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Methods of Research Lecture Compilation Chapter 1: OVERVIEW OF RESEARCH Research is inevitable, the things that

Methods of Research

Lecture Compilation


Research is inevitable, the things that we enjoy at present are an outcome of an inquisitive minds. Those intellectual heroes may have invested a considerable length of time, effort, money and various resources in order to invent, discover of find out new knowledge and things for the benefit of humanity.

In the diagnosis of various diseases, new technologies, new medicines are being developed and discovered to treat some killer diseases like cancer, tuberculosis and more. Children on the other hand are now enjoying the new taste of medicines like strawberry, cherry, orange that delights them. There are new trends in the field of medicine such as cosmetic surgery, artificial human insemination, laser surgery and more. (Dr.Ronnie Bouing)

In the field of Agriculture:

In the early days, a minimum sack of rice were being harvested because of the manual machineries and manual system of irrigation. Research made all things possible in the field of agriculture from a new technology being developed in irrigation, planting and harvesting. A new breed of crops, a new trends in animal raising, cross breeding, a new feeds being developed to speed up the growth of poultry and hogs, artificial insemination and more.

In the field of Business

A new concept were develop a product to suit the consumer’s preferences and needs. Examples are a new scent of a laundry soap from calamansi to floral, different flavours of instant juices.

Researchers have already developed a device that allows you to see through eight-inch- thick concrete walls, but now, scientists have devised another way to reveal objects that are hidden from view: a camera that can see around corners. Have you heard about a virtual supermarket shopping?

In the field of Information Technology

In the earlier times, communication takes a very long and slow process on how to relay of messages to someone. Nowadays, communicating with our family and friends across continents would only take a few seconds, we can even see them while communicating without the expense of a long distance call.

This convenience shows the advanced technology prevalent in our global community. Ceaseless innovations such as cellphones, laptops, notebooks, tablets, wi-fi, plastic money are now a part of our everyday lives.

Introduction to Research

Meaning of Research

  • - Research is a quest for an answer to a question. Knowing the answer to a question requires a scientific method and not merely asking from various persons or merely observing several situations that may out-rightly provide haphazard answers to posed questions.

  • - Research or re-search “to research again”, to take another more careful look, to find out more.(Seltiz et al., 1976)

  • - Research is an activity which is meant to acquire better knowledge by “ relearning what we already know though systematic observation and experimentation.

  • - Research is a systematic, controlled, empirical and critical investigation of natural phenomena guided by theory and hypotheses about a presumed relations among such phenomena.

  • - Research is systematic and objective analysis and recording of controlled observations that may lead to the development of generalizations, principles or theories resulting in prediction and possibly ultimate control of events. (Best & Khann, `89)

Common Elements of Research:

  • 1. To attain or establish facts about the phenomenon being investigated

  • 2. Systematic

  • 3. Objective

  • 4. Comprehensive investigation

Characteristic of Research

  • 1. Research is directed towards the solution of a problem.

  • 2. Research emphasizes the development of generalization, principles or theories that will be helpful in predicting future occurrence.

  • 3. Research is based upon observable experience or empirical evidence.

  • 4. Research demands accurate observation and description.

  • 5. Research involves gathering new date from primary or firsthand sources using existing data for a new purpose.

  • 6. Careful designed procedures that apply rigorous analysis.

  • 7. Research requires expertise.

  • 8. Research tries to be objective and logical, applying every possible test to validate the procedures employed, the date collected

  • 9. Research involves the quest for answers to unsolved problems

    • 10. Research is characterized by patience and unhurried activity.

    • 11. Research is carefully recorded and reported.

12.Research sometimes requires courage

2 Major Types of Research


Basic Research – is the type which is conducted for the sake of knowing. Also known as “theoretical research”

Objective of Basic Research:


Design to add to our understanding and store knowledge, but without any particular

practical goals. To test or arrive at a theory with ultimate goal of establishing general principles

2. Applied Research – is done when the purpose is to obtain knowledge for practical application also known as “practical research”.

Applied research is designed to solve practical problems of the modern world, rather than

improve agricultural crop production

to acquire knowledge for knowledge's sake. One might say that the goal of the applied scientist is to improve the human condition . For example, applied researchers may investigate ways to:

treat or cure a specific disease

improve the energy efficiency of homes, offices, or modes of transportation

Methodology of Research


Qualitative Research (information)

  • - Qualitative research is a type of scientific research. In general terms, scientific research consists of an investigation that:

• seeks answers to a question • systematically uses a predefined set of procedures to answer the question • collects evidence • produces findings that were not determined in advance • produces findings that are applicable beyond the immediate boundaries of the study

Qualitative research is especially effective in obtaining culturally specific information about the values, opinions, behaviour, and social contexts of particular populations

What are some qualitative research methods?

  • a. Participant observation is appropriate for collecting data on naturally occurring behaviours in their usual contexts.

  • b. In-depth interviews are optimal for collecting data on individuals’ personal histories, perspectives, and experiences, particularly when sensitive topics are being explored.

  • c. Focus groups are effective in eliciting data on the cultural norms of a group and in generating broad overviews of issues of concern to the cultural groups or subgroups represented.

    • 2. Quantitative Research ( numbers)

      • - Is conducted to find answers to questions about relationship among measurable variables with a purpose of explaining, controlling and predicting phenomena.

  • - In quantitative research your aim is to determine the relationship between one thing (an independent variable) and another (a dependent or outcome variable) in a population. Quantitative research designs are either descriptive (subjects usually measured once) or experimental (subjects measured before and after a treatment). A descriptive study establishes only associations between variables. An experiment establishes causality.

  • - Quantitative research is all about quantifying relationships between variables. Variables are things like weight, performance, time, and treatment. You measure variables on a sample of subjects, which can be tissues, cells, animals, or humans. You express the relationship between variable using effect statistics, such as correlations, relative frequencies, or differences between means.

Comparison on Quantitative and Qualitative Research




General Framework

-Seek to confirm hypotheses about phenomena -Instruments use more rigid style of eliciting and categorizing responses to questions -Use highly structured methods such as questionnaires, surveys, and structured observation

-Seek to explore phenomena -Instruments use more flexible, iterative style of eliciting and categorizing responses to questions - Use semi-structured methods such as in-depth interviews, focus groups, and participant


Analytical Objectives

-To quantify variation -To predict causal relationships -To describe characteristics of a Population

-To describe variation -To describe and explain relationships -To describe individual experiences -To describe group norms

Question format

Closed ended

Open ended

Data Format

Numerical (obtained by assigning numerical values to responses)

Textual (obtained from audiotapes, videotapes, and field notes)

large sample

small sample


standardized instruments

observations, interviews

Report of findings

Numbers, statistics, aggregated data

Words, narratives, individual quotes, personal voice

Research Report and Layout

Title Page Endorsement Page Approval Sheet Acknowledgement Abstract Table of Contents List of Tables List of Figures, Illustrations, Plates List of Appendices

standardized instruments observations, interviews Report of findings Numbers, statistics, aggregated data Words, narratives, individual quotes, personal

Chapter I: THE PROBLEM AND ITS BACKGROUND Introduction Statement of the Problem Assumption Hypothesis Significance of the Study Theoretical / Conceptual Framework Scope and Limitation Definition of Terms

Chapter II: REVIEW OF RELATED STUDIES AND LITERATURE Related Literature Related Studies

Chapter III: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY Research Design Locale and Population of the Study Description of the Respondents Statistical Treatment Used Instrumentation and Try-out Phase



Summary of findings Conclusions Recommendations


Research Title & Knowing the Problem

Before we proceed to your Research title, a researcher must be able to identify the

problem first. Research problem refers to the research title. The title is a very important part of all thesis documents, as it introduces readers to the nature. Many professors recommend that students create their theses titles only after they have completed writing their theses so that

they can be sure that the title accurately reflects the content of the theses document. Other professors recommend that students begin the entire thesis with the thesis title and use the title as a method of directing the content.

A good title should have the following properties:

1) The title needs to be very specific in nature 2) In spite of being specific it should also have the expressive power to show the entire scale of the research study in those few words. 3) It should tell the total nature of the subject. 4) It needs to be very definite and clear. 5) The title needs to be attractive and interesting enough to catch the attention of the readers.

Before we state the problem, let us learn first the standards in writing a title.

  • 1. The title must be concise. It contains only the words enough to hint the content of the research. Omit phrases and words like:

A Study of

The Implications of

A Comparative Study of

An Assessment of

An Analysis of



These are overused words and phrases or can be stated in the body of the study.

  • 2. The title must be stated in declarative form, not interrogative form.



Comment: (too broad)

  • 1. Modify the problem and the title. It should be SMART

  • 2. Choose a key issues of concern in a restaurant service business.

  • 3. Let say you want to focus on a “Quick Service Restaurant”

Analyze the given topic:

Discrete Negative Emotions and Customer Dissatisfaction



Among the Quick Service Restaurant Along Katipunan Quezon


Subject matter

Locale of the study

: Customer dissatisfaction

: Katipunan, Quezon City

Population involved: Customers

Note: Sometimes, we need to analyze the words carefully , other unnecessary words are need to be

omitted, and can be placed on the scope and limitation of the study or avoid associating the place with negative situation or image)

Constructing a Statement of the Problem

The simplest way to approach problem statements is to start by looking at where they fit into your document. Problem statements make up the core of the introduction to your document. Your introduction should set the stage for your readers and give them a clear idea of your argument. An effective document will motivate readers by articulating a problem that the document can help resolve. You can only be sure that your readers understand the problem the same way as you if you express not only the problem or the situation, but also the consequences that make the problem worth solving.

A good problem statement should answer these questions:

  • 1. What is the problem? (how, what, when, where, who, which, why?)

  • 2. Who has the problem or who is the client/customer? This should explain who needs the solution and who will decide the problem has been solved.

  • 3. What form can the resolution be? What is the scope and limitations (in time, money, resources, technologies) that can be used to solve the problem.

  • 4. Limit the problem – The problem may be very broad, try to focus on scope and boundaries research should be SMART –( Specific, Measurable, Attainable, Realistic & Time Bound)

These steps may help you in the construction of the statement of the problems:


Make a clear and analytical introduction which usually encompasses the main problem the title, stated in the expanded form.

1. Make a clear and analytical introduction which usually encompasses the main problem the title, stated
  • 2. The first question inquires the information linked to the introduction.

  • 3. Create subsidiary questions clearly, logically and subsequently derived from the problem.

  • 4. Ensure that you construct a question that elicits the presentation of the new knowledge or situation to a problem.

  • 5. Pose a hypothetical that shall be tested, if necessary

  • 6. Check if your questions are sufficient, about 3-6 statements, and are able to elicit information that provide substantial answer to make the main problem (Bauing)

Example Statement of the Problem:

The researchers aims to know the Discrete Customer Dissatisfaction Responses Among the Quick Service Restaurant Along Katipunan Quezon City.

Specifically, the study aimed to answer the following questions:

  • 1. What are the characteristics of a quick service restaurant?

  • 2. What are the negative emotions and customer dissatisfaction in a quick service restaurant?

  • 3. How are these negative emotions and dissatisfaction contributes to the image of these quick service restaurants?

  • 4. Is there a significant relationship between a discreet negative emotions and customer dissatisfaction to the overall performance of a Quick Service Restaurant?

Descriptions of the Parts of Research

Title Page

It includes the title of the research which shall stated briefly. It may of at least one line but

not exceed three lines written in full uppercase making a V form. Other information in the title page include the name of the university, the degree to which the researcher is a candidate, the name of the researcher and the month and year when the paper will be presented. The font size of the title page shall not be smaller than 12 not bigger than 14 using Time New Roman, Arial, Bookman Style, or as prescribed by the institution.


Chapter I

Thesis introduction is the first part of a thesis paper. Thesis introduction allows the readers to get the general idea of what your thesis is about. Thesis introduction acquaints the readers with the thesis paper topic, explaining the basic points of the thesis research and pointing the direction of your research.

Thesis introduction has to contain the following information:

The thesis paper topic;

The reasons which pushed a student to write his or her thesis paper exactly on this topic;

The thesis topic preface, or the background information on the thesis paper topic;

The goals you are going to achieve;

The tasks to complete in order to attain the goals, or the direction of the thesis research development;

Remember that your thesis introduction has to contain all the information presented above. But it is not enough just to know the components of the thesis introduction if you want to succeed in thesis paper writing. You also have to know several secrets of the thesis introduction writing. We will tell you these secrets, so that you could prepare a brilliant thesis introduction.

You should write your thesis introduction after composing the entire thesis paper. It will

allow you to analyze the whole work, and discover the best way to introduce your thesis to the readers. You should not use any terms in your thesis introduction, since it can baffle the readers. You should present the terms related to the topic of your thesis paper only in the main body of the thesis paper.

Try to use simple language within your thesis introduction.

Remember that one of the main tasks of the thesis introduction is to attract the readers’ attention to your thesis paper.

Hypotheses of the Study

You must state your hypothesis in a way that you can easily measure, and of course, your hypothesis should be constructed in a way to help you answer your original question.

The hypothesis must be worded so that it can be tested in your experiment. Do this by expressing the hypothesis using your independent variable (the variable you change during your experiment) and your dependent variable (the variable you observe-changes in the dependent variable depend on changes in the independent variable). In fact, many hypotheses are stated exactly like this: "If a particular independent variable is changed, then there is also a change in a certain dependent variable."

Significance of the Study

Who will benefit from your study? How will they benefit?

This should state why the problem investigated is important and what significance the

result have. Statement on relevance felt needs,

Potential contribution of the research to new knowledge

Policy implications and other possible uses for its results

Scope and Limitation

This tells the coverage and boundaries of the study. It tells the attributes and characteristics that are included or excluded. Scope and Limitation may be applicable to place, time, people, value or other factors. (Bouing)

The "scope" section is where you list what you are doing. The "bounds" section is where you set the boundaries and you list some thing explicitly that you are not doing because they are outside the bounds of the project.

Theoretical / Conceptual Framework

A conceptual framework is the researcher’s idea on how the research problem will have to be explored. This is founded on the theoretical framework, which lies on a much broader scale of resolution. The theoretical framework dwells on time tested theories that embody the findings of numerous investigations on how phenomena occur.

The theoretical framework provides a general representation of relationships between things in a given phenomenon. Theoretical framework cites the salient outcomes of the previous studies presents the theories formulated by other writers, these will be used as bases in proving or disapproving the applicability of such theories on present time.

The conceptual framework, on the other hand, embodies the specific direction by which the

research will have to be undertaken. Statistically speaking, the conceptual framework describes the relationship between specific variables identified in the study. It also outlines the input, process and output of the whole investigation. The conceptual framework is also called the

research paradigm.

Research Paradigm Paradigm is a chart, diagram or illustration of the existence of the problem. It provides solutions and the outcomes of the processes or intervention done.

Definition of Terms This part simplifies the key words used in the study. It serves as the glossary of the research paper. Terms may be defined conceptually or operationally. Conceptual definition includes those lifted from the dictionary or written resources. Operational definition refers to the definition constructed by the researcher as applied to the present study. (Bouing)


Related Literature

A review of related literature is an integral part of theses or dissertations. It may also be a required part of proposals. The main purpose of a review of related literature is to analyze scientific works by other researchers that you used for investigation critically.

How to Write the Introduction of a Review of Related Literature

In order to make the Introduction elaborately, take the following steps:

  • 1. Identify the general topic of the sources under discussion. Thus, you will provide the context of your review of related literature;

  • 2. Discuss what was already presented about the topic of your paper: conflicts in a theory, conclusions, gaps in research and scholarship, etc.

  • 3. Explain why the literature used is worth reviewing.

How to Write the Body of a Review of Related Literature

When writing the Body, do the following:

Group the sources according to their common dominators (approaches, objectives or any specific chronologies); Give the examples of how to sort out these groups. Use quotations, evidences, data, etc. They will make your review of related literature more valid.

How to Write the Conclusion of a Review of Related Literature

To make the Conclusion, do the following:

Summarize the contributions of the literature sources made to the area of study you investigate. Maintain the central focus in the Introduction; Give a kind of insight into the relationship between the topic of your review and a larger study area (e.g. a discipline, a scientific endeavour, etc.)

Citation It is a way of strengthening or concretizing one’s idea by citing the similar or relevant ideas or findings of other researchers and authorities. Documentation was done through footnoting or parenthetical reference citation. Modern writers is now using parenthetical reference style. The style is called “American Psychological Association style” or APA style

Examples of APA style of citation

Works by single author

According to Flippo (1984) proper job performance is achieved only if employees are trained because they will improve their skills.

from theory on bounded rationality (Simon, 1945)


Flippo (1984) stated the relationship or training and performance,



“After personnel have been obtained, they must be to some degree developed. Development has to do with the increase of skill through training, that is necessary for proper job performance.”

Works by multiple authors

When a work has two authors, always cite both names every time the reference occurs in the text. In parenthetical material join the names with an ampersand (&).

as has been shown (Leiter & Maslach, 1998)

In the narrative text, join the names with the word "and."

as Leiter and Maslach (1998) demonstrated

When a work has three, four, or five authors, cite all authors the first time the reference occurs.

Kahneman, Knetsch, and Thaler (1991) found

In all subsequent citations per paragraph, include only the surname of the first author followed by "et al." (Latin for "and others") and the year of publication.

Kahneman et al. (1991) found

Writing the related literature In a report, the original information stated by the researcher are printed double space , while the borrowed information are encoded in single space if copied word for word from the source. Paraphrased information is stated also in double space (Bouing)

Chapter III Research Design

refers to as a scheme or plan of action for meeting the objectives of the study. - Each research design has its own applicability factors to consider:

nature of problem

objectives of the study

attributes ad geographical dispersion of the subjects

Investigator’s capability

Availability of resources and time element

Types of Research Design

1.Historical Research Design – is the systematic and objective location, evaluation and synthesis of evidence in order to establish the facts and draw conclusions about past events. Example :” A Tale of Two crises: The Belgian and Irish Dioxin Contamination Incidents” by Donald Casey

2.Descriptive Research Design - aims to find out what prevail in the present conditions or relationships, held opinions and beliefs, process and effects and developing trends

Types of Descriptive Research:

a. Case Study - – is an empirical inquiry that investigates a contemporary phenomenon within its real-life context, especially when the boundaries between phenomenon and context are not clearly evident.

Example :” Rural Women in Rice Enterprise : A Case Study” by D.D. Torreta

  • b. Trend Study - predicts on the basis of available data, the direction and future status of certain phenomenon like population size, school, population size, school enrolment, business growth, household expenditures and residential location.

Example: “Trends in Breastfeeding Prevalence and Duration” by Zelda

  • c. Survey - detailed and quantified description of a population of a population – precise map or precise measurement of potential.

Example: “Customer Satisfaction of ABC Travel and Tour” by D.C Castro

  • d. Content Analysis/ Document Analysis – to find out the type and the quality of message found in current documents deals with communication, processes.

Example : “Rhetorical Patterns of Speeches of Pres. Benigno Aquino III”

  • e. Feasibility study – scheme use when the objective of the study is to find out the viability of starting a business venture, implementing a development program,establishing an institution, forming organization, putting up a television

network or constructing a commercial building.

Components: market, technical,

financial and management aspects of the desired undertaking.

Example : Establishment of Food Service Business in Antipolo City” by A.M Somoray

  • f. Development study – a scheme to find out how and to what extent individuals grow or develop in terms of physical, intellectual, emotional and social dimension. Types: longitudinal (years to finish) and cross section (one point in time)

Example : “The Development of Social Awareness Among Filipino Children” by PNC Research Center

  • g. Follow-up study – is conducted with the goal of finding out what happened to individuals who completed a program a program, a treatment or a course of study.

Example: OLFU Student Monitoring Program : A Follow up Study

  • h. Evaluation study – to find out whether or not a given program is working or an institution is successful. Example: “An Evaluation of the National Tuberculosis Program in Western Visayas” by V.B. Ardales

  • i. Ethnographic study – is a field method study and uses the techniques of observation and integration to the group and conservation and interviews with informants. Observes beliefs, attitudes, fears and hopes of cultural or ethnic groups, real life setting. Example: “Belief sand Customs of Farmers in Gapan, Nueva Ecija”

  • j. Relational study – to find out the direction and extent of relationship between two Or more paired variables or two or more sets of data. Example:” Relationship Between Economic Status and Academic Performance and Career Preference of Senior High School Students in the Iloilo City”

    • k. Ex Post Facto Studies/Casual Comparative Design – is a method wherein the investigator studies the problem by analyzing past events or existing conditions to

determine the influence. To find out the existing differences in the status behaviour, attitude and belief of groups of individuals.

Example: “Some Factors in Job Satisfaction Among Employees in a Five Star Hotel In Metro Manila” by A.M Lopez

  • l. Replication and Secondary Analysis – repetition of a research work but in a different set of participants, setting and time. Challenging and verifying the conclusions of previous studies.

Example: “Social Change in Mindanao : A Review of the Research of the Decade” By M.A Costello

3. Experimental Research Design - is a research method in which the investigator


a variable(s) under very controlled conditions and examines whether changes occur in a second variable(s). Independent & Dependent Variables

The manipulated variable is called the INDEPENDENT VARIABLE (presumed "cause." ) The

variable that is expected to change as a result of the manipulation of the independent

variable is called the DEPENDENT VARIABLE.

(presumed "effect.")

4.Factorial Research Design - design is often used by scientists wishing to understand the effect of two or more independent variables upon a single dependent variable.

5. Action Research Design - learning by doing” - a group of people identify a problem, do something to resolve it, see how successful their efforts were, and if not satisfied, try again. While this is the essence of the approach, there are other key attributes of action research that differentiate it from common problem-solving activities that we all engage in every day.

6.Participatory Research Design - Is an arranged effort by the researcher and the people to conduct a study the result of which is relevant to actions for transforming or improving people’s condition.

is a recognized form of experimental research that focuses on the effects of the researcher's direct actions of practice within a participatory community with the goal of improving the performance quality of the community or an area of concern.

7.Operations Research Design - Is the application of analytic methods that help decision makers choose among various options to accomplish specified goals. It is useful in solving problems that are related to the conduct and coordination of operations of organizations.

Sampling Procedure

Sampling refers to taking a representative subsection of the population. Contacting, questioning, and obtaining information from a large population, such as the 370,000 households residing in Antipolo City, is extremely expensive, difficult, and time consuming. A properly designed probability sample, however, provides a reliable means of inferring information about a population without examining every member or element.

Two General Types of Sampling:

A. Probability sampling - is taking a sample from the population.

It ensures that there is a

possibility for each person in a sample population to be selected. A probability sample tends to

be more difficult and costly to conduct. However, probability samples are the only type of samples where the results can be generalized from the sample to the population. In addition, probability samples allow the researcher to calculate the precision of the estimates obtained from the sample and to specify the sampling error.

Types of Probability Sampling:

  • 1. Random Sampling – This is similar to lottery method that provides everyone in the population the equal chance to be picked as sample.

  • 2. Systematic Sampling – This is used if a high density of a population is at stake. The researcher may find a record of the population, list the name alphabetically at any desired order, identify the sample size, then proceed to a system of selection. Say the population is 1000 and he preferred sample is 20%, the researcher needs 200, so he picks every 5 th name from the list. (Bouing)

  • 3. Stratified Random Sampling - dividing up the population into smaller groups, and randomly sampling from each group. Example: To get a sample from the City of Antipolo. To obtain more precise estimates of the population, the researcher may want to stratify the sample by geographic region or baranggay. 4. Cluster Sampling - is similar to stratified sampling because the population to be sampled is subdivided into mutually exclusive groups. However, in cluster sampling the groups are defined so as to maintain the heterogeneity of the population. Example: Female members of Baranggay San Isidro.

B. Non-Probability Sampling - in contrast, do not allow the study's findings to be generalized from the sample to the population. When discussing the results of a non probability sample, the researcher must limit his/her findings to the persons or elements sampled. This procedure also does not allow the researcher to calculate sampling statistics that provide information about the precision of the results. The advantage of non probability sampling is the ease in which it can be administered. Non probability samples tend to be less complicated and less time consuming than probability samples. If the researcher has no intention of generalizing beyond the sample, one of the non probability sampling methodologies will provide the desired information.

Types of Non-Probability Sampling

  • 1. Network sampling – “referral sampling” that stems from one or few identified samples who after being involved in the study will lead the researcher to other samples who possess the same attributes. (Bouing)

  • 2. Accidental Sampling - A sampling by opportunity in which the researcher takes the respondents from those he meets unexpectedly.


Convenience Sampling – Selecting respondents in the easiest way. The respondents may be the nearest people, friends, relatives, accessible organization, available person.

  • 5. Quota Sampling -

4. Convenience Sampling – Selecting respondents in the easiest way. The respondents may be the nearestmutually exclusive sub- groups, just as in stratified sampling . Then judgment is used to select the subjects or units from each segment based on a specified proportion. For example, an interviewer may be told to sample 200 females and 300 males between the age of 45 and 60. This means that individuals can put a demand on who they want to sample (targeting). Determining the Sample Determining sample size is a very important issue because samples that are too large may waste time, resources and money, while samples that are too small may lead to inaccurate results. There is no general rule regarding the sample size. However, we can say that the higher the percentage, the higher the validity. It is natural to say that the bigger the population, the lesser percentage of the sample is taken. Some statisticians suggest the Slovin formula in computing the sample size. n = N 1+Ne2 Where: n = number of sample N = number of population E = margin of error The margin of error may be .01 to .05. But the lower the margin of error, the higher the accuracy of the result. Activity : Compute the sample size. Where the number of population is 1,200 and the margin of error is 3% N = 1,200 E = .03 n = ? n = 1,200 1 + 1,200 (.03)2 n = 1,200 1 + 1,200 (.0009) n = 1,200 n = N 1+Ne2 1+ 1.0800 " id="pdf-obj-15-10" src="pdf-obj-15-10.jpg">

a population is first segmented into


groups, just as in stratified sampling. Then judgment is used to select the subjects or units from each segment based on a specified proportion. For example, an interviewer may be told to sample 200 females and 300 males between the age of 45 and 60. This means that individuals can put a demand on who they want to sample (targeting).

Determining the Sample Determining sample size is a very important issue because samples that are too large may waste time, resources and money, while samples that are too small may lead to inaccurate results. There is no general rule regarding the sample size. However, we can say that the higher the percentage, the higher the validity. It is natural to say that the bigger the population, the lesser percentage of the sample is taken.

Some statisticians suggest the Slovin formula in computing the sample size.





Where: n = number of sample N = number of population E = margin of error

The margin of error may be .01 to .05. But the lower the margin of error, the higher the accuracy of the result.

Activity : Compute the sample size. Where the number of population is 1,200 and the margin of error is 3%

N = 1,200 E = .03 n = ?


= 1,200 1 + 1,200 (.03)2





1 + 1,200 (.0009)

n =








n= 575.92 or


Validity and Reliability

Validity and Reliability are two important characteristics of both the research process and research output.

Validity refers to the degree of appropriateness, correctness, truthfulness and accuracy of the study. In other words, the procedure shall measure what is intended to measure. (Bouing)

Types of Validity

  • 1. Content Validity - pertains to the degree to which the instrument fully assesses or measures the construct of interest. For example, an educational test with strong content validity will represent the subjects actually taught to students, rather than asking unrelated questions.

  • 2. Face Validity - is a component of content validity and is established when an individual reviewing the instrument concludes that it measures the characteristic or trait of interest. It requires a personal judgment, such as asking participants whether they thought that a test was well constructed and useful.

  • 3. Criterion Validity - assesses whether a test reflects a certain set of abilities. To measure the criterion validity of a test, researchers must calibrate it against a known standard or against itself. Example:

For market researchers, criterion validity is crucial, and can make or break a product. One famous example is when Coca-Cola decided to change the flavor of their trademark drink.

Diligently, they researched whether people liked the new flavor, performing taste tests and giving out questionnaires. People loved the new flavor, so Coca-Cola rushed New Coke into production, where it was a titanic flop. The mistake that Coke made was that they forgot about criterion validity, and omitted one important question from the survey.

People were not asked if they preferred the new flavor to the old, a failure to establish concurrent validity. The Old Coke, known to be popular, was the perfect benchmark, but it was never used. A simple blind taste test, asking people which flavor they preferred out of the two, would have saved Coca Cola millions of dollars.

Reliability - The degree of consistency between two measures of the same thing. (Mehrens and Lehman, 1987).

• The measure of how stable, dependable, trustworthy, and consistent a test is in measuring the same thing each time (Worthen et al., 1993)

Example 1 :

If we wish to measure a person's weight, we would hope that the scale would

register the same measure each time the person stepped on the scale.

Example 2 :

If we wanted to measure the length of a piece of wood, the tape used better yield

the same measure each time. Even if you had someone else re measure the wood, the result

should be consistent.

Example 3: Assume that you gave a student a history test yesterday and then gave the test again today. You found that the student scored very high the first day and very low the second day. It could have been that the student had an off day or that the test is simply unreliable.

Statistical Treatment of Data

Scientists frequently use

statistics to analyze their results.

Statistics can help understand a phenomenon by confirming or rejecting a hypothesis.

It is vital to how we acquire knowledge to most scientific theories.

Statistical treatment of data also involves describing the data. The best way to do this is through the measures of central tendencies like mean, median and mode. These help the researcher explain in short how the data are concentrated. Range, uncertainty and standard deviation help to understand the distribution of the data. Therefore two distributions with the same mean can have wildly different standard deviation, which shows how well the data points are concentrated around the mean. Statistical treatment of data is an important aspect of all experimentation today and a thorough understanding is necessary to conduct the right experiments with the right inferences from the data obtained.


Chapter V : SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS Summary of findings Conclusions Recommendations