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Jigs and Fixtures Course Notes

(2011)


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Table Of Contents

J igs and Fixtures - Introduction........................................................................................ 3
Tentative Schedule .......................................................................................................... 4
Why use Tooling? ............................................................................................................ 8
Course Requirements. ................................................................................................... 10
Process Sheet Examples .............................................................................................. 12
Clamping Force Requirements. ..................................................................................... 22
Determining Bushing Requirements .............................................................................. 27
J ig and Fixture Design - So Where Do I Start? ............................................................. 31
Costing .......................................................................................................................... 34
Estimating J ig and Fixture Costs ................................................................................... 38
Readings ....................................................................................................................... 40
Assignments: ................................................................................................................. 51


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Jigs and Fixtures - Introduction

Course Duration:- 60 Hours
Instructor:- Fred Fulkerson (ffulkerson@conestogac.on.ca)
(519) 748-5220 ext. 3372
Text:- Carr Lane J ig and Fixture Handbook
_________________________________________________________________

This course is designed to allow you to effectively design work holding (fixtures) and workholding
- tool guiding (J igs) tooling. It will allow you to build on your knowledge of locating, clamping and
tolerancing techniques used in industry for the location and transfer of parts.
The course is broken down as follows: -

7 Assignments =85%
5 Quizzes =15%

Assignments will initially consist of process sheets, force calculations, location techniques, and
tolerancing. Later, fully dimensioned detail and assembly drawings including Bill Of Materials will
be required. One project will require a project report for costing and justification purposes.
The quizzes are short, 5 10 questions per quiz and will cover that weeks reading. Ensure that
you access the reading study sheet from my web page to help you with these. The quizzes are
to be completed in the first 5 minutes of class. Only quizzes completed that day will be
marked. Copies of the assignments are available on my web page.




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NOTE!!

It is YOUR RESPONSIBILITY to ensure that your drawings are stored correctly. I will NOT
be responsible for any corrupted or erased files keep multiple copies of your models
and make use of the correct project, pack and go techniques.

Tentative Schedule

1. Introduction to course. General description and outline of work to be done. Assignment #1
given here (10% - due in 3 weeks). Generate process sheets and appropriate location
devices for each process. This assignment is not easy but is required to demonstrate your
process and location technique knowledge of your project part any discrepancies can
be identified early on and adjusted to allow for a viable design. A sample sheet is
provided and part processes for other pieces are discussed. There is no absolute method
of defining part processes; most are neither right nor wrong - just different, however there
are specific processes that should be created before others. There are two parts to this
assignment, the process sheets and the location requirements for each process. In larger
lab groups, each project may have been assigned to two people in the group you are
more than welcome to bounce ideas amongst each other. Read Chapter #1 for next
weeks quiz fill in the sheets as a study guide.
2. Quiz #1 given here. I will go through any questions you have on assignment #1 and
discuss various manufacturing methods that can be used to match your processes you
should change yours if it is not conducive to logical manufacturing techniques as this
determines the tooling requirements. We will start by introducing you to location methods,
devices, and standards. Location is always the first thing you look at when designing a J ig
or Fixture. This will aid you in the second part of assignment #1. This consists of you
determining the location of your specific part to allow the manufacture process to be
repetitive and accurate. You will create the locations using solid modeling methods. You


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should also have started to model your part so that the locators can be designed. Read
Chapter 3 (Pages 29 50) for next week fill in the study sheets.
3. Quiz #2 is given here and Quiz #1 is handed back and discussed. Complete the lecture
on locators class time for modeling the part and location devices is given. Read Chapter
5 for next weeks quiz.
4. Quiz #3 on Chapter 5 is given here and I hand back quiz #2 and discuss the answers.
Assignment #1 is due today. We now look at clamping techniques, arrangements, and
force requirements. We will use Excel to determine clamping forces this way, repetitive
calculations can be avoided. Assignment #2 is given here determining clamping forces
using Excel. You will determine the forces acting on your part based on the process
sheets you developed in Assignment #1. This assignment is due next week only the
calculations are required however if you start placing the clamps onto your part now you
can save some time later. Read Chapter 7 on drill bushings for next weeks lecture and fill
in the review sheets.
5. Quiz #4 given here, and I hand back quiz #3 and discuss the answers. The lecture today
is on guiding the tool this involves choosing the appropriate bushings, Liners, and lock
screws from those commercially available at Carr Lane. We complete an in class
assignment (#3 =5%). We may go over here on time if so the class time will be
extended to next week as well.
6. Quiz #5 given here and quiz #4 is given back and discussed. So that you can discuss the
types of J igs and Fixtures using technical terms we define the various J ig types used for
various applications. These include Box, Nest, Plate and Angle jigs. We also look at how
we take the various parts of a tool and put them all together (Ref: Chapter 8). A Re-
introduction to Conventional and Geometric tolerancing is covered so that machinists can
manufacture your designs from your drawings. This must include the correct fits so that
the parts assemble correctly. Assignment #4 (5%) given here and is to be completed in
class.
7. The last quiz is returned to you and discussed. Now we look at using databases
specifically CarrLane.com and Cbliss.com to economically insert parts that have already


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been completed for you. We will look at file transfer techniques to use non-application
parts in our designs (step and iges files) and discuss the inherent problems with this
technique. Your first "real' J ig and Fixture assignment is given here if you have
maintained your project from the start then little updating will be required in order to finish
the design if you have avoided making the prescribed changes then you have a lot of
work to do. You are to design a J ig for producing the holes on your part. Ideally one jig
can do this; however, this is unlikely if holes exist on multiple faces. You are to deign ONE
J IG ONLY! Due in three weeks time where each lab session is given over to your designs.
As each one of you has a different part the emphasis is on the individual to finish the
design and detail drawings. Do not underestimate the time it will take to complete
this task. (About 25 to 30 hours of work -- Assignment #5 = 30%).
8. Balloons and Bill of Materials generation using Inventor or SolidWorks. Lab Time.
9. Lab Time (Assignment is due at the end of class).
10. We now move on to the design of Fixtures. Many of the fundamentals are the same but
clamping in the fixture environment is of greater concern as the cutting forces will
increase substantially. You may wish to use Power work holding devices so we look at
these. We introduction Fixtures their types, applications and variances. We also look at
tooling justification and the cost of the tools. Normally this is done up front, but without the
necessary understanding of tooling requirements this could not be completed at the
beginning of the course.
11. Assignment #6 (20%). You are going to design a fixture for the part you have been given
again based on the processes you chose back in the early weeks. Three weeks for this
one - but trust me, you are going to need all of it!!
12. Hole chart creation using Inventor and SolidWorks. With so many holes required for many
tools, it is often beneficial to use hole charts rather than the traditional tolerances and
notes that accompany hole features.
13. As our last assignment is to design a checking fixture we again turn to you favorite subject
of Geometric tolerancing. This is the last lecture and lab period for assignment #6 which
is due at the end of class.


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14. Last assignment. You will design an inspection fixture for your part (or a given part that
may be more appropriate) utilizing the geometric tolerances given to you. (Assignment #7
=10%). Weeks 14 and 15 =Lab Time to complete outstanding work.


Note: The above schedule may change due to unforeseen circumstances.


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Why use Tooling?

There is a tendency to throw newer technologies at all parts that require manufacturing,
especially NC machines, robotic handling, and special purpose machinery - the reasons cited
for doing this are highly pervasive:
Automatic process
Repeatability of process
Semi-skilled operators
But in many instances the very reasons for promoting these manufacturing processes cause
expense. These are not very cost efficient mechanisms for production because:
Expensive machinery with a high overhead
Operations chosen are not totally appropriate for non-NC applications (i.e.
no profiling)
Special purpose machines have little or no flexibility if the product line
changes
Expensive tooling
Tying up a machine that could be used for more suitable work
Extensive pre-machining required such as fixtures, programming,
installation and space requirements
Not fast enough for high volumes due to tool changing and a lack of multi-
purpose tooling (drill and counterbore etc)
Taking up valuable machining time at a high cost
Some require power clamping that in itself requires compressors

In place of these expensive machines we have the ability to use J igs and Fixtures to both
prevent the need for expensive and difficult setups, and to make the operation simple. This
allows us to:



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Utilize inexpensive machine tools with low overheads
Utilize unskilled/semi-skilled labor
Make the process foolproof, easy to load using ordinary tools or special
purpose tools
High repeatability
Cheap process

Both NC and J ig and Fixture design rely on fairly expensive design and/or programming
skills; however, the cost of manufacturing thousands of parts will always make the creation of
J igs and Fixtures feasible, often working out to less than a few cents per part.
Fixtures are used on all processes requiring effective location and clamping. These include
all machining operations, most welding and inspection requirements, and assembly
operations. In the scope of manufacturing then, fixtures are ubiquitous in all modern
manufacturing and assembly. J igs on the other hand support the workpiece and also guide
the tool for hole operations. Of the two tools, jigs are less used than fixtures
This courses main objective is to design effective tooling to economize the manufacturing
process.



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Course Requirements.

The course lesson plans have been changed to reflect continuous changes in the software
and the perceived requirements of such a course. The course is a complete project based
course with NO TESTS the proof of your knowledge is contained within the final designs of
the tools.
Each of the 7 assignments involves the steps that make up the spectrum of J ig and Fixture
Design. We start with a process creation - this effectively determines which of the operations
require tooling to be created in support of that operation. Identification of the machine tools, a
process that "builds" on previously completed surfaces, and the holding and guiding
requirements are paramount. There is a tendency to try and cram as many operations as you
can within one setup - there are two main viewpoints on this approach. Some feel that a
single tool that can perform four different operations is key, while others feel that simplicity is
the object of a successful design, there are advantages and disadvantages to both
viewpoints. While the multi-operation may provide a single setup where others may require
three or more, the design may result in a complicated tool having difficult access and
orientation properties. If one thing on the tool breaks down and cannot be easily fixed a new
tool may be required. It also prevents multiple operations on the pieces taking place at the
same time. Simple tools are easier to fix and maintain, load easier, allow a single step to be
performed at which point the part is passed to the next operation, and is far cheaper to
design and produce. On the other hand, there are multiple setups, longer down time in
handling and generally works out to be the more expensive option - balancing these
requirements is often difficult.
Once the process has been decided then a concept sketch is created. Often through
concurrent engineering this process is now parametric in flavour, designing the tool on the fly
as it were. This allows flaws in the process to be seen, difficult locations to be identified and
obstacles highlighted. The second part of assignment #1 addresses this part of the course by
your creating locations for each identified process.


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The third assignment allows you to apply some Excel and applied mechanics skills in
determining the forces that are generated during a machining process. Taking the process
determined in the first assignment you will determine the cutting forces for each operation so
that a suitable tool can be designed.
The fourth assignment deals with practical application of tolerances that will allow parts to be
manufactured within the required limits time after time.
The fifth assignment has you design and detail a jig for your part. Prior and during this we will
discuss the various components that make up a design, the type of jigs that exist and some
fundamental design requirements. This is your most extensive assignment and done
individually everyone receives a different part to work on. I require an assembly drawing
and fully dimensioned details.

The sixth assignment deals with designing a fixture specifically a machining fixture. There
are some special considerations when designing fixtures as opposed to jigs and this will be
covered within the lessons. You will design a fixture for your project and also supply a costing
analysis of the tool.
The last assignment requires an inspection device to be generated, again for the project you
have been working on. We are going to design a checking fixture for a part that has been
toleranced using geometric features.

The theory portion of this course is fairly limited - application is far more important and so is
reflected in the assignments.
Designs are never wrong - just different, however the economic practical use of J igs and
Fixtures to ensure compliance with the parts size is paramount and the assignments marked
accordingly.


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Process Sheet Examples: Valve Body



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Process Sheet Examples: Bearing Block





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Process Sheet Examples: Pressure End Cap







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Process Sheet Examples: Clamp Frame


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k
CUSTOMER DATE: BY: J OB# SH OF
MATERIAL PART NAME Hinge Base PART # QUANTITY

Op. No. Description Time Est
Hours

Tools Speed
S.F.P.M.
Feed
In/Min
In/Rev
Setup Operation

10











20





Lathe

Machine top face to
maintain 1-5/8 height.
Drill and Ream .5
center hole through.
Machine 1.750 dia x
.187 deep. Machine .125
wide groove x .062
deep.

Horizontal Mill

Mill front face to
maintain 3-1/4 height
and the .25 slot x .187
deep



1 Hour









1 Hour

.25









.1

Lathe Fixture #1
R.H facing tool
15/32 drill
reamer
Center Drill
Boring Bar
Grooving tool



Angle Plate Fixture #2

slitting saw
Face Mill


400










400


.003/rev










.002 per
tooth



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CUSTOMER DATE: BY: J OB# SH OF
MATERIAL PART NAME Hinge Base PART # QUANTITY

Op. No. Description Time Est
Hours

Tools Speed
R.P.M.
Feed
In/Min
In/Rev
Setup Operation

30











40



Pedestal Drill

Drill 4 -- #2 holes
through. Drill 2 - #20
holes through, Tap 10-
32 through.
Drill 2 - #20 holes x .625
deep, tap 10-32.
Drill and Ream 2 - .250
holes through

Vertical Milling
Machine

Machine bottom face to
maintain .750
dimension. Machine
step face to 3/16 value.
Mill 2 slots, 9/32
through, counter slot to
13/32 x 3/8 deep.

1 Hour









1 Hour

.15









.2

J ig #1
Center Drill
#2 Drill
10-32 UNF tap
#20 Drill
15/64 Drill
Reamer



Fixture #3

2 Carbide Face Mill
9/32 Center Cutting Slot
Drill
13/32 Slot Drill


100
SFPM









500
SFPM


.003/rev










.003 per
tooth


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CUSTOMER DATE: BY: J OB# SH OF
MATERIAL PART NAME Hinge Base PART # QUANTITY

Op. No. Description Time Est
Hours

Tools Speed
R.P.M.
Feed
In/Min
In/Rev
Setup Operation

50







60








70
Horizontal Milling
Machine

Gang mill hinge bosses
to 1.750 inside value
and 3.75 outside

Horizontal Mill

Mill two step faces to
1.125 from center, 3.75
apart to match surfaces
from op #50

Pedestal Drill

Drill 2 holes, #29 drill x
5/8 deep, tap 10-32
UNC, C/bore .312 x .25
deep. Drill and ream
1 Hour






1 Hour






1 Hour
.1






.1






.15
Fixture #3


5 Carbide Side and
Face Cutters



Angle Plate Fixture #2

1 Radius End Carbide
End Mill




Box J ig #2
Center Drill
#29 Drill
10-32 Tap
Precision Counter bore
tool (Special #124152)



300
SFPM





400
SFPM






100
SFPM



.003 per
tooth





.004 per
tooth






.002 per
tooth


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CUSTOMER DATE: BY: J OB# SH OF
MATERIAL PART NAME Hinge Base PART # QUANTITY

Op. No. Description Time Est
Hours

Tools Speed
R.P.M.
Feed
In/Min
In/Rev
Setup Operation



80






90
.375 holes through the
hinge arms.

Pedestal Drill

Counter bore 4 holes,
23/64 x 3/8 deep.
Counter sink 2 - .25
holes on both sides.

Bench

Inspect and pack



.5 Hours



.1
23/64 Drill
3/8 Reamer



90
o
Countersink
#12 Counter Bore tool
75
SFPM



75
SFPM
.005 per
tooth



.002 per
tooth


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Clamping Force Requirements.


For this example we will use the drill jig hole size to determine the force. You only need to do
the calculation on the worst case scenario - not for every cut, so pick the largest hole, the biggest
face or more explicitly the largest cross sectional area. We are going to ignore frictional forces
for these examples it is not often that these forces are considered by the tool designer. In
practice the number and the size of the clamps are generally estimated by the designer
remember that proportion is always a good indicator of design feasibility.

i) Determine the R.P.M.

ii) Determine Cubic Inches Material removed in one minute:


iv) Determine H.P.

v) Determine Torque.

vi) Determine Force required to prevent motion. (Adjusted Formula as the Efficiency value
has already been used in the HP formula)


Force =(H.P used * 33,000) / SFPM


cutter of meter Dia
4 x Speed Cutting


IPR e x RPM x rea of Hol C.I.M. = A ( This is for a drilling operation)

E
K x C.I.M.
= H.P.


R.P.M.
63000 x H.P.
= TORQUE



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These calculations do not take into consideration the frictional component that exists - that would
add to the complication and allows LESS clamping force to be utilised based on the parts mass.

Placing stop blocks and pins directly opposite the force being applied will allow less clamping to
take place. Remembering that as shear stress of a piece of 1020 mild steel can be approximated at
65,000 lbs/in
2
it is easy to see that stop blocks sustain much of the force being exerted by the
cutting action on the clamping, however that force is transferred to the bolts and pins holding the
stop block to the tool base, therefore you must determine the size and number of the fastener
devices.
Different materials will require varying load or K factors as they are known. This value denotes
the difficulty in removing material from its parent relative to baseline material. These K values
are determined from experiments and are as follows:

Table Of Factors
Material Factor Material Factor
Aluminium 0.38 Brass 0.60
Bronze 0.60 Cast iron 1.00
Copper 0.72 Magnesium 0.80
Malleable Iron 1.0 - 1.2 Zinc 0.60
Titanium 2.25 Carbon Steels 1.6 - 2.2
Free Cutting Steel 1.1 - 1.4 Alloy Steels 1.5 - 4.6


Cutting force example:

A 4" diameter, carbide face mill is to take a .125" depth of cut across a 3.75" wide medium
carbon steel workpiece. The cutting speed for this material is 220 S.F.P.M. The feed rate per
tooth is to be 0.005" and the cutter has six teeth. Determine the minimum number of clamps
required using a safety factor of two.

Step 1 : Determine the R.P.M.


x Cutter of Diameter
x Minute Per Feet Surface 12




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Step 2: Find the feed rate in Inches Per Minute



Step 3 :- Find the Cubic Inches of Material removed in one minute:


C.I.M =2.954 in
3
minute

Step 4:- Find the H.P.




Step 5:- Find the Torque
R.P.M 2 =
x 4
x 220
10
12



Tooth Per Rate Feed x teeth of number x RPM = Feed
0.005 x 6 x 2 = Feed 10
I.P.M. 6. = Feed 3
I.P.M. x Cut Of Width x Cut of Depth = C.I.M.
3 6. x 3.75 x 0.125 = C.I.M.
K x C.I.M. = H.P / Efficiency
(Table) 1. x = H.P 7 954 . 2 / 70%
spindle) the (at 5. = H.P 02 / 70% =7.17 H.P.


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Step 6:- Find the Force

Force = (HP Used * 33,000) / SFPM

Force = 7.17 * 33000/ 220 = 1076lbs

Step 7:- Determine the number of clamps required.

R.P.M.
63000 x H.P.
= Torque

pounds inch =
0 2
63000 x
= Torque 2152
1
17 . 7




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Table: Clamping Force form Hand-Operated Screws. Experimental
Results
Screw Thread
UNC
Screw Turned BY:
Hand Knob Wrench
Clamping Force in Pounds
1/4 - 20 300 2200
5/16 - 18 400 2500
3/8 - 16 700 3000
1/2 - 13 900 6800
5/8 - 11 1300 7800
3/4 - 10 1200 7500
Note!! UNF threads can apply even more pressure due to the "slower" helix angle.

The amount of force that we require needs to be multiplied by a Factor of Safety (normally
designated N). For most applications a factor of 2 is satisfactory. This value may be increased if
continuous intermittent cutting is taking place. Because of the Safety factor the cutting force is:

2152 lbs

As we can see to achieve the force of approximately 2200 lbs requires a number of clamps of a
specific thread size. Also remember that the basics of Applied Mechanics need to be appreciated
in that when a force is applied to a screw then some of the force is being applied to the support,
and some to the clamp area. Clamps are designed to avoid more than 50% of the force being
applied to the support, so this becomes the worst case scenario for calculation purposes. In our
example I would select 2 - 3/8 -16 UNC clamps applied with a wrench. Of course any other
combination would be okay but remember that to have one clamp only would not normally suit
as the part can pivot around this point. Normal practice is to have a minimum of two clamps
unless that implied rotational force is removed by the location device. It would also not appear
proportional to have 16 very tiny clamps to meet the force requirements use common sense.


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Determining Bushing Requirements

Example:

Required: Determine the bushing requirements to drill and ream a .750 hole into a part. This
requires part numbers for the bushings, liners and lock screw.

Premise: In order to drill and ream the hole, Slip Renewable bushings MUST be used
so that the guiding mechanism for both drill and reamer can be met.

1. Start with the finished hole sizes =.75. Go to the Slip Renewable Bushing page
on the Carr lane web site and find a range that includes both the reamed hole
size (.75) and the drill hole size (.735). There are two possibilities, the .4688 -
.7812 range and the .7187 1.0625 range. Which one you choose depends on
the space available and the bushing wall thickness. For this exercise we will
choose the .4688 - .7812 range.
2. Go to the column to the right of the first, note the OD of this bushing =1.000
the outside diameter of the slip renewable bushing will equal the inside diameter
of the liner.
3. Note in the third column the length. The length of a bushing should match the
width of the support plates. Remember that the support length of a bushing
needs to be between one to two times the diameter of the drill whenever
possible. As the size of the finished hole is .75 we will choose a bushing that
has the same value for its length. (SF-64-12-.7500 REAMER. This is the number
that is listed on the Bill of Materials). Note the cost $12.05 plus the special fee for
the reamer tolerances on the ID of the bushing. (Many people will not bother with
the reamer extension as it costs too much, however there is a little extra
tolerance to allow for the increased friction that exists with a reamer. Reamer
bushings should be used rather than drill bushings).
4. Take a note of the lockscrews listed in the last column that you can use with this
bush (LS2 etc).
5. Go back to the top of the page note the value for R in the top left corner
schematic. This is based on the Outside Diameter of the bush we just chose
(1.0). In this case the R value is 59/64 (.922) and represents the location from
the center hole to the threaded hole that supports the lockscrew. All the other
information you need to represent the bush is listed here as well.
6. Go to the liner pages. Find the liner whose Inside Diameter is 1.000 to match
the outside diameter of the renewable bushing. Note its real size is 1.0004
1.0007 to allow some clearance between the liner and the slip renewable
bushing. Find the one that has the same length as the S/F bushing from step 3.
Its number is L-88-12 and its price is $10.87.


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7. In the same area note the outside diameter of the liner as being 1.375 diameter
this will represent the basic size of the hole in the jig plate. You will also notice
that the actual size is over the basic size this ensures that the liner will press
into the jig plate (note to me, UG values). Normally we use a standard H7
tolerance value to apply to the hole in the jig plate more about this later.
8. Last thing go to the lockscrew page remember we had chosen the LS2 one.
Note the thread requirements for the jig plate 5/16 18 UNC x .75 deep. Its
price is $0.44.
9. The only addition to the information is to determine the second S/F bushing we
need to drill the hole. Simply go to the ordering information from step 3 and
change the last number to a four decimal place value for a drill 1/64 (or 1/32)
smaller than the .750 ream size =.7344. Order this bush as SF-64-12-.7344.

Metric Drill Sizes.

As Carr Lane is an American company, you will see limited information about metric
values. Look at the Carr Lane web site under each of the bushing types for availability.
Note the slight increase in costs for metric bushings. You will have difficulty with some
combinations using the metric bushings that are available often finding the inch
equivalents to the metric requirements is the easiest route.

Example:

Drill and Tap a M6 hole

1. Determine the tap drill size for the M6 tap. The easiest place for this is the Carr
Lane book in the appendices page 379 or you can click on the General
Information tab on the left side of the Main Menu page on the Carr lane web site.
Chose the On Line Trig Book option and then chose Thread Sizes and Tap Drills
from the list. The tap drill size is 5.00mm (#8 drill)
2. Go to the web site bushing tab and look at the S/F type - note the Sizes and
Prices Metric link.
3. Select the link and look at the range of bushings in the left column. This is where
the problems begin note that the range 4.01 6.0mm would NOT be
appropriate. This is because the S/F bushing for guiding a tap needs to be
slightly larger than the basic size. Looking at this we can see that there is no
available combination.
4. However we can order the Special bushing at an additional cost of USD$35 per
setup. Therefore one bushing will cost you an extra $35 or 10 bushings an extra
$3.50 per bushing. Also note the quantity discounts. Therefore we will be able to


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use the same series of bush for the tap guide bushing but they will be a special
order.
5. Lets choose SFM 10 12. This means that the OD is 10mm, length is 12mm.
To complete the ordering information add the ID: SFM-10-12-5.00 (Cost =
$11.31c) Look at the required lockscrew =LSM1
6. Choose the appropriate tap bushing. There used to be a specific table to
determine the size from the technical information area of the bushings page, but
they removed this a few years ago. Generally leave between .003 and .005 for
clearance between the tap and guide bushing. Many people DO NOT guide their
taps this is because the previously drilled hole provides support and guidance
for the tap I have used both techniques in the past. If you want to use a tap
bushing then the cost will be the $11.31 +$35 setup fee.
7. Choose the Liner to suit the OD of 10mm. Go to the Metric Liner section of the
bushing page and cursor down until you get to the metric Liners. Look for the
same length as the S/F bushing chosen earlier with a 10mm ID =PM-15-12-
10.00. (Cost =$7.15c)
8. Price the LSM1 lockscrew =0.68c (note the 5mm thread value). Total price for
the metric bushings is
9. I have done a comparative pricing by simply substituting imperial values for the
metric ones. The part numbers are:

SF bushing for Drill and Tap =SF-32-6-.1990 ($10.34c)
=SF-32-6-.2410 ($45.10c)
Lockscrew =LS1 (0.44c)
Liner =L-48-6-32 ($6.63c)
Total Cost =$62.51c

The cost of ordering the metric bushings is about $4 more than this, so not a great deal of money
but if you have 30 or 40 bushings on your jig then it may be worth looking at imperial equivalents.
Once this process is complete you are now able to dimension the drawings of the J ig Plate:
Complete the drawing below supplying ALL the dimensions and associated tolerances.





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30
Your Turn: Determine the dimensions and tolerances for the J ig Plate shown here. The
WORKPIECE is to have 2 holes drilled to a letter size F, and is to maintain a center to center
tolerance of .005. Fully dimension the plate and fill in the table below.






















List the Bill Of Material part number in the table below:

Part Part Number Cost
The Liner
The Lockscrew
The S/F Bushing
Repeat but for this one assume that you are designing for a 100mm diameter hole
and the center-to-center distance has a tolerance of 0.05mm.

Part Part Number Cost
The Liner
The Lockscrew
The S/F Bushing
<TEXT>


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Jig and Fixture Design - So Where Do I Start?




1) Draw the part model. Keep it simple they are only going to be used for
relationship purposes, so fillets and rounds, ribs and the like are not really
required unless you are using the model for other operations such as sales or
NC programming. On the other hand make sure that the positions of the holes
and machined surfaces are correct. If you have Metric parts, make sure the
model is created in Millimeters
1
. The part can be created in its finished (post
machined) form or using various configurations (Solidworks) that represent the
stages at which the part is manufactured.
2) Start with the locators using the parts model start an assembly and place or
create various location devices using the standard rules discussed in class.
Many of the parts can be down loaded from Carr Lane, J ergens or other parts
manufacturers. Conversely, build the locators however, remember that any
parts you design and build will require a fully dimensioned detail drawing for part
manufacture. If you create a part based on available purchased parts, only those
changes to the purchased part need to be detailed. These locators and rests can
be created in place (within the assembly) or as part files and then inserted into
the assembly. The major advantage to in place creation will be if the part model
is changed the locators will update automatically. Another point here
remember that you can create parts in both metric and inch systems regardless
of the part template used.
3) Place the drill bushings in the correct location. Try to conform to the rules of
bushing placement and size but also consider placing them with preferred sizes

1
Many of the J ig and Fixture components that you download are in inches as metric parts are not readily available
from the North American suppliers: however, both Solidworks and Inventor allow you to input values in both systems
of measurement.


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32
in mind. Bushing sizes must be from the available list in the Carr Lane catalogue
or pay special charge costs for the manufacture of special bushings.
4) Determine the clamping techniques. This may be an integral part of the location
device, but make sure that you clamp over the support mechanisms or into the
locators.
5) Build up the tool body around the locators, clamps and drill bushings. Use Carr
Lane parts as much as possible. Another thing to note here that if the Carr Lane
part is not the size you are looking for, you CANNOT just change it arbitrarily,
you can only use what you can buy or you make your own. Remember that you
can add or remove to these parts. YOU MUST attach each of the tool body parts
together by using dowel pins and cap screws. Try to use Socket Head Cap
Screws to keep the heads below the surface of the body.
6) Place any cables or jig feet on the tool body.
7) Decide how each of the details (clamps, locators and buttons) are attached to
the body - this can be threaded, press fit or doweled and cap screwed but no
glue please except if you want to attach some softer material pad to prevent
damage to the part.
8) Now the assembly is completed create a full BOM and ballooning. Be SPECIFIC.
If you are using a piece of raw stock material then list the exact material type and
the RAW STOCK SIZE. Bushings lock screws and other purchased parts should
use the correct manufacturers part numbers and the vendor. If you have
changed the parts you purchased from a vendor, then only the changes have to
be shown in the form of a dimensioned detail drawing. Any bought out parts
where the material is decided for you may be specified in the material list as
Comm. (commercial), or Std. (Standard), STK. (Stock) or Default. Exploded
views are the best to determine assembly order and location they also prevent
you from having to produce multiple design views to show all the parts.


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33
9) FULLY dimension and tolerance each detail part. Try to stay with preferred sizes
whenever you can. There will be some instances when this is not possible but for
most dimensions you will be able to comply with this. Use standard template
drawings to ensure that all of the information is consistent as far as fonts, text
heights, line thickness and dimension variables are concerned. Only create ONE
drawing file that contains both assembly and detail drawings.
10) Make sure the property information is maintained so that the title block
information updates correctly. Use a standard naming convention so that the
parts are all titled similarly within the BOM. Make use of the various property
variables to output what you need.
11) Go back and make any changes. It is very likely that the process will show you
areas where you think improvements can be made. If you think they are
worthwhile then go ahead but in the end make your mind up, stick with and
complete the design. THERE IS NO ONE EXACT DESIGN!


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34
Costing

There are many techniques for costing tooling, but there are two main methods that companies
will use to determine the best method of getting paid for the tool. In normal circumstances the
method chosen will depend on the quantity, the company you are making the tool for and the
tools final cost.

Many Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) have long standing agreements with the first
tier companies such as Toyota, General Motors, Ford and Boeing. In these cases the first tier
manufacturer can guarantee quantities and the time lines that contracts will run for what this
means is that it is very easy for the tool provider to determine the tools viability over a required
volume. In other cases where perhaps the OEM is tendering out the business as a sub-contract
the decision to either sell the tool to the OEM or build the tool at your expense is more difficult.
If you sell the tool to the OEM there is nothing to prevent them from giving the sub-contract to
another provider if you cannot meet the demand for a lower quote. This happens frequently
after the first batch of parts has been completed.

If you build the tool at your expense, your first years quote should take into consideration the
tools cost, you can then reduce your quotes for subsequent years; however the original cost of
the tool can be financially overwhelming.

In the car industry Ford, GM and rest will demand that the subsequent batch will be cheaper
than the first they assume that you will find cheaper methods once you have made the parts
once and will be able to pass on those savings to the end consumer.

The two techniques that are used for tool costs are as follows:

1. You price the tool independently of the parts that the tool is producing. You can then
sell the tool to the OEM, or maintain ownership of the tool yourself. However tools
can cost a great deal of money, for instance the tool that produced a fire wall
stamping for a BMW can cost up to $500,000. For a small company that has limited
funds, plus no guarantee that they will receive the stamping contracts a second time,
these costs must be passed onto the OEM as a separate charge. The problem is as
we stated above the tool becomes the property of the OEM (who may pass on that
cost to BMW), who can then re-tender the next batch of stampings to another
company. The main benefits of this technique are that there is no hidden cost in the
stamped parts, and the tools manufacture has the money for the tool in their bank
account.
2. You include the cost of the tool within the first batch of the stampings. The benefits
are that you now own the tool and are very likely to receive the next tender as you
will be able to quote a lower price now that you no longer have to worry about the
cost of the tool being amortized. The disadvantage is that you have absorbed the
cost of the tool for the length of the first tender and if you are a small company might
very well be out of business.



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35
As you can see, there is no good answer especially for a smaller company
How to Cost.

There are many different formulas to determine the price of the tooling per part, break even
costs and quantity requirements. Some are difficult and others are over-simplified. We are
going to choose one that takes the majority of the variables into consideration.

There are four different scenarios:

The production per year of a part necessary to pay for the cost of the tool a break
even point.
The maximum allowable cost of the tooling to break even with the given saving (%) at a
specified number of parts.
The number of years it will take to pay for the tooling with a given saving (s).
The net savings per piece based on the use of a tool versus not using a tool.

There are nine (9) variables to consider:


Number of pieces produced per year =N
The cost of the tooling =C
Difference between the scrap value of the old tool and the new tool =S
Yearly interest that would have been earned had you not had to spend the money on
producing the tool =i
Percentage cost of upkeep of the tool as a decimal of the total =u
The numbers of years required for the amortization of the tool =a
The overhead of the company expressed as a percentage =t
Saving in dollars in the direct operating of using the tool per piece =s
Percentage of Burden, expressed as a decimal =L

The general formal from these variables looks like this:

) 1 (
) / 1 (
L s
Si a t u i C
N
+
+ + +
=

It is normal to assume that I, u, and t will be the same constant values for a length of time,
therefore the formula can be simplified by replacing these values with a constant f the formula
now becomes:

) 1 ( L s
Si Cf
N
+
+
=



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36
Example:

Assume the following values:

C =$600
i =5%
u =7%
t =12% (overhead)
a =2 Years

f in the simplified formula will be:

0.05 +0.07 +0.12 +0.5 =0.74

We would then work out what the s value would be. This value can be as low as a couple of
cents or as high as a $100. It is up to your best judgment to determine the appropriate value
not easy unless you actually compare by doing, which is what the larger companies will do with
time and motion studies.

s =$0.10
L =0.5 (this value determine how long the tool and die maker would be spent making money for
the company and how long they are an overhead cost)
S =0 (assumes that this is a new tool and not a re-work)

As S =0 then the calculation will equal:

2960
) 5 . 1 ( 10 . 0
0 74 . 0 * 600
=
+
+
= N


Therefore it will take 2960 parts to break even with a tool that costs $600. Every part over 2960
will generate an extra profit of 0.10c per part.

These equations can of course be manipulated to find out other information. If the numbers of
pieces to be produced per year are known together with the operating expenses then we can
find out what is the maximum cost we can spend on the tool:

f
Si L Ns
C
+
=
) 1 (

If you know that you are going to produce a number of parts over a number of years then you
can determine how many years you need to break even:

) ( ) 1 ( t u i C Si L Ns
C
a
+ + +
=


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37
If you wished to find the final savings of using a fixture then the formula becomes:

P = Ns (1 + L) Si - Cf


These cover most of the scenarios there are whole volumes dedicated to costing and is
indeed a field of its own. Materials Management staff are used in larger companies to
determine savings.

All jobs are priced at the shop rate for that particular company. There is no one set value for
this but can range between $50 per/hour for a small jobbing shop up to $150 per/hour and up
for those companies that have unique production techniques available to them. To make
costing easier we always turn our production times into decimal hours.

Hrs/ Minutes Decimal Hours
1.00 1.00
hour 0.50
hour 0.25
6 minutes 0.1
1 minute 0.0167
1 sec 0.000277


All manufacturing jobs are priced either formally or informally. A formal costing is essential if
large quantities or intricate manufacturing techniques are required. An informal estimate can be
used if the person doing the estimation is very familiar with manufacturing arts. It is unlikely that
the informal estimate will use increments less than hour, but on formal estimates time down
to the second are done with the aid of time and motion studies.



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38
Estimating Jig and Fixture Costs

These are merely guides as to how long an experienced machinist would take to
produce the various parts of a tool from a piece of raw stock material. Adjustments to
purchased parts have to be estimated accordingly.

Base plates
2
.

These are classified as Small, Medium or Large:

Small base plates enclose parts 1 x 1
Medium base plates enclose parts up to 3 x 3
Large base plates enclose parts up to 6 x 6

Base plate complexity changes based on what the tool is designed to do, the time
values in the table below include the following:

Cut of, squaring, grinding, drilling, and reaming of base. Additionally for drill jigs,
manufacturing four jig feet and 4 rest buttons. For milling fixtures: milling four bolt (hold
down) slots, two fixture keyways, making and fitting 2 fixture keys, and making 4 rest
buttons. For turning fixtures the time includes changes to a purchased faceplate,
providing bolt holes for fastening the faceplate to the chuck and milling slots in the
faceplate for clamping the part.

Table 1: Time Values for Base Plates
Size Thickness Width Length Est. Hours
Drilling J igs
Small - 1 3 3 6
Medium 1 7 7 8
Large - 1 12 12 10

Milling Fixtures
Small - 1.5 3 6 10
Medium - 1.5 6 9 12
Large - 1.5 10 14 14

Bench Fixtures
Small 1 4 6 5
Medium 1 6 8 7

2
Base plates are usually between 1 and 3 inches larger on each side than the parts they are enclosing


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39
Large 1 9 12 9

Face plates
Large Purchase Plate 6


Table 2: Time Values for Angular Base Plates
Size Single Angle Multiple plates C angle
Hours Hours Hours
Small 3x3x3 10 5 7
Medium 6x6x6 15 9 11
Large 6x9x9 20 13 15


Locators

These may be round rectangular, nesting plates, vee blocks and so on:

Table 3: Time Values for 5 locators
Small up to
Straight 1.75 hours
Shouldered 2.5 hours
Diamond 3.0 hours

Large up to 1.5 diameter
Straight 2.0 hours
Shouldered 3.0 hours
Diamond 3.5 hours

* Does not include costs for hardening. Nests, vee blocks and edge blocks can take
significantly longer to produce. Clamps, guide bushings and fasteners should be
purchased and not manufactured.



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Readings

Chapter #1

As you read through the chapter, make your own notes using the questions supplied
below. The questions are listed chronologically so fill them in as you come to that part
of the text. In this way you will be able to refer to them during the lectures. On the
back of the sheet list any material that does not make sense to you, or items that you
want to bring up in class for discussion.

1. What is the crucial difference between a J ig and a Fixture?


2. What are the two general types of J igs?


3. There are two general types of workholding device (you may want to expand this
to three) that J igs and Fixtures are designated by - what are they?


4. Give two examples of general purpose workholders.


5. Choosing a workholding device is dependant on these three categories. List the
points from each area.
a) Tooling Cost,
b) Tooling Details
c) Tooling Operation.


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41

Were there any points that were not clear to you or you would like to bring for discussion?
Chapter #3 (Pages 29-46)

1. What is the desired effect a location must have?


2. What is referencing?


3. How is referencing accomplished?


4. What is the ideal location on a part?

5. How many degrees of freedom must be controlled?

6. What is the main function of a locator and why must it be sufficiently large enough
for the application?


7. What elements in the tool resist the cutting forces?

8. What are the three types of location?


9. A part that uses plane location requires how many points for the three datum
surfaces?


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42

10. What is the most efficient form of location?

11. If a part is located using two holes, how many degrees of freedom are there left to
control?

12. Define a redundant location?

13. What is a foolproof pin?

14. What is the location pin size always based on?

15. The distance between locators - especially those locating to toleranced holes -
have a tolerance of their own - as a general rule how much of that tolerance can
be used to position the location pins?

Were there any points that were not clear to you or you would like to bring for
discussion?


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Chapter #4
1. What is the difference between a locator and a support?


2. What is the most common form of location device?

3. When are diamond pins used and why?


4. How could you locate a large bore?

5. Which orientation must be used when using a "vee" locator with a round workpiece
sketch it.




6. What is a nest?


7. What is a rest button?

8. Why use J ig Feet?


9. What type of jig would you expect to find a spring loaded location pin?

10. Where are alignment pins applicable?


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Note!! Always use cables to attach any loose parts to a tool.


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45

Chapter 5 - Clamping Devices

1. Apply a 3000lb clamping force (at F) for each of the three classes of levers on
page 95. What class of lever provides the most clamping force assuming that on
the first class lever L
2
=L
1
and on the second and third class levers L
2
=0.5L
1
.




How can we radically increase the amount of clamping force applied to the 3rd
class lever (the most commonly used clamp)?


2. What would be a restriction to applying unlimited force to the clamp in the last
question?




3. When would you use a goose neck clamp?




4. One function of the slotted-heel clamp is to slide the clamp back to clear the
workpiece for loading/unloading, what is a second major benefit?


5. How can you avoid using very long studs (that may bend) to clamp high
workpieces?




6. Even though you can bench press 200lbs, is the cam clamp (page 104) very
effective?



7. Why use "C" washers?



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46




8. Page 116 - What is the purpose of the Bar Knob?



9. You have a choice between a 1/2"-13 U.N.C. thread and a 1/2 - 20 U.N.F. thread
for an application where speed is important - which one are you going to use and
why?


10. Same as the last question but this time you are more interested in obtaining as
much force as possible. Which one do you choose now and why?



11. What are Bar-Lok quick action screw clamps?




12. On what type of jigs or fixture are quarter turn screws used?




13. Your part requires clamping but you cannot clamp across the top surface of the
workpiece because you want to machine it. How can you clamp it into the fixture?

14. Can Edge Clamps apply more "down" force or lateral force?



15. Toggle clamps should only be used of which of the following applications? Drill J ig
application, Inspection devices, Welding fixtures, Milling fixtures and Inspection
fixtures.


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47
Chapter 7 Drill Bushings

1. The main purpose of a drill bushing is:




2. What would cause a drill to cut oversize



3. Specify the standard classification of a drill bushing and explain what it
means.




4. There are three general categories of drill bushing: permanent, renewable,
and air feed. Of the permanent and renewable types, which one provides the
greatest accuracy?




5. Would a jig ground hole into a hardened plate provide more or less accuracy
than the two types mentioned above?




6. Press fit bushings (P or PC) are designed to allow drilling and reaming to take
place. T or F? Explain




7. Why use headed press fit bushings?







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48
8. How can you ensure that the head of a headed bushing is below the surface
and thus out of the way?


9. Which of the following types of grooved bushing should NOT be pressed into
a J ig Plate: Diamond, Serrata, or Serrata Grooved? Why?




10. What is a template jig?





11. Circuit Board bushings (CB or CBC) are used for holes between 0.014
diameter and 0.141. T or F?





12. What is the main purpose of using renewable bushings?




13. What are the three parts that make up a renewable bushing assembly?




14. Slip/Fixed (S/F type bushings), what does this mean?





15. Can you use an S/F bushing without a hardened liner?




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49


16. What is a unilock liner?




17. Give an example of a material type that would require that you use a chip-
breaker bushing?



18. Large, multi-spindle machines are an ideal application for oil-feed bushing
applications. T or F?

19. Drilling into a curved surface would require a __________ end to the bushing.

20. If you have two holes that are close to each other, what can you do to the
bushings to make them fit?


21. Are you restricted to the bushing lists in the Carr lane or other catalogues?


22. The jig plate supports the liners, s/f bushings and the lockscrews. How wide
(thick) should they be?


23. If you have a drilled hole 2 diameter, what are the alternatives to using a 2
thick piece of steel?



24. What is the advised clearance between the underside of the jig plate and the
top of the workpiece?


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Chapter 8

1) What is the function of the tool body?



2) What are the three general categories of tool body



3) Give two advantages to Cast Bodies


4) Give two advantages to welded bodies



5) What is the major problem with Cast Bodies?



6) What is the best suited out of the three types of tool bodies for most
applications?



7) When should we use hoist rings?



8) What is a threaded insert?


9) When should threaded inserts be used?


10) Always dowel built up parts together. T or F




11) If you insist on not using dowel pins then give one viable alternative


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Assignments:


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Assignment #1

Work Process Sheets and Location Techniques

This assignment is worth 10% of the total.

Date Due :-

Part 1 (50%)

Develop a process sheet for the part that you have been given that will enable FULL
manufacture of the part from the initial operation "inspect incoming castings" through
to the last operation "Pack".

Assume that there is .125" (3mm) material on cast surfaces if you have a cast part.

Some points to note are: -

The description part of the operation sheet should specifically indicate the area
of the part that is being machined. The operation numbers indicate separate
setups. Therefore, if in a single setup a hole is drilled and then countersunk, this
is regarded as one operation. Removal of the part from the setup will require a
separate operation.
Operation numbers should increment by 10. This allows the insertion of
operations should it become necessary.
Machine descriptions may be generic, for instance; - Horizontal mill or Radial
arm drill.
Estimated times should be filled in for setup and operation. Setup refers to the
initial time that it takes to prepare the machine, operation to the actual
turnaround time for each piece. I recognise that this will be a very grey area and I
will mark this accordingly, but do fill this column in.
You may find it useful to number the surfaces/holes to allow easier identification,
you can highlight the copy of the drawing that is included and return it with your
assignment.

The tools area refers to the machine tooling, not the actual cutting instruments so leave
this blank for the moment. We will be using this part at a later date to generate ideas
for the jig and fixture requirements; do not worry about how we are going to do this at
this time.


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53

Use the operation sheets provided on the system under K:\fulltime\tkattenhorn\jig and
fixtures\assignments\operation Sheet.xls. There is a completed sample sheet provided
for you at the end off this assignment so you can compare the layout to your own

Part 2. (50%)

This part of the assignment will cover an important part of J ig/Fixture design
determining the best location for a part that will ensure repeatability. At this time you are
to draw the locations to the exact size you want we will discuss the actual values plus
the required tolerances at a later date.

Interference with clamps, locations, nuts and bolts etc may cause changes to your initial
designs. Often these initial designs are used to determine their viability and to promote
early recognition of weaknesses in the tooling.

From your process sheet you have just completed provide the best location techniques
that will provide a stable platform for the manufacture of your part. As you have been
advised you should choose datum surfaces that will restrict as many axis of motion as
possible. It is also advisable to use the same location areas throughout the entire parts
process; however this is rarely achieved as initial operations often produce the locations
for later manufacturing, however there should only be TWO separate location
techniques, one for the first operation and the second for ALL subsequent operations.
BE SURE TO TAKE INTO CONSIDERATION THE DIMENSIONING OF THE PART.
Model the part you have been given and show the location technique in two views this
need not include all of the intricacy of the entire part but should be clear enough to
indicate the parts configuration and its orientation relative to the location devices. There
is no need at this time to show how the location devices are attached to a frame this
will come later. You are to design location devices for EACH operation that requires a
jig or fixture you identified these in the process sheet from part A of this assignment.
You can either create a drawing file of the location device with the part placed in the
correct location, or if it is clear enough views of the model can be printed.

Hand in process sheet and the hardcopy drawings of your location designs for those
operations that require tooling. Show the model with a transparent texture/material so
that the locations can show through. Include one of the multiple drawings I gave to you
of your part.


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Assignment #2

Clamping Forces

This assignment is worth 5% of the total.

Date Due :-

Take the part that you have been given. For each of the operations there will be a worst
case scenario where the forces produced by the cutting action will be at their maximum.
I want you to determine the clamping forces for each operation based on the material
type, and the specified speeds and feeds. You can find the appropriate information for
speeds and feeds at the end of this assignment, Mikes Excel data sheets or any good
machining handbook you should also recognise that these speeds and feeds are
under ideal conditions which rarely occur. You are to use the Excel spreadsheet
Clamping force & hp.xls located on the K:\Full Time\Tkattenhorn\J igs and
Fixtures\Assignments folder as a template. Note the tabs at the bottom of this
spreadsheet: Drill, Lathe and Milling use the appropriate one for the worst case
operation. Each of the separate machine types have an associated K factor tab as
well imbedded as a lookup table. Note that the safety factor has been placed into the
worksheet do not change this number. Three completed spreadsheets are supplied
so that you know if the formulas are correct.
Ensure that you identify the operation number and a brief text description of what you
are doing. For instance Operation 20 - Drill hole or Machine 1/8

from the top
surface. Print this text on the spreadsheet in a convenient cell.

Hand in the printed Excel spreadsheets (one for each operation).


J igs & Fixtures Page 55 of 68 J &F Notes.DOC

55
In-Class - Assignment #3

Bushing Selection
This assignment is worth 5% of the total.

Take your part and determine the bushing/liner/lockscrew requirements for EVERY
hole. List them in the chart below; answers may be hand written or you can find this
assignment on K:\Full Time\Tkattenhorn\J igs and Fixtures\Assignments\Ass#3.doc to fill
in the table.
You are not restricted to just the standard SF bushings and liners. Headed liners, press
fit bushings, chip breaker types and any others can be used just make sure that the
ordering numbers are correct. Bushing price lists can be found on the Carr Lane web
site.
Do not include any bored holes normally this purports to holes over 1 (25mm). In
some circumstances where reaming is not taking place, holes larger than 1 can be
drilled (up to 4).
If your part is metric then you have the option of ordering metric bushings, however, as
Carr Lane is a US company, selection can be limited.
Drill/Ream/Tap
size
Bushing # Liner # Lockscrew Price












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56
In Class Assignment #4
Determining Appropriate Tolerances

This assignment is worth 5% of the total.

From the provided assembly, determine the appropriate number of decimal places and
tolerances for the individual details. Each part of the detail that is in contact with
another should have explicit tolerances based on the standard limits and fit tables
supplied to you the decision of what these tolerances are is dependant on your
understanding of the assemblies function. No other values other than those identified
should be dimensioned.
Add surface finish symbols that will be suitable for the manufacturing process chosen
on an operation. Many of these can be attributed to a general note while others will be
explicitly placed on a features surface.
The dimensions, tolerances and surface finish symbols may be added NEATLY by
hand on the supplied drawings, or you may dimension the drawing directly inside of
AutoCAD or Inventor you will find the drawing file under K:\Full Time\Tkattenhorn\J igs
and Fixtures\ass4.dwg

The slight change!!!
Oh, I forgot to mention, the first sheet is to be completed in inches and you are to do
part 2 of the drawing using the METRIC system. The actual part is modelled in
millimetres
3
just find the imperial equivalents to the metric values and use those as
the Basic dimensions

3
Be careful when reading the drawing some values are difficult to see


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57

Mark evaluation scheme:
Marks will be awarded for your correct interpretation of the assemblies function, and the
applied dimensions and tolerances to support that function, an appropriate number of
decimal places on dimensions to imply the accuracy required, and appropriate surface
finishes. Note the supplied general tolerance block on the drawing that applies to
implied tolerance values.



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58
Jig Design Working and Assembly Drawings
This assignment is worth 30% of the total.
Assignment #5
Date Due

This is an INDIVIDUAL assignment however you are more than welcome to share
ideas with the other person on the class that may have the same part as you. The
drawings may not look that difficult, but be aware that this assignment will take a
considerable amount of time if it is done correctly. Please take a good look at the
example that we have been working through to appreciate the depth and quality I wish
you to attain.

Each of you has a different part that requires a Jig to be designed for manufacture.
As each of the parts requires different locations, guiding mechanisms and clamping,
these instructions will be generic to them all. Even if you have more than one jig design
needed for your part only ONE design needs to be completed.

Prepare a set of working drawings (details) and a full assembly drawing, for the part you
have been given. The assembly drawing should:

Include a FULL Bill Of Materials to include raw stock sizes if
needed and the EXACT material type
Include Balloons if you have any sub-assemblies setup the
software so that every part within the sub-assembly is ballooned
with an appropriate number
Notes these will include surface hardness of some parts, specific
anodized finishes or other specific information
Title Block and Border fully filled in using parametric values

The detail drawings must be FULLY dimensioned to a stage where you ask yourselves
" Can the part be made from the information I have given without the person
making the parts having to ask me questions?" This will include tolerances for
every part, either listed in the general notes placed by the Title block or as an explicitly
toleranced dimension. Number (balloon) each of the parts and name them so they
match the assembly drawing part numbers. Standard parts are NOT to be drawn as
details but must be included in the assembly drawing however if modifications are
made to standard bought out parts, such as a clamp, then those modifications must be
dimensioned. Material requirements (pre-machined sizes and exact type) should be
listed in the Bill of materials. Plot the drawing(s) on the plotter (or printer) at 1:1 scale. I
do not need a disk copy of the file I will mark it from the manufacturing standpoint
please see the marking template that I will use. Do NOT underestimate the time this
assignment takes.


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59
Design of J igs and Fixtures Mark sheet

Name: _________________________ Date: _________

Title of Part: _________________________

Domain of Design. Comments:

Adherence to Design Principles: A B C D F
(Safety, easy to use, economical to make etc)

Adherence to Locating Principles: A B C D F
(Datum point locating, spread, ease of loading etc)

Adherence to Clamping principles: A B C D F
(Size, position, obstructive, keys, stops rests etc)

Appropriate use of Screws and Dowels: A B C D F
(Body part connection, positioning etc)

Completeness of Drawings: A B C D F
(Material type, treatments, view requirements etc)

Dimensioning of detail drawings: A B C D F
(Can I make it from the information supplied?)

Complete Materials list: A B C D F
(ALL parts, nuts, washers cables etc)

Drawing Appearance: A B C D F



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60
Total Mark as a percentage: __________ see over for comments:
Comments:


_________________________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________________________


J igs & Fixtures Page 61 of 68 J &F Notes.DOC

61
Fixture Design

This assignment is worth 20% of the total.

Assignment #6

Date Due:

This fixture assignment should make extensive use of the Carr Lane catalogue
components.

The advised layout should include a Fixture Bases (Page 271) with Fixture
Keys (Page 295) to correctly align the base to the horizontal / vertical milling
machines table.

The part may be located on the fixture base using Round Pins (Page 74) and or
adjusting/fixed supports and rest buttons (Page 79) - ensure that one pin, or
some kind of barrier is at the end that is directly opposite the longitudinal thrust
of the cutters that are used to produce the cutting motion.

Apply pressure to the pins by using Spring Loaded Positioners (Page 84 - 86)
at the opposite ends to the location devices.

Clamp the workpiece down using adequate Strap Clamp Assemblies (Page
103), toggle clamp assemblies (Page 146), or hand clamps to prevent the part
from moving. Power clamping may also be a consideration (Chapter 6).
However if used you must supply the hydraulic/pneumatic circuit.

Include a Tool Setting Block - this will have to be designed to enable the cutters
to be correctly positioned in both the X and Y and Z axis. The basic shape of the
setting block depends on the tool location requirements. It should be screwed
and dowelled in position on the fixture base. Stamp on the setting block the
correct feeler gauge that is to be used to set the cutter.

You can use the Hole Charts if you wish to avoid dimensioning clutter.
Note to include any Heat Treatment required Harden the setting block.
Note or surface finish symbols to indicate the ground surfaces.
Drawings are required for each manufactured detail part and the assembly
Include a stamped part number on the fixture base for identification purposes.
This number would match the tool number specified on an operation sheet.
Try to design for the manufacture of multiple parts at one time - it's less
expensive.


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62
Costing.

Also required for this assignment is a costing sheet for the tool. Use a quantity of
1000 pieces to determine the cost of the fixture per part. The cost of the tool is to
be estimated from the sheets supplied to you - remember that many of these costs on
the supplied sheets are for full manufacture, if you are modifying Carr Lane parts then
the costs will obviously only reflect those modifications. You will also have to determine
how long it is going to take to machine the fixture parts - use your best judgement for
this - I do not expect you to calculate exactly how long the cuts take, a reasonable
estimate is all I am looking for. The savings value (s) is a difficult one. As we are costing
for a fixture then we can compare how long it takes to setup each individual part using a
fixture versus how long it takes to set up a part without using a fixture. The difference
between these two will equal the saving time (s). This value could be anywhere from 5c
for a square shaped object to $50 for a difficult shaped object use your best
judgement, this is not a skill easily obtained other than lots of manufacturing
experience. From this determine how many pieces have to be manufactured to
break even with this tool only - normally you would have to consider all the tools that
are used to manufacture the part in the calculations. All variables not specified here can
be assumed to be the same as the example supplied to you. Costing can either be
done on a spreadsheet or a word processor.

I again want to stress the length of time these designs take.


J igs & Fixtures Page 63 of 68 J &F Notes.DOC

63
Gauge/Inspection Fixture

This last assignment is worth 10% of the total.

Assignment #7

Objective: To Design an Inspection Fixture to check all of the positional geometric
features of your own workpiece. I must vet the workpiece geometric
dimension before you start as some will not be applicable. If your part has
no geometric tolerances, you are to generate some, based on your
perception of the parts function. You may also convert traditional
tolerance zones into positional tolerances for hole locations.

The part that you are checking provides the means to determine if it falls within the
specified geometric limits of the drawing. By far the easiest features to check will be
positions of holes, and by far the most difficult will be those features that check for
geometric deviations such as flatness or profiles. All the parts that contact the
workpiece parts will be hardened and ground, and we try to avoid time consuming
clamping devices - we only want to position, hold and check not cut. The
requirements are as follows:
An Assembly drawing that,

Includes a FULL Bill Of Materials
Includes Balloons, Notes a Title Block and Border

Detail drawings that are FULLY dimensioned. This will NOT include tolerances (only
absolute sizes) as inspection fixtures are manufactured using gauge makers tolerances.
Number (balloon) each of the parts and name them so they match the assembly
drawing part numbers. Standard parts are NOT to be drawn as details but must be
included in the assembly drawing. Material requirements (pre-machined sizes and
type) should be listed in the Bill of materials. Plot/print the drawing(s). I do not need a
disk copy of the file.
Remember, you MUST use the datums for locating the object as the geometric values
are derived from these features. If printer plots are sufficient to show the necessary
details them these are acceptable, if not plotter plots will be required.
This assignment is due by the last day of the semester - NO Extensions

Thanks for you attention this semester I hope that you found the information useful
and will look back one day when you are using the information as it being valuable!


J igs & Fixtures Page 64 of 68 J &F Notes.DOC

64
Cutting Speed and Feeds


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65
Appendix B: Cutting Speeds for Selected Cutting Tool Materials, Part
Materials, and Machining Operations
(Note cutting Speeds for High Speed Steel are about
1
/
4
of Uncoated carbide tools)
General Recommendations for Turning Operations
General Purpose Starting Conditions Range for Roughing and Finishing
Work piece Material Cutting
Tool
Depth of Cut Feed
Mm/rev
(in/rev)
Cutting
Speed
m/min
ft/min
Depth of
Cut
Mm
(in)
Feed
Mm/rev
(in/rev)
Cutting Speed
m/min
(ft/min)
Low Carbon, Free
Machining steels
Uncoated
Carbide

Ceramic
Coated
Carbide
1.5 6.3
(.06-.25)


.35
(.014)


90
(300)

245-275
(800-900)
.5 7.6
(.02-.30)


.15 1.1
(.006 - .045)


60-135
(200-450)

120-425
(400-1400)
Medium and High Carbon
Steels
Uncoated
Carbide

Ceramic
Coated
Carbide

1.2 4.0
(.05 - .20)


.30
(.012)


75
(250)

185-230
(600-750)
2.5-7.6
(.10 - .30)


.15 - .75
(.006 - .03)


45 120
(150 400)

120 410
(400 -1350)
Grey Cast Iron Uncoated
Carbide

Ceramic
Coated
Carbide
1.25-6.3
(.05 - .25)


.32
(.013)


90
(300)

200
(650)
.4 12.7
(.015 - .5)


.1 - .75
(.004 - .013)


75-185
(250 600)

120 365
(400 1200)
Stainless Steels Triple
Coated
Carbide
1.5 4.4
(.06 - .175)
.35
(.014)
150
(500)
.5 12.7
(.02 - .5)
.1 75
(.004 - .03)
75 185
(250 600)
Nickel Based alloys Uncoated
Carbide

Ceramic
Coated
Carbide
2.5
(.1)
.15
(.006)
25-45
(75 150)
.25 6.3
(.01 - .25)
.1 - .3
(.004 - .012)
15 30
(50 -100)
Titanium Alloys Uncoated
Carbide

1.0 - 3.8
(.04 - .15)
.15
(.006)
35 60
(120 200)
.25 6.3
(.01 - .25)
.1 - .4
(.004 - .015)
10 75
(30 250)
Aluminum Alloys Uncoated
Carbide

Coated
Carbide
1.5 5.0
(.06 - .20)


.45
(.018)


490
(1600)

760
(2500)
.25 8.8
(.01 - .35)


.008 - .62
(.003 - .025)


200 670
(650 2000)

60 915
(200 3000)
Copper Alloys Uncoated
Carbide

Ceramic
Coated
Carbide
1.5 5.0
(.06 - .20)


.25
(.010)


260
(850)

365
(1200)
.4 7.5
(.015 - .3)


.15 - .75
(.006 - .03)


105 535
(350 1750)

215 670
(700 2200)
Tungsten Alloys Uncoated
Carbide

Ceramic
Coated
Carbide
2.5
(.10)


.2
(.008)


75
(250)

395
(1300)
.25 5.0
(.01 - .2)


.12 - .45
(.005 - .018)


55 120
(175 400)

60 150
(200 500)

Thermoplastics Ceramic
Coated
Carbide
1.2
(.075)
.12
(.008)
170
(550)
.12 5.0
(.005 - .20)
.08 - .35
(.003 - .015)
90 230
(300 750)


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66

General Recommendations for Milling Operations
General Purpose Starting
Conditions
Range for Roughing and
Finishing
Work piece Material Cutting Tool Feed
Mm/rev
(in/rev)
Cutting Speed
m/min
ft/min
Feed
Mm/rev
(in/rev)
Cutting Speed
m/min
(ft/min)
Low Carbon, Free
Machining steels
Uncoated
Carbide and
Ceramic
Coated Carbide
.13 - .20
(.005 - .008)


120 - 180
(400 - 600)


.085 - .38
(.003 - .015)


90 - 425
(300 - 1400)


Alloy Steels - Soft Uncoated and
Coated Carbide


.1 - .18
(.004 - .007)
90 - 170
(300 - 550)
.08 - .30
(.003 - .012)
60 - 370
(200 - 1200)
Alloy Steels - Hard Coated Carbide

.10 - .15
(.004 - .006)
180 - 210
(600 - 700)
.08 - .25
(.003 - .010)
75 - 460
(250 - 1500)

Cast Iron - Soft Uncoated and
Coated Carbide

.10 .20
(.004 - .008)
120 - 760
(400 - 2500)
.08 - .38
(.003 - .015)
90 - 1370
(300 - 4500)
Cast Iron - Hard Coated Carbide

.1 - .2
(.004 - .008)
120 - 210
(400 - 700)
.08 - .38
(.003 - .015)
90 - 460
(300 - 1500)
Stainless Steel Uncoated/Coate
d Carbide

.13 - .18
(.005 - .007)
120 - 370
(400 - 1200)
.08 - .38
(.003 - .015)
90 - 500
(300 - 1800)
High Temperature
Alloys
Nickel Based
Uncoated/
Coated Carbide
.10 - .18
(.004 - .007)
30 - 370
(100 1200)
.08 - .38
(.003 -.015)
30 - 550
(90 - 1800)

Titanium Alloys Uncoated/Coate
d Carbide
.13 - .15
(.005 - .006)
50 - 60
(175 - 200)
.08 - .38
(.003 - .015)
40 - 140
(125 - 450)

Aluminum Alloys Uncoated/
Coated Carbide
.13 - .23
(.005 - 009)
610 - 900
(2000 - 3000)
.08 - .46
(.003 - .018)
300 - 3000
(1000 10,000)

Copper Alloys Uncoated/
Coated Carbide
.13 - .23
(.005 - .009)
300 - 760
(1000 - 2500)
.08 - .46
(.003 -.018)
90 - 1070
(300 - 3500)

Thermoplastics Uncoated /
Coated Carbide
.13 - .23
(.005 - .009)
270 - 460
(900 - 1500)
.08 - .46
(.003 - .018)
90 - 1350
(300 - 4500)




J igs & Fixtures Page 67 of 68 J &F Notes.DOC

67
Appendix B: Cutting Speeds for Selected Cutting Tool Materials, Part Materials, and
Machining Operations
(Note cutting Speeds for Carbide Drills are about 2 3 times that of H.S.S)

General Recommendations for Speeds and Feeds in Drilling
Surface Speed Feed, mm/rev (in/rev)
Based on drill
diameter
RPM based on drill
diameter
Work piece
Material
M / min Ft / min 1.5 (.06) to
12.5 (.5)
>12.5 (.50) 1.5 (.06) 12.5 (.50)
Aluminum Alloys 30 - 120 100 -400 .025(.001) .30 (.012) 6400 > 800 - 3000
Magnesium Alloys 45 - 120 150 400 .025(.001) .30 (.012) 9600 > 1100
3000
Copper Alloys 15 60 50 200 .025(.001) .025(.001) 3200 12000 400 1500
Steels 20 30 60 100 .025(.001) .30 (.012) 4300 6400 500 800
Stainless Steel 10 20 40 60 .025(.001) .18 (.007) 2100 4300 250 500
Titanium 6 20 20 60 .010(.0004) .15 (.006) 1300 4300 150 500
Cast Iron 20 -60 60 200 .025(.001) .30 (.012) 4300 12000 500 1500
Thermoplastics 30 60 100 200 .025(.001) .13 (.005) 6400 12000 800 - 1500

As hole depth increases, speeds and feeds should be reduced.

All speed and feed tables are derived from information gained from Kennametal Incorporated.




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68
Appendices

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