob. 3ortunatel6, 26 wi&e MMMMMMMM 2e MMMMMMMM
MMMMMMMMit.
3. 8id 6ou see 7ikeBs houseH Ce said he was going to put a &ew $hrist2as tree lights on the roo&, but
there 2ust be %,111. 5 guess he got MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM.
#. 8onBt let that crooked contractor MMMMMMMM 6ou MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM an6 2one6 &or unnecessar6
ho2e repairs.
%. 3rance was a 2e2ber o& N/* until it MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM in 1,''.
'. 8onBt .uit now, weBre al2ost &inished. AouBve +ust got to MMMMMMMM it MMMMMMMM &or a little while
longer.
M. .hat a surpriseE I %%%%%%%% %%%%%%%% Aob at the train station yesterday. I hadn(t seen hi2 in 6ears.
8. he police acted on a tip that the suspect would be at the bus station on Saturda6 2orning, but he
didnBt MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM.
,. 5& 6ouBre not care&ul that crook will MMMMMMMM 6ou MMMMMMMM selling hi2 6our land &or a lot less than
itBs worth.
11. 7ike used to speak /rabic prett6 well, but he ought to MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM be&ore he goes to
;g6pt.
11. Cow could 5 have been MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM doing so2ething stupidH
12. he apart2ent has been cleaned and painted. Aou can MMMMMMMM right MMMMMMMM an6 ti2e 6ou
want.
13. MMMMMMMM it MMMMMMMM. 5 want to see whatBs on the other side.
1#. )iving with Sa2 is driving 2e craD6 > 5 have to MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM.
1%. /&ter 6ou 2ake a wish 6ou can MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM the candles.
1'. )iving in a house with seven dogs is reall6 MMMMMMMM 26 cat MMMMMMMM.
6D$ FOCUS ON< co-&inations o. get' right' back' an! to
he &ocus o& this section is an e<panded de&inition o& the two!word phrasal verb get to and the
three!word phrasal verb get back to. he purpose is to tr6 to 2ake so2e sense out o& a
see2ingl6 li2itless nu2ber o& idio2atic co2binations o& get, to, and various particles and
adverbs, in particular right and bac, and to de2onstrate that 2an6 phrasal verbs co2prised o&
get and a particle are actuall6 variations o& get to that can be 2odi&ied with right andlor bac.
-e2e2ber that bac is so2eti2es part o& a phrasal verb and so2eti2es an adverb used to
2odi&6 a phrasal verb Ereview Section 2'F, although we will see that there is o&ten no di&&erence
in 2eaning between the phrasal verb get back EtoF, discussed in Section #2, and the phrasal
verb get to 2odi&ied b6 back Eget back toF.
he nu2bers in the chart correspond with the 2eanings in the de&initions.
get to
1. /lthough the phrasal verb get to is de&ined here as 2eaning arrive, it can be understood
as the basis &or so2e o& the phrasal verbs that were discussed in Section #2G
3ill got to =eoria. E=ill arrived in Peoria.F
3ill got back to =eoria. E=ill returned to Peoria.F
3ill got up to =eoria. E=ill arrived in Peoria &ro2 the south.F
3ill got down to =eoria. E=ill arrived in Peoria &ro2 the north.F
381
3ill got over to =eoria. E=ill arrived in Peoria &ro2 the east or west.F
3ill got out to =eoria. E=ill arrived in Peoria &ro2 the east or &ro2 a
larger cit6.F
"e see that get back >to1, get up >to1, get down >to1, get over >to1, and get out >to1
are variations o& get to but with additional in&or2ation. hese verbs
can be 2odi&ied with right, 2eaning immediately, quicly, or directly Esee Section 11FG
!ill got right back to ?eoria. BAill returned to ?eoria Fuickly.C
2K*
"et to !or has two 2eanings, si2ilar but not the sa2e. Eet to !or can re&er to an
arrival at a place !here someone !ors:
9nn got to !or. E/nn arrived at the place where she works.F
=ut get to !or Esee 2eaning 3F can also 2ean start !oring, without an6
re&erence to a change o& locationG
,oe got to !or. EIoe started working.F
,oe got bac to !or. EIoe started working again.F
,oe got right to !or. EIoe started working i22ediatel6.F
,oe got right bac to !or. EIoe started working again i22ediatel6.F
he di&&erence in these two 2eanings is illustrated b6 the &ollowing sentenceG
l got to work at /=>>, but didn't get to work until .>=>>, which can paraphrased as arrived at my
office at /=>>, but didn't start working until .>=>>.
2. /lthough the phrasal verb get to is de&ined here as 2eaning reach a certain level,
number, or amount, it can be understood as the basis &or so2e o& the phrasal verbs
discussed in Section #2G
#ane got to ?5. pounds.
#ane got back to ?5. pounds. EIane weighs 121 pounds again.F
#ane got up to ?5. pounds. EIane used to weigh less that 121 pounds.F
#ane got down to ?5. pounds. Iane used to weigh 2ore that 121 pounds.F
"e see that get back >to1, get up >to1, and get down >to1 are variations o& get
to but with additional in&or2ation.
"et up >to1 and get down >to1 can be 2odi&ied b6 bac:
,ane got bac up to ?5. pounds. EIane used to weigh 121 pounds, lost weight, and
then gained it back.F
,ane got bac down to ?5. pounds. EIane used to weigh 121 pounds, gained
weight, and then lost it.F
3. 5& 6ou start to do so2ething, 6ou get to itG
lBll try to get to my hom