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General Desc ription
The M A X1674/M A X1675/M A X1676 com pact, high-effi-
ciency, step-up D C -D C converters fit in sm all M A X
packages. They feature a built-in synchronous rectifier,
w hich im proves efficiency and reduces size and cost
by elim inating the need for an external Schottky diode.
Q uiescent supply current is only 16A .
The input voltage ranges from 0.7V to V
O U T
, w here
V
O U T
can be set from 2V to 5.5V. Start-up is guaran-
teed from 1.1V inp uts. The M A X 1674/M A X 1675/
M A X1676 have a preset, pin-selectable output for 5V or
3.3V. The outputs can also be adjusted to other volt-
ages using tw o external resistors.
A ll three d evices have a 0.3 N -channel M O S FE T
pow er sw itch. The M A X1674 has a 1A current lim it. The
M A X1675 has a 0.5A current lim it, w hich perm its the
use of a sm aller inductor. The M A X1676 com es in a
10-pin M A X package and features an adjustable cur-
rent lim it and circuitry to reduce inductor ringing.
________________________Applic ations
Pagers
W ireless Phones
M edical D evices
H and-H eld C om puters
PD A s
R F Tags
1 to 3-C ell H and-H eld D evices
____________________________Features
o 94% Efficient at 200mA Output Current
o 16A Quiescent Supply Current
o Internal Synchronous Rectifier (no external diode)
o 0.1A Logic-Controlled Shutdown
o LBI/LBO Low-Battery Detector
o Selectable Current Limit for Reduced Ripple
o Low-Noise, Anti-Ringing Feature (MAX1676)
o 8-Pin and 10-Pin MAX Packages
o Preassembled Evaluation Kit (MAX1676EVKIT)
M
A
X
1
6
7
4
/
M
A
X
1
6
7
5
/
M
A
X
1
6
7
6
High-Effic ienc y, Low-Supply-Current,
Compac t, Step-Up DC-DC Converters
________________________________________________________________ Maxim Integrated Products 1
GND LBO
SHDN REF
1
2
8
7
OUT
LX LBI
FB
MAX1674
MAX1675
MAX
TOP VIEW
3
4
6
5
1
2
3
4
5
10
9
8
7
6
OUT
LX
GND
BATT CLSEL
LBO
LBI
FB
MAX1676
MAX
SHDN REF
MAX1674
MAX1675
INPUT
0.7V TO V
OUT
SHDN LX
LBO
OUT
LBI
0.1F
LOW- BATTERY
DETECT OUT
OFF
ON
REF GND FB
OUTPUT
3.3V, 5V, OR
ADJ (2V TO 5.5V)
UP TO 300mA
LOW- BATTERY
DETECT IN
PART
MAX1674EU A -40C to + 85C
TEMP. RANGE PIN-PACKAGE
8 M A X
_______________Ordering Information
MAX1675EU A -40C to + 85C 8 M A X
MAX1676EU B -40C to + 85C 10 M A X
EVALUATION KIT
AVAILABLE
Typic al Operating Circ uit
Pin Configurations
19-1360; R ev 0; 7/98
M
A
X
1
6
7
4
/
M
A
X
1
6
7
5
/
M
A
X
1
6
7
6
High-Effic ienc y, Low-Supply-Current,
Compac t, Step-Up DC-DC Converters
2 _______________________________________________________________________________________
ABSOLUTE MAXIMUM RATINGS
ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS
(V
B A TT
= 2V, FB = O U T (V
O U T
= 3.3V), R
L
= , T
A
= 0C to +85C, unless otherw ise noted. Typical values are at T
A
= + 25C .)
Stresses beyond those listed under A bsolute M axim um R atingsm ay cause perm anent dam age to the device. These are stress ratings only, and functional
operation of the device at these or any other conditions beyond those indicated in the operational sections of the specifications is not im plied. Exposure to
absolute m axim um rating conditions for extended periods m ay affect device reliability.
Supply Voltage (O U T to G N D )..............................-0.3V to + 6.0V
Sw itch Voltage (LX to G N D ).....................-0.3V to (V
O U T
+ 0.3V)
B attery Voltage (B A TT to G N D ).............................-0.3V to + 6.0V
SHDN, LBO to G N D ..............................................-0.3V to + 6.0V
LB I, R EF, FB , C LSEL to G N D ...................-0.3V to (V
O U T
+ 0.3V)
Sw itch C urrent (LX)...............................................-1.5A to + 1.5A
O utput C urrent (O U T)...........................................-1.5A to + 1.5A
C ontinuous Pow er D issipation (T
A
= + 70C )
8-Pin M A X (derate 4.1m W /C above + 70C ) .............330m W
10-Pin M A X (derate 5.6m W /C above + 70C ) ...........444m W
O perating Tem perature R ange ...........................-40C to + 85C
Junction Tem perature ......................................................+ 150C
Storage Tem perature R ange .............................-65C to + 165C
Lead Tem perature (soldering, 10sec).............................+ 300C
T
A
= + 25C , R
L
= 3k (N ote 1)
V
LX
= 0, 5.5V; V
O U T
= 5.5V
T
A
= + 25C
M A X1675, M A X1676 (C LSEL = G N D )
M A X1674, M A X1676 (C LSEL = O U T)
I
LX
= 100m A
FB = O U T
(V
O U T
= 3.3V)
V
O U T
= 2V to 5.5V
I
R EF
= 0 to 100A
90 130
M A X1675,
M A X1676 (C LSEL = G N D )
FB = O U T
FB = G N D
I
R EF
= 0
CONDITIONS
A 0.05 1 I
LEA K
LX Leakage C urrent
A
0.4 0.5 0.65
I
LIM
0.80 1 1.20
LX Sw itch C urrent
Lim it (N FET)
0.3 0.6 R
D S(O N )
Internal N FET, PFET
O n-R esistance
V 1.274 1.30 1.326 FB , LB I Input Threshold
m V/V 0.08 2.5 V
R EF_LIN E
R eference Voltage Line
R egulation
m V 3 15 V
R EF_LO A D
R eference Voltage Load
R egulation
m V/C 0.024 TEM PC O R eference Voltage Tem pco
V 1.274 1.30 1.326 V
R EF
R eference Voltage
V 0.9 1.1 Start-U p Voltage
V 1.1 5.5 V
IN
V 0.7 M inim um Input Voltage
O perating Voltage
150 220
FB = G N D
(V
O U T
= 5V)
M A X1675,
M A X1676 (C LSEL = G N D )
180 285
I
O U T
M A X1674,
M A X1676 (C LSEL = O U T)
m A
300 420
Steady-State O utput C urrent
(N ote 2)
m V/C -2 Start-U p Voltage Tem pco
V
3.17 3.30 3.43
V
O U T
O utput Voltage
4.80 5 5.20
M A X1674,
M A X1676 (C LSEL = O U T)
V 2 5.5 O utput Voltage R ange
UNITS MIN TYP MAX SYMBOL PARAMETER
M
A
X
1
6
7
4
/
M
A
X
1
6
7
5
/
M
A
X
1
6
7
6
High-Effic ienc y, Low-Supply-Current,
Compac t, Step-Up DC-DC Converters
_______________________________________________________________________________________ 3
ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS
(V
B A TT
= 2V, FB = O U T, R
L
= , T
A
= -40C to +85C, unless otherw ise noted.) (N ote 4)
Note 1: Start-up voltage operation is guaranteed w ith the addition of a Schottky M B R 0520 external diode betw een the input and
output.
Note 2: Steady-state output current indicates that the device m aintains output voltage regulation under load. See Figures 5 and 6.
Note 3: D evice is bootstrapped (pow er to the IC com es from O U T). This correlates directly w ith the actual battery supply.
V
O U T
= 2V, I
LO A D
= 1m A
V
O U T
= 3.3V, I
LO A D
= 200m A
SHDN = G N D
CONDITIONS
%
85
Efficiency
90
A 0.1 1 Shutdow n C urrent into O U T
UNITS MIN TYP MAX SYMBOL PARAMETER
M A X1676, V
B A TT
= 2V
V
LBO
= 5.5V, V
LB I
= 5.5V
V
LB I
= 0, I
SIN K
= 1m A
V
SHDN
= 0 or V
O U T
V
FB
= 1V, V
O U T
= 3.3V
M A X1676, C LSEL = O U T
V
LB I
= 1.4V
V
FB
= 1.4V
V
FB
= 1V, V
O U T
= 3.3V
0.8V
O U T
V
IH
0.2V
O U T
V
IL
C LSEL Input Voltage
V
0.8V
O U T
V
IH
0.2V
O U T
V
IL
SHDN Input Voltage
88 150 D am ping Sw itch R esistance
A 0.07 1 I
LBO LBO O ff Leakage C urrent
V 0.2 0.4 LBO Low O utput Voltage
nA 0.07 50 I
SHDN SHDN Input C urrent
A 1.4 3 I
C LSEL
C LSEL Input C urrent
nA 1 50 I
LB I
LB I Input C urrent
nA 0.03 50 I
FB
FB Input C urrent
s 0.8 1 1.2 t
O FF
LX Sw itch O ff-Tim e
s 3 4 7 t
O N
LX Sw itch O n-Tim e
V
ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS (continued)
(V
B A TT
= 2V, FB = O U T (V
O U T
= 3.3V), R
L
= , T
A
= 0C to +85C, unless otherw ise noted. Typical values are at T
A
= + 25C .)
FB = G N D
FB = O U T
V
FB
= 1V, V
O U T
= 3.3V
V
FB
= 1V, V
O U T
= 3.3V
SHDN = G N D
V
FB
= 1.4V, V
O U T
= 3.3V
I
R EF
= 0
M A X1675, M A X1676 (C LSEL = G N D )
M A X1674, M A X1676 (C LSEL = O U T)
CONDITIONS
0.36 0.69
A
0.75 1.25
I
LIM
LX Sw itch C urrent
Lim it (N FET)
V 2.20 5.5 O utput Voltage R ange
V
4.75 5.25
3.13 3.47
V
O U T
O utput Voltage
s 0.75 1.25 t
O FF
LX Sw itch O ff-Tim e
s 2.7 7.0 t
O N
LX Sw itch O n-Tim e
A 1 Shutdow n C urrent into O U T
A 40
O perating C urrent into O U T
(N ote 3)
V 1.2675 1.3325 V
R EF
R eference Voltage
V 1.2675 1.3325 FB , LB I Thresholds
0.6 R
D S(O N )
Internal N FET, PFET
O n-R esistance
UNITS MIN MAX SYMBOL PARAMETER
V
FB
= 1.4V, V
O U T
= 3.3V A 16 35
O perating C urrent into O U T
(N ote 3)
M
A
X
1
6
7
4
/
M
A
X
1
6
7
5
/
M
A
X
1
6
7
6
High-Effic ienc y, Low-Supply-Current,
Compac t, Step-Up DC-DC Converters
4 _______________________________________________________________________________________
Typic al Operating Charac teristic s
(L = 22H , C
IN
= 47F, C
O U T
= 47F 0.1F, C
R EF
= 0.1F, T
A
= + 25C , unless otherw ise noted.)
V
LBO
= 5.5V, V
LB I
= 5.5V
V
SH D N
= 0 or V
O U T
M A X1676, C LSEL = O U T
CONDITIONS
A 1 I
LBO LBO O ff Leakage C urrent
nA 75 I
SHDN SHDN Input C urrent
A 3 I
C LSEL
C LSEL Input C urrent
UNITS MIN MAX SYMBOL PARAMETER
ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS (continued)
(V
B A TT
= 2V, FB = O U T, R
L
= , T
A
= -40C to +85C, unless otherw ise noted.) (N ote 4)
Note 4: Specifications to -40C are guaranteed by design, not production tested.
100
0
0.01 0.1 1 10 100 1000
EFFICIENCY vs. LOAD CURRENT
20
30
10
M
A
X
1
6
7
4
to
c
0
1
LOAD CURRENT (mA)
E
F
F
I
C
I
E
N
C
Y

(
%
)
40
50
60
70
90
80
V
IN
= 1.2V
V
OUT
= 5V
I
LIMIT
= 500mA
V
IN
= 2.4V
V
IN
= 3.6V
100
0
0.01 0.1 1 10 100 1000
EFFICIENCY vs. LOAD CURRENT
20
30
10
M
A
X
1
6
7
4
to
c
0
2
LOAD CURRENT (mA)
E
F
F
I
C
I
E
N
C
Y

(
%
)
40
50
60
70
90
80
V
IN
= 1.2V
V
OUT
= 5V
I
LIMIT
= 1A
V
IN
= 2.4V
V
IN
= 3.6V
100
0
0.01 0.1 1 10 100 1000
EFFICIENCY vs. LOAD CURRENT
20
30
10
M
A
X
1
6
7
4
to
c
0
3
LOAD CURRENT (mA)
E
F
F
I
C
I
E
N
C
Y

(
%
)
40
50
60
70
90
80
V
IN
= 1.2V
V
OUT
= 3.3V
I
LIMIT
= 500mA
V
IN
= 2.4V
100
0
0.01 0.1 1 10 100 1000
EFFICIENCY vs. LOAD CURRENT
20
30
10
M
A
X
1
6
7
4
to
c
0
4
LOAD CURRENT (mA)
E
F
F
I
C
I
E
N
C
Y

(
%
)
40
50
60
70
90
80
V
IN
= 1.2V
V
OUT
= 3.3V
I
LIMIT
= 1A
V
IN
= 2.4V
1.290
1.292
1.296
1.294
1.298
1.300
- 40 0 - 20 20 40 60 80 100
REFERENCE OUTPUT VOLTAGE
vs. TEMPERATURE
M
A
X
1
6
7
4
to
c
0
5
TEMPERATURE (C)
R
E
F
E
R
E
N
C
E

O
U
T
P
U
T

V
O
L
T
A
G
E

(
V
)
I
REF
= 0
I
REF
= 100A
M
A
X
1
6
7
4
/
M
A
X
1
6
7
5
/
M
A
X
1
6
7
6
High-Effic ienc y, Low-Supply-Current,
Compac t, Step-Up DC-DC Converters
_______________________________________________________________________________________ 5
0
40
20
100
80
60
140
120
160
0 1.5 2.0 0.5 1.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0 4.5
NO-LOAD BATTERY CURRENT
vs. INPUT BATTERY VOLTAGE
M
A
X
1
6
7
4
to
c
0
7
INPUT BATTERY VOLTAGE (V)
I
N
P
U
T

B
A
T
T
E
R
Y

C
U
R
R
E
N
T

(

A
)
I
LIMIT
= 1A, 5.0V
I
LIMIT
= 0.5A, 5.0V
I
LIMIT
= 0.5A, 3.3V
I
LIMIT
= 1A, 3.3V
1.8
0
0.01 1 10 0.1 100
START-UP VOLTAGE
vs. LOAD CURRENT
0.2
0.4
M
A
X
1
6
7
4
to
c
0
8
LOAD CURRENT (mA)
S
T
A
R
T
-
U
P

V
O
L
T
A
G
E

(
V
)
0.8
0.6
1.0
1.2
1.4
1.6
WITHOUT DIODE
WITH 1N5817
- 1.0
- 0.6
- 0.8
- 0.2
- 0.4
0.2
0
0.4
0.8
0.6
1.0
1 2.0 2.5 3.0 1.5 3.5 4.0 4.5 5.0 5.5
SHUTDOWN CURRENT
vs. SUPPLY VOLTAGE
M
A
X
1
6
7
to
c
0
9
SUPPLY VOLTAGE (V)
S
H
U
T
D
O
W
N

C
U
R
R
E
N
T

(

A
)
0
0.4
0.2
0.8
0.6
1.2
1.0
1.4
0 1.0 1.5 0.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0 4.5 5.0
SHUTDOWN THRESHOLD
vs. SUPPLY VOLTAGE
M
A
X
1
6
7
4
T
O
C
1
0
SUPPLY VOLTAGE (V)
S
H
U
T
D
O
W
N

T
H
R
E
S
H
O
L
D

(
V
)
0
200
100
500
300
400
800
700
600
900
1.0 2.0 1.5 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0 4.5
MAXIMUM OUTPUT CURRENT
vs. INPUT VOLTAGE (V
OUT
= 5V)
M
A
X
1
6
7
4
to
c
1
1
INPUT VOLTAGE (V)
M
A
X
I
M
U
M

O
U
T
P
U
T

C
U
R
R
E
N
T

(
m
A
)
1A CURRENT LIMIT
0.5A CURRENT LIMIT
0
200
100
400
300
600
500
800
700
1.0 1.4 1.6 1.2 1.8 2.0 2.2 2.4 2.6 2.8 3.0
MAXIMUM OUTPUT CURRENT
vs. INPUT VOLTAGE (V
OUT
= 3. 3V)
M
A
X
1
6
7
4
to
c
1
2
INPUT VOLTAGE (V)
M
A
X
I
M
U
M

O
U
T
P
U
T

C
U
R
R
E
N
T

(
m
A
)
0.5A CURRENT LIMIT
1A CURRENT LIMIT
Typic al Operating Charac teristic s (c ontinued)
(L = 22H , C
IN
= 47F, C
O U T
= 47F 0.1F, C
R EF
= 0.1F, T
A
= + 25C , unless otherw ise noted.)
1s/ di v
HEAVY-LOAD SWITCHING WAVEFORMS
MAX1674 TOC13
V
LX
5V/ di v
I
LX
0.5A/ di v
V
OUT
AC COUPLED
100mV/ di v V
IN
= 2.4V
V
OUT
= 5.0V
0
0.4
0.2
0.8
0.6
1.0
1.2
2.0 3.0 3.5 2.5 4.0 4.5 5.0
LX CURRENT LIMIT
vs. OUTPUT VOLTAGE
M
A
X
1
6
7
4
to
c
1
4
OUTPUT VOLTAGE (V)
I
L
I
M

(
A
)
MAX1674, MAX1676 (CLSEL = OUT)
MAX1675, MAX1676 (CLSEL = GND)
0
0.15
0.10
0.05
0.25
0.20
0.35
0.30
0.45
0.40
- 60 - 20 - 40 0 20 40 60 80 100
SWITCH RESISTANCE vs. TEMPERATURE
M
A
X
1
6
7
4
to
c
1
3
.5
TEMPERATURE (C)
R
E
S
I
S
T
A
N
C
E

(

)
P- CHANNEL
N- CHANNEL
10s/ di v
LINE-TRANSIENT RESPONSE
MAX1674 TOC15
V
IN
2V TO 3V
1V/ di v
V
OUT
AC COUPLED
100mV/ di v
I
LOAD
100mA
5s/ di v
LOAD-TRANSIENT RESPONSE
MAX1674 TOC16
I
OUT
200mA/ di v
V
OUT
50mV/ di v
AC
COUPLED
V
IN
= 2.4V
V
OUT
= 3.3V
500s/ di v
EXITING SHUTDOWN
MAX1674 TOC17
V
SHDN
2V/ di v
V
OUT
2V/ di v
M
A
X
1
6
7
4
/
M
A
X
1
6
7
5
/
M
A
X
1
6
7
6
High-Effic ienc y, Low-Supply-Current,
Compac t, Step-Up DC-DC Converters
6 _______________________________________________________________________________________
Typic al Operating Charac teristic s (c ontinued)
(L = 22H , C
IN
= 47F, C
O U T
= 47F 0.1F, C
R EF
= 0.1F, T
A
= + 25C , unless otherw ise noted.)
Pin Desc ription
PIN
NAME FUNCTION
MAX1674
MAX1675
MAX1676
1 1 FB
D ual-M ode Feedback Input. C onnect to G N D for + 5.0V output.
C onnect to O U T for + 3.3V output. U se a resistor netw ork to set the
output voltage from + 2.0V to + 5.5V.
2 2 LB I Low -B attery C om parator Input. Internally set to trip at + 1.30V.
3 3 LBO
O pen-D rain Low -B attery C om parator O utput. O utput is low w hen
V
LB I
is < 1.3V. LBO is high im pedance during shutdow n.
4 C LSEL
C urrent-Lim it Select Input. C LSEL = O U T sets the current lim it to 1A .
C LSEL = G N D sets the current lim it to 0.5A .
4 5 R EF 1.3V R eference Voltage. B ypass w ith a 0.1F capacitor.
5 6 SHDN Shutdow n Input. H igh = operating, low = shutdow n.
7 B A TT
B attery Input and D am ping Sw itch C onnection. If dam ping sw itch is
unused, leave B A TT unconnected.
6 8 G N D G round
7 9 LX N -C hannel and P-C hannel Pow er M O SFET D rain
8 10 O U T Pow er O utput. O U T provides bootstrap pow er to the IC .
D ual-M ode is a tradem ark of M axim Integrated Products.
Detailed Desc ription
The M A X1674/M A X1675/M A X1676 com pact, step-up
D C -D C converters start up w ith voltages as low as 0.9V
and op erate w ith an inp ut voltag e d ow n to 0.7V .
C onsum ing only 16A of q uiescent current, these
d evices offer a b uilt-in synchronous rectifier that
reduces cost by elim inating the need for an external
diode and im proves overall efficiency by m inim izing
losses in the circuit (see Synchronous R ectification sec-
tion for details). The internal M O SFET resistance is typi-
cally 0.3, w hich m inim izes losses. The current lim it of
the M A X1674 and M A X1675 are 1A and 0.5A , respec-
tively. The M A X1675s low er current lim it allow s the use
of a p hysically sm aller ind uctor in sp ace-sensitive
applications. The M A X1676 features a circuit that elim i-
nates noise due to inductor ringing. In addition, the
M A X1676 offers a selectable current lim it (0.5A or 1A )
for design flexibility.
PFM Control Sc heme
A unique m inim um -off-tim e, current-lim ited, pulse-fre-
quency-m odulation (PFM ) control schem e is a key fea-
ture of the M A X1674/M A X1675/M A X1676. This schem e
com bines the high output pow er and efficiency of a
pulse-w idth-m odulation (PW M ) device w ith the ultra-low
quiescent current of a traditional PFM (Figure 1). There
is no oscillator; a constant-peak-current lim it in the
sw itch allow s the inductor current to vary betw een this
peak lim it and som e lesser value. A t light loads, the
sw itching frequency is governed by a pair of one-shots
that set a typical m inim um off-tim e (1s) and a typical
m axim um on-tim e (4s). The sw itching freq uency
depends upon the load and the input voltage, and can
range up to 500kH z. The peak current of the internal N -
channel M O S FE T p ow er sw itch is fixed at 1A
(M A X 1674), at 0.5A (M A X 1675), or is selectab le
(M A X1676). U nlike conventional pulse-skipping D C -D C
converters (w here ripple am plitude varies w ith input
voltage), ripple in these devices does not exceed the
product of the sw itch current lim it and the filter-capaci-
tor equivalent series resistance (ESR ).
Sync hronous Rec tific ation
The internal synchronous rectifier elim inates the need
for an external Schottky diode, thus reducing cost and
board space. D uring the cycle off-tim e, the P-channel
M O SFET turns on and shunts the M O SFET body diode.
M
A
X
1
6
7
4
/
M
A
X
1
6
7
5
/
M
A
X
1
6
7
6
High-Effic ienc y, Low-Supply-Current,
Compac t, Step-Up DC-DC Converters
_______________________________________________________________________________________ 7
MAX1674
MAX1675
MAX1676
ONE- SHOT
TRIG Q
F/ F
R
S Q
ONE- SHOT
TRIG Q
CURRENT- LIMIT
AMPLIFIER
ERROR
AMPLIFIER
LOW- BATTERY
COMPARATOR
REFERENCE
REF
FB
V
IN
47F
47F
R1
200
R5
R6
DAMPING
SWITCH
22H
BATT
(MAX1676)
GND
LX
OUT
0.1F
0.1F
V
OUT
R4
LBI
LBO
R2
100k
R3
V
IN
V
OUT
CLSEL
(MAX1676)
SHDN
MINIMUM
OFF- TIME
ONE- SHOT
ZERO
CROSSING
AMPLIFIER
EN
MAXIMUM
ON- TIME
ONE- SHOT
P
N
Figure 1. Sim plified Functional D iagram
M
A
X
1
6
7
4
/
M
A
X
1
6
7
5
/
M
A
X
1
6
7
6
A s a result, the synchronous rectifier sig nificantly
im proves efficiency w ithout the addition of an external
com ponent. C onversion efficiency can be as high as
94% , as show n in the Typical O perating C haracteristics.
For low -voltage inputs from single cells (A lkaline, N iC d,
or N iM H ), use an external Schottky diode such as the
1N 5817 to ensure start-up.
Voltage Referenc e
The voltag e at R E F is nom inally + 1.30V . R E F can
source up to 100A to external circuits. The reference
m aintains excellent load regulation (see Typical O per-
ating C haracteristics). A bypass capacitor of 0.1F is
required for proper operation.
Shutdown
The d evice enters shutd ow n w hen V
SHDN
is low .
D uring shutdow n, the body diode of the P-channel
M O SFET allow s current flow from the battery to the out-
put. V
O U T
falls to approxim ately V
IN
- 0.6V and LX
rem ains high im pedance. The capacitance and load at
O U T d eterm ine the rate at w hich V
O U T
d ecays.
Shutdow n can be pulled as high as 6V, regardless of
the voltage at O U T.
Current Limit Selec t Pin (MAX1676)
The M A X1676 allow s a selectable inductor current lim it
of either 0.5A or 1A . This allow s flexibility in designing
for higher current applications or for sm aller, com pact
designs. C onnect C LSEL to O U T for 1A or to G N D for
0.5A . C LSEL draw s 1.4A w hen connected to O U T.
BATT/Damping Switc h (MAX1676)
The M A X1676 is designed w ith an internal dam ping
sw itch to m inim ize ringing at LX. The dam ping sw itch
connects an external resistor (R 1) across the inductor
w hen the ind uctors energ y is d ep leted (Fig ure 2).
N orm ally, w hen the energy in the inductor is insufficient
to supply current to the output, the capacitance and
inductance at LX form a resonant circuit that causes
ringing. The ringing continues until the energy is dissi-
pated through the series resistance of the inductor. The
dam ping sw itch supplies a path to quickly dissipate this
energy, m inim izing the ringing at LX. D am ping LX ring-
ing does not reduce V
O U T
ripple, but does reduce EM I.
R 1 = 200 w orks w ell for m ost applications w hile reduc-
ing efficiency by only 1% . Larger R 1 values provide less
dam ping, but have less im pact on efficiency. G enerally,
low er values of R 1 are needed to fully dam p LX w hen
the V
O U T
/V
IN
ratio is high (Figures 2, 3, and 4).
High-Effic ienc y, Low-Supply-Current,
Compac t, Step-Up DC-DC Converters
8 _______________________________________________________________________________________
MAX1676
DAMPING
SWITCH
BATT
R1
200
LX
OUT
22H
V
IN
0.1F 47F
V
OUT
Figure 2. Sim plified D iagram of Inductor D am ping Sw itch
2s/ di v
V
LX
1V/ di v
Figure 3. LX R inging W ithout D am ping Sw itch
2s/ di v
V
LX
1V/ di v
Figure 4. LX W aveform w ith D am ping Sw itch (w ith 200
external resistor)
Selec ting the Output Voltage
V
O U T
can be set to 3.3V or 5.5V by connecting the FB
pin to G N D (5V) or O U T (3.3V) (Figures 5 and 6).
To adjust the output voltage, connect a resistor-divider
from V
O U T
to FB to G N D (Figure 7). C hoose a value
less than 260k for R 6. U se the follow ing equation to
calculate R 5:
R 5 = R 6 [(V
O U T
/ V
R EF
) - 1]
w here V
R EF
= + 1.3V and V
O U T
m ay range from 2V to
5V. The input bias current of FB has a m axim um value
of 50nA w hich allow s large-value resistors (R 6 260k)
to be used.
Low-Battery Detec tion
The M A X1674/M A X1675/M A X1676 contain an on-chip
com parator for low -battery detection. If the voltage at
LB I falls below the internal reference voltage (1.30V),
LBO (an open-drain output) sinks current to G N D . The
low -battery m onitor threshold is set by tw o resistors, R 3
and R 4 (Figures 5, 6, and 7). Since the LB I current is
less than 50nA , large resistor values (R 4 260k) can
b e used to m inim ize load ing of the inp ut sup p ly.
C alculate R 3 using the follow ing equation:
R 3 = R 4 [(V
TR IP
/ V
R EF
) - 1]
for V
TR IP
1.3V. V
TR IP
is the level w here the low -battery
d etector outp ut g oes low , and V
R E F
is the internal
1.30V reference. C onnect a pull-up resistor of 100k or
greater from LBO to O U T w hen driving C M O S circuits.
LBO is an open-drain output, and can be pulled as
high as 6V regardless of the voltage at O U T. W hen LB I
is above the threshold, the LBO output is high im ped-
ance. If the low -battery com parator is not used, ground
M
A
X
1
6
7
4
/
M
A
X
1
6
7
5
/
M
A
X
1
6
7
6
High-Effic ienc y, Low-Supply-Current,
Compac t, Step-Up DC-DC Converters
_______________________________________________________________________________________ 9
MAX1674
MAX1675
MAX1676
BATT
(MAX1676)
V
IN
LBI
REF
GND
R3
R1
200
R4
R2
100k
47F
10V
22H
0.1F
LX
LBO
0.1F 47F
+3.3V
200mA
V
OUT
LOW- BATTERY
OUTPUT
FB
SHDN
OUT
CLSEL
(MAX1676)
Figure 5. Preset O utput Voltage of + 3.3V
MAX1674
MAX1675
MAX1676
BATT
(MAX1676)
V
IN
LBI
REF
GND
R6
R5
R3
R1
200
R4
R2
100k
22H
47F
0.1F
LX
LBO
OUTPUT
2V to 5.5V
FB
SHDN
OUT
CLSEL
(MAX1676)
LOW-
BATTERY
OUTPUT
0.1F 47F
Figure 7. Setting an A djustable O utput
MAX1674
MAX1675
MAX1676
BATT
(MAX1676)
V
IN
LBI
REF
GND
R3
R1
200
R4
R2
100k
22H
47F
0.1F
LX
LBO
0.1F 47F
OUTPUT
5.0V,
150mA
FB
SHDN
OUT
CLSEL
(MAX1676)
LOW-
BATTERY
OUTPUT
Figure 6. Preset O utput Voltage of + 5V
M
A
X
1
6
7
4
/
M
A
X
1
6
7
5
/
M
A
X
1
6
7
6
LB I and LBO. For V
TR IP
less than 1.3V, configure the
com parator as show n in Figure 8. C alculate the value of
the external resistors R 3 and R 4 as follow s:
R 3 = R 4(V
R EF
- V
TR IP
) / (V
O U T
- V
R EF
)
Since the low -battery com parator is noninverting, exter-
nal hysteresis can be added by connecting a resistor
betw een LBO and LB I as show n in Figure 9. W hen LBO
is high, the series com bination of R 2 and R 7 source
current into the LB I sum m ing junction.
Applic ations Information
Induc tor Selec tion
A n inductor value of 22H perform s w ell in m ost appli-
cations. The M A X1674/M A X1675/M A X1676 w ill also
w ork w ith inductors in the 10H to 47H range. Sm aller
inductance values typically offer a sm aller physical size
for a given series resistance, allow ing the sm allest
overall circuit dim ensions. H ow ever, due to higher peak
inductor currents, the output voltage ripple (I
PEA K
x
output filter capacitor ESR ) also tends to be higher.
C ircuits using larger inductance values exhibit higher
output current capability and larger physical dim en-
sions for a given series resistance. The inductors incre-
m ental saturation current rating should be greater than
the p eak sw itch-current lim it, w hich is 1A for the
M A X1674, 500m A for the M A X1675, and 1A or 0.5A for
the M A X1676. H ow ever, it is generally acceptable to
bias the inductor into saturation by as m uch as 20% ,
although this w ill slightly reduce efficiency. Table 1 lists
suggested com ponents.
The inductors D C resistance significantly affects effi-
ciency. See Table 2 for a com parison of inductor speci-
fications. C alculate the m axim um output current as
follow s:
w here I
O U T(M A X)
= m axim um output current in am ps
V
B A TT
= input voltage
L = inductor value in H
= efficiency (typically 0.9)
t
O FF
= LX sw itchs off-tim e in s
R
P
= resistance of P-channel M O SFET in
I
LIM
= 0.5A or 1.0A
I
V I
V V
L
t
R
V
O U T M A X
B A TT LIM
O U T B A TT
O FF
P
O U T
( )

+

_
,


/

1 2
High-Effic ienc y, Low-Supply-Current,
Compac t, Step-Up DC-DC Converters
10 ______________________________________________________________________________________
MAX1674
MAX1675
MAX1676
BATT
(MAX1676)
V
IN
LBI
REF
GND
R3
R1
200
R4
22H
47F
0.1F
LX
LBO
V
OUT
FB
R2
100k
SHDN
OUT
CLSEL
(MAX1676)
LOW-
BATTERY
OUTPUT
0.1F 47F
Figure 8. Setting R esistor Values for the Low -B attery Indicator
w hen V
IN
< 1.3V
MAX1674
MAX1675
MAX1676
LBI
GND
V
TRIP
(V
H
, V
L
)
R3
R4
R7
V
H
IS THE UPPER TRIP LEVEL
V
L
IS THE LOWER TRIP LEVEL

WHERE
R2
100k
LBO
OUT V
OUT
0.1F 47F
V = 1.3V
V = 1.3V
H
L
( ) + +

1
]
1
( ) +

+

1
]
1


( . )
( . ) ( )

1
3
7
3
4
1
3
4
1 3 3
1 3 2 7
R
R
R
R
R
R
V V R
V R R
O U T
Figure 9. A dding External H ysteresis to the Low -B attery
Indicator
Capac itor Selec tion
A 47F, 10V surface-m ount tantalum (SM T) output filter
capacitor provides 80m V output ripple w hen stepping
up from 2V to 5V. Sm aller capacitors (dow n to 10F
w ith higher ESR s) are acceptable for light loads or in
ap p lications that can tolerate hig her outp ut rip p le.
Values in the 10F to 100F range are recom m ended.
The equivalent series resistance (ESR ) of both bypass
and filter capacitors affects efficiency and output rip-
ple. O utput voltage ripple is the product of the peak
inductor current and the output capacitor ESR . U se
low -ESR capacitors for best perform ance, or connect
tw o or m ore filter capacitors in parallel. Low -ESR , SM T
tantalum cap acitors are currently availab le from
Sprague (595D series) A VX (TPS series) and other
sources. C eram ic surface-m ount and Sanyo O S-C O N
organic-sem iconductor through-hole capacitors also
exhibit very low ESR , and are especially useful for oper-
ation at cold tem peratures. See Table 3 for a list of sug-
gested com ponent suppliers.
M
A
X
1
6
7
4
/
M
A
X
1
6
7
5
/
M
A
X
1
6
7
6
High-Effic ienc y, Low-Supply-Current,
Compac t, Step-Up DC-DC Converters
______________________________________________________________________________________ 11
PRODUCTION
METHOD
INDUCTORS CAPACITORS
RECTIFIERS
(OPTIONAL)
Surface M ount
Sum ida C D 43 series
Sum ida C D 54 series
C oilcraft D T1608C
C oilcraft D O 1608C
C oiltronics U ni-PA C
M urata LQ H 4 series
Sprague 593D series
Sprague 595D series
A VX TPS series
ceram ic
M otorola M B R 0530
N ihon EC 15Q S02L
M iniature Through-H ole Sum ida R C H 654-220 Sanyo O S-C O N series
Table 1. Suggested Components
Table 2. Surface-Mount Inductor
Specifications
MANUFACTURER
PART NUMBER
H (max) I
PEAK
(A)
HEIGHT
(mm)
C oilcraft D T1608C -103 10 0.095 0.7 2.92
C oilcraft D O 1608C -153 15 0.200 0.9 2.92
C oilcraft D O 1608C -223 22 0.320 0.7 2.92
C oiltronics U P1B -100 10 0.111 1.9 5.0
Table 3. Component Suppliers
COMPANY PHONE FAX
A VX U SA (803) 946-0690 U SA (803) 626-3123
C oilcraft U SA (847) 639-6400 U SA (847) 639-1469
C oiltronics U SA (561) 241-7876 U SA (561) 241-9339
M urata
U SA (814) 237-1431
(800) 831-9172
U SA (814) 238-0490
N ihon
U SA (805) 867-2555
Japan 81-3-3494-7411
U SA (805) 867-2556
Japan 81-3-3494-7414
M otorola
U SA (303) 675-2140
(800) 521-6274
U SA (303) 675-2150
Sanyo
U SA (619) 661-6835
Japan 81-7-2070-6306
U SA (619) 661-1055
Japan 81-7-2070-1174
Sum ida
U SA (647) 956-0666
Japan 81-3-3607-5111
U SA (647) 956-0702
Japan 81-3-3607-5144
Taiyo Yuden U SA (408) 573-4150 U SA (408) 573-4159
Sprague U SA (603) 224-1961 U SA (603) 224-1430
C oiltronics U P1B -150 15 0.175 1.5 5.0
C oiltronics U P1B -220 22 0.254 1.2 5.0
M urata LQ H 4N 100 10 0.560 0.4 2.6
M urata LQ H 4N 220 22 0.560 0.4 2.6
Sum ida C D 43-8R 2 8.2 0.132 1.26 3.2
Sum ida C D 43-100 10 0.182 1.15 3.2
Sum ida C D 54-100 10 0.100 1.44 4.5
Sum ida C D 54-180 18 0.150 1.23 4.5
Sum ida C D 54-220 22 0.180 1.11 4.5
M
A
X
1
6
7
4
/
M
A
X
1
6
7
5
/
M
A
X
1
6
7
6
High-Effic ienc y, Low-Supply-Current,
Compac t, Step-Up DC-DC Converters
12 ______________________________________________________________________________________
TR A N SISTO R C O U N T:751
Chip Information
Pac kage Information
Optional External Rec tifier
A lthough not required, a Schottky diode (such as the
M B R 0520) connected betw een LX and O U T allow s
low er start-up voltages (Figure 10) and is recom m end-
ed for single-cell operation. N ote that adding this diode
provides no significant efficiency im provem ent.
PC Board Layout and Grounding
C areful printed circuit layout is im portant for m inim izing
ground bounce and noise. K eep the IC s G N D pin and
the ground leads of the input and output filter capaci-
tors less than 0.2in (5m m ) apart. In addition, keep all
connections to the FB and LX pins as short as possi-
ble. In particular, w hen using external feedback resis-
tors, locate them as close to the FB as possible. To
m axim ize output pow er and efficiency and m inim ize
output ripple voltage, use a ground plane and solder
the IC s G N D directly to the ground plane.
MAX1674
MAX1675
MAX1676
BATT
(MAX1676)
V
IN
SINGLE CELL
LBI
REF
GND
R3
R1
200
R4 R2
100k
22H
47F
0.1F
LX
LBO
FB
SHDN
OUT
LOW- BATTERY
OUTPUT
0.1F
MBR0520
47F
CLSEL
(MAX1676)
Figure 10. A dding a Schottky D iode for Single-C ell O peration
1
0
L
U
M
A
X
B
.
E
P
S