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Satellite Communications!

ELEM026!

Professor Clive Parini! Lecture 6 Multipath & OFDM 2011!

THE PROBLEM OF MULTIPATH DELAY SPREAD!

Multipath delay spread! power! Δt! Direct path!
Multipath delay spread!
power!
Δt!
Direct path!

0!

1!

2!

3!

4!

5!

An impulse is transmitted at time t=0, assuming there are a multitude of reflected paths present a receiver located say 1Km away would detect a series of pulses, or delay spread. !

Useful symbol

duration T u !

Time,t!

µs!

Intersymbol Interference (ISI)!

If Δt is significant compared to one symbol period then ISI can occur. !

Symbols arriving later than their own symbol period can corrupt trailing symbols !

For a fixed path difference and given delay spread a higher data rate system will be more prone to ISI.

For a GSM system operating at 270Kbit/s will the delay spread shown previously cause ISI?!

Symbol period = 1/270K = 3.7µs!

Answer is ?

!!

EQUALISATION-1!

ISI can be overcome using Equalisation!

In its most simplest form ISI in a channel has resulted from the addition of the data stream plus a delayed version of this data stream.!

The principle of EQUALISATION is that by taking this received signal, delaying part of it, and subtracting it from itself the original signal can be recovered.!

Take for example the decision feedback equaliser !

First need to know what reflections there were and what the signal strength was from each of these. i.e. it needs to determine!

power! Δt! Time,t! 0! 1! 2! 3! 4! 5!
power!
Δt!
Time,t!
0!
1!
2!
3!
4!
5!

µs!

EQUALISATION-e.g. GSM!

Knowledge about the channels multipath delay spread is obtained by sending periodically a blip out to the mobile.!

To work, the channel needs to send nothing for a moment, then send the blip and then another wait period. The mobile then receives the multipath delay spread.! This blip must be frequently sent since even a slight movement can change the multipath in a channel. ! For GSM a blip is sent to each mobile every 4ms!

In practice a blip is not sent (too sharp leading to wide spectral range)!

Instead a special binary sequence called the channel sounding sequence is sent!

CDMA & multipath!

CDMA is well matched to a multipath channel.!

If signals arrive more than one chip apart from each other the receiver can resolve them. The cross- correlation between the spreading code and a copy of it delayed by one chip is very near to zero. Hence multipath is treated like any other interfering channel. But there is more……!

Instead of ignoring these delayed versions of the desired signal they can be received with a delayed spreading code and combined. This is the RAKE receiver.!

CDMA RAKE receiver! –  Consider a channel receiving a direct signal of amplitude a 1 and
CDMA RAKE receiver!
–  Consider a channel receiving a direct signal of
amplitude a 1 and delay t 1 plus two multipath signals
having amplitudes a 2 , a 3 and delays t 2 , t 3 .!
Multipath channel!
t 1 ! a 1 !
Binary!
modulator!
t
a
De-!
2!
2!
data!
modulator!
t
a
3!
3!
Code!
generator!
RAKE receiver!
a
C(t-t 1 )!
Multipath delays less!
than one chip cannot !
be recovered!
1 !
C(t-t
2 )!
a
2!
C(t-t
3 )!
a
3!
•  The problem lies in the fact that over the transmission bandwidth (determined by the symbol
•  The problem lies in the fact
that over the transmission
bandwidth (determined by the
symbol rate) the channel
frequency characteristics are
non linear.!
Channelization
Channel
•  We could reduce the symbol
rate so channel characteristics
more linear over the bandwidth!
N carriers

If we had an 8 bit word to send we could reduce the symbol rate by a factor of 8 BUT use 8 different sub carriers as shown!

B Pulse length ~ N/B

– Data are shared among

Intersymbol interference (ISI) and the multicarrier approach!

B Pulse length ~1/B – Data are transmited over only one carrier

Similar to FDM technique

Guard bands

NEEDED

several carriers

and simultaneously transmitted

N carriers Channelization Channel Guard bands
N carriers
Channelization
Channel
Guard bands

B Pulse length ~1/B – Data are transmited over only one carrier

B Pulse length ~ N/B

– Data are shared among

Modulation techniques: monocarrier vs. multicarrier

Similar to FDM technique

several carriers

and simultaneously transmitted

Drawbacks

 
   

– Selective Fading – Very short pulses

– ISI is compartively long

– Poor spectral efficiency because of band guards

   

Advantages

 

– Flat Fading per carrier – N long pulses – ISI is comparatively short

– Poor spectral efficiency because of band guards

Furthermore

– It is easy to exploit Frequency diversity

– It allows to deploy 2D coding techniques

– Dynamic signalling

To improve the spectral efficiency:

Eliminate band guards between carriers To use orthogonal carriers (allowing overlapping)

ORTHOGONAL FREQUENCY DIVISON MULTIPLEX – OFDM – A digital multicarrier modulation method!

Orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM), also sometimes called discrete multitone modulation (DMT), is based upon the principle of frequency division FDM, but is utilized as a digital modulation scheme.

The bit stream that is to be transmitted is split into several parallel bit streams, typically dozens to thousands. "

The available frequency spectrum is divided into several sub- channels, and each low-rate bit stream is transmitted over one sub-channel by modulating a sub-carrier using a standard modulation scheme, for example QPSK"

The sub-carrier frequencies are chosen so that the modulated data streams are orthogonal to each other, meaning that cross- talk between the sub-channels is eliminated."

Orthogonality !

Orthogonality requires that the sub-carrier spacing is Δf=k/T u Hz, where T u seconds is the useful symbol duration (the receiver side window size), and k is a positive integer. (often=1)! Thus, with N sub-carriers, the total pass-band bandwidth will be B Δf (Hz).! Example: A useful symbol duration T U = 1 ms. "

N = 1,000 sub-carriers would result in a total passband bandwidth of NΔf = 1 MHz. "

For this symbol time, the required bandwidth in theory according to Nyquist is N/2T U = 0.5 MHz (i.e., half of the achieved bandwidth required by this method)."

OFDM –the principal The image cannot be displayed. Your computer may not have enough memory to
OFDM –the principal
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N carriers
Symbol: 2 periods of f 0
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Transmit
+
f
Symbol: 4 periods of f 0
f
B
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Symbol: 8 periods of f 0
Data coded in frequency domain
Transformation to time domain:
Channel frequency
response
each frequency is a sine wave
in time, all added up.
Decode each frequency
bin separately
Receive
time
f
B
Time-domain signal
Frequency-domain signal
OFDM uses multiple carriers to modulate the data Data Time-frequency grid N carriers B f 0
OFDM uses multiple carriers to modulate the data
Data
Time-frequency grid
N carriers
B
f 0
B
Frequency

T=1/f 0

Features – No intercarrier guard bands – Controlled overlapping of bands – Maximum spectral efficiency (Nyquist
Features
– No intercarrier guard bands
– Controlled overlapping of bands
– Maximum spectral efficiency (Nyquist rate)
– Easy implementation using IFFTs
– Very sensitive to freq. synchronization

Carrier

One OFDM symbol

OFDM uses multiple carriers to modulate the data Data Time-frequency grid N carriers B f 0

Time

Intercarrier Separation =

k/(symbol duration)

Modulation technique

A user utilizes all carriers to transmit its data as coded quantity at each frequency carrier, which can be BPSK or QPSK.

OFDM: simple 8bit BPSK example!
OFDM: simple 8bit BPSK
example!
OFDM: simple 8bit BPSK example! •   Spectrum for a single BPSK signal modulated with random

Spectrum for a single BPSK signal modulated with random signal with nulls at symbol rate!

• For 8 bit code word use 8 sub band frequencies spaced the symbol rate apart and
• For 8 bit code word use 8 sub band
frequencies spaced the symbol rate apart
and modulate each one with one bit of the
word using BPSK. Spectrum is shown, note
at each sub carrier frequency no interference
from other sub carriers -they are orthogonal!
• This gives the following time response for
the symbol 10110001!
Recovered phase of sub carriers (blue),
sent (black).
It can be seen that the

orthogonality is maintained and all that is required for correct decoding is to equalize the phase shift.!

OFDM TRANSMITTER!

Rather than use 8 separate BPSK modulators can create the time domain symbol using constellation mapping plus IFFT.!

OFDM TRANSMITTER ! •   Rather than use 8 separate BPSK modulators can create the time

EG ! For BPSK, the map is +1, -1;! for QPSK the map is 1+j1, 1-j1, -1-j1, -1+j1!

UP CONVERT ONTO RF CARRIERS (SINE AND COSINE WAVES)!

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OFDM RECEIVER!

OFDM RECEIVER ! DOWN CONVERTED TO BASEBAND SINE AND COSINE WAVES ! e.g. for QPSK: !

DOWN CONVERTED TO BASEBAND SINE AND COSINE WAVES!

e.g. for QPSK:! 1+j1 converts to 11! 1-j1 converts to 10! -1-j1 converts to 01! -1+j1 coverts to 00!

USE FFT TO GET BACK TO FREQUENCY DOMAIN!

CONVERT BPSK OR QPSK CONSTELATION INTO PARELLEL BIT STREAMS AND RESTORE TO SINGLE HIGH DATA RATE SERIAL DIGITAL SIGNAL!

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OFDM SUMMARY!

ISI limits the symbol time, so for data rate R, symbol period is T s =1/R.!

By splitting data into N streams, each sub-stream has rate R/N and symbol time of N/R, i.e its N times longer and so is more immune to ISI.!

As a design criteria N is chosen such that NT s = T u significantly greater than rms delay spread of channel.!

Typical system :! 64 sub channels QPSK modulated! Each channel symbol rate=0.25Mps! 48 subcarriers devoted to information transmission! 4 subcarriers used for pilot tone (synchronisation)! 12 for other purposes! Occupied BW=20MHz, 312.5Khz/subchannel! Usable data rate =12Mbs! Subchannel symbol duration=4000ns! Guard time between 2 transmitted symbols =800ns!

OFDM issues!

Since the duration of each symbol is long, it is feasible to insert a guard interval between the OFDM symbols, thus eliminating any intersymbol interference.!

OFDM requires very accurate frequency synchronization between the receiver and the transmitter; with frequency deviation the sub- carriers will no longer be orthogonal, causing inter-carrier interference (ICI) (i.e., cross-talk between the sub-carriers). !

Frequency offsets are typically caused by mismatched transmitter and receiver oscillators, or by Doppler shift due to movement. !

While Doppler shift alone may be compensated for by the receiver, the situation is worsened when combined with multipath, as reflections will appear at various frequency offsets, which is much harder to correct. !

This effect typically worsens as speed increases and is an important factor limiting the use of OFDM in high-speed vehicles.!

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OFDM applications!

DAB - OFDM forms the basis for the Digital Audio Broadcasting (DAB) standard in the European market.

ADSL - OFDM forms the basis for the global ADSL (asymmetric digital subscriber line) standard.

UWB