Sie sind auf Seite 1von 9

Research Article

Research on Blade Thickness Influencing Pump as Turbine


Sun-Sheng Yang,
1
Chao Wang,
2
Kai Chen,
1
and Xin Yuan
1
1
Research Center of Fluid Machinery Engineering and Technology, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, Jiangsu 212013, China
2
Patent Examination Cooperation Jiangsu Center of the Patent Ofce, SIPO, Suzhou, Jiangsu 215163, China
Correspondence should be addressed to Sun-Sheng Yang; yangsunsheng@126.com
Received 6 March 2014; Accepted 13 May 2014; Published 12 June 2014
Academic Editor: Dongliang Sun
Copyright 2014 Sun-Sheng Yang et al. Tis is anopenaccess article distributedunder the Creative Commons AttributionLicense,
which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Research on the efciency improvement of pump as turbine (PAT) is inadequate. Blade thickness is an important geometry
parameter in blade design. To explore efects of blade thickness on the infuence of PAT, numerical research on three diferent
specifc speeds of PATs with diferent blade thickness was carried out. Teir performance changes with blade thickness were
presented. Besides, the variations of hydraulic loss distribution with increasing blade thickness were performed. Teoretical analysis
gives a reasonable explanation for the performance change. Results show that PATs fow versus efciency curve (-) is lowered;
fow versus head (-) curve and fow versus power (-) curve are increased with increasing blade thickness. Te increase of
- is mainly attributed to the increase of theoretical head caused by increasing blockage of impeller inlet area. Hydraulic loss
distribution analysis indicates that the total hydraulic loss within PAT is increased with increasing blade thickness. Te increase
of - curve is a combined efect of the increase in theoretical head and the total hydraulic loss. Te decrease of efciency with
increasing blade thickness indicates that the blade thickness of PAT should be as thin as possible if its strength could be met.
1. Introduction
Pumps are reversible machines. A pump can run as a turbine
with an acceptable efciency. Due to its apparent advantages
of being cheap and readily available worldwide, pump as
turbine is one of the best options for small hydropower
recovery [14].
Te efciency of PAT is reported to be almost the same as
in pump mode [5]. Te efciency improvement of PATmeans
generating more energy from current limited hydropower
resources. Terefore, researchers have been focused on its
efciency improvement. Singh and Nestmann [6, 7] carried
various possibilities of modifying current pump geometry
to improve its efciency. Yang et al. analyzed the fow feld
[8] within PAT and investigated efects of splitter blades [9]
and blade wrap angle [10] on the performance infuence of
PAT. Yang et al. [11] sought to fnd out a high efciency PATs
volute design method through numerical research into volute
main geometric parameters infuencing PAT. Derakhshan
et al. [12, 13] used a gradient-based optimization algorithm
to optimize PATs blade profles. As could be seen research
on the efciency improvement of PAT is inadequate. Blade
thickness is a main geometry parameter to be determined in
hydraulic design. Terefore, this paper seeks to fndthe efects
of blade thickness on the infuence of PAT.
Experimental and numerical researches are two ways
frequently adopted in PATs research. Experimental research
could give people a convincing result. However, it has the
drawbacks of being time consuming and expensive. Besides,
limited by the accuracy of test bed, small changes of per-
formance may not be easily observed. CFD as a promising
technique provides a powerful substitution and has been used
in the research of rotating machinery [14, 15] and PAT[16, 17].
In this paper, efects of blade thickness infuencing diferent
specifc speeds of PATs performances were investigated using
a validated CFD approach. Hydraulic loss distribution and
theoretical analysis were performed; the reasons for the
variation of PATs performance were explored.
2. Numerical Investigation
2.1. MainGeometric Parameters. PATs covering low, medium,
and high specifc speeds were designed. Table 1 lists their
Hindawi Publishing Corporation
Advances in Mechanical Engineering
Volume 2014, Article ID 190530, 8 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/190530
2 Advances in Mechanical Engineering
X
Z
Y
(a)

= 57
X
Z
Y
Z
YYYYYY
XX
(b)

= 119
X
Z
Y
X
Z
XXXXXXXX
(c)

= 168
Figure 1: Mesh of PATs.
Table 1: Design parameters of the PATs.
Q/m
3
h
1
/m /r min
1

100 40 1500 57
120 43 3000 119
125 28 3000 168
Table 2: Main geometric parameters of the PATs.
Impeller

57 119 168
Impeller outlet diameter
1
/mm 102 90 90
Impeller diameter
2
/mm 255 158 132
Length of wear ring /mm 15 17 15
Impeller hub diameter

/mm 30 30 20
Blade inlet angle
2
(

) 20 30 30
Blade outlet angle
1
(

) 19.5 25.05 31.05


Blade wrap angle (

) 100 80 60
Impeller inlet width
2
/mm 14.38 19 27
Blade number 11 10 10
Volute
Volute base circle diameter
3
/mm 266 168 150
Volute inlet width
3
/mm 26 34 40
Volute inlet pipe diameter
4
/mm 65 80 80
Volute cross section shape/mm Round Round Round
design parameters. Table 2 lists their main geometric param-
eters [18].
2.2. Mesh Generation. ICEM-CFD was used to generate
structured hexahedral grid for each component part [19].
A grid independent test of the low specifc speed PAT was
performed; it was found that when mesh elements were
around 1 million, the variation of efciency was within 0.5%.
Te fnal mesh number of the PAT was over 1 million. Te
+
near the boundary wall was around 40 [20]. For comparison,
mesh number of diferent designs was almost the same.
Figure 1 gives a general view of the generated meshes.
2.3. Solution Parameters. ANSYS-CFX was selected in the
solution of 3DNavier-stokes due to its characteristics of being
robust and having fast convergence. Steady state simulation
was carried out. Te turbulence selected was standard -
model. Te advection scheme was set to high resolution.
Te convergence criterion was 10
6
. Te fuid selected was
ideal water at 25

C. All the wall surface roughness within


the control volume was set to 50 m. Standard wall function
was used for the boundary layer treatment. Te boundary
conditions were set to inlet, static pressure, and outlet,
mass fow outlet [21, 22]. By changing the mass fow rate,
performance curves of the PAT were acquired. Te interfaces
between two stationary components and rotary and station-
ary components were set to general grid and rotor stator
interface, respectively.
3. Validation of Numerical Simulation
3.1. Experimental Set-Up. A laboratory model of an open
PAT test rig, as shown in Figure 2, was set up at Jiangsu
University. High pressure fuid required for PATs energy
recovery was supplied by a feed pump. An electric eddy
current dynamometer (EECD) was installed to measure
and consume energy generated by PAT and to regulate its
rotational speed. Te discharge was measured by a turbine
fow meter. PATs inlet and outlet pressures were measured
by pressure sensors. Te uncertainties of measured required
pressure head , fow rate , hydraulic power

, generated
shaf power , and efciency are 0.14%, 0.50%, 0.52%,
1.08%, and 1.20%, respectively.
3.2. Comparison between Numerical and Experimental Re-
sults. PAT with specifc speed of 57 was selected for the
validation of numerical accuracy. Te blade thickness of
test PAT is 4 mm. Other geometric parameters are listed in
Advances in Mechanical Engineering 3
Flow meter
PAT Motor
Pressure transmitter
Valve
Computer
Pump EECD
Figure 2: An open PAT test rig.
Figure 3: Test PAT.
Table 2. Figure 3 shows the test PAT. Comparison between
experimental and numerical results is presented in Figure 4.
As is shown in Figure 4, the tendency of PATs numerical
predicted performance curves is in agreement with those
of experimental. Numerical predicted efciency, pressure
head, and shaf power are higher than those of experimental.
Te overprediction of efciency, pressure head, and shaf
power may attribute to the neglect of leakage loss through
balancing holes, surface roughness value set, and mechanical
loss caused by mechanical seal and bearings. Te comparison
between experimental and steady state numerical results
indicates that the grid and turbulence model selected are
reasonable for PATs performance prediction. As a result,
ANSYS-CFX can be used to predict the performance of PAT.
4. Results and Analysis
4.1. Performance Analysis. Numerical simulations of three
PATs with diferent blade thickness were performed. Te
main geometric parameters of the investigated PATs are listed
in Table 2. Figure 5 plots their performance curves. Table 3
lists their performance at their BEPs.
Figure 5 and Table 3 showthat PATs -and -curves
are increased; - curve is lowered with the increase of
blade thickness. Tis illustrates that for the same fow rate
its required pressure head and generated shaf power are
increased and its efciency is decreased when there is an
increase of blade thickness. Tus, it can be concluded that for
70 80 90 100 110 120
20
30
40
50
60
70
2
4
6
8
10
12
25
30
35
40
45
50
55

(
%
)
Q(m
3
/h)
H
(
m
)
CFD
CFD H
EXP
EXP H
CFD P
EXP P
P
(
k
W
)
Figure 4: Comparisonbetweenexperimental andnumerical results.
Table 3: PATs BEPs of impellers with diferent blade thickness.

/mm /m
3
h
1
/m /kW /%
57
2 100.00 40.20 7.79 71.17
4 100.00 40.65 7.85 70.93
6 100.00 41.01 7.89 70.70
119
2 120.00 42.44 11.31 81.61
4 120.00 42.70 11.37 81.47
6 120.00 44.39 11.71 80.73
168
2 125.00 27.59 7.69 81.91
4 125.00 28.17 7.81 81.42
6 125.00 29.20 8.02 80.72
Table 4: Lists of hydraulic loss diferences at their BEPs.

/mm
volute
/m
impeller
/m
pipe
/m
total
/m /m
57
4 0.15 0.02 0.06 0.22 0.45
6 0.21 0.10 0.11 0.42 0.81
119
4 0.05 0.14 0.01 0.11 0.27
6 0.18 0.92 0.00 0.75 1.95
168
4 0.08 0.31 0.02 0.24 0.58
6 0.43 1.03 0.04 0.64 1.61
the efciency improvement blade thickness should be as thin
as possible, supposing that its strength is satisfed.
4.2. Hydraulic Loss Distribution Analysis. Te variations of
hydraulic loss distribution with blade thickness within PATs
three zones (volute zone to outlet pipe zone as defned
in Figure 6) are discussed in this section. Te diference
of hydraulic loss distribution between impellers with blade
thickness of 2 mm and other blade thicknesses is presented
in Figure 7. Table 4 lists their hydraulic loss diference at their
BEPs.
4 Advances in Mechanical Engineering
70 80 90 100 110 120 130
60
62
64
66
68
70
72
74
30
35
40
45
50
55
4
6
8
10
12
Q(m
3
/h)
2
4
6
2H
4H
6H
2P
4P
6P

(
%
)
H
(
m
)
P
(
k
W
)
(a)

= 57
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
35
40
45
50
55
60
65
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
20
Q(m
3
/h)
100 110 120 130 140 150 160
H
(
m
)
P
(
k
W
)

(
%
)
2
4
6
2 H
4 H
6 H
2 P
4 P
6 P
(b)

= 119
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
22
24
26
28
30
32
34
36
38
40
42
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
Q(m
3
/h)
100 110 120 130 140 150 160
H
(
m
)
P
(
k
W
)

(
%
)
2
4
6
2 H
4 H
6 H
2 P
4 P
6 P
(c)

= 168
Figure 5: Performance curves of PATs with diferent blade thickness.
As indicated in Figure 7 and Table 4, the hydraulic loss
within impeller and the total hydraulic loss are increased with
increasing blade thickness. Te hydraulic loss within volute
of the low specifc speed PAT is grown, while that within
the volutes of the medium and high specifc speed PATs is
dropped. And the variation of hydraulic loss within outlet
pipe is negligible. It can be concluded that the growth of
hydraulic loss within impeller is mainly responsible for the
increase of total hydraulic loss within PAT with increasing
blade thickness. Te hydraulic loss within impeller can be
calculated by equation
impeller
=
2
. Table 4 shows that, as
blade thickness increases from 2 mm to 6 mm, the hydraulic
loss factor is increased by 1.89%, 19.22%, and 30.50%for the
low, medium, and high specifc speeds of the PATs at the BEP.
4.3. Flow Field Analysis. Te velocity streamline distribution
at the middle span of impeller blade to blade surface is
presented in Figure 8. For the purpose of comparison, the
fow rate is the same for both cases. It can be seen from
Figure 8 that the velocity within impeller is increased with
Advances in Mechanical Engineering 5
Volute zone
Impeller zone
Outlet pipe
zone
Figure 6: Flow zones in a PAT control volume.
increasing blade thickness. Te local and frictional hydraulic
is in proportion to the square of velocity; therefore its
hydraulic loss within impeller is increased with increasing
blade thickness.
5. Theoretical Analysis
5.1. Output Shaf Power. From the fundamentals of energy
transfer in turbines (steady fow equation and Euler turbine
equation), the output mechanical shaf power can be repre-
sented by (1) [2325]:
=


mech

leak
, (1)

=
Euler
, (2)

Euler
=
(
2

2

1

1
)

=
(
2

2
cot
2

1
(
1

1
cot
1
))

=
(
2
(/
2
) cot
2

1
(
1
(/
1
) cot
1
))

.
(3)
As could be seen from (1), (2), and (3), PATs - curve
is in inverse proportion to inlet area
2
. Figure 9 shows two
blades with diferent thickness. Anincrease of blade thickness
would cause a decrease of impeller inlet area
2
. Terefore,
there would be an increase of the theoretical head

and the generated shaf power . Tus, we could see that


PATs - curve would increase with the increase of blade
thickness, which is in agreement with the results presented in
Section 4.1.
5.2. Required Pressure Head. PATs required pressure head
can be represented as the sum of theoretical head and the
losses within all the three zones of the PATs control volume
illustrated in
=

+
total
. (4)
Hydraulic loss distribution (Section 4.2) and theoretical
head (Section 5.1) analysis shows that the total hydraulic loss

total
and theoretical head

are increased with the increase


of blade thickness. Terefore, PATs - curve will also
increase which is in agreement with the results in Figure 5.
5.3. Efciency. PATs hydraulic efciency can be represented
by

+
total
. (5)
An increase of blade thickness would cause an increase
of both theoretical head and total hydraulic loss. Terefore,
PATs efciency is decreased when there is an increase of
blade thickness.
6. Conclusions
Research on blade thickness to the infuence of PAT was
performed numerically. PATs performance of diferent blade
thickness was presented. Results show that its - curve
is lowered and - and - curves are increased with
increasing blade thickness. It could be concluded that from
the efciency point of view the blade thickness is expected to
be as thin as possible.
Hydraulic loss analysis withinPATindicates that, with the
increase of blade thickness, the hydraulic loss within impeller
and the total hydraulic loss are increased. Te hydraulic loss
within volute of the low specifc speed PAT is grown, while
that within the volutes of the medium and high specifc
speed PATs is dropped. Te variation of hydraulic loss within
outlet pipe is negligible. Flow feld analysis indicates that
it is the increase of velocity within impeller that caused
the increase of hydraulic loss within impeller. Teoretical
analysis shows that the theoretical head is increased with the
increase of blade thickness. Terefore, PATs output power
is increased. PATs actual required pressure head is the sum
of theoretical head and the total hydraulic loss within PATs
control volume. Tus, the head curve is increased as blade
thickness is increased.
Nomenclature
: Area, m
2

2
: Impeller inlet width, mm

1
: Impeller outlet diameter, mm

2
: Impeller inlet diameter, mm

3
: Volute base circle diameter, mm

4
: Volute inlet diameter, mm

: Impeller hub diameter, mm


: Acceleration of the gravity, m/s
2
: Hydraulic loss
: Head, m
: Length of impeller wear ring, mm
: Rotational speed, rpm

: Specifc speed,

= 3.65/
3/4
: Power, W, kW
: Discharge, m
3
/h
6 Advances in Mechanical Engineering
70 80 90 100 110 120
0.0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1.0
4 volute
4 impeller
4 pipe
4 total
Q(m
3
/h)

h
(
m
)
(a)

= 57, = 4 mm
70 80 90 100 110 120
0.0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1.0
6 volute
6 impeller
6 pipe
6 total
Q(m
3
/h)

h
(
m
)
(b)

= 57, = 6 mm
100 110 120 130 140 150
0.0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1.0
1.2
1.4
1.6
1.8
Q(m
3
/h)

h
(
m
)
4 volute
4 impeller
4 pipe
4 total
0.2
(c)

= 119, = 4 mm
100 110 120 130 140 150
0.0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1.0
1.2
1.4
1.6
1.8
Q(m
3
/h)
6 volute
6 impeller
6 pipe
6 total

h
(
m
)
0.2
(d)

= 119, = 6 mm
100 110 120 130 140 150
0.0
0.5
1.0
1.5
2.0
Q(m
3
/h)

h
(
m
)
4 volute
4 impeller
4 pipe
4 total
0.5
(e)

= 168, = 4 mm
6 volute
6 impeller
6 pipe
6 total
Q(m
3
/h)

h
(
m
)
100 110 120 130 140 150
0.5
0.0
0.5
1.0
1.5
2.0
(f)

= 168, = 6 mm
Figure 7: Diference of hydraulic loss distribution with diferent blade thickness.
Advances in Mechanical Engineering 7
18.63
13.97
9.31
4.66
0.00
V
e
l
o
c
i
t
y

(
m
s

1
)
(a)

= 168, = 2 mm (b)

= 168, = 6 mm
Figure 8: Streamline distribution within PAT.
= 2mm
= 6mm
Figure 9: Variation of blade thickness.
: Peripheral velocity, m/s
: Absolute velocity, m/s

+
: plus
: Blade number.
Greek Symbols
: Blade wrap angle, (

)
: Efciency
: Absolute fow angle, (

)
: Relative fow angle, (

)
: Blade thickness.
Subscripts
1: Low pressure side fuid
2: High pressure side fuid
: Hydraulic
leak: Leakage
: Teoretical
: Meridional
mech: Mechanical
V: Volumetric.
Conflict of Interests
Te authors declare that there is no confict of interests
regarding the publication of this paper.
Acknowledgments
Tis paper is fnancially supported by the Natural Sci-
ence Foundation of Jiangsu Province entitled Research
on impeller internal fow and design theory of pump as
turbine (BK20130517) and Jiangsu University Foundation
(13JDG081), A Project Funded by the Priority Academic Pro-
gram Development of Jiangsu Higher Education Institutions
(PAPD).
References
[1] J. M. Chapallaz, P. Eichenberger, and G. Fischer, Manual on
Pumps Used as Turbines, Vieweg, Braunschweig, Germany,
1992.
[2] S. V. Jain and R. N. Patel, Investigations on pump running in
turbine mode: a review of the state-of-the-art, Renewable and
Sustainable Energy Reviews, vol. 30, pp. 841868, 2014.
[3] H. Nautiyal and A. Kumar, Reverse running pumps analytical,
experimental and computational study: a review, Renewable
and Sustainable Energy Reviews, vol. 14, no. 7, pp. 20592067,
2010.
[4] T. Wang, F. Kong, Y. He, and S. Yang, Researching status of
centrifugal pump as turbine, Journal of Drainage and Irrigation
Machinery Engineering, vol. 31, no. 8, pp. 674680, 2013.
[5] S. Derakhshan and A. Nourbakhsh, Teoretical, numerical
and experimental investigation of centrifugal pumps in reverse
operation, Experimental Termal and Fluid Science, vol. 32, no.
8, pp. 16201627, 2008.
[6] P. Singh, Optimization of the internal hydraulic and of system
design in pumps as turbines with feld implementation and
evaluation [Ph.D. thesis], University of Karlsruhe, Karlsruhe,
Germany, 2005.
8 Advances in Mechanical Engineering
[7] P. Singh and F. Nestmann, Internal hydraulic analysis of
impeller rounding in centrifugal pumps as turbines, Experi-
mental Termal and Fluid Science, vol. 35, no. 1, pp. 121134, 2011.
[8] S. S. Yang, F. Y. Kong, F. Shao, and L. Xue, Numerical calcu-
lation and experiment of hydraulic turbine, Journal of Jiangsu
University (Natural Science Edition), vol. 33, no. 2, pp. 165169,
2012.
[9] S. S. Yang, F. Y. Kong, and J. H. Fu, Numerical research on
efects of splitter blades to the infuence of pump as turbine,
International Journal of Rotating Machinery, vol. 2012, Article
ID 123093, 10 pages, 2012.
[10] S. S. Yang, F. Y. Kong, H. Chen, and X. Su, Efects of blade
wrap angle infuencing a pump as turbine, Journal of Fluids
Engineering, vol. 134, no. 6, Article ID 061102, 8 pages, 2012.
[11] S. S. Yang, F. Y. Kong, and B. Chen, Research on volute
design method of pump as turbine using CFD, International
Agricultural Engineering Journal, vol. 20, no. 3, pp. 2532, 2011.
[12] S. Derakhshan, B. Mohammadi, and A. Nourbakhsh, Te
comparison of incomplete sensitivities and Genetic algorithms
applications in 3D radial turbomachinery blade optimization,
Computers and Fluids, vol. 39, no. 10, pp. 20222029, 2010.
[13] S. Derakhshan, B. Mohammadi, and A. Nourbakhsh, Incom-
plete sensitivities for 3Dradial turbomachinery blade optimiza-
tion, Computers and Fluids, vol. 37, no. 10, pp. 13541363, 2008.
[14] B. Ji, X. Luo, Y. Wu, X. Peng, and Y. Duan, Numerical analysis
of unsteady cavitating turbulent fow and shedding horse-
shoe vortex structure around a twisted hydrofoil, International
Journal of Multiphase Flow, vol. 51, pp. 3343, 2013.
[15] B. Ji, X. Luo, Y. Wu, X. Peng, and H. Xu, Partially-Averaged
Navier-Stokes method with modifed k- model for cavitating
fow around a marine propeller in a non-uniform wake,
International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, vol. 55, no. 23-
24, pp. 65826588, 2012.
[16] O. Fecarotta, A. Carravetta, and H. M. Ramos, CFD and
comparisons for a pump as turbine: mesh reliability and
performance concerns, International Journal of Energy and
Environment, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 3948, 2011.
[17] C. Santolaria Morros, J. M. Fern andez Oro, and K. M. Arg uelles
Daz, Numerical modelling and fow analysis of a centrifugal
pump running as a turbine: unsteady fow structures and its
efects on the global performance, International Journal for
Numerical Methods in Fluids, vol. 65, no. 5, pp. 542562, 2011.
[18] X. F. Guan, Modern Pumps Teory and Design, China Aerospace
Press, 1st edition, 2011.
[19] Help Navigator, ANSYS CFX, Release 12. 0 CFX-Solver model-
ing Guide.
[20] F. J. Wang, Computational Fluid Dynamics Analysis-CFDPrinci-
ples and Application, Tsinghua University Press, Beijing, China,
2004.
[21] R. Spence and J. Amaral-Teixeira, Investigation into pressure
pulsations in a centrifugal pump using numerical methods
supported by industrial tests, Computers and Fluids, vol. 37, no.
6, pp. 690704, 2008.
[22] S. S. Yang, F. Y. Kong, and B. Chen, Research on pump volute
design method using CFD, International Journal of Rotating
Machinery, vol. 2011, Article ID 137860, 7 pages, 2011.
[23] P. Singh and F. Nestmann, Experimental optimization of a
free vortex propeller runner for micro hydro application,
Experimental Termal and Fluid Science, vol. 33, no. 6, pp. 991
1002, 2009.
[24] S. L. Dixon, Fluid Mechanics and Termodynamics of Turboma-
chinery, chapters 2, 6 and 9, Elsevier, Oxford, UK, 2005.
[25] C. Pfeiderer and H. Petermann, Str omngsmaschinen, chapter 1,
Springer, 1964.
Submit your manuscripts at
http://www.hindawi.com
VLSI Design
Hindawi Publishing Corporation
http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014
International Journal of
Rotating
Machinery
Hindawi Publishing Corporation
http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014
Hindawi Publishing Corporation
http://www.hindawi.com
Journal of
Engineering
Volume 2014
Hindawi Publishing Corporation
http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014
Shock and Vibration
Hindawi Publishing Corporation
http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014
Mechanical
Engineering
Advances in
Hindawi Publishing Corporation
http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014
Civil Engineering
Advances in
Acoustics and Vibration
Advances in
Hindawi Publishing Corporation
http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014
Hindawi Publishing Corporation
http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014
Electrical and Computer
Engineering
Journal of
Hindawi Publishing Corporation
http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014
Distributed
Sensor Networks
International Journal of
The Scientifc
World Journal
Hindawi Publishing Corporation
http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014
Sensors
Journal of
Hindawi Publishing Corporation
http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014
Modelling &
Simulation
in Engineering
Hindawi Publishing Corporation
http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014
Hindawi Publishing Corporation
http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014
Active and Passive
Electronic Components
Advances in
OptoElectronics
Hindawi Publishing Corporation
http://www.hindawi.com
Volume 2014
Robotics
Journal of
Hindawi Publishing Corporation
http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014
Chemical Engineering
International Journal of
Hindawi Publishing Corporation
http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014
Control Science
and Engineering
Journal of
Hindawi Publishing Corporation
http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014
Antennas and
Propagation
International Journal of
Hindawi Publishing Corporation
http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014
Hindawi Publishing Corporation
http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014
Navigation and
Observation
International Journal of