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Heat Transfer

Quantity S.I. to English English to S.I.



Length 1 m = 3.2808 ft 1 ft = 0.3048 m
Area 1 m^2 = 10.7639 f^2 1 ft^2 = 0.0929 m^2
Volume 1 m^3 = 35.3134 ft^3 1 ft^3 = 0.02832 m^3
Mass 1 kg = 2.20462 lb 1 lb = 0.4536 kg
Density 1 kg/m^3 = 0.06243 lb/ft^3 1 lb/ft^3 = 16.018 kg/m^3
Force 1 N = 0.2248 lb_f 1 lbf = 4.4482 N
Pressure 1 N/m2 = 1.4504 104 lb_f/in^2 1 lb_f/in^2 = 6894.8 N/m^2
Pressure 1 bar = 14.504 lb_f/in^2 1 lb_f/in^2 = 0.06895 bar
Energy 1 kJ = 0.94783 Btu 1 Btu = 1.0551 kJ
(heat, work) 1 kW hr = 1.341 (hp*hr) 1 hp hr = 0.7457 (kW*hr)
Power 1 W = 1.341 103 hp 1 hp = 745.7 W
Heat flow 1 W = 3.4121 Btu/hr 1 Btu/hr = 0.29307 W
Specific heat 1 kJ/(kg*C) = 0.23884 Btu/(lb*F) 1 Btu/(lb*F) = 4.1869 kJ/(kg*C)
Surface tension 1 N/m = 0.068522 lb_f/ft 1 lbf/ft = 14.5939 N/m
Thermal conductivity 1 W/m*C = 0.5778 Btu/*hr*ft*F) 1 Btu/(hr*ft*F) = 1.7307 W/(m*C)
Convection coefficient 1 W/m2*C = 0.1761 Btu/(hr*ft^2*F) 1 Btu/hr ft2F = 5.6783 W/(m^2*C)
Dynamic viscosity 1 kg/(m*s) = 0.672 lb/(ft*s) 1 lb/(ft*s) = 1.4881 kg/(m*s) =
2419.2 lb/(ft*hr) or (N*s)/m^2
Kinematic viscosity 1 m2/s = 10.7639 ft^2/s 1 ft^2/s = 0.092903 m^2/s
Universal gas const. 8314.41 J/(kg*mol*K) = 1545 (ft*lb_f) /(mol*R) = 1.986 (Btu)/(lb*mol*R)
Boltzmann const. 5.67 W/(m^2*K^4) = 0.174 Btu/(hr*ft^2*R)




Quantity S.I. to Metric Metric to S.I.

Force 1 N = 0.1019 kg_f 1 kg_f = 9.81 N
Pressure 1 N/m2 = 10.19 106 kg_f/cm^2 1 kg_f/cm^2 = 98135 N/m^2
Pressure 1 bar = 1.0194 kg_f/cm^2 1 kg_f/cm^2 = 0.9814 bar
Energy 1 kJ = 0.2389 kcal 1 kcal = 4.186 kJ
(heat, work) 1 Nm (= 1 J) = 0.1019 kg_f m 1 (kg_f*m) = 9.81 N*m (J)
Energy (heat, work) 1 (kW*hr) = 1.36 (hp*hr) 1 (hp*hr) = 0.736 kW*hr
Power (metric) 1 W = 1.36 103 hp 1 hp = 736 W
Heat flow 1 W = 0.86 kcal/hr 1 kcal/hr = 1.163 W
Specific heat 1 kJ/(kg*C) = 0.2389 kcal/(kg*C) 1 kcal/(kg*C) = 4.186 kJ/(kg*C)
Surface tension 1 N/m = 0.1019 kg_f/m 1 kg_f/m = 9.81 N/m
Thermal conductivity 1 W/(m*C) = 0.86 kcal/(hr*m*C) 1 kcal/(hr*m*C) = 1.163 W/(m*C)
Convection coefficient 1 W/(m^2*C) = 0.86 kcal/(hr*m^2*C) 1 kcal/(hr*m^2*C)= 1.163 W/(m^2*C)
Dynamic viscosity 1 kg/(m*s) (N*s/m^2) = 0.1 Poise 1 poise = 10 kg/(m*s) or (N*s/m^2)
Kinematic viscosity 1 m^2/s = 3600 m^2/hr 1 m^2/hr = 2.778 104 m^2/s
1 Stoke = (cm^2)/s = 0.36 m^2/hr = 104 m^2/s
Universal gas const. 8314.41 J/(kg*mol*K) = 847.54 (m*kg_f)/(kg*mol*K) = 1.986 kcal/(kg*mol*K)
Gas constant in air (SI) = 287 J/(kg*K)
Boltzmann const. 5.67 10
Chapter 1: An Overview of Heat Transfer
1.1 HEAT TRANSFER

The study of heat transfer is directed to (i) the estimation of rate of flow of energy as heat through the boundary of a system both
under steady and transient conditions, and (ii) the determination of temperature field under steady and transient conditions, which also
will provide the information about the gradient and time rate of change of temperature at various locations and time, i.e. T(x,y,z,) and
dT/dx, dT/dy, dT/dz, dT/d, etc. These two are interrelated, one being dependent on the other. However, explicit solutions may be
generally required for one or the other.

The basic laws governing heat transfer and their application are as follows:


1. First law of thermodynamics: postulating the energy conservation principle: This law provides the relation between the heat
flow, energy stored and energy generated in a given system.

The relationship for a closed system is:

The net heat flow across the system boundary + heat generated inside the system = change in the internal energy of the system

% define symbolic variables for First Law of Thermodynamics
syms SystemInternalEnergyChange NetHeatFlowAcrossSystemBoundary HeatGeneratedInsideSystem

% define First Law of Thermodynamics
SystemInternalEnergyChange = NetHeatFlowAcrossSystemBoundary + HeatGeneratedInsideSystem

This will also apply for an open system with slight modifications.


The change in internal energy is a given volume is equal to the product of the volume density and specific heat cV and dT where the
group cV (rho c V) is called the heat capacity of the system. The basic analysis in heat transfer always has to start with one of these
relations.

% define symbolic variables for heat capacity
syms rho c V

% define heat capacity
syms heat_capacity

heat_capacity = rho * c * V

heat_capacity =
V*c*rho

2. Second law of thermodynamics: establishing the direction of energy transport as heat. The law postulates that the flow of
energy as heat through a system boundary will always be in the direction of lower temperature or along the negative
temperature gradient.
a. Newton's laws of motion used in the determination of fluid flow parameters
b. Law of conservation of mass, used in the determination of flow parameters
c. The rate equations as applicable to the particular mode of heat transfer.










1.2 MODES OF HEAT TRANSFER

1. Conduction:
This is the mode of energy transfer as heat due to temperature difference within a body or between bodies in
thermal contact without the involvement of mass flow and mixing.

This is the mode of heat transfer through solid barriers and is encountered extensively in heat transfer equipment design as well as in
heating and cooling of various materials as in the case of heat treatment.

The rate equation in this mode is based on
Fourier's law of heat conduction:
the heat flow by conduction in any direction is proportional to the temperature gradient and the area perpendicular to
the flow direction and is in the direction of the negative gradient

The proportionality constant obtained in the relation is known as thermal conductivity, k, of the material. The mathematical
formulation is given in equation 1.1.

Heat Flow (1.1)


The units used in the text for various parameters are:

, (Watt),

(as this is only temperature interval, and K can be used without any difficulty)



For simple shapes and one directional steady condition with constant value of thermal conductivity this law yields rate equations as
below:
1. Conduction, Plane Wall: (Fig. 1.1), the integration of the equation 1.1 for a plane wall of thickness, L, between the two
surfaces

and

under steady conditions leads to equation 1.2. The equation can be considered as the mathematical model
for this problem.