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_______________General Desc ription

The M A X619 step-up charge-pum p D C -D C converter


delivers a regulated 5V 4% output at 50m A over tem -
perature. The input voltage range is 2V to 3.6V (tw o
battery cells).
The com plete M A X619 circuit fits into less than 0.1in
2
of
board space because it requires only four external
capacitors: tw o 0.22F flying capacitors, and 10F
capacitors at the input and output.
Low operating supply current (150A m ax) and low
shutdow n supply current (1A m ax) m ake this device
ideal for sm all, portable, and battery-pow ered applica-
tions. W hen shut dow n, the load is disconnected from
the input.
The M A X619 is available in 8-pin D IP and SO packages.
________________________Applic ations
Tw o B attery C ells to 5V C onversion
Local 3V-to-5V C onversion
Portable Instrum ents & H andy-Term inals
B attery-Pow ered M icroprocessor-B ased System s
5V Flash M em ory Program m er
M inim um C om ponent D C -D C C onverters
R em ote D ata-A cquisition System s
C om pact 5V O p-A m p Supply
R egulated 5V Supply from Lithium B ackup B attery
Sw itching D rive Voltage for M O SFETs in
Low -Voltage System s
____________________________Features
o Regulated 5V 4% Charge Pump
o Output Current Guaranteed over Temperature
20mA (VIN 2V)
50mA (VIN 3V)
o 2V to 3.6V Input Range
o No Inductors; Very Low EMI Noise
o Ultra-Small Application Circuit (0.1in2)
o Uses Small, Inexpensive Capacitors
o 500kHz Internal Oscillator
o Logic-Controlled 1A Max Shutdown
Supply Current
o Shutdown Disconnects Load from Input
o 8-Pin DIP and SO Packages
_______________Ordering Information
* D ice are specified at TA = + 25 C .
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Regulated 5V Charge-Pump
DC-DC Converter
________________________________________________________________ Maxim Integrated Products 1
1
2
3
4
8
7
6
5

MAX619
DIP/SO

C1+
IN
OUT
C2+
C1-
SHDN
GND
C2-
TOP VIEW
__________________Pin Configuration
MAX619
OUT

C2+
C2-
IN

SHDN
C1+
C1-
INPUT
2V to 3.6V
ON/ OFF
0.22F
OUTPUT
5V, 20mA
10F 10F
0.22F
GND
__________Typic al Operating Circ uit
19-0227; R ev 2; 5/96
EVALUATION KIT MANUAL
FOLLOWS DATA SHEET
For free samples & the latest literature: http://www.maxim-ic.com, or phone 1-800-998-8800
PART TEMP. RANGE PIN-PACKAGE
M A X619C PA 0C to + 70C 8 Plastic D IP
M A X619C SA 0C to + 70C 8 SO
M A X619C /D 0C to + 70C D ice*
M A X619EPA -40C to + 85C 8 Plastic D IP
M A X619ESA -40C to + 85C 8 SO
M A X619M JA -55C to + 125C 8 C ER D IP
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Regulated 5V Charge-Pump
DC-DC Converter
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ABSOLUTE MAXIMUM RATINGS
ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS
(VIN = 2V to 3.6V, C 1 = C 2 = 0.22F, C 3 = C 4 = 10F, TA = TM IN to TM A X, unless otherw ise noted. Typical values are at TA = + 25C .)
Note 1: The M A X619 is not short-circuit protected.
PARAMETER SYMBOL MIN TYP MAX UNITS
N o-Load Supply C urrent 75 170 A
0.02 1
Shutdow n Supply
C urrent
10
A
82
Input Voltage VIN 2 3.6 V
82
80
Efficiency Eff %
Sw itching Frequency 500 kH z
VIH 0.7 x VIN
SH D N Input Threshold
VIL 0.4
V
1
SH D N Input C urrent IIH
10
A
CONDITIONS
VIN = 3V, IO U T = 30m A
2V VIN 3.6V, IO U T = 0m A
VIN = 2V, IO U T = 20m A
2V VIN 3.6V, IO U T = 0m A ,
VSH D N = VIN
VIN = 3V, IO U T = 20m A
A t full load
VSH D N = VIN
VIN to G N D ............................................................-0.3V to + 5.5V
VO U T to G N D .........................................................-0.3V to + 5.5V
SH D N to G N D ..............................................-0.3V to (VIN + 0.3V)
IO U T C ontinuous (N ote 1)..................................................120m A
C ontinuous Pow er D issipation (TA = + 70C )
Plastic D IP (derate 9.09m W /C above + 70C )............727m W
SO (derate 5.88m W /C above + 70C ).........................471m W
C ER D IP (derate 8.00m W /C above + 70C ).................640m W
O perating Tem perature R anges
M A X619C _ _ .......................................................0C to + 70C
M A X619E_ _ ....................................................-40C to + 85C
M A X619M JA ..................................................-55C to + 125C
Storage Tem perature R ange .............................-65C to + 165C
Lead Tem perature (soldering, 10sec).............................+ 300C
M A X619C /E
M A X619M
M A X619C /E
M A X619M
IIN
2.0V VIN 3.6V, 0m A IO U T 20m A
3.0V VIN 3.6V, 0m A IO U T 50m A , M A X619C
3.0V VIN 3.6V, 0m A IO U T 45m A , M A X619E
O utput R ipple VR IPPLE 100 m V N o load to full load
Stresses beyond those listed under A bsolute M axim um R atingsm ay cause perm anent dam age to the device. These are stress ratings only, and functional
operation of the device at these or any other conditions beyond those indicated in the operational sections of the specifications is not im plied. Exposure to
absolute m axim um rating conditions for extended periods m ay affect device reliability.
3.0V VIN 3.6V, 0m A IO U T 40m A , M A X619M
O utput Voltage VO U T 4.8 5.0 5.2 V
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Regulated 5V Charge-Pump
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TOP TRACE: OUTPUT CURRENT, 0mA to 25mA, 10mA/ di v
BOTTOM TRACE: OUTPUT VOLTAGE, 5mV/ di v, AC- COUPLED
2ms/ di v
LOAD-TRANSIENT RESPONSE
RLOAD = 250, VOUT = 5V, IOUT = 20mA
TOP TRACE: V
IN = 2V to 3V, 1V/ di v
BOTTOM TRACE: OUTPUT VOLTAGE, 50mV/ di v, AC- COUPLED
2ms/ di v
LINE-TRANSIENT RESPONSE (IOUT = 20mA)
__________________________________________Typic al Operating Charac teristic s
(TA = + 25C , unless otherw ise noted.)
60
1 10 100
EFFICIENCY vs. OUTPUT CURRENT
AND INPUT VOLTAGE
IOUT (mA)
E
F
F
I
C
I
E
N
C
Y

(
%
)

65
70
75
80
85
90
VIN =1.8V
VIN =3.0V
VIN =2.0V
VIN =3.3V
VIN =3.6V
VIN =2.4V
VIN =2.7V

0
0
INPUT CURRENT vs. OUTPUT CURRENT
IOUT (mA)
I
I
N

(
m
A
)
10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
160

180
200
VIN
IOUT
MAX
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
1.8
2.0
2.4
2.7
3.0
3.6
3.3
18
36
41
64
72
94
100
A
B
C
D
E
G
F
NO-LOAD INPUT CURRENT
vs. INPUT VOLTAGE
VIN (V)
I
I
N

(

A
)
1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0 4.5
0.01
0.1
1.0
10
100
1000
SHDN = VIN
SHDN = 0V
4.75
4.80
1 10 100
OUTPUT VOLTAGE vs. OUTPUT CURRENT
IOUT (mA)
V
O
U
T

(
V
)
4.85
4.90
4.95
5.00
5.05
VIN = 1.8V
VIN = 2.0V
VIN = 3.3V
VIN = 2.4V, 2.7V
= 3.6V VIN = 3.6V
VIN = 3.0V

OUTPUT VOLTAGE vs. INPUT VOLTAGE


VIN (V)
V
O
U
T

(
V
)
2.0 1.5 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0 4.5 5.0 5.5 6.0
4.94
4.96
4.98
5.00
5.02
5.04
5.06
IOUT =20mA

EFFICIENCY vs. INPUT VOLTAGE


VIN (V)
E
F
F
I
C
I
E
N
C
Y

(
%
)
1.5
60
65
70
75
80
85
90
IOUT =10mA
2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0
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Regulated 5V Charge-Pump
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_______________Detailed Desc ription
Operating Princ iple
The M A X619 provides a regulated 5V output from a 2V
to 3.6V (tw o battery cells) input. Internal charge pum ps
and external capacitors generate the 5V output, elim i-
nating the need for inductors. The output voltage is
regulated to 5V 4% by a pulse-skipping controller that
turns on the charge pum p w hen the output voltage
begins to droop.
To m aintain the greatest efficiency over the entire input
voltage range, the M A X619s internal charge pum p
operates as a voltage doubler w hen VIN ranges from
3.0V to 3.6V, and as a voltage tripler w hen VIN ranges
from 2.0V to 2.5V. W hen VIN ranges from 2.5V to 3.0V,
_____________________Pin Desc ription the M A X 619 sw itches b etw een d oub ler and trip ler
m ode on alternating cycles, m aking a 2.5 x VIN charge
pum p. To further enhance efficiency over the input
range, an internal com parator selects the higher of VIN
or V O U T to run the M A X 619s internal circuitry.
Efficiency w ith VIN = 2V and IO U T = 20m A is typically
80% .
Fig ure 1 show s a d etailed b lock d iag ram of the
M A X619. In tripler m ode, w hen the S1 sw itches close,
the S 2 sw itches op en and cap acitors C 1 and C 2
charge up to VIN . O n the second half of the cycle, C 1
and C 2 are connected in series betw een IN and O U T
w hen the S1 sw itches open and the S2 sw itches close,
as show n in Figure 1. In doubler m ode, only C 2 is
used.
D uring one oscillator cycle, energy is transferred from
the input to the charge-pum p capacitors, and then
from the charge-pum p capacitors to the output capaci-
tor and load. The num ber of cycles w ithin a given tim e
fram e increases as the load increases or as the input
supply voltage decreases. In the lim iting case, the
charge pum ps operate continuously, and the oscillator
frequency is nom inally 500kH z.
Shutdown Mode
The M A X619 enters low -pow er shutdow n m ode w hen
SH D N is a logic high. SH D N is a C M O S-com patible
input. In shutdow n m ode, the charge-pum p sw itching
action is halted, O U T is disconnected from IN , and
VO U T falls to 0V. C onnect SH D N to ground for norm al
operation. W hen VIN = 3.6V, VO U T typically reaches
5V in 0.5m s under no-load conditions after SH D N goes
low .
FUNCTION NAME PIN
N egative Term inal for C 1 C 1- 8
A ctive-H igh C M O S Logic-Level Shutdow n Input SH D N 7
G round G N D 6
N egative Term inal for C 2 C 2- 5
Positive Term inal for C 2 C 2+ 4
+ 5V O utput Voltage. VO U T = 0V w hen in
shutdow n m ode.
O U T 3
Input Supply Voltage IN 2
Positive Term inal for C 1 C 1+ 1
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Regulated 5V Charge-Pump
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C3
10F
C2
0.22F
P
P
C1
0.22F
C2-
C1+
S1D
C1-
S1C
S2C
S2B
S1B
S1A
S2A
IN
SWITCH
CONTROL
BUS
VIN/ VOUT

SD
FB
IN
IC
POWER
*
*
GND
SWITCHES SHOWN IN TRIPLER MODE, DISCHARGE CYCLE
CONTROL
LOGIC
10F
OUT
VREF
SHDN
C2+
MAX619
C4
Figure 1. B lock D iagram
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Regulated 5V Charge-Pump
DC-DC Converter
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Table 1. Capacitor Suppliers
* Note: (SM ) denotes surface-m ount com ponent, (TH ) denotes through-hole com ponent.
__________Applic ations Information
Capac itor Selec tion
Charge-Pump Capacitors C1 and C2
The values of charge-pum p capacitors C 1 and C 2 are
critical to ensure adequate output current and avoid
excessive peak currents. U se values in the range of
0.22F to 1.0F. Larger capacitors (up to 50F) can
be used, but larger capacitors w ill increase output rip-
ple. C eram ic or tantalum capacitors are recom m end-
ed.
Input and Output Capacitors, C3 and C4
The type of input bypass capacitor (C 3) and output fil-
ter capacitor (C 4) used is not critical, but it does affect
perform ance. Tantalum s, ceram ics, or alum inum elec-
trolytics are suggested. For sm allest size, use Sprague
595D 106X0010A 2 surface-m ount capacitors, w hich
m easure 3.7m m x 1.8m m (0.146in x 0.072in). For low -
est ripple, use large, low effective-series-resistance
(ESR ) ceram ic or tantalum capacitors. For low est cost,
use alum inum electrolytic or tantalum capacitors.
Figure 2 show s the com ponent values for proper oper-
ation using m inim al board space. The input bypass
capacitor (C 3) and output filter capacitor (C 4) should
both be at least 10F w hen using alum inum electrolyt-
ics or Spragues m iniature 595D series of tantalum chip
capacitors.
W hen using ceram ic capacitors, the values of C 3 and
C 4 can be reduced to 2F and 1F, respectively. If the
input supply source im pedance is very low , C 3 m ay not
be necessary.
M any capacitors exhibit 40% to 50% variation over
tem perature. C om pensate for capacitor tem perature
coefficient b y selecting a larg er nom inal value to
ensure proper operation over tem perature. Table 1 lists
capacitor suppliers.
MAX619
C4
10F

IN
C1+
C1
OUT
SHDN
C2+
C2
GND
7
4
5
6
2
1
8
3
C3
10F
2
CELLS
C1
0.22F
C2
0.22F
5V 4%
@ 20mA
Figure 2. Tw o-C ell to 5V A pplication C ircuit
10F tantalum (SM ) 595D 106X0010A 2
(603) 224-1430
(207) 324-7223
(603) 224-1961
(207) 327-4140
Sprague Electric
(sm allest size)
0.1F ceram ic (TH ) R PE121Z5U 104M 50V
(814) 238-0490 (814) 237-1431 M urata Erie
1.0F ceram ic (TH ) R PI123Z5U 105M 50V
0.22F ceram ic (SM ) G R M 42-6Z5U 22M 50
0.1F ceram ic (SM ) G R M 42-6Z5U 10M 50
CAPACITOR TYPE* CAPACITOR FAX NUMBER PHONE NUMBER SUPPLIER
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Regulated 5V Charge-Pump
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Layout Considerations
The M A X619s high oscillator frequency m akes good
layout im portant. A good layout ensures stability and
helps m aintain the output voltage under heavy loads.
For best perform ance, use very short connections to
the capacitors.
Paralleling Devic es
Tw o M A X619s can be placed in parallel to increase
output drive capability. The IN , O U T, and G N D pins
can be paralleled, but C 1 and C 2 pins cannot. The
input bypass capacitor and output filter capacitor are,
to som e extent, shared w hen tw o circuits are paral-
leled. If the circuits are physically close together, it
m ay be possible to use a single bypass and a single
output capacitor, each w ith tw ice the value of the single
circuit. If the M A X619s cannot be placed close togeth-
er, use separate bypass and output capacitors. The
am ount of outp ut rip p le ob served w ill d eterm ine
w hether single input bypass and output filter capacitors
can be used.
___________________Chip Topography
C1+ C1-
SHDN
GND
0. 115
(2. 921mm)
IN
OUT
C2+
C2-
0. 072
(1. 828mm)
TRANSISTOR COUNT: 599;
SUBSTRATE CONNECTED TO GND.
MAX619
IN OUT
GND
INPUT 5V, 40mA
MAX619
IN OUT
GND
Figure 3. Paralleling Tw o M A X619s