Satellite Communications!
ELEM026!
Professor Clive Parini! Lecture 6 Multipath & OFDM 2011!
THE PROBLEM OF MULTIPATH DELAY SPREAD!
Multipath delay spread!
power!
Δt!
Direct path!
0!
1!
_{2}_{!}
_{3}_{!}
4!
5!
• An impulse is transmitted at time t=0, assuming there are a multitude of reﬂected paths present a receiver located say 1Km away would detect a series of pulses, or delay spread. !
Useful symbol
duration T _{u} !
Time,t!
µs!
Intersymbol Interference (ISI)!
• If Δt is signiﬁcant compared to one symbol period then ISI can occur. !
– Symbols arriving later than their own symbol period can corrupt trailing symbols !
• For a ﬁxed path difference and given delay spread a higher data rate system will be more prone to ISI.
– For a GSM system operating at 270Kbit/s will the delay spread shown previously cause ISI?!
– Symbol period = 1/270K = 3.7µs!
– Answer is ?
!!
EQUALISATION1!
• ISI can be overcome using Equalisation!
– In its most simplest form ISI in a channel has resulted from the addition of the data stream plus a delayed version of this data stream.!
– The principle of EQUALISATION is that by taking this received signal, delaying part of it, and subtracting it from itself the original signal can be recovered.!
– Take for example the decision feedback equaliser !
• First need to know what reﬂections there were and what the signal strength was from each of these. i.e. it needs to determine!
power!
Δt!
Time,t!
0!
1!
2!
3!
4!
5!
EQUALISATIONe.g. GSM!
• Knowledge about the channels multipath delay spread is obtained by sending periodically a blip out to the mobile.!
– To work, the channel needs to send nothing for a moment, then send the blip and then another wait period. The mobile then receives the multipath delay spread.! – This blip must be frequently sent since even a slight movement can change the multipath in a channel. ! – For GSM a blip is sent to each mobile every 4ms!
– In practice a blip is not sent (too sharp leading to wide spectral range)!
– Instead a special binary sequence called the channel sounding sequence is sent!
CDMA & multipath!
• CDMA is well matched to a multipath channel.!
– If signals arrive more than one chip apart from each other the receiver can resolve them. The cross correlation between the spreading code and a copy of it delayed by one chip is very near to zero. Hence multipath is treated like any other interfering channel. But there is more……!
• Instead of ignoring these delayed versions of the desired signal they can be received with a delayed spreading code and combined. This is the RAKE receiver.!
• The problem lies in the fact
that over the transmission
bandwidth (determined by the
symbol rate) the channel
frequency characteristics are
non linear.!
Channelization
Channel
• We could reduce the symbol
rate so channel characteristics
more linear over the bandwidth!
N carriers
•
If we had an 8 bit word to send we could reduce the symbol rate by a factor of 8 BUT use 8 different sub carriers as shown!
Intersymbol interference (ISI) and the multicarrier approach!
B Pulse length ~1/B – Data are transmited over only one carrier
and simultaneously transmitted
N carriers
Channelization
Channel
Guard bands
B Pulse length ~1/B – Data are transmited over only one carrier
Modulation techniques: monocarrier vs. multicarrier
and simultaneously transmitted
– Selective Fading – Very short pulses
– ISI is compartively long
– Poor spectral efficiency because of band guards
– Flat Fading per carrier – N long pulses – ISI is comparatively short
– Poor spectral efficiency because of band guards
– It is easy to exploit Frequency diversity
– It allows to deploy 2D coding techniques
To improve the spectral efficiency:
Eliminate band guards between carriers To use orthogonal carriers (allowing overlapping)
ORTHOGONAL FREQUENCY DIVISON MULTIPLEX – OFDM – A digital multicarrier modulation method!
•

Orthogonal frequencydivision multiplexing (OFDM), also sometimes called discrete multitone modulation (DMT), is based upon the principle of frequency division FDM, but is utilized as a digital modulation scheme.

•

The bit stream that is to be transmitted is split into several parallel bit streams, typically dozens to thousands. "

•

The available frequency spectrum is divided into several sub channels, and each lowrate bit stream is transmitted over one subchannel by modulating a subcarrier using a standard modulation scheme, for example QPSK"

•

The subcarrier frequencies are chosen so that the modulated data streams are orthogonal to each other, meaning that cross talk between the subchannels is eliminated."

Orthogonality !
• Orthogonality requires that the subcarrier spacing is Δf=k/T _{u} Hz, where T _{u} seconds is the useful symbol duration (the receiver side window size), and k is a positive integer. (often=1)! • Thus, with N subcarriers, the total passband bandwidth will be B ≈ N·Δf (Hz).! • Example: A useful symbol duration T _{U} = 1 ms. "
– N = 1,000 subcarriers would result in a total passband bandwidth of NΔf = 1 MHz. "
– For this symbol time, the required bandwidth in theory according to Nyquist is N/2T _{U} = 0.5 MHz (i.e., half of the achieved bandwidth required by this method)."
OFDM uses multiple carriers to modulate the data
Data
Timefrequency grid
N carriers
B
f 0
B
Frequency
T=1/f _{0}
Features
– No intercarrier guard bands
– Controlled overlapping of bands
– Maximum spectral efficiency (Nyquist rate)
– Easy implementation using IFFTs
– Very sensitive to freq. synchronization
Carrier
One OFDM symbol
Time
Intercarrier Separation =
k/(symbol duration)
Modulation technique
A user utilizes all carriers to transmit its data as coded quantity at each frequency carrier, which can be BPSK or QPSK.
OFDM: simple 8bit BPSK
example!
• Spectrum for a single BPSK signal modulated with random signal with nulls at symbol rate!
• For 8 bit code word use 8 sub band
frequencies spaced the symbol rate apart
and modulate each one with one bit of the
word using BPSK. Spectrum is shown, note
at each sub carrier frequency no interference
from other sub carriers they are orthogonal!
• This gives the following time response for
the symbol 10110001!
Recovered phase of sub carriers (blue),
sent (black).
It can be seen that the
orthogonality is maintained and all that is required for correct decoding is to equalize the phase shift.!
OFDM TRANSMITTER!
• Rather than use 8 separate BPSK modulators can create the time domain symbol using constellation mapping plus IFFT.!
EG ! For BPSK, the map is +1, 1;! for QPSK the map is 1+j1, 1j1, 1j1, 1+j1!
UP CONVERT ONTO RF CARRIERS (SINE AND COSINE WAVES)!
16!
OFDM RECEIVER!
DOWN CONVERTED TO BASEBAND SINE AND COSINE WAVES!
e.g. for QPSK:! 1+j1 converts to 11! 1j1 converts to 10! 1j1 converts to 01! 1+j1 coverts to 00!
USE FFT TO GET BACK TO FREQUENCY DOMAIN!
CONVERT BPSK OR QPSK CONSTELATION INTO PARELLEL BIT STREAMS AND RESTORE TO SINGLE HIGH DATA RATE SERIAL DIGITAL SIGNAL!
17!
OFDM SUMMARY!
• ISI limits the symbol time, so for data rate R, symbol period is T _{s} =1/R.!
• By splitting data into N streams, each substream has rate R/N and symbol time of N/R, i.e its N times longer and so is more immune to ISI.!
• As a design criteria N is chosen such that NT _{s} = T _{u} signiﬁcantly greater than rms delay spread of channel.!
• Typical system :! – 64 sub channels QPSK modulated! – Each channel symbol rate=0.25Mps! – 48 subcarriers devoted to information transmission! – 4 subcarriers used for pilot tone (synchronisation)! – 12 for other purposes! – Occupied BW=20MHz, 312.5Khz/subchannel! – Usable data rate =12Mbs! – Subchannel symbol duration=4000ns! – Guard time between 2 transmitted symbols =800ns!
OFDM issues!
• Since the duration of each symbol is long, it is feasible to insert a guard interval between the OFDM symbols, thus eliminating any intersymbol interference.!
• OFDM requires very accurate frequency synchronization between the receiver and the transmitter; with frequency deviation the sub carriers will no longer be orthogonal, causing intercarrier interference (ICI) (i.e., crosstalk between the subcarriers). !
• Frequency offsets are typically caused by mismatched transmitter and receiver oscillators, or by Doppler shift due to movement. !
• While Doppler shift alone may be compensated for by the receiver, the situation is worsened when combined with multipath, as reﬂections will appear at various frequency offsets, which is much harder to correct. !
• This effect typically worsens as speed increases and is an important factor limiting the use of OFDM in highspeed vehicles.!
_{1}_{9}_{!}
OFDM applications!
• DAB  OFDM forms the basis for the Digital Audio Broadcasting (DAB) standard in the European market.
• ADSL  OFDM forms the basis for the global ADSL (asymmetric digital subscriber line) standard.
• UWB