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STPM/S(E)960

PEPERIKSAAN
SIJIL TINGGI PERSEKOLAHAN MALAYSIA
(MALAYSIA HIGHER SCHOOL CERTIFICATE EXAMINATION)








PHYSICS
Syllabus, Specimen Papers and Specimen Experiment








This syllabus applies for the 2012/2013 session and thereafter until further notice.

MAJLIS PEPERIKSAAN MALAYSIA
(MALAYSIAN EXAMINATIONS COUNCIL)


















































FALSAFAH PENDIDIKAN KEBANGSAAN

Pendidikan di Malaysia adalah satu usaha berterusan
ke arah memperkembangkan lagi potensi individu secara
menyeluruh dan bersepadu untuk mewujudkan insan yang
seimbang dan harmonis dari segi intelek, rohani, emosi,
dan jasmani. Usaha ini adalah bagi melahirkan rakyat
Malaysia yang berilmu pengetahuan, berakhlak mulia,
bertanggungjawab, berketerampilan, dan berkeupayaan
mencapai kesejahteraan diri serta memberi sumbangan
terhadap keharmonian dan kemakmuran keluarga,
masyarakat dan negara.
FOREWORD

This revised Physics syllabus is designed to replace the existing syllabus which has been in use since
the 2001 STPM examination. This new syllabus will be enforced in 2012 and the first examination
will also be held the same year. The revision of the syllabus takes into account the changes made by
the Malaysian Examinations Council (MEC) to the existing STPM examination. Through the new
system, sixth-form study will be divided into three terms, and candidates will sit for an examination at
the end of each term. The new syllabus fulfils the requirements of this new system. The main
objective of introducing the new examination system is to enhance the teaching and learning
orientation in sixth form so as to be in line with the orientation of teaching and learning in colleges
and universities.

The revision of the Physics syllabus incorporates current developments in physics studies and syllabus
design in Malaysia. The syllabus will give students exposure to pre-university level about Physics that
includes mechanics and thermodynamics, electricity and magnetism, oscillations and waves, optics,
and modern physics. The syllabus contains topics, teaching periods, learning outcomes, examination
format, grade description, and sample questions.

The design of this syllabus was undertaken by a committee chaired by Professor Dato Dr. Mohd.
Zambri bin Zainuddin from University of Malaya. Other committee members consist of university
lecturers, representatives from the Curriculum Development Division, Ministry of Education
Malaysia, and experienced teachers teaching Physics. On behalf of the MEC, I would like to thank the
committee for their commitment and invaluable contribution. It is hoped that this syllabus will be a
guide for teachers and candidates in the teaching and learning process.



OMAR BIN ABU BAKAR
Chief Executive
Malaysian Examinations Council



CONTENTS

Syllabus 960 Physics

Page

Aims 1

Objectives 1

Content

First Term: Mechanics and Thermodynamics 2 9

Second Term: Electricity and Magnetism 10 15

Third Term: Oscillations and Waves, Optics, and Modern Physics 16 22

Practical Syllabus (School-based Assessment of Practical (Paper 4)) 23 24

Written Practical Test (Paper 5) 24

Scheme of Assessment 25 26

Performance Descriptions 27

Summary of Key Quantities and Units 28 30

Values of constants 31

Reference Books 32

Specimen Paper 1 33 48

Specimen Paper 2 49 66

Specimen Paper 3 67 82

Specimen Experiment Paper 4 83 85

Specimen Paper 5 87 113












1
SYLLABUS
960 PHYSICS


Aims

This syllabus aims to enhance candidates knowledge and understanding of physics to enable them to
either further their studies at institutions of higher learning or assist them to embark on a related
career and also to promote awareness among them of the role of physics in the universe.


Objectives

The objectives of this syllabus are to enable candidates to:
(a) use models, concepts, principles, theories, and laws of physics;
(b) interpret and use scientific information presented in various forms;
(c) solve problems in various situations;
(d) analyse, synthesise, and evaluate information and ideas logically and critically;
(e) use techniques of operation and safety aspects of scientific equipment;
(f) plan and carry out experiments scientifically and make conclusions;
(g) develop proper attitudes, ethics, and values in the study and practice of physics.
























2
FIRST TERM: MECHANICS AND THERMODYNAMICS

Topic
Teaching
Period
Learning Outcome

1 Physical Quantities and
Units

1.1 Base quantities and
SI units

6


1
Candidates should be able to:


(a) list base quantities and their SI units:
mass (kg), length (m), time (s), current (A),
temperature (K) and quantity of matter (mol);
(b) deduce units for derived quantities;

1.2 Dimensions of
physical quantities
1 (c) use dimensional analysis to determine the
dimensions of derived quantities;
(d) check the homogeneity of equations using
dimensional analysis;
(e) construct empirical equations using
dimensional analysis;

1.3 Scalars and vectors 2 (f) determine the sum, the scalar product and
vector product of coplanar vectors;
(g) resolve a vector to two perpendicular
components;

1.4 Uncertainties in
measurements
2 (h) calculate the uncertainty in a derived quantity
(a rigorous statistical treatment is not
required);
(i) write a derived quantity to an appropriate
number of significant figures.

2 Kinematics

2.1 Linear motion

6

2
Candidates should be able to:

(a) derive and use equations of motion with
constant acceleration;
(b) sketch and use the graphs of displacement-
time, velocity-time and acceleration-time for
the motion of a body with constant
acceleration;

2.2 Projectiles 4 (c) solve problems on projectile motion without
air resistance;
(d) explain the effects of air resistance on the
motion of bodies in air.






3
Topic
Teaching
Period
Learning Outcome

3 Dynamics

3.1 Newtons laws of
motion

12

4
Candidates should be able to:

(a) state Newtons laws of motion;
(b) use the formula
t
m
v
t
v
m F
d
d
d
d
+ = for constant
m or constant v only;

3.2 Linear momentum and
its conservation
3


(c) state the principle of conservation of
momentum, and verify the principle using
Newtons laws of motion;
(d) apply the principle of conservation of
momentum;
(e) define impulse as d ; F t
(f) solve problems involving impulse;

3.3 Elastic and inelastic
collisions
2 (g) distinguish between elastic collisions and
inelastic collisions (knowledge of coefficient
of restitution is not required);
(h) solve problems involving collisions between
particles in one dimension;

3.4 Centre of mass

1 (i) define centre of mass for a system of particles
in a plane;
(j) predict the path of the centre of mass of a two-
particle system;

3.5 Frictional forces 2 (k) explain the variation of frictional force with
sliding force;
(l) define and use coefficient of static function
and coefficient of kinetic friction.

4 Work, Energy and Power

4.1 Work

5

2
Candidates should be able to:

(a) define the work done by a force s F d d = W ;
(b) calculate the work done using a force-
displacement graph;
(c) calculate the work done in certain situations,
including the work done in a spring;

4.2 Potential energy and
kinetic energy
2


(d) derive and use the formula: potential energy
change = mgh near the surface of the Earth;
(e) derive and use the formula: kinetic energy
2
2
1
mv = ;

4
Topic
Teaching
Period
Learning Outcome

(f) state and use the work-energy theorem;
(g) apply the principle of conservation of energy
in situations involving kinetic energy and
potential energy;

4.3 Power 1 (h) derive and use the formula P Fv = ;
(i) use the concept of efficiency to solve
problems.

5 Circular Motion

5.1 Angular displacement
and angular velocity
8

1
Candidates should be able to:

(a) express angular displacement in radians;
(b) define angular velocity and period;
(c) derive and use the formula r v = ;

5.2 Centripetal
acceleration
2 (d) explain that uniform circular motion has an
acceleration due to the change in direction of
velocity;
(e) derive and use the formulae for centripetal
acceleration a =
2
v
r
and a =
2
r ;


5.3 Centripetal force 5 (f) explain that uniform circular motion is due to
the action of a resultant force that is always
directed to the centre of the circle;
(g) use the formulae for centripetal force
2
mv
F
r
= and
2
F mr = ;
(h) solve problems involving uniform horizontal
circular motion for a point mass;
(i) solve problems involving vertical circular
motions for a point mass (knowledge of
tangential acceleration is not required).

6 Gravitation

6.1 Newtons law of
universal gravitation

10

1
Candidates should be able to:

(a) state Newtons law of universal gravitation and
use the formula F
GMm
r
=
2
;

6.2 Gravitational field 2 (b) explain the meaning of gravitational field;
(c) define gravitational field strength as force of
gravity per unit mass;


5
Topic
Teaching
Period
Learning Outcome


(d) use the equation g
GM
r
=
2
for a gravitational
field;

6.3 Gravitational potential 3 (e) define the potential at a point in a gravitational
field;
(f) derive and use the formula V
GM
r
= ;
(g) use the formula for potential energy
U
GMm
r
= ;
(h) show that mgh r mg U = = is a special case
of U
GMm
r
= for situations near to the
surface of the Earth;
(i) use the relationship g
V
r
=
d
d
;
(j) explain, with graphical illustrations, the
variations of gravitational field strength and
gravitational potential with distance from the
surface of the Earth;

6.4 Satellite motion in a
circular orbit
3 (k) solve problems involving satellites moving in
a circular orbit in a gravitational field;
(l) explain the concept of weightlessness;

6.5 Escape velocity 1 (m) derive and use the equation for escape
velocity
e
2GM
v
R
= and
e
2 . v gR =

7 Statics

7.1 Centre of gravity

6

1
Candidates should be able to:

(a) define centre of gravity;
(b) state the condition in which the centre of mass
is the centre of gravity;

7.2 Equilibrium of
particles

1 (c) state the condition for the equilibrium of a
particle;
(d) solve problems involving forces in equilibrium
at a point;

7.3 Equilibrium of rigid
bodies
4 (e) define torque as ; = r F
(f) state the conditions for the equilibrium of a
rigid body;

6
Topic
Teaching
Period
Learning Outcome


(g) sketch and label the forces which act on a
particle and a rigid body;
(h) use the triangle of forces to represent forces in
equilibrium;
(i) solve problems involving forces in
equilibrium.

8 Deformation of Solids

8.1 Stress and strain
5

1
Candidates should be able to:

(a) define stress and strain for a stretched wire or
elastic string;

8.2 Force-extension graph
and stress-strain graph
2

(b) sketch force-extension graph and stress-strain
graph for a ductile material;
(c) identify and explain proportional limit, elastic
limit, yield point and tensile strength;
(d) define the Youngs modulus;
(e) solve problems involving Youngs modulus;
(f) distinguish between elastic deformation and
plastic deformation;
(g) distinguish the shapes of force-extension
graphs for ductile, brittle and polymeric
materials;

8.3 Strain energy 2 (h) derive and use the formula for strain energy;
(i) calculate strain energy from force-extension
graphs or stress-strain graphs.

9 Kinetic Theory of Gases

9.1 Ideal gas equation
14

2
Candidates should be able to:

(a) use the ideal gas equation ; pV nRT =

9.2 Pressure of a gas

2 (b) state the assumptions of the kinetic theory of
an ideal gas;
(c) derive and use the equation for the pressure
exerted by an ideal gas
2
1
3
; p c =

9.3 Molecular kinetic
energy

2


(d) state and use the relationship between the
Boltzmann constant and molar gas constant
A
N
R
k = ;



7
Topic
Teaching
Period
Learning Outcome

(e) derive and use the expression for the mean
translational kinetic energy of a molecule,
2
1 3
2 2
; mc kT =

9.4 The r.m.s. speed of
molecules
2 (f) calculate the r.m.s. speed of gas molecules;
(g) sketch the molecular speed distribution graph
and explain the shape of the graph (description
of the experiment is not required);
(h) predict the variation of molecular speed
distribution with temperature;

9.5 Degrees of freedom
and law of
equipartition of energy

3 (i) define the degrees of freedom of a gas
molecule;
(j) identify the number of degrees of freedom of a
monatomic, diatomic or polyatomic molecule
at room temperature;
(k) explain the variation in the number of degrees
of freedom of a diatomic molecule ranging
from very low to very high temperatures;
(l) state and apply the law of equipartition of
energy;

9.6 Internal energy of an
ideal gas
3 (m) distinguish between an ideal gas and a real gas;
(n) explain the concept of internal energy of an
ideal gas;
(o) derive and use the relationship between the
internal energy and the number of degrees of
freedom.

10 Thermodynamics of Gases

10.1 Heat capacities

14

2

Candidates should be able to:

(a) define heat capacity, specific heat capacity and
molar heat capacity;
(b) use the equations:
V,m
, , Q C Q mc Q nC = = = and
p,m
Q nC = ;

10.2 Work done by a gas 1 (c) derive and use the equation for work done by
a gas d ; W p V =





8
Topic
Teaching
Period
Learning Outcome

10.3 First law of
thermodynamics
5 (d) state and apply the first law of
thermodynamics ; Q U W = +
(e) deduce the relationship T nC U =
m V,
from
the first law of thermodynamics;
(f) derive and use the equation
p,m V,m
; C C R =
(g) relate
m p, m V,
and C C to the degrees of
freedom;
(h) use the relationship
m V,
m p,
C
C
= to identify the
types of molecules;

10.4 Isothermal and
adiabatic changes
6 (i) describe the isothermal process of a gas;
(j) use the equation = pV constant for isothermal
changes;
(k) describe the adiabatic process of a gas;
(l) use the equations =

pV constant and
=
1
TV constant for adiabatic changes;
(m) illustrate thermodynamic processes with p-V
graphs;
(n) derive and use the expression for work done in
the thermodynamic processes.

11 Heat Transfer

11.1 Conduction








10

5
Candidates should be able to:

(a) explain the mechanism of heat conduction
through solids, and hence, distinguish between
conduction through metals and non-metals;
(b) define thermal conductivity;
(c) use the equation
x
kA
t
Q
d
d
d
d
= for heat
conduction in one dimension;
(d) describe and calculate heat conduction through
a cross-sectional area of layers of different
materials;
(e) compare heat conduction through insulated
and non-insulated rods;

11.2 Convection 1 (f) describe heat transfer by convection;
(g) distinguish between natural and forced
convection;

9
Topic
Teaching
Period
Learning Outcome

11.3 Radiation 3 (h) describe heat transfer by radiation;
(i) use Stefan-Boltzmann equation
4
d
;
d
Q
e AT
t
=
(j) define a black body;

11.4 Global warming 1 (k) explain the greenhouse effect and thermal
pollution;
(l) suggest ways to reduce global warming.






































10
SECOND TERM: ELECTRICITY AND MAGNETISM

Topic
Teaching
Period
Learning Outcome

12 Electrostatics

12.1 Coulombs law

12

2
Candidates should be able to:

(a) state Coulombs law, and use the formula
2
0
4 r
Qq
F

= ;

12.2 Electric field

3 (b) explain the meaning of electric field, and
sketch the field pattern for an isolated point
charge, an electric dipole and a uniformly
charged surface;
(c) define the electric field strength, and use the
formula
q
F
E = ;
(d) describe the motion of a point charge in a
uniform electric field;

12.3 Gausss law 4 (e) state Gausss law, and apply it to derive the
electric field strength for an isolated point
charge, an isolated charged conducting sphere
and a uniformly charged plate;

12.4 Electric potential

3 (f) define electric potential;
(g) use the formula
r
Q
V
0
4
= ;
(h) explain the meaning of equipotential surfaces;
(i) use the relationship
r
V
E
d
d
= ;
(j) use the formula U = qV.

13 Capacitors

13.1 Capacitance
12

1
Candidates should be able to:

(a) define capacitance;

13.2 Parallel plate
capacitors
2



(b) describe the mechanism of charging a parallel
plate capacitor;
(c) use the formula C
Q
V
= to derive
d
A
C
0

= for
the capacitance of a parallel plate capacitor;




11
Topic
Teaching
Period
Learning Outcome

13.3 Dielectrics 2 (d) define relative permittivity
r
(dielectric
constant);
(e) describe the effect of a dielectric in a parallel
plate capacitor;
(f) use the formula
d
A
C
r 0

= ;

13.4 Capacitors in series
and in parallel
2 (g) derive and use the formulae for effective
capacitance of capacitors in series and in
parallel;

13.5 Energy stored in a
charged capacitor
1 (h) use the formulae
2
2
2
1
2
1
2
1
and , CV U
C
Q
U QV U = = =
(derivations are not required);

13.6 Charging and
discharging of a
capacitor
4 (i) describe the charging and discharging process
of a capacitor through a resistor;
(j) define the time constant, and use the formula
; RC =
(k) derive and use the formulae
0
1
t
Q Q e



=


,
0
1
t
V V e



=


and
0
t
I I e

= for charging a capacitor through a


resistor;
(l) derive and use the formulae
0
t
Q Q e

= ,
0
t
V V e

= and
0
t
I I e

= for discharging a
capacitor through a resistor;
(m) solve problems involving charging and
discharging of a capacitor through a resistor.

14 Electric Current

14.1 Conduction of
electricity

10

2
Candidates should be able to:

(a) define electric current, and use the equation
t
Q
I
d
d
= ;
(b) explain the mechanism of conduction of
electricity in metals;



12
Topic
Teaching
Period
Learning Outcome

14.2 Drift velocity 2 (c) explain the concept of drift velocity;
(d) derive and use the equation ; I Anev =

14.3 Current density 2 (e) define electric current density and
conductivity;
(f) use the relationship ; J E =


14.4 Electric conductivity
and resistivity

4
(g) derive and use the equation
2
;
ne t
m
=
(h) define resistivity, and use the formula ;
RA
l
=
(i) show the equivalence between Ohms law and
the relationship ; J E =
(j) explain the dependence of resistivity on
temperature for metals and semiconductors by
using the equation

2
;
ne t
m
=
(k) discuss the effects of temperature change on
the resistivity of conductors, semiconductors
and superconductors.

15 Direct Current Circuits

15.1 Internal resistance
14

1
Candidates should be able to:

(a) explain the effects of internal resistance on the
terminal potential difference of a battery in a
circuit;

15.2 Kirchhoffs laws 4 (b) state and apply Kirchhoffs laws;

15.3 Potential divider 2 (c) explain a potential divider as a source of
variable voltage;
(d) explain the uses of shunts and multipliers;

15.4 Potentiometer and
Wheatstone bridge
7 (e) explain the working principles of a
potentiometer, and its uses;
(f) explain the working principles of a Wheatstone
bridge, and its uses;
(g) solve problems involving potentiometer and
Wheatstone bridge.






13
Topic
Teaching
Period
Learning Outcome

16 Magnetic Fields

16.1 Concept of a magnetic
field
18

1
Candidates should be able to:

(a) explain magnetic field as a field of force
produced by current-carrying conductors or by
permanent magnets;

16.2 Force on a moving
charge
3 (b) use the formula for the force on a moving
charge ; q = F v B
(c) use the equation sin qvB F = to define
magnetic flux density B;
(d) describe the motion of a charged particle
parallel and perpendicular to a uniform
magnetic field;

16.3 Force on a current-
carrying conductor
3 (e) explain the existence of magnetic force on a
straight current-carrying conductor placed in a
uniform magnetic field;
(f) derive and use the equation sin F IlB = ;

16.4 Magnetic fields due to
currents
4 (g) state Amperes law, and use it to derive the
magnetic field of a straight wire

r
I
B
2
0

= ;
(h) use the formulae
r
NI
B
2
0

= for a circular coil


and nI B
0
= for a solenoid;

16.5 Force between two
current-carrying
conductors
3
(i) derive and use the formula
d
l I I
F
2
2 1 0
= for the
force between two parallel current-carrying
conductors;

16.6 Determination of the
ratio
m
e

2 (j) describe the motion of a charged particle in the
presence of both magnetic and electric fields
(for v, B and E perpendicular to each other);
(k) explain the principles of the determination of
the ratio
m
e
for electrons in Thomsons
experiment (quantitative treatment is required);

16.7 Hall effect 2 (l) explain Hall effect, and derive an expression
for Hall voltage V
H
;
(m) state the applications of Hall effect.




14
Topic
Teaching
Period
Learning Outcome

17 Electromagnetic Induction

17.1 Magnetic flux
18

1
Candidates should be able to:

(a) define magnetic flux as ; = B A

17.2 Faradays law and
Lenzs law
8 (b) state and use Faradays law and Lenzs law;
(c) derive and use the equation for induced e.m.f.
in linear conductors and plane coils in uniform
magnetic fields;

17.3 Self induction 5 (d) explain the phenomenon of self-induction, and
define self-inductance;
(e) use the formulae E
d
and ;
d
I
L LI N
t
= =
(f) derive and use the equation for the self-
inductance of a solenoid

2
0
;
N A
L
l

=

17.4 Energy stored in an
inductor
2 (g) use the formula for the energy stored in an
inductor
2
2
1
LI U = ;

17.5 Mutual induction 2 (h) explain the phenomenon of mutual induction,
and define mutual inductance;
(i) derive an expression for the mutual inductance
between two coaxial solenoids of the same
cross-sectional area

p
s p 0
l
A N N
M

= .

18 Alternating Current
Circuits

18.1 Alternating current
through a resistor

12


3
Candidates should be able to:


(a) explain the concept of the r.m.s. value of an
alternating current, and calculate its value for
the sinusoidal case only;
(b) derive an expression for the current from
0
sin ; V V t =
(c) explain the phase difference between the
current and voltage for a pure resistor;
(d) derive and use the formula for the power in an
alternating current circuit which consists only
of a pure resistor;




15
Topic
Teaching
Period
Learning Outcome

18.2 Alternating current
through an inductor
3 (e) derive an expression for the current from
0
sin ; V V t =
(f) explain the phase difference between the
current and voltage for a pure inductor;
(g) define the reactance of a pure inductor;
(h) use the formula ;
L
X L =
(i) derive and use the formula for the power in an
alternating current circuit which consists only
of a pure inductor;

18.3 Alternating current
through a capacitor
3 (j) derive an expression for the current from
0
sin ; V V t =
(k) explain the phase difference between the
current and voltage for a pure capacitor;
(l) define the reactance of a pure capacitor;
(m) use the formula
1
;
C
X
C
=
(n) derive and use the formula for the power in an
alternating current circuit which consists only
of a pure capacitor;

18.4 R-C and R-L circuits in
series
3 (o) define impedance;
(p) use the formula
2 2
) (
C L
X X R Z + = ;
(q) sketch the phasor diagrams of R-C and R-L
circuits.



















16
THIRD TERM: OSCILLATIONS AND WAVES, OPTICS, AND MODERN PHYSICS

Topic
Teaching
Period
Learning Outcome

19 Oscillations 12 Candidates should be able to:

19.1 Characteristics of
simple harmonic
motion
1 (a) define simple harmonic motion;

19.2 Kinematics of simple
harmonic motion
4 (b) show that t A x sin = is a solution of
2
; a x =
(c) derive and use the formula

2 2
; v A x =
(d) describe, with graphical illustrations, the
variation in displacement, velocity and
acceleration with time;
(e) describe, with graphical illustrations, the
variation in velocity and acceleration with
displacement;

19.3 Energy in simple
harmonic motion
2 (f) derive and use the expressions for kinetic
energy and potential energy;
(g) describe, with graphical illustrations, the
variation in kinetic energy and potential energy
with time and displacement;

19.4 Systems in simple
harmonic motion
3 (h) derive and use expressions for the periods of
oscillations for spring-mass and simple
pendulum systems;

19.5 Damped oscillations 1


(i) describe the changes in amplitude and energy
for a damped oscillating system;
(j) distinguish between under damping, critical
damping and over damping;

19.6 Forced oscillations and
resonance
1 (k) distinguish between free oscillations and
forced oscillations;
(l) state the conditions for resonance to occur.

20 Wave Motion

20.1 Progressive waves
12

3
Candidates should be able to:

(a) interpret and use the progressive wave
equation y = A sin (

t kx) or
y = A cos (

t kx);


(b) sketch and interpret the displacement-time
graph and the displacement-distance graph;


17
Topic
Teaching
Period
Learning Outcome


(c) use the formula
2
;
x

=
(d) derive and use the relationship ; v f =

20.2 Wave intensity 2 (e) define intensity and use the relationship
2
; I A
(f) describe the variation of intensity with distance
of a point source in space;

20.3 Principle of
superposition
1 (g) state the principle of superposition;

20.4 Standing waves 4 (h) use the principle of superposition to explain
the formation of standing waves;
(i) derive and interpret the standing wave
equation;
(j) distinguish between progressive and standing
waves;

20.5 Electromagnetic waves 2 (k) state that electromagnetic waves are made up
of electrical vibrations E = E
0
sin

(

t kx)
and magnetic vibrations B = B
0
sin

(

t kx);
(l) state the characteristics of electromagnetic
waves;
(m) compare electromagnetic waves with
mechanical waves;
(n) state the formula
0 0
1

= c , and explain its
significance;
(o) state the orders of the magnitude of
wavelengths and frequencies for different
types of electromagnetic waves.

21 Sound Waves

21.1 Propagation of sound
waves

14

2
Candidates should be able to:

(a) explain the propagation of sound waves in air
in terms of pressure variation and
displacement;
(b) interpret the equations for displacement
0
sin( ) y y t kx = and pressure
p = p
0
sin ;
2
t kx


+





18
Topic
Teaching
Period
Learning Outcome


(c) use the standing wave equation to determine
the positions of nodes and antinodes of a
standing wave along a stretched string;

21.2 Sources of sound 4
(d) use the formula

T
v = to determine the
frequencies of the sound produced by different
modes of vibration of the standing waves
along a stretched string;
(e) describe, with appropriate diagrams, the
different modes of vibration of standing waves
in air columns, and calculate the frequencies of
sound produced, including the determination
of end correction;

21.3 Intensity level of
sound
2 (f) define and calculate the intensity level of
sound;

21.4 Beat 2 (g) use the principle of superposition to explain
the formation of beats;
(h) use the formula for beat frequency
f f f =
1 2
;

21.5 Doppler effect 4 (i) describe the Doppler effect for sound, and use
the derived formulae (for source and/or
observer moving along the same line).

22 Geometrical Optics

22.1 Spherical mirrors
8

3
Candidates should be able to:
(a) use the relationship
2
r
f = for spherical
mirrors;
(b) draw ray diagrams to show the formation of
images by concave mirrors and convex
mirrors;

(c) use the formula
f v u
1 1 1
= + for spherical
mirrors;

22.2 Refraction at spherical
surfaces
2
(d) use the formula
n
u
n
v
n n
r
1 2 2 1
+ =

for
refraction at spherical surfaces;






19
Topic
Teaching
Period
Learning Outcome

22.3 Thin lenses

3
(e) use the formula
n
u
n
v
n n
r
1 2 2 1
+ =

to derive
the thin lens formula
1 1 1
u v f
+ = and
lensmakers equation

=
2 1
1 1
1
1
r r n
n
f
m
l
m
;
(f) use the thin lens formula and lensmakers
equation.

23 Wave Optics

23.1 Huygenss principle

16

1
Candidates should be able to:

(a) state the Huygenss principle;
(b) use the Huygenss principle to explain
interference and diffraction phenomena;

23.2 Interference 2 (c) explain the concept of coherence;
(d) explain the concept of optical path difference,
and solve related problems;
(e) state the conditions for constructive and
destructive interferences;

23.3 Two-slit interference
pattern
2 (f) explain Youngs two-slit interference pattern;
(g) derive and use the formula
a
D
x = for the
fringe separation in Youngs interference
pattern;

23.4 Interference in a thin
film
2 (h) explain the phenomenon of thin film
interference for normal incident light, and
solve related problems;

23.5 Diffraction by a single
slit
2 (i) explain the diffraction pattern for a single slit;
(j) use the formula
a

= sin for the first


minimum in the diffraction pattern for a single
slit;
(k) use the formula sin

=

a

as the resolving
power of an aperture;







20
Topic
Teaching
Period
Learning Outcome

23.6 Diffraction gratings 3 (l) explain the diffraction pattern for a diffraction
grating;
(m) use the formula m d = sin for a diffraction
grating;
(n) describe the use of a diffraction grating to form
the spectrum of white light, and to determine
the wavelength of monochromatic light;

23.7 Polarisation 2 (o) state that polarisation is a property of
transverse waves;
(p) explain the polarisation of light obtained by
reflection or using a polariser;
(q) use the Brewsters law tan
B
; n =
(r) use the Maluss law I = I
0
cos
2


;

23.8 Optical waveguides 2 (s) explain the basic principles of fibre optics and
waveguides;
(t) state the applications of fibre optics and
waveguides.

24 Quantum Physics

24.1 Photons
20

8
Students should be able to:

(a) describe the important observations in
photoelectric experiments;
(b) recognise the features of the photoelectric
effect that cannot be explained by wave theory,
and explain these features using the concept of
quantisation of light;
(c) use the equation E hf = for a photon;
(d) explain the meaning of work function and
threshold frequency;
(e) use Einsteins equation for the photoelectric
effect

2
max
1
;
2
hf W mv = +
(f) explain the meaning of stopping potential, and
use
2
s max
1
;
2
eV mv =






21
Topic
Teaching
Period
Learning Outcome

24.2 Wave-particle duality 2 (g) state de Broglies hypothesis;
(h) use the relation
p
h
= to calculate de Broglie
wavelength;
(i) interpret the electron diffraction pattern as an
evidence of the wave nature of electrons;
(j) explain the advantages of an electron
microscope as compared to an optical
microscope;

24.3 Atomic structure 4 (k) state Bohrs postulates for a hydrogen atom;
(l) derive an expression for the radii of the orbits
in Bohrs model;
(m) derive the formula
2 2 2
0
4 2
8 n h
m e Z
E
n

= for
Bohrs model;
(n) explain the production of emission line spectra
with reference to the transitions between
energy levels;
(o) explain the concepts of excitation energy and
ionisation energy;

24.4 X-rays











5











(p) interpret X-ray spectra obtained from X-ray
tubes;
(q) explain the characteristic line spectrum and
continuous spectrum including
min
in X-rays;
(r) derive and use the equation
min
;
hc
eV
=
(s) describe X-ray diffraction by two parallel
adjacent atomic planes;
(t) derive and use Braggs law 2d sin = m

;

24.5 Nanoscience 1 (u) explain the basic concept of nanoscience;
(v) state the applications of nanoscience in
electronics devices.







22
Topic
Teaching
Period
Learning Outcome

25 Nuclear Physics 14 Candidates should be able to:

25.1 Nucleus

4 (a) describe the discovery of protons and neutrons
(experimental details are not required);
(b) explain mass defect and binding energy;
(c) use the formula for mass-energy equivalence
E = mc
2
;
(d) relate and use the units u and eV;
(e) sketch and interpret a graph of binding energy
per nucleon against nucleon number;

25.2 Radioactivity 6 (f) explain radioactive decay as a spontaneous and
random process;
(g) define radioactive activity;
(h) state and use the exponential law N
t
N
=
d
d

for radioactive decay;
(i) define decay constant;
(j) derive and use the formula
t
N N

= e
0
;
(k) define half-life, and derive the relation
2
1
2 ln
t
= ;
(l) solve problems involving the applications of
radioisotopes as tracers in medical physics;

25.3 Nuclear reactions 4 (m) state and apply the conservation of nucleon
number and charge in nuclear reactions;
(n) apply the principle of mass-energy
conservation to calculate the energy released
(Q value) in a nuclear reaction;
(o) relate the occurrence of fission and fusion
to the graph of binding energy per nucleon
against nucleon number;
(p) explain the conditions for a chain reaction to
occur;
(q) describe a controlled fission process in a
reactor;
(r) describe a nuclear fusion process which occurs
in the Sun.



23
The Practical Syllabus
School-based Assessment of Practical (Paper 4)

School-based assessment of practical work is carried out throughout the form six school terms for
candidates from government schools and private schools which have been approved by MEC to carry
out the school-based assessment.

MEC will determine 13 compulsory experiments and one project to be carried out by the
candidates and to be assessed by the subject teachers in schools in the respective terms. The project
will be carried out during the third term in groups of two or three candidates. Details of the title, topic,
objective, theory, apparatus and procedure of each of the experiments and project will be specified in
the Teachers and Students Manual for Practical Physics which can be downloaded from MEC Portal
(http://www.mpm.edu.my) during the first term of form six by the subject teachers.

Candidates should be supplied with a work scheme before the day of the compulsory experiment
so as to enable them to plan their practical work. Each experiment is expected to last one school
double period. Assessment of the practical work is done by the subject teachers during the practical
sessions and also based on the practical reports. The assessment should comply with the assessment
guidelines prepared by MEC.

A repeating candidate may use the total mark obtained in the coursework for two subsequent
examinations. Requests to carry forward the moderated coursework mark should be made during the
registration of the examination.

The Physics practical course for STPM should achieve its objective to improve the quality of
candidates in the aspects as listed below.
(a) The ability to follow a set or sequence of instructions.
(b) The ability to plan and carry out experiments using appropriate methods.
(c) The ability to choose suitable equipment and use them correctly and carefully.
(d) The ability to determine the best range of readings for more detailed and careful
measurements.
(e) The ability to make observations, to take measurements and to record data with attention
given to precision, accuracy and units.
(f) The awareness of the importance of check readings and repeat readings.
(g) The awareness of the limits of accuracy of observations and measurements.
(h) The ability to present data and information clearly in appropriate forms.
(i) The ability to interpret, analyse and evaluate observations, experimental data, perform error
analysis and make deductions.
(j) The ability to make conclusions.
(k) The awareness of the safety measures which need to be taken.









24
The objective of the project work is to enable candidates to acquire knowledge and integrate
practical skills in Physics with the aid of information and communications technology as well as to
develop soft skills as follows:
(a) communications,
(b) teamwork,
(c) critical thinking and problem solving,
(d) flexibility/adaptability,
(e) leadership,
(f) organising,
(g) information communications and technology,
(h) moral and ethics.

Written Practical Test (Paper 5)

The main objective of the written practical test is to assess the candidates understanding of practical
procedures in the laboratory.

The following candidates are required to register for this paper:
(a) individual private candidates,
(b) candidates from private schools which have no permission to carry out the school-based
assessment of practical work,
(c) candidates who repeat upper six (in government or private schools),
(d) candidates who do not attend classes of lower six and upper six in two consecutive years
(in government or private schools).
(e) candidates who take Physics other than the package offered by schools.

Three structured questions on routine practical work and/or design of experiments will be set.
MEC will not be strictly bound by the syllabus in setting questions. Where appropriate, candidates
will be given sufficient information to enable them to answer the questions. Only knowledge of theory
within the syllabus and knowledge of usual laboratory practical procedures will be expected.

The questions to be set will test candidates ability to:
(a) record readings from diagrams of apparatus,
(b) describe, explain, suggest, design or comment on experimental arrangements, techniques
and procedures,
(c) complete tables of data and plot graphs,
(d) interpret, draw conclusions from, and evaluate observations and experimental data,
(e) recognise limitations of experiments and sources of results,
(f) explain the effect of errors on experimental results,
(g) suggest precautions or safety measures,
(h) explain theoretical basis of experiments,
(i) use theory to explain or predict experimental results,
(j) perform simple calculations and error analysis based on experiments.

25
Scheme of Assessment

Term of
Study
Paper Code
and Name
Theme/Title Type of Test
Mark
(Weighting)
Duration Administration
First
Term
960/1
Physics
Paper 1


Mechanics and
Thermodynamics

Written test

Section A
15 compulsory
multiple-choice
questions to be
answered.
Section B
2 compulsory
structured questions
to be answered.
Section C
2 questions to be
answered out of 3
essay questions.
All questions are
based on topics 1 to
11.
60
(26.67%)
15



15



30

1 hours
Central
assessment
Second
Term
960/2
Physics
Paper 2
Electricity and
Magnetism
Written test

Section A
15 compulsory
multiple-choice
questions to be
answered.
Section B
2 compulsory
structured questions
to be answered.
Section C
2 questions to be
answered out of 3
essay questions.
All questions are
based on topics 12
to 18.
60
(26.67%)
15




15



30
1 hours
Central
assessment

26

Term of
Study
Paper Code
and Name
Theme/Title Type of Test
Mark
(Weighting)
Duration Administration
960/3
Physics
Paper 3
Oscillations and
Waves, Optics
and Modern
Physics

Written test

Section A
15 compulsory
multiple-choice
questions to be
answered.
Section B
2 compulsory
structured questions
to be answered.
Section C
2 questions to be
answered out of 3
essay questions.
All questions are
based on topics 19
to 25.
60
(26.67%)
15




15



30
1 hours
Central
assessment
Third
Term
960/5
Physics
Paper 5
Written Physics
Practical

Written practical
test

3 compulsory
structured questions
to be answered.
45
(20%)


1 hours
Central
assessment
First,
Second
and
Third
Terms
960/4
Physics
Paper 4

Physics Practical

School-based
Assessment of
Practical
13 compulsory
experiments and
one project to be
carried out.
225
To be
scaled to 45
(20%)

Through
-out the
three
terms
School-based
assessment

27
Performance Descriptions

A Grade A candidate is likely able to:
(a) recall the fundamental knowledge of Physics from the syllabus with few significant
omissions;
(b) show good understanding of the fundamental principles and concepts;
(c) identify the appropriate information and apply the correct techniques to solve problems;
(d) communicate effectively using logical sequence based on physics fundamentals, including
usage of mathematical expressions, schematic diagrams, tables and graph;
(e) synthesise information from fundamental principles of different content areas in problem
solving;
(f) show good understanding of the underlying working principles and carry out extensive
calculation in numerical-type questions;
(g) make adaptations, appropriate assumptions and use the fundamental knowledge of Physics
in analyzing an unfamiliar situation;
(h) identify causes, factors or errors in questions involving experiments;
(i) shows good knowledge relating precision of data to the accuracy of the final result;
(j) interpret and evaluate critically the numerical answer in calculations.


A Grade C candidate is likely able to:
(a) recall the knowledge of Physics from most parts of the syllabus;
(b) show some understanding of the main principles and concepts in the syllabus;
(c) present answer using common terminology and simple concepts in the syllabus;
(d) demonstrate some ability to link knowledge between different areas of Physics;
(e) perform calculation on familiar numerical-type or guided questions;
(f) show some understanding of the underlying Physics principles when carrying out numerical
work;
(g) identify causes, factors or errors in questions involving experiments;
(h) shows good knowledge relating precision of data to the accuracy of the final result;
(i) interpret and evaluate critically the numerical answer in calculations.















28
Summary of Key Quantities and Units
Candidates are expected to be familiar with the following quantities, their symbols, their units, and
their interrelationships. They should also be able to perform calculations and deal with questions
involving these quantities as indicated in the syllabus. The list should not be considered exhaustive.

Quantity Usual symbols Units

Base quantities

Amount of matter n mol
Electric current I A
Length l m
Mass m kg
Temperature T K
Time t s

Other quantities

Acceleration a m s
2
Acceleration of free fall g m s
2
Activity of radioactive source A s
1
, Bq
Amplitude A m
Angular displacement , rad
Angular frequency rad s
1
Angular momentum L kg m
2
rad s
1
Angular speed
,


rad s
1
Angular velocity
,


rad s
1
Area A m
2


Atomic mass m
a
kg
Atomic number (proton number) Z
Capacitance C F
Change of internal energy U J
Charge carrier density n m
3
Coefficient of friction
Conductivity
1
m
1
Critical angle
c

Current density J A m
2
Decay constant s
1
Density kg m
3
Displacement s, x m
Distance d m
Electric charge Q, q C
Electric field strength E N C
1
Electric flux N C
1
m
2
Electric potential V V
Electric potential difference V, V V
Electromotive force , E V
Electron mass m
e
kg, u
Elementary charge e C
Emissivity e
Energy E, U J
Focal length f m
Force F N
.
29
Quantity Usual symbols Units

Force constant k N m
1

Frequency f Hz
Gravitational field strength g N kg
1
Gravitational potential V J kg
1
Half-life t

s
Heat Q J
Heat capacity C J K
1
Image distance v m
Impedance Z
Intensity I W m
2

Internal energy U J
Latent heat L J
Magnetic flux Wb
Magnetic flux density B T
Magnification power m
Mass number (nucleon number) A
Mass per unit length kg m
1

Molar heat capacity C
m J K
1
mol
1

Molar mass M kg mol
1
Molecular speed c m s
1
Momentum p N s

Mutual inductance M H
Neutron mass m
n
kg, u
Neutron number N
Object distance u m
Period T s
Permeability H m
1
Permeability of free space
0
H m
1
Permittivity F m
1
Permittivity of free space
0
F m
1
Phase difference , rad
Potential energy U J
Power P W
Pressure p Pa
Principal molar heat capacities C
V,m
; C
p,m
J K
1
mol
1

Radius r m
Ratio of heat capacities
Reactance X
Refractive index n
Relative atomic mass A
r

Relative molecular mass M
r

Relative permeability
r

Relative permittivity
r

Resistance R
Resistivity m
Self-inductance L H
Specific heat capacity c J K
1
kg
1
Specific latent heat l J kg
1

Speed u, v m s
1

Speed of electromagnetic waves c m s
1


30
Quantity Usual symbols Units

Stress Pa
Surface charge density C m
2

Temperature T, K, C
Tension T N
Thermal conductivity k W m
1
K
1

Time constant s
Torque N m
Velocity u, v m s
1
Volume V m
3
Wavelength m
Wave number k m
1

Weight W N
Work W J
Work function , W J
Youngs modulus E, Y Pa, N m
2






































31
960 PHYSICS
Values of constants

Acceleration of free fall g = 9.81 m s
2
Avogadros constant N
A
= 6.02 10
23
mol
1
Boltzmanns constant k, k
B
= 1.38 10
23
J K
1
Gravitational constant G = 6.67 10
11
N m
2
kg
2
Magnitude of electronic charge e = 1.60 10
19
C
Mass of the Earth M
E
= 5.97 10
24
kg
Mass of the Sun M
S
= 1.99 10
30
kg
Molar gas constant R = 8.31 J K
1
mol
1
Permeability of free space
0
= 4 10
7
H m
1
Permittivity of free space
0
= 8.85 10
12
F m
1

=
1 9
m F 10
36
1


Plancks constant h = 6.63 10
34
J s
Radius of the Earth R
E
= 6.38 10
6
m
Radius of the Sun R
S
= 6.96 10
8
m
Rest mass of electron m
e
= 9.11 10
31
kg
Rest mass of proton m
p
= 1.67 10
27
kg
Speed of light in free space c = 3.00 10
8
m s
1

Stefan-Boltzmann constant = 5.67 10
8
W m
2
K
4
Unified atomic mass unit u = 1.66 10
27
kg



















32
Reference Books

Teachers and candidates may use books specially written for the STPM examination and other
reference books such as those listed below.

1. Adam, S. and Allday, J., 2000. Advanced Physics. New York: Oxford.

2. Breithaupt, J., 2000. Understanding Physics for Advanced Level. 4th edition. Cheltenham:
Nelson Thornes.

3. Duncan, T., 2000. Advanced Physics. 5th edition. London: John Murray.

4. Giancoli, D.C., 2008. Physics for Scientists and Engineers with Modern Physics. 4th edition.
New Jersey: Pearson Prentice Hall.

5. Giancoli, D.C., 2008. Physics-Principles with Application. 6th edition. New Jersey: Pearson
Prentice Hall.

6. Halliday, D., Resnick, R., and Walker, J., 2008. Fundamentals of Physics. 8th edition. New
Jersey: John Wiley & Sons.

7. Hutchings, R., 2000. Physics. 2nd edition. London: Nelson Thornes.

8. Jewett Jr, J.W. and Serway, R.A., 2006. Serways Principles of Physics. 4th edition. California:
Thomson Brooks/Cole.

9. Jewett Jr, J.W. and Serway, R.A., 2008. Physics for Scientists and Engineers. 7th edition.
California: Thomson Brooks/Cole.

10. Nelkon, M. and Parker, P., 1995. Advanced Level Physics. 7th edition. Oxford: Heinemann.

11. Young, H.D. and Freedman, R.A., 2011. University Physics with Modern Physics. 13th edition.
California: Pearson Addison Wesley.




















Identity card number:.. Centre number/index number:.
(Nombor kad pengenalan) (Nombor pusat/angka giliran)
33


SPECIMEN PAPER


960/1 STPM


PHYSICS (FIZIK)

PAPER 1 (KERTAS 1)

One and a half hours (Satu jam setengah)


MAJLIS PEPERIKSAAN MALAYSIA
(MALAYSIAN EXAMINATIONS COUNCIL)


SIJIL TINGGI PERSEKOLAHAN MALAYSIA
(MALAYSIA HIGHER SCHOOL CERTIFICATE)

Instructions to candidates:
DO NOT OPEN THIS QUESTION PAPER UNTIL YOU ARE TOLD TO DO SO.
Answer all questions in Section A. Marks will not be deducted for wrong answers. For each
question, four suggested answers are given. Choose the correct answer and circle the answer.
Answer all questions in Section B. Write your answers in the spaces provided.
Answer any two questions in Section C. All essential working should be shown. For numerical
answers, unit should be quoted wherever appropriate. Begin each answer on a fresh sheet of paper
and arrange your answers in numerical order.
Values of constants are provided on page in this question paper.

Arahan kepada calon:
JANGAN BUKA KERTAS SOALAN INI SEHINGGA ANDA DIBENARKAN BERBUAT
DEMIKIAN.
Jawab semua soalan dalam Bahagian A. Markah tidak akan ditolak bagi jawapan yang salah.
Bagi setiap soalan, empat cadangan jawapan diberikan. Pilih jawapan yang betul dan buat bulatan
pada jawapan tersebut.
Jawab semua soalan dalam Bahagian B. Tulis jawapan anda di ruang yang disediakan.
Jawab mana-mana dua soalan dalam Bahagian C. Semua jalan kerja yang sesuai hendaklah
ditunjukkan. Bagi jawapan berangka, unit hendaklah dinyatakan di mana-mana yang sesuai.
Mulakan setiap jawapan pada helaian kertas jawapan yang baharu dan susun jawapan anda
mengikut tertib berangka.
Nilai pemalar dibekalkan pada halaman kertas soalan ini.

This question paper consists of printed pages and blank page.
(Kertas soalan ini terdiri daripada halaman bercetak dan halaman kosong.)
Majlis Peperiksaan Malaysia
STPM 960/1

34
Section A [15 marks]

Answer all questions in this section.

1 Which formula does not have the same unit as work?
A Power time
B Pressure volume
C Mass gravitational potential
D Specific heat capacity temperature

2 A ball is thrown upwards several times with the same speed at different angles of projection.
Which graph shows the variation of the horizontal range R with the angle of projection ?



3 A body with mass 6 kg is acted by a force F which varies with time t as shown in the graph
below.










If the change of the momentum of the body after time T is 30 N s, what is the value of T

?
A 3 s B 5 s C 6 s D 12 s




960/1
C D
10
T
t/s
F/N
0

35
Bahagian A [15 markah]

Jawab semua soalan dalam bahagian ini.

1 Rumus yang manakah yang tidak mempunyai unit yang sama dengan kerja?
A Kuasa masa
B Tekanan isi padu
C Jisim keupayaan graviti
D Muatan haba tentu suhu

2 Sebiji bola dilontarkan ke atas beberapa kali dengan laju yang sama pada sudut pelontaran yang
berbeza. Graf yang manakah yang menunjukkan ubahan julat mengufuk R dengan sudut pelontaran
?



3 Satu jasad dengan jisim 6 kg ditindakkan oleh satu daya F yang berubah dengan masa t
ditunjukkan dalam graf di bawah.











Jika perubahan momentum jasad itu selepas masa T ialah 30 N s, berapakah nilai T

?
A 3 s B 5 s C 6 s D 12 s



960/1
C D
10
T
t/s
F/N
0

36
4 Which statement is true of the static friction between two surfaces?
A It is always constant.
B It depends on the surface area.
C It depends on the nature of the surfaces.
D It is always smaller than the kinetic friction.

5 A car of mass m with effective power P and initial velocity u climbs a hill of height h. The car
arrives at the peak of the hill at velocity v in time t. Which is true of the motion?
A mgh mv mu Pt + = +
2 2
2
1
2
1

B mgh mu mv Pt + = +
2 2
2
1
2
1

C
2 2
2
1
2
1
mv mu mgh Pt = +
D
2 2
2
1
2
1
mu mv mgh Pt = +

6 A car of mass 1000 kg moves along the corner of a level road having a radius of curvature 35.0 m.
If the limiting frictional force between the tyres and the road is 4.0 kN, the maximum speed of the car
without skidding at the corner is
A 4.0 m s
1
B 8.8 m s
1
C 11.8 m s
1
D 140.0 m s
1


7 If the gravitational field strength at a certain region is uniform,
A there is no work done on a mass displaced in that region
B the gravitational potential is the same at all points in that region
C the gravitational force on a mass is the same at all points in that region
D the gravitational potential energy is the same for all masses at all points in that region

8 A ladder PQ with the centre of mass R resting on a wall QS is shown in the diagram below.

If the ladder is in equilibrium and the resultant forces at P and Q are F
P
and F
Q
respectively, F
P

and F
Q
must act through point
A R B S C T D U

960/1
R
P S
U
T
Q

37
4 Penyataan yang manakah yang benar tentang geseran statik antara dua permukaan?
A Ia sentiasa malar.
B Ia bergantung kepada luas permukaan itu.
C Ia bergantung kepada sifat permukaan itu.
D Ia sentiasa lebih kecil daripada geseran kinetik.

5 Sebuah kereta berjisim m dengan kuasa berkesan P dan halaju awal u mendaki sebuah bukit
setinggi h. Kereta itu tiba di puncak bukit pada halaju v dalam masa t. Yang manakah yang benar
tentang gerakan itu?
A mgh mv mu Pt + = +
2 2
2
1
2
1

B mgh mu mv Pt + = +
2 2
2
1
2
1

C
2 2
2
1
2
1
mv mu mgh Pt = +
D
2 2
2
1
2
1
mu mv mgh Pt = +

6 Sebuah kereta berjisim 1000 kg bergerak melalui satu selekoh jalan raya yang rata yang
mempunyai jejari kelengkungan 35.0 m. Jika had daya geseran antara tayar dengan jalan raya ialah
4.0 kN, laju maksimum tanpa tergelincir kereta pada selekoh itu ialah
A 4.0 m s
1
B 8.8 m s
1
C 11.8 m s
1
D 140.0 m s
1


7 Jika kekuatan medan graviti di suatu kawasan adalah seragam,
A tiada kerja dilakukan ke atas jisim yang tersesar di kawasan itu
B keupayaan graviti adalah sama di semua titik di kawasan itu
C daya graviti ke atas jisim adalah sama di semua titik di kawasan itu
D tenaga keupayaan graviti adalah sama bagi semua jisim di semua titik di kawasan itu

8 Satu tangga PQ dengan pusat jisim R yang bersandar pada dinding QS ditunjukkan dalam gambar
rajah di bawah.

Jika tangga itu berada dalam keseimbangan dan daya paduan di P dan Q masing-masing ialah F
P

dan F
Q
, F
P
dan F
Q
mesti bertindak melalui titik
A R B S C T D U
960/1
R
P S
U
T
Q

38
9 Which of the following best shows the stiffness of a solid?
A Youngs modulus

B Elastic limit
C Yield point
D Tensile strength

10 The temperature of two moles of a diatomic gas is raised by 8.0 C from room temperature. The
increase in the internal energy of the gas is
A 2.0 10
2
J B 3.3 10
2
J C 7.0 10
3
J D 1.2 10
4
J

11 The ratio of the molar heat capacity of an ideal gas is 1.4. What is the number of degrees of
freedom of the gas?
A 3 B 5 C 6 D 7

12 Molar heat capacity at constant pressure differs from molar heat capacity at constant volume
because
A the internal energy of the gas is higher at constant pressure
B extra heat is required to expand the gas at constant pressure
C extra heat is required to increase the degree of freedom of the gas at constant volume
D work is required to overcome the attractive force between molecules which is stronger at
constant pressure

13 An ideal gas in a cylinder is compressed isothermally. Which statement is true of the gas?
A No work is done on the gas.
B Heat is released from the gas.
C The internal energy of the gas increases.
D The potential energy of the gas molecules increases.



















960/1

39
9 Yang manakah yang paling baik menunjukkan kekakuan suatu pepejal?
A Modulus Youngs

B Had kenyal
C Titik alah
D Kekuatan tegangan

10 Suhu dua mol gas dwiatom dinaikkan sebanyak 8.0 C dari suhu bilik. Pertambahan tenaga dalam
bagi gas itu ialah
A 2.0 10
2
J B 3.3 10
2
J C 7.0 10
3
J D 1.2 10
4
J

11 Nisbah muatan haba molar suatu gas unggul ialah 1.4. Berapakah bilangan darjah kebebasan gas
itu?
A 3 B 5 C 6 D 7

12 Muatan haba molar pada tekanan malar berbeza daripada muatan haba molar pada isi padu molar
kerana
A tenaga dalam suatu gas adalah lebih tinggi pada tekanan malar
B haba tambahan diperlukan untuk mengembangkan gas pada tekanan malar
C haba tambahan diperlukan untuk meningkatkan darjah kebebasan gas pada isi padu malar
D kerja diperlukan untuk mengatasi daya tarikan antara molekul yang lebih kuat pada tekanan
malar

13 Suatu gas unggul dalam satu silinder dimampatkan secara isoterma. Penyataan yang manakah
yang benar tentang gas itu?
A Tiada kerja dilakukan ke atas gas.
B Haba dibebaskan daripada gas.
C Tenaga dalam gas itu meningkat.
D Tenaga keupayaan molekul gas meningkat.



















960/1

40
14 Two perfectly insulated uniform rods R and S of the same material joined thermally is shown in
the diagram below.



The length of rod R is two times the length of rod S. The cross-sectional area of rod R is half the
cross-sectional area of rod S. If the free ends of R and S are fixed at 100 C and 50 C respectively,
what is the temperature at the junction of rod R and rod S?
A 55 C B 60 C C 75 C D 90 C

15 The Sun continuously radiates energy into space, some of which is received by the Earth. The
average temperature on the surface of the Earth remains at about 300 K because
A the Earth reflects the Suns light
B the thermal conductivity of the Earth is low
C the Earth radiates an amount of energy into space equal to the amount it absorbed
D the energy only raises the temperature of the upper atmosphere and never reaches the
surface





























960/1
Insulator
Insulator
R 100 C 50 C
S

41
14 Dua rod seragam R dan S yang bertebat dengan sempurna daripada bahan yang sama disambung
secara terma ditunjukkan dalam gambar rajah di bawah.



Panjang rod R adalah dua kali panjang rod S. Luas keratan rentas rod R adalah setengah luas
keratan rentas rod S. Jika hujung bebas R dan S masing-masing ditetapkan pada 100 C and 50 C,
berapakah suhu pada simpang rod R dan rod S?
A 55 C B 60 C C 75 C D 90 C

15 Matahari secara berterusan menyinarkan tenaga ke dalam angkasa, sebahagian daripadanya
diterima oleh Bumi. Purata suhu pada permukaan Bumi kekal pada 300 K kerana
A Bumi memantulkan cahaya Matahari
B kekonduksian terma Bumi adalah rendah
C Bumi menyinarkan amaun tenaga yang sama dengan amaun tenaga yang diserapnya ke dalam
angkasa
D tenaga hanya meningkatkan suhu atmosfera atas dan tidak pernah sampai ke permukaan





























960/1
Penebat
Penebat
R 100 C 50 C
S

42
Section B [15 marks]

Answer all questions in this section.

16 A wire with cross-sectional area 0.50 mm
2
and length 20.0 cm is pulled at both ends by a force of
55 N as shown in the diagram below.




(a) Determine the stress in the wire. [2 marks]





(b) If the extension is 0.40 cm, calculate the strain in the wire. [2 marks]





(c) Determine the Youngs modulus of the wire. [2 marks]





(d) Calculate the strain energy stored in the wire. [2 marks]






17 (a) State two assumptions of an ideal gas. [2 marks]





(b) State two physical conditions under which a gas behave as an ideal gas. [2 marks]





(c) A 0.035 m
3
gas tank contains 7.0 kg of butane gas. Assuming that the gas behaves as an ideal
gas, calculate its pressure at 27 C. [3 marks]
[The molecular mass of butane is 58 g mol
1
.]



960/1
F = 55 N F = 55 N
Wire

43
Bahagian B [15 markah]

Jawab semua soalan dalam bahagian ini.

16 Satu dawai dengan luas kerata rentas 0.50 mm
2
dan panjang 20.0 cm ditarik di kedua-dua hujung
oleh satu daya 55 N seperti ditunjukkan dalam gambar rajah di bawah.




(a) Tentukan tegasan dalam dawai itu. [2 markah]





(b) Jika pemanjangan ialah 0.40 cm, hitung terikan dalam dawai itu. [2 markah]





(c) Tentukan modulus Young dawai itu. [2 markah]





(d) Hitung tenaga terikan yang tersimpan dalam dawai itu. [2 markah]






17 (a) Nyatakan dua anggapan suatu gas unggul. [2 markah]





(b) Nyatakan dua syarat fizikal yang mana satu gas bertindak sebagai satu gas unggul.
[2 markah]





(c) Sebuah tangki gas 0.035 m
3
mengandungi 7.0 kg gas butana. Andaikan bahawa gas itu
bertindak sebagai satu gas unggul, hitung tekanannya pada 27 C. [3 markah]
[Jisim molekul butana ialah 58 g mol
1
.]


960/1
F = 55 N F = 55 N
Dawai

44
Section C [30 marks]

Answer any two questions in this section.

18 (a) (i) State the principle of conservation of linear momentum. [2 marks]
(ii) In a perfect elastic collision, the total kinetic energy is conserved. Discuss a case where
the total kinetic energy is lost completely after a collision between two objects. [2 marks]

(b) An object of mass M is moving with velocity u, and collides elastically with another object of
mass m at rest. After the collision, M and m move with velocities v
1
and v
2
respectively.
(i) Write the equations to show the conservation of the kinetic energy and the conservation
of the linear momentum. [2 marks]
(ii) Using the equations in (b)(i), obtain a relationship between u, v
1
and v
2
. [3 marks]
(iii) Determine the condition required for the object of mass M to stop after the collision.
[3 marks]
(iv) If M = 40.0 g, m = 60.0 g and u = 8.0 m s
1
, calculate the percentage change in kinetic
energy of the object of mass M after the collision. [3 marks]

19 (a) (i) State Newtons law of universal gravitation. [2 marks]
(ii) Explain why the force of gravity of the Earth on an object causes the object to
accelerate towards the Earth. [2 marks]
(b) The weight of a satellite in a circular orbit around the Earth is half of its weight on the surface
of the Earth. The mass of the satellite is 8.0 10
2
kg.
(i) Determine the altitude of the orbit. [3 marks]
(ii) Determine the speed of the satellite. [2 marks]
(iii) Determine the minimum energy required by the satellite to escape from its orbit to
space. [3 marks]
(iv) If the satellite is replaced with another satellite of mass 1.6 10
3
kg, state the effect on
your answers for (i), (ii) and (iii). . [3 marks]



















960/1

45
Bahagian C [30 markah]

Jawab mana-mana dua soalan dalam bahagian ini.

18 (a) (i) Nyatakan prinsip keabadian momentum linear. [2 markah]
(ii) Dalam satu perlanggaran elastik yang sempurna, jumlah tenaga kinetik diabadikan.
Bincangkan satu kes dengan jumlah tenaga kinetik hilang sepenuhnya selepas perlanggaran antara dua
objek. [2 markah]
(b) Satu objek berjisim M bergerak dengan halaju u, dan berlanggar secara elastik dengan objek
lain berjisim m yang berada dalam keadaan rehat. Selepas perlanggaran, M dan m bergerak masing-
masing dengan halaju v
1
dan v
2
.
(i) Tuliskan persamaan untuk menunjukkan keabadian tenaga kinetik dan keabadian
momentum linear. [2 markah]
(ii) Dengan menggunakan persamaan dalam (b)(i), dapatkan satu perhubungan antara u, v
1
,
dan v
2
. [3 markah]
(iii) Tentukan syarat yang diperlukan bagi objek berjisim M itu untuk berhenti selepas
perlanggaran. [3 markah]
(iv) Jika M = 40.0 g, m = 60.0 g, dan u = 8.0 m s
1
, hitung peratusan perubahan tenaga
kinetik objek berjisim M itu selepas perlanggaran. [3 markah]

19 (a) (i) Nyatakan hukum kegravitian semesta Newton. [2 markah]
(ii) Jelaskan mengapa daya graviti Bumi pada satu objek menyebabkan objek itu memecut
ke arah Bumi. [2 markah]
(b) Berat satu satelit dalam satu orbit bulat yang mengelilingi Bumi ialah setengah daripada
beratnya pada permukaan Bumi. Jisim satelit itu ialah 8.0 10
2
kg.
(i) Tentukan altitud orbit itu. [3 markah]
(ii) Tentukan laju satelit itu. [2 markah]
(iii) Tentukan tenaga minimum yang diperlukan oleh satelit untuk terlepas dari orbitnya ke
angkasa. [3 markah]
(iv) Jika satelit itu digantikan dengan satelit yang lain berjisim 1.6 10
3
kg, nyatakan kesan
pada jawapan anda dalam (i), (ii), dan (iii). [3 markah]











960/1

46
20 (a) (i) State the first law of thermodynamics. [2 marks]
(ii) Using the first law of thermodynamics, explain the changes due to the work done in an
isothermal expansion and an adiabatic expansion for an ideal gas. [5 marks]
(b) A pump which is used to compress air into a big tank is shown in the diagram below.









Initially the air in the pump is at atmospheric pressure 1.01 10
5
Pa and temperature 300 K. The
pump has a uniform cylindrical space of length 0.300 m, and the valve opens when the air in the pump
exceeds a pressure of 6.25 10
5
Pa. Assuming that the compression is adiabatic and that the air
behaves as a diatomic ideal gas,
(i) determine the distance for which the piston moves before the air starts to enter the tank,
[4 marks]
(ii) determine the temperature of the compressed air, [2 marks]
(iii) determine the work done by the pump to fill 50.0 mol of air into the tank. [2 marks]




























960/1
0.300 m

Valve
Piston
To tank

47
20 (a) (i) Nyatakan hukum termodinamik pertama. [2 markah]
(ii) Dengan menggunakan hukum termodinamik pertama, jelaskan perubahan yang
disebabkan oleh kerja yang dilakukan dalam pengembangan isoterma dan pengembangan adiabatik
bagi satu gas unggul. [5 markah]
(b) Satu pam yang digunakan untuk memampatkan udara ke dalam satu tangki besar ditunjukkan
dalam gambar rajah di bawah.









Pada awalnya udara di dalam pam ialah pada tekanan atmosfera 1.01 10
5
Pa dan suhu 300 K.
Pam itu mempunyai ruang silinder yang seragam dengan panjang 0.300 m, dan injap terbuka apabila
udara di dalam pam melebihi tekanan 6.25 10
5
Pa. Andaikan bahawa mampatan itu ialah mampatan
adiabatik dan udaranya bertindak sebagai satu gas unggul dwiatom,
(i) tentukan jarak pada ketika piston bergerak sebelum udara mula memasuki tangki,
[4 markah]
(ii) tentukan suhu udara yang termampat, [2 markah]
(iii) tentukan kerja yang dilakukan oleh pam untuk memenuhkan 50.0 mol udara ke dalam
tangki itu. [2 markah]

























960/1
0.300 m

Injap
Piston
Ke tangki

48
Values of constants
(Nilai Pemalar)

Acceleration of free fall (Pecutan jatuh bebas) g = 9.81 m s
2

Avogadro constant (Pemalar Avogadro) N
A
= 6.02 10
23
mol
1

Boltzmann constant (Pemalar Boltzmann) k, k
B
= 1.38 10
23
J K
1

Gravitational constant (Pemalar graviti) G = 6.67 10
11
N m
2
kg
2

Magnitude of electronic
charge
(Magnitud cas elektron) e = 1.60 10
19
C
Mass of the Earth (Jisim Bumi) M
E
= 5.97 10
24
kg
Mass of the Sun (Jisim Matahari) M
S
= 1.99 10
30
kg
Molar gas constant (Pemalar gas molar) R = 8.31 J K
1
mol
1

Permeability of free space (Ketelapan ruang bebas)
0


= 4 10
7
H m
1

Permittivity of free space (Ketelusan ruang bebas)
0


= 8.85 10
12
F m
1

=
1 9
m F 10
36
1


Plancks constant (Pemalar Planck) h = 6.63 10
34
J s
Radius of the Earth (Jejari Bumi) R
E
= 6.38 10
6
m
Radius of the Sun (Jejari Matahari) R
S
= 6.96 10
8
m
Rest mass of electron (Jisim rehat elektron)
e
m

= 9.11 10
31
kg
Rest mass of proton (Jisim rehat proton)
p
m = 1.67 10
27
kg
Speed of light in free space (Laju cahaya dalam ruang bebas) c = 3.00 10
8
m s
1

Stefan-Boltzmann constant (Pemalar Stefan-Boltzmann) =

5.67 10
8
W m
2
K
4
Unified atomic mass unit (Unit jisim atom bersatu) u = 1.66 10
27
kg


















960/1
Identity card number:.. Centre number/index number:.
(Nombor kad pengenalan) (Nombor pusat/angka giliran)
49

SPECIMEN PAPER



960/2 STPM


PHYSICS (FIZIK)

PAPER 2 (KERTAS 2)

One and a half hours (Satu jam setengah)


MAJLIS PEPERIKSAAN MALAYSIA
(MALAYSIAN EXAMINATIONS COUNCIL)


SIJIL TINGGI PERSEKOLAHAN MALAYSIA
(MALAYSIA HIGHER SCHOOL CERTIFICATE)

Instructions to candidates:
DO NOT OPEN THIS QUESTION PAPER UNTIL YOU ARE TOLD TO DO SO.
Answer all questions in Section A. Marks will not be deducted for wrong answers. For each
question, four suggested answers are given. Choose the correct answer and circle the answer.
Answer all questions in Section B. Write your answers in the spaces provided.
Answer any two questions in Section C. All essential working should be shown. For numerical
answers, unit should be quoted wherever appropriate. Begin each answer on a fresh sheet of paper
and arrange your answers in numerical order.
Values of constants are provided on page in this question paper.

Arahan kepada calon:
JANGAN BUKA KERTAS SOALAN INI SEHINGGA ANDA DIBENARKAN BERBUAT
DEMIKIAN.
Jawab semua soalan dalam Bahagian A. Markah tidak akan ditolak bagi jawapan yang salah.
Bagi setiap soalan, empat cadangan jawapan diberikan. Pilih jawapan yang betul dan buat bulatan
pada jawapan tersebut.
Jawab semua soalan dalam Bahagian B. Tulis jawapan anda di ruang yang disediakan.
Jawab mana-mana dua soalan dalam Bahagian C. Semua jalan kerja yang sesuai hendaklah
ditunjukkan. Bagi jawapan berangka, unit hendaklah dinyatakan di mana-mana yang sesuai.
Mulakan setiap jawapan pada helaian kertas jawapan yang baharu dan susun jawapan anda
mengikut tertib berangka.
Nilai pemalar dibekalkan pada halaman kertas soalan ini.

This question paper consists of printed pages and blank page.
(Kertas soalan ini terdiri daripada halaman bercetak dan halaman kosong.)
Majlis Peperiksaan Malaysia
STPM 960/2

50
Section A [15 marks]

Answer all questions in this section.

1 A Gaussian surface encloses a charge of 2.0 C in vacuum. What is the electric flux through the
surface?
A 1.8 10
17
V m
B 4.4 10
6
V m
C 1.8 10
4
V m
D 2.3 10
5
V m

2 Which statement is not true of an isolated charged conducting sphere?
A Electric field exists inside the conductor.
B The potential in the conductor is constant.
C The charge distribution on the conductor is uniform.
D The charge is distributed only on the surface of the conductor.

3 The space between the plates of a parallel-plate capacitor needs to be completely filled by a
dielectric material to increase its capacitance. Which will give the highest capacitance?
Dielectric material Permittivity Thickness
A Teflon 2
0
0.4 mm
B Quartz 3
0
0.8 mm
C Glass 4
0
1.0 mm
D Mica 5
0
1.2 mm























960/2

51
Bahagian A [15 markah]

Jawab semua soalan dalam bahagian ini.

1 Satu permukaan Gauss mengurungi cas 2.0 C dalam vakum. Berapakah fluks elektrik menerusi
permukaan itu?
A 1.8 10
17
V m
B 4.4 10
6
V m
C 1.8 10
4
V m
D 2.3 10
5
V m

2 Penyataan yang manakah yang tidak benar tentang cas terpencil sfera pengkonduksi?
A Medan elektrik wujud di dalam konduktor.
B Keupayaan di dalam konduktor adalah malar.
C Taburan cas pada konduktor adalah seragam.
D Cas ditaburkan hanya pada permukaan konduktor.

3 Ruang di antara plat-plat satu kapasitor plat selari perlu dipenuhkan selengkapnya dengan bahan
dielektrik untuk meningkatkan nilai kapasitans. Yang manakah yang akan memberikan kapasitans
yang paling tinggi?
Bahan dielektrik Ketelusan Ketebalan
A Teflon 2
0
0.4 mm
B Kuartz 3
0
0.8 mm
C Kaca 4
0
1.0 mm
D Mika 5
0
1.2 mm






















960/2

52
4 A switch S connected to terminal 1 at time t = 0 is shown in the circuit diagram below.



When the voltmeter reading has reached V
0
at time t = T, the switch S is flipped to terminal 2.
Which graph shows the correct variation of voltmeter reading V with time t?








5 The equation which relates the electrical conductivity of the material of a conductor with other
quantities is
2
,
ne t
m
= where n, e and m are symbols with the usual meaning. t in the equation
represents
A the thickness of the conductor
B the mean distance between adjacent atoms in the conductor
C the mean time between the collisions of free electrons with lattice ions
D the mean time for a free electron to move from one end to the other end of the conductor


960/2
S S

53
4 Satu suis S yang disambungkan ke terminal 1 pada masa t = 0 ditunjukkan dalam gambar rajah
litar di bawah.



Apabila bacaan voltmeter telah mencapai V
0
pada masa

t = T, suis S ditukar ke terminal 2. Graf
yang manakah yang menunjukkan dengan betul ubahan bacaan voltmeter V dengan masa t?







5 Persamaan yang mengaitkan kekonduksian elektrik bahan suatu konduktor dengan kuantiti-
kuantiti lain ialah
2
,
ne t
m
= dengan n, e, dan m adalah simbol yang membawa makna yang biasa. t
dalam persamaan itu mewakili
A ketebalan konduktor itu
B min jarak antara atom-atom bersebelahan dalam konduktor itu
C min masa antara perlanggaran elektron bebas dengan ion kekisi
D min masa bagi satu elektron bebas untuk bergerak dari satu hujung konduktor ke hujung yang
lain

960/2
S

54
6 When a potential difference V is applied across two ends of a copper wire with diameter d and
length L, the drift velocity of the electrons is v. If a copper wire of diameter
2
d
and length
4
L
with
potential difference of 2V applied across the two ends, the drift velocity, in terms of v, is
A v B 2v C 4v D 8v

7 A cell of e.m.f. connected to three identical bulbs R, S and T and a rheostat XY is shown in the
circuit diagram below.



If the contact P of the rheostat is adjusted towards Y, which statement is true of the changes in the
brightness of the three bulbs?
A R, S and T become brighter.
B R and T become brighter, but S becomes dimmer.
C R becomes brighter, but S and T become dimmer.
D R and S become brighter, but T becomes dimmer.

8 A potentiometer with a 100 cm wire XY is shown in the circuit diagram below.


E is a dry cell of e.m.f. 1.5 V and internal resistance 0.50 . R is a resistor of 2.0 . When switch
K is open, the balance point P from X is 75 cm. When switch K is closed, the new balance point from
X is
A 30 cm B 40 cm C 60 cm D 75 cm






960/2

S
R
P
X
Y
T
X
P
Y
K

55
6 Apabila beza keupayaan V dikenakan merentas dua hujung satu dawai kuprum dengan garis pusat
d dan panjang L, halaju hanyut elektron ialah v. Jika satu dawai kuprum bergaris pusat
2
d
dan panjang
4
L
dengan beza keupayaan 2V dikenakan merentas dua hujung, halaju hanyut, dalam sebutan v, ialah
A v B 2v C 4v D 8v

7 Satu sel dengan d.g.e disambungkan ke tiga mentol R, S, dan T yang seiras dan satu reostat XY
ditunjukkan dalam gambar rajah litar di bawah.



Jika sesentuh P reostat dilaraskan ke arah Y, penyataan yang manakah yang benar tentang
perubahan kecerahan tiga mentol itu?
A R, S, dan T menjadi lebih cerah.
B R dan T menjadi lebih cerah, tetapi S menjadi malap.
C R menjadi lebih cerah, tetapi S dan T menjadi malap.
D R dan S menjadi lebih cerah, tetapi T menjadi malap.

8 Satu potentiometer dengan 100 cm dawai XY ditunjukkan dalam gambar rajah litar di bawah.



E ialah sel kering dengan d.g.e. 1.5 V dan rintangan dalam 0.50 . R ialah perintang 2.0 .
Apabila suis K dibuka, titik seimbang P daripada X ialah 75 cm. Apabila suis K ditutup, titik
seimbang daripada X yang baharu ialah
A 30 cm B 40 cm C 60 cm D 75 cm




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S
R
P
X
Y
T
X
P
Y
K

56
9 An electron moves into a uniform magnetic field with a certain velocity. If the velocity of the
electron is in the same direction as the magnetic field,
A the electron accelerates
B the electron decelerates
C the electron continues to move with its original velocity
D the electron is deflected and moves in a circle at constant speed

10 Four parallel wires passing through the four vertices of a square WXYZ is shown in the diagram
below.

These wires carry currents of equal magnitude in the directions shown. The resultant magnetic
field at the centre O of the square is in the direction of
A OM

B ON

C OP

D OQ



11 Which statement is true of Hall effect?
A The Hall voltage for ordinary metal is a few volts.
B Hall effect can be used to determine the type of charge carrier.
C The Hall voltage is not dependent on the dimensions of the material.
D The electric force by the Hall voltage on the charge carriers exceeds the magnetic force.

12 A circular coil is placed in a uniform magnetic field. Which quantity does not influence the
magnitude of the charge flow in the coil when the coil is pulled out from the magnetic field?
A Area of the coil
B Resistance of the coil
C Magnetic flux density
D The time taken to pull the coil out from the magnetic field












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P
W
M
X
Q
O
Z N
Y

57
9 Satu elektron bergerak masuk ke dalam medan magnet seragam dengan satu halaju tertentu. Jika
halaju elektron itu adalah searah dengan medan magnet,
A elektron itu memecut
B elektron itu nyahpecutan
C elektron itu terus bergerak dengan halaju asal
D elektron itu dipesongkan dan bergerak dalam satu bulatan dengan laju malar

10 Empat dawai selari yang melalui empat bucu satu segi empat sama WXYZ ditunjukkan dalam
gambar rajah di bawah.

Dawai-dawai ini membawa arus yang sama magnitudnya mengikut arah yang ditunjukkan.
Medan magnet paduan di pusat O segi empat itu ialah dalam arah
A OM

B ON

C OP

D OQ



11 Penyataan yang manakah yang benar tentang kesan Hall?
A Voltan Hall pada logam biasa ialah beberapa volt.
B Kesan Hall dapat digunakan untuk menentukan jenis pembawa cas.
C Voltan Hall tidak bergantung pada dimensi sesuatu bahan.
D Daya elektrik oleh voltan Hall pada pembawa cas melebihi daya magnet.

12 Satu gegelung bulat diletakkan dalam medan magnet seragam. Kuantiti yang manakah yang tidak
mempengaruhi magnitud aliran cas dalam gegelung apabila gegelung itu ditarik keluar dari medan
magnet?
A Luas gegelung
B Rintangan gegelung
C Ketumpatan fluks magnet
D Masa yang diambil untuk menarik gegelung keluar dari medan magnet










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P
W
M
X
Q
O
Z N
Y

58
13 The mutual inductance M between two coils is defined by
Q
P
M = . What do P and Q represent?
P Q
A E.m.f. induced in primary coil Rate of change of current in secondary coil
B E.m.f. induced in secondary coil Rate of change of current in primary coil
C Potential difference across primary coil Potential difference across secondary coil
D Potential difference across secondary coil Potential difference across primary coil

14 An alternating current I which flows through a 5 resistor is given by I = 2 sin (50t), where I is
in amperes and t in seconds. The mean power dissipated in the resistor is
A 5 W B 10 W C 20 W D 50 W

15 An R-C circuit is shown in the diagram below.










The r.m.s. voltage across R and C are 10 V and 7 V respectively. What is the r.m.s. voltage of the
source?
A 3 V B 12 V C 17 V D 24 V
























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R C

59
13 Induktan saling M antara dua gegelung ditakrifkan sebagai
Q
P
M = . Apakah yang mewakili P
dan Q?
P Q
A D.g.e. teraruh dalam gegelung primer Kadar perubahan arus dalam gegelung
sekunder
B D.g.e. teraruh dalam gegelung sekunder Kadar perubahan arus dalam gegelung
primer
C Beza keupayaan merentas gegelung primer Beza keupayaan merentas gegelung
sekunder
D Beza keupayaan merentas gegelung sekunder Beza keupayaan merentas gegelung primer

14 Arus ulang-alik I yang mengalir melalui satu perintang 5 diberikan sebagai I = 2 sin (50t),
dengan I dalam ampere dan t dalam saat. Min kuasa yang terlesap dalam perintang ialah
A 5 W B 10 W C 20 W D 50 W

15 Satu litar R-C ditunjukkan dalam gambar rajah di bawah.










Voltan p.m.k.d. merentas R dan C ialah masing-masing 10 V dan 7 V. Berapakah voltan p.m.k.d.
sumber itu?
A 3 V B 12 V C 17 V D 24 V




















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R C

60
Section B [15 marks]

Answer all questions in this section.

16 Two thin conducting plates have an area of 0.50 m
2
each. They are placed parallel to each other
and 25 mm apart. One plate is maintained at +75 V while the other at 75 V by a d.c. supply.
(a) Define capacitance of a capacitor. [1 mark]



(b) Determine the amount of charge stored on each plate. [4 marks]






(c) Calculate the energy stored in the electric field between the plates. [2 marks]






17 (a) State Kirchhoffs laws. [2 marks]





(b) Cell X of e.m.f. 3.0 V with internal resistance 1.0 and cell Y of e.m.f. 3.0 V with internal
resistance 2.0 are connected as shown in the circuit diagram below.









(i) Calculate current I
1
and I
2
. [4 marks]



(ii) Determine the potential different between P and Q. [2 marks]




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P
5.0
Q
I
1
I
2

X Y
I
3.0

61
Bahagian B [15 markah]

Jawab semua soalan dalam bahagian ini.

16 Dua plat pengkonduksi nipis tiap-tiap satu mempunyai luas 0.50 m
2
. Plat-plat itu diletakkan selari
antara satu sama lain dan terpisah sejauh 25 mm. Satu plat dikekalkan pada +75 V manakala plat
yang satu lagi pada 75 V oleh satu bekalan a.t.
(a) Takrifkan kapasitans satu kapasitor. [1 markah]



(b) Tentukan amaun cas yang tersimpan pada setiap plat. [4 markah]






(c) Hitung tenaga yang tersimpan dalam medan elektrik di antara plat-plat itu. [2 markah]






17 (a) Nyatakan hukum Kirchhoff. [2 markah]





(b) Sel X mempunyai d.g.e. 3.0 V dengan rintangan dalam 1.0 dan sel Y mempunyai d.g.e.
3.0 V dengan rintangan dalam 2.0 disambungkan seperti ditunjukkan dalam gambar rajah litar
di bawah.









(i) Hitung arus I
1
dan I
2
. [4 markah]




(ii) Tentukan beza keupayaan antara P dengan Q. [2 markah]



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P
5.0
Q
I
1
I
2

X Y
I
3.0

62
Section C [30 marks]

Answer any two questions in this section.

18 (a) Two fixed spherical conductors X and Y which is separated by a distance of 0.50 m is shown
in the diagram below.







Conductor X has a radius 0.15 cm and charge +3.0 C. Conductor Y has a radius of 0.30 cm and
charge 0.20 C.
(i) Calculate the force between the two spheres. [3 marks]
(ii) The two spheres are then connected with a thin wire. The wire is then removed from
the spheres. Calculate the charge on each sphere. [5 marks]
(b) (i) Using Gausss law, explain why a person inside a hollow metallic sphere of radius R
maintained at a high electric potential does not experience an electric shock. [4 marks]
(ii) Sketch a graph of electric field E against distance r for r < R and r > R for the situation
in (b)(i). [4 marks]

19 (a) Explain microscopically why
(i) metal becomes hot when an electric current flows through it, [2 marks]
(ii) the resistivity of a metal increases while the resistivity of a semiconductor decreases
when the temperature rises. [4 marks]

(b) A current of 5.0 A flows in a wire of length 1.50 m and cross-sectional area 1.2 mm
2
. The
potential difference is 6.0 V.
(i) Determine the power dissipated in the wire. [3 marks]
(ii) Determine the drift velocity of free electrons if the electron density is
1.5 10
28
m
3
. [3 marks]
(iii) Calculate the force experienced by a free electron if all the power dissipated in the wire
is used to drift the free electrons. [3 marks]














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0.50 m
+3.0 C
2.0 C
X
Y

63
Bahagian C [30 markah]

Jawab mana-mana dua soalan dalam bahagian ini.

18 (a) Dua konduktor sfera yang ditetapkan X dan Y yang dipisahkan oleh satu jarak 0.50 m
ditunjukkan dalam gambar rajah di bawah.







Konduktor X mempunyai jejari 0.15 cm dan cas +3.0 C. Konduktor Y mempunyai jejari 0.30
cm dan cas 0.20 C.
(i) Hitung daya di antara dua sfera itu. [3 markah]
(ii) Dua sfera itu kemudiannya dihubungkan dengan satu dawai nipis. Dawai itu
kemudiannya ditanggalkan dari sfera-sfera itu. Hitung cas pada setiap sfera. [5 markah]
(b) (i) Dengan menggunakan hukum Gauss, jelaskan mengapa seseorang di dalam satu sfera
logam lompang berjejari R dikekalkan pada suatu keupayaan elektrik yang tinggi tidak mengalami
renjatan elektrik. [4 markah]
(ii) Lakar satu graf medan elektrik E lawan jarak r untuk r < R dan r > R bagi situasi dalam
(b)(i). [4 markah]

19 (a) Jelaskan secara mikroskopik mengapa
(i) logam menjadi panas apabila arus elektrik mengalir melaluinya, [2 markah]
(ii) kerintangan satu logam bertambah manakala kerintangan satu semikonduktor berkurang
apabila suhu meningkat. [4 markah]

(b) Satu arus 5.0 A mengalir dalam satu dawai yang panjang 1.50 m dan luas keratan rentas
1.2 mm
2
. Beza keupayaan ialah 6.0 V.
(i) Tentukan kuasa terlesap dalam dawai itu. [3 markah]
(ii) Tentukan halaju hanyut elektron bebas jika ketumpatan elektron ialah 1.5 10
28
m
3
.
[3 markah]
(iii) Hitung daya yang dialami oleh satu elektron bebas jika semua kuasa yang terlesap
dalam dawai itu digunakan untuk menghanyutkan elektron bebas itu. [3 markah]













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0.50 m
+3.0 C
2.0 C
X
Y

64
20 (a) (i) Define magnetic flux density, and state its unit. [3 marks]
(ii) State two differences between the force due to electric field and the force due to
magnetic field on a charged particle. [2 marks]
(iii) State Amperes law, and use it to derive the magnetic field of a long straight wire.
[4 marks]

(b) A long fixed horizontal wire PQ carries current 80.0 A in the direction QP as shown in the
diagram below.





A copper wire RS of diameter 0.40 mm having the same length of PQ hanging horizontally
0.15 m below PQ on two light strings. An e.m.f. source is connected across terminals R and S. If the
density of copper is 8930 kg m
3
, determine the minimum current and its direction needed to flow
through RS so that the tension in the strings is zero. [6 marks]





























960/2
String
0.15m
80.0A 80.0A
P Q
R S

65
20 (a) (i) Takrifkan ketumpatan magnetik fluks, dan nyatakan unitnya. [3 markah]
(ii) Nyatakan dua perbezaan antara daya yang disebabkan oleh medan elektrik dengan daya
yang disebabkan oleh medan magnet pada satu zarah bercas. [2 markah]
(iii) Nyatakan hukum Ampere, dan gunakan hukum Ampere untuk terbitkan medan magnet
satu dawai lurus yang panjang. [4 markah]

(b) Satu dawai panjang mengufuk yang tetap PQ membawa arus 80.0 A dalam arah QP seperti
ditunjukkan dalam gambar rajah di bawah.






Satu dawai kuprum RS bergaris pusat 0.40 mm mempunyai panjang yang sama dengan PQ
tergantung secara mengufuk 0.15 m di bawah PQ pada dua tali ringan. Satu sumber d.g.e. disambung
merentas terminal R dan S. Jika ketumpatan kuprum ialah 8930 kg m
3
,

tentukan arus minimum dan
arah yang diperlukannya untuk mengalir melalui RS supaya tegangan dalam tali adalah sifar.
[6 markah]
































960/2
Tali
0.15m
80.0 A 80.0 A
P Q
R S

66
Values of constants
(Nilai Pemalar)

Acceleration of free fall (Pecutan jatuh bebas) g = 9.81 m s
2

Avogadro constant (Pemalar Avogadro) N
A
= 6.02 10
23
mol
1

Boltzmann constant (Pemalar Boltzmann) k, k
B
= 1.38 10
23
J K
1

Gravitational constant (Pemalar graviti) G = 6.67 10
11
N m
2
kg
2

Magnitude of electronic
charge
(Magnitud cas elektron) e = 1.60 10
19
C
Mass of the Earth (Jisim Bumi) M
E
= 5.97 10
24
kg
Mass of the Sun (Jisim Matahari) M
S
= 1.99 10
30
kg
Molar gas constant (Pemalar gas molar) R = 8.31 J K
1
mol
1

Permeability of free space (Ketelapan ruang bebas)
0


= 4 10
7
H m
1

Permittivity of free space (Ketelusan ruang bebas)
0


= 8.85 10
12
F m
1

=
1 9
m F 10
36
1


Plancks constant (Pemalar Planck) h = 6.63 10
34
J s
Radius of the Earth (Jejari Bumi) R
E
= 6.38 10
6
m
Radius of the Sun (Jejari Matahari) R
S
= 6.96 10
8
m
Rest mass of electron (Jisim rehat elektron)
e
m

= 9.11 10
31
kg
Rest mass of proton (Jisim rehat proton)
p
m = 1.67 10
27
kg
Speed of light in free space (Laju cahaya dalam ruang bebas) c = 3.00 10
8
m s
1

Stefan-Boltzmann constant (Pemalar Stefan-Boltzmann) =

5.67 10
8
W m
2
K
4
Unified atomic mass unit (Unit jisim atom bersatu) u = 1.66 10
27
kg


















960/2
Identity card number:.. Centre number/index number:.
(Nombor kad pengenalan) (Nombor pusat/angka giliran)
67

SPECIMEN PAPER



960/3 STPM


PHYSICS (FIZIK)

PAPER 3 (KERTAS 3)

One and a half hours (Satu jam setengah)


MAJLIS PEPERIKSAAN MALAYSIA
(MALAYSIAN EXAMINATIONS COUNCIL)


SIJIL TINGGI PERSEKOLAHAN MALAYSIA
(MALAYSIA HIGHER SCHOOL CERTIFICATE)

Instructions to candidates:
DO NOT OPEN THIS QUESTION PAPER UNTIL YOU ARE TOLD TO DO SO.
Answer all questions in Section A. Marks will not be deducted for wrong answers. For each
question, four suggested answers are given. Choose the correct answer and circle the answer.
Answer all questions in Section B. Write your answers in the spaces provided.
Answer any two questions in Section C. All essential working should be shown. For numerical
answers, unit should be quoted wherever appropriate. Begin each answer on a fresh sheet of paper
and arrange your answers in numerical order.
Values of constants are provided on page in this question paper.

Arahan kepada calon:
JANGAN BUKA KERTAS SOALAN INI SEHINGGA ANDA DIBENARKAN BERBUAT
DEMIKIAN.
Jawab semua soalan dalam Bahagian A. Markah tidak akan ditolak bagi jawapan yang salah.
Bagi setiap soalan, empat cadangan jawapan diberikan. Pilih jawapan yang betul dan buat bulatan
pada jawapan tersebut.
Jawab semua soalan dalam Bahagian B. Tulis jawapan anda di ruang yang disediakan.
Jawab mana-mana dua soalan dalam Bahagian C. Semua jalan kerja yang sesuai hendaklah
ditunjukkan. Bagi jawapan berangka, unit hendaklah dinyatakan di mana-mana yang sesuai.
Mulakan setiap jawapan pada helaian kertas jawapan yang baharu dan susun jawapan anda
mengikut tertib berangka.
Nilai pemalar dibekalkan pada halaman kertas soalan ini.

This question paper consists of printed pages and blank page.
(Kertas soalan ini terdiri daripada halaman bercetak dan halaman kosong.)
Majlis Peperiksaan Malaysia
STPM 960/3

68
Section A [15 marks]

Answer all questions in this section.

1 A particle of mass m performs a simple harmonic motion with amplitude A and frequency f. The
total energy of this simple harmonic motion is
A
2
1
mA
2
f
2
B 2mA
2
f
2
C 2
2
mA
2
f
2
D 4
2
mA
2
f
2


2 A spring-mass system experiences critical damping. Which graph represents the variation of the
displacement s with time t of the motion of the mass?



3 The oscillations of the particles between consecutive nodes of a standing wave have the same
A amplitude
B phase
C maximum velocity
D energy

4 Which statement is not true of an electromagnetic wave?
A It is a transverse wave.
B The expression for its speed is .
0 0

C It consists of vibrations in magnetic and electric fields.
D It can be polarised.


960/3

69
Bahagian A [15 markah]

Jawab semua soalan dalam bahagian ini.

1 Satu zarah berjisim m melakukan gerakan harmonik ringkas dengan amplitud A dan frekuensi f.
Jumlah tenaga gerakan harmonik ringkas ini ialah
A
2
1
mA
2
f
2
B 2mA
2
f
2
C 2
2
mA
2
f
2
D 4
2
mA
2
f
2


2 Satu sistem jisim-spring mengalami pelembapan genting. Graf yang manakah yang mewakili
ubahan sesaran s dengan masa t bagi gerakan jisim itu?



3 Ayunan satu zarah antara nod berturutan satu gelombang pegun mempunyai sama
A amplitud
B fasa
C halaju maksimum
D tenaga

4 Penyataan yang manakah yang tidak benar tentang gelombang elektromagnet?
A Merupakan gelombang melintang.
B Ungkapan bagi laju ialah .
0 0

C Terdiri daripada getaran dalam medan magnet dan medan elektrik.
D Boleh dikutubkan.


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70
5 If the level of intensity of a sound is raised by 10 dB, what is the ratio of the new sound intensity
to the original sound intensity?
A 0.1 B 1 C 10 D 10
10


6 A guitar wire is 0.80 m long and of mass 5.0 g. If its frequency of fundamental mode of vibration
is 100 Hz, its tension is
A 40 N B 128 N C 160 N D 200 N

7 Two thin lenses L
1
and L
2
which are placed coaxially at a distance 30 cm apart is shown in the
diagram below.


Each lens has a focal length of 40 cm. If the incident rays to L
1
are parallel, the final image which
is produced after the rays pass through lenses L
1
and L
2
is
A real and located between L
1
and L
2

B virtual and located between L
1
and L
2

C real and located on the right side of L
2

D virtual and located on the left side of L
1


8 A concave mirror produces a virtual image at a distance 60 cm from the mirror. The height of the
image is three times the height of the object. What is the focal length of the concave mirror?
A 10 cm B 20 cm C 30 cm D 40 cm

9 The resolving power of an aperture can be increased by using
A an aperture of smaller diameter
B light with higher frequency
C light with longer wavelength
D light with higher intensity








960/3
L
1
L
2


71
5 Jika paras keamatan satu bunyi dinaikkan sebanyak 10 dB, berapakah nisbah keamatan bunyi
baharu itu kepada keamatan bunyi asal?
A 0.1 B 1 C 10 D 10
10


6 Seutas dawai gitar panjangnya 0.80 m dan berjisim 5.0 g. Jika frekuensi getaran mod asasnya
ialah 100 Hz, tegangannya ialah
A 40 N B 128 N C 160 N D 200 N

7 Dua kanta nipis L
1
and L
2
yang diletakkan sepaksi pada jarak 30 cm di antara satu sama lain
ditunjukkan dalam gambar rajah di bawah.


Setiap kanta mempunyai jarak fokus 40 cm. Jika sinar tuju ke L
1
adalah selari, imej akhir yang
terhasil selepas sinar melalui kanta L
1
dan L
2
adalah
A nyata dan terletak di antara L
1
dengan L
2

B maya dan terletak di antara L
1
dengan L
2

C nyata dan terletak di sebelah kanan L
2

D maya dan terletak di sebelah kiri L
1


8 Satu cermin cekung menghasilkan satu imej maya pada jarak 60 cm dari cermin. Tinggi imej ialah
tiga kali daripada tinggi objek itu. Berapakah panjang fokus cermin cekung itu?
A 10 cm B 20 cm C 30 cm D 40 cm

9 Kuasa pembezaan jelas satu bukaan boleh ditingkatkan dengan menggunakan
A bukaan garis pusat yang lebih kecil
B cahaya dengan frekuensi yang lebih tinggi
C cahaya dengan panjang gelombang yang lebih panjang
D cahaya dengan keamatan yang lebih tinggi











960/3
L
1
L
2


72
10 Which statement is not true of multimode step index optical fibres?
A The refractive index of the cladding layer is greater than that of the core index.
B The refractive index of the cladding layer is smaller than that of the core index.
C Total internal reflections occur at core-cladding boundaries.
D All wavelengths arrive at the other end of the fibre at different times.

11 When light with wavelength 300 nm incidents on the surface of a metal, photoelectrons with
maximum kinetic energy 2.0 eV are emitted from the surface of the metal. What is the maximum
wavelength for the light which can cause this emission of photoelectrons from the surface of the
metal?
A 200 nm B 600 nm C 650 nm D 880 nm

12 The characteristic lines in an X-ray spectrum is caused by
A deceleration of the energetic incident electrons while they approach the target
B collision of energetic incident electrons with the target atoms
C release of energy when the target atoms undergo ionisation
D transitions of electrons between innermost shells of the target atom

13 Nanoscience is generally known as the study on systems with
A sizes less than one nanometer
B sizes from one to one hundred nanometres
C mass of one to one hundred nanograms
D interaction time of one to one hundred nanoseconds

14 The binding energy per nucleon is
A almost constant when the nucleon number is between 60 and 80
B directly proportional to the nucleon number
C maximum when the nucleon number is between 1 to 20
D maximum when the nucleon number is between 220 to 240

15 The count rate of a radioactive sample was originally 208 s
1
as recorded by a detector. Four
minutes later, the count rate had decreased to 40 s
1
. The average background count was found to be
16 s
1
. What is the half-life of the radioactive sample?
A 30 s B 40 s C 60 s D 80 s











960/3

73
10 Penyataan yang manakah yang tidak benar tentang gentian optik multimod indeks berperingkat?
A Indeks biasan lapisan salutan adalah lebih besar daripada indeks teras lapisan salutan.
B Indeks biasan lapisan salutan adalah lebih kecil daripada indeks teras lapisan salutan.
C Jumlah pesongan dalaman berlaku pada sempadan salutan teras.
D Semua panjang gelombang sampai di hujung yang lain gentian pada masa yang berbeza.

11 Apabila cahaya dengan panjang gelombang 300 nm tuju pada permukaan satu logam, fotoelektron
dengan tenaga kinetik maksimum 2.0 eV dipancarkan dari permukaan logam itu. Berapakah panjang
gelombang maksimum cahaya yang boleh menyebabkan pancaran fotoelektron ini dari permukaan
logam itu?
A 200 nm B 600 nm C 650 nm D 880 nm

12 Garis cirian dalam spektrum X-ray disebabkan oleh
A nyahpecutan elektron tuju yang bertenaga semasa menghampiri sasaran
B perlanggaran elektron tuju yang bertenaga dengan atom sasaran
C pembebasan tenaga apabila atom sasaran mengalami pengionan
D peralihan elektron di antara petala-petala yang paling dalam atom sasaran

13 Nanosains secara umumnya dikenali sebagai kajian terhadap sistem dengan
A saiz yang kurang daripada satu nanometer
B saiz daripada satu nanometer hingga seratus nanometer
C jisim satu nanogram hingga seratus nanogram
D interaksi masa satu nanosaat hingga seratus nanosaat

14 Tenaga pengikat per nukleon ialah
A hampir malar apabila nombor nukleon adalah di antara 60 dengan 80
B berkadar terus kepada nombor nukleon
C maksimum apabila nombor nukleon adalah di antara 1 hingga 20
D maksimum apabila nombor nukleon adalah di antara 220 hingga 240

15 Kadar bilang satu sampel radioaktif pada asalnya 208 s
1
seperti yang tercatat oleh satu pengesan.
Empat minit kemudian, kadar bilang telah berkurang kepada 40 s
1
. Purata kadar bilang latar belakang
didapati menjadi 16 s
1
. Berapakah setengah hayat sampel radioaktif itu?
A 30 s B 40 s C 60 s D 80 s











960/3

74
Section B [15 marks]

Answer all questions in this section.

16 A body of mass 2.0 kg moves in simple harmonic motion. The displacement x from the
equilibrium position at time t is given by 6.0cos0.22 x t = , where x is in metres and t in seconds.
(a) Determine is the amplitude and the period of the simple harmonic motion. [3 marks]





(b) Calculate the maximum acceleration of the motion. [2 marks]





(c) Calculate the kinetic energy of the body at time t = 3 seconds. [3 marks]







17 In an electron diffraction experiment, an electron beam which is accelerated on a potential
difference is incident normally on a very thin gold film. Several circular diffraction rings are seen on a
photographic film.
(a) If the voltage at the anode is increased, what happens to the circular rings? [1 mark]

....................................................................................................................................................................

(b) If a particular ring of radius R is chosen and different values of accelerating voltage V are
recorded, sketch a graph of R against
1
V
. Deduce that the experiment is in agreement with de
Broglies hypothesis. [6 marks]















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75
Bahagian B [15 markah]

Jawab semua soalan dalam bahagian ini.

16 Satu jasad berjisim 2.0 kg bergerak dalam gerakan harmonik ringkas. Sesaran x daripada
kedudukan keseimbangan pada masa t berikan oleh 6.0cos0.22 x t = , dengan x dalam meter dan t
dalam saat.
(a) Tentukan amplitud dan tempoh gerakan harmonik ringkas itu? [3 markah]





(b) Hitung pecutan maksimum gerakan itu. [2 markah]





(c) Hitung tenaga kinetik jasad itu pada masa t = 3 saat. [3 markah]







17 Dalam satu uji kaji belauan elektron, satu alur elektron yang dipecutkan pada satu beza keupayaan
menuju secara normal pada satu filem emas yang sangat nipis. Beberapa gelang belauan bulat dilihat
pada satu filem fotograf.
(a) Jika voltan pada anod ditingkatkan, apakah yang terjadi pada gelang bulat itu? [1 markah]

....................................................................................................................................................................

(b) Jika satu gelang tertentu yang berjejari R dipilih dan nilai berbeza voltan pecutan V
direkodkan, lakar graf R lawan
1
V
. Deduksikan bahawa uji kaji itu bersetuju dengan hipotesis de
Broglie. [6 markah]














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76
Section C [30 marks]

Answer any two questions in this section.

18 (a) The displacement y at distance x and time t of a sound wave propagating in air can be
represented by
y = 7.5 10
4
sin (315t 1.05x),
where x and y are in metres and t in seconds.
(i) Sketch, on the same axes, graphs of y against x at times t = 0 and t =
4
T
, where T is the
period of the wave. [2 marks]
(ii) Determine the velocity and the frequency of the wave. [4 marks]
(iii) Calculate the phase difference between the origin and a point 2.0 m from it. [3 marks]

(b) (i) What is meant by Doppler effect? [2 marks]
(ii) Describe the principle of Doppler radar used by the police to determine the speed of an
automobile. [4 marks]


































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77
Bahagian C [30 markah]

Jawab mana-mana dua soalan dalam bahagian ini.

18 (a) Sesaran y pada jarak x dan masa t suatu gelombang bunyi yang merambat di udara boleh
diwakili oleh
y = 7.5 10
4
sin (315t 1.05x),
dengan x dan y dalam meter dan t dalam saat.
(i) Lakar, pada paksi yang sama, graf y lawan x pada masa t = 0 dan t =
4
T
, dengan T kala
gelombang itu. [2 markah]
(ii) Tentukan halaju dan frekuensi gelombang itu. [4 markah]
(iii) Hitung beza fasa di antara asalan dengan satu titik 2.0 m dari asalan. [3 markah]

(b) (i) Apakah yang dimaksudkan dengan kesan Doppler? [2 markah]
(ii) Perihalkan prinsip radar Doppler yang digunakan oleh polis untuk menentukan laju
sesebuah kenderaan. [4 markah]


































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78
19 (a) (i) State the principle of superposition. [2 marks]
(ii) Explain the conditions needed to obtain a well-defined interference pattern. [4 marks]

(b) The set-up for a Youngs double slit experiment is shown in the diagram below.


The fringe pattern observed has fringe separation of 1.6 mm.
(i) If
a
D
is 2500, calculate the wavelength of the red light that passes through the filter.
[2 marks]
(ii) A blue filter is inserted to replace the red filter. Suggest what can be done to the set-up
to obtain the fringe pattern of the same fringe separation as in (b)(i). [2 marks]
(iii) If a thin sheet of mica with refractive index 1.58 is placed in front of the upper slit,
explain the changes occurred to the fringe pattern. [2 marks]
(iv) Given that the thickness of mica in (b)(iii) is 6.64 m, calculate the shift of fringe
pattern using
a
D
= 2500 and = 450 nm. [3 marks]















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a
Red
filter
D
Screen
Light
source

79
19 (a) (i) Nyatakan prinsip superposisi. [2 markah]
(ii) Jelaskan syarat yang diperlukan untuk memperoleh satu corak interferen yang jelas.
[4 markah]

(b) Susunan bagi satu uji kaji dua celah Young ditunjukkan dalam gambar rajah di bawah.


Corak pinggir yang dicerap mempunyai pemisahan pinggir 1.6 mm.
(i) Jika
a
D
ialah 2500, hitung panjang gelombang cahaya merah yang melepasi melalui
penapis itu. [2 markah]
(ii) Satu penapis biru dimasukkan untuk menggantikan penapis merah itu. Cadangkan
apakah yang boleh dibuat kepada susunan untuk memperoleh corak pinggir dengan pemisahan pinggir
sama seperti dalam (b)(i). [2 markah]
(iii) Jika satu keping mika yang nipis dengan indeks biasan 1.58 diletakkan di hadapan
celah atas, jelaskan perubahan yang berlaku pada corak pinggir itu. [2 markah]
(iv) Diberikan bahawa tebal mika dalam (b)(iii) ialah 6.64 m, hitung anjakan corak
pinggir menggunakan
a
D
= 2500 dan = 450 nm. [3 markah]













960/3
a
Penapis
merah D
Tabir
Sumber
cahaya

80
20 (a) (i) Explain nuclear fusion reaction. [2 marks]
(ii) State the conditions for nuclear fusion. [2 marks]

(b) Solar energy is produced by fusion reactions in the Sun. One of the fusion processes is known
as proton-proton cycle which involves reactions as shown below.

Reaction 1:
1
0
1
2
1
1
1
1
1
H H H Q + + +
Reaction 2:
2
3
2
1
1
2
1
He H H Q + +
Reaction 3: 3
1
1
4
2
3
2
3
2
H 2 He He He Q + + +

Q
1
, Q
2
and Q
3
are energies released.
(i) Determine Q
1
, in Joules, released in Reaction 1. [3 marks]
(ii) Determine the number of protons required to form a helium nucleus He
4
2
in the above
continuous reactions. [2 marks]
(iii) Determine the total energy, in Joules, released in forming a helium nucleus He
4
2
.
[2 marks]
(iv) The Sun radiates 4.0 10
26
W at a constant rate and the total mass of protons in the Sun
is 2.0 10
30
kg. Determine the approximate life span of the Sun if it radiates energy by the proton-
proton cycle reaction. [4 marks]
[Atomic mass of
1
1
H is 1.00728 u, atomic mass of
2
1
H is 2.01355 u, atomic mass of
0
1
is
0.00055 u and atomic mass of
4
2
He is 4.00150 u.]
























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81
20 (a) (i) Jelaskan tindak balas pelakuran nuklear. [2 markah]
(ii) Nyatakan syarat bagi pelakuran nuklear. [2 markah]

(b) Tenaga suria dihasilkan oleh tindak balas pelakuran dalam Matahari. Satu daripada proses
pelakuran dikenal sebagai kitar proton-proton yang melibatkan tindak balas seperti yang ditunjukkan
di bawah.

Tindak balas 1:
1
0
1
2
1
1
1
1
1
H H H Q + + +
Tindak balas 2: 2
3
2
1
1
2
1
He H H Q + +
Tindak balas 3: 3
1
1
4
2
3
2
3
2
H 2 He He He Q + + +

Q
1
, Q
2
,

dan Q
3
ialah tenaga yang dibebaskan.
(i) Tentukan Q
1
, dalam Joule, yang dibebaskan oleh Tindak balas 1. [3 markah]
(ii) Tentukan nombor proton yang diperlukan untuk pembentukan satu nukleus helium
He
4
2
dalam tindak balas selanjar di atas. [2 markah]
(iii) Tentukan jumlah tenaga, dalam Joule, yang dibebaskan dalam pembentukan satu
nukleus helium He
4
2
. [2 markah]
(iv) Matahari memancarkan 4.0 10
26
W pada kadar malar dan jumlah jisim proton dalam
Matahari ialah 2.0 10
30
kg. Tentukan anggaran tempoh hayat Matahari jika Matahari memancarkan
tenaga melalui tindak balas kitar proton-proton. [4 markah]
[Jisim atom

1
1
H ialah 1.00728 u, jisim atom

2
1
H ialah 2.01355 u, jisim atom
0
1
ialah 0.00055 u
dan jisim atom
4
2
He ialah 4.00150 u.]
























960/3

82
Values of constants
(Nilai Pemalar)

Acceleration of free fall (Pecutan jatuh bebas) g = 9.81 m s
2

Avogadro constant (Pemalar Avogadro) N
A
= 6.02 10
23
mol
1

Boltzmann constant (Pemalar Boltzmann) k, k
B
= 1.38 10
23
J K
1

Gravitational constant (Pemalar graviti) G = 6.67 10
11
N m
2
kg
2

Magnitude of electronic
charge
(Magnitud cas elektron) e = 1.60 10
19
C
Mass of the Earth (Jisim Bumi) M
E
= 5.97 10
24
kg
Mass of the Sun (Jisim Matahari) M
S
= 1.99 10
30
kg
Molar gas constant (Pemalar gas molar) R = 8.31 J K
1
mol
1

Permeability of free space (Ketelapan ruang bebas)
0


= 4 10
7
H m
1

Permittivity of free space (Ketelusan ruang bebas)
0


= 8.85 10
12
F m
1

=
1 9
m F 10
36
1


Plancks constant (Pemalar Planck) h = 6.63 10
34
J s
Radius of the Earth (Jejari Bumi) R
E
= 6.38 10
6
m
Radius of the Sun (Jejari Matahari) R
S
= 6.96 10
8
m
Rest mass of electron (Jisim rehat elektron)
e
m

= 9.11 10
31
kg
Rest mass of proton (Jisim rehat proton)
p
m = 1.67 10
27
kg
Speed of light in free space (Laju cahaya dalam ruang bebas) c = 3.00 10
8
m s
1

Stefan-Boltzmann constant (Pemalar Stefan-Boltzmann) =

5.67 10
8
W m
2
K
4
Unified atomic mass unit (Unit jisim atom bersatu) u = 1.66 10
27
kg


















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83
SPECIMEN EXPERIMENT



960/4 STPM





PHYSICS (FIZIK)

PAPER 4 (KERTAS 4)




MAJLIS PEPERIKSAAN MALAYSIA
(MALAYSIAN EXAMINATIONS COUNCIL)


SIJIL TINGGI PERSEKOLAHAN MALAYSIA
(MALAYSIA HIGHER SCHOOL CERTIFICATE)


























Majlis Peperiksaan Malaysia

STPM 960/4
STPM PHYSICS STUDENTS MANUAL 20___/20___
84
Experiment

Topic: Direct current circuit

Title: Potentiometer

Objective: To determine the internal resistance of a cell using a potentiometer

Theory:


E.m.f. of the cell = .
Internal resistance of the cell = r.
With switch S
1
closed while switch S
2
open, obtain the balance length l
o
. With both S
1
and S
2

closed, obtain the balance length l.
Then,
o
o
1
1
1
1
V Ir
V
r
I
V
r
V
R
r R
V
l
r R
l
l
r
l R

= +

=

=



=



= +




Graph of
o
l
l



against
1
R
should be linear and the gradient is r.

960/4
Dry cell
l

Accumulator
S
1

S
1

STPM PHYSICS STUDENTS MANUAL 20___/20___
85
Apparatus:
(i) A potentiometer
(ii) A resistor-pack
(iii) Two on-off switches
(iv) A jockey
(v) A 2 V accumulator
(vi) A 1.5 V dry cell
(vii) A centre-zero galvanometer

Procedure:

(a) With S
1
closed and S
2
open, determine the balance length l
o
.

(b) With both S
1
and S
2
closed, determine the balance length l for various values of R.

(c) Plot a graph of
o
l
l
against
1
R
.

(d) Calculate the internal resistance r of the cell.




























960/4

86


Identity card number:.. Centre number/index number:.
(Nombor kad pengenalan) (Nombor pusat/angka giliran)
87

SPECIMEN PAPER




960/5 STPM



PHYSICS (FIZIK)

PAPER 5 (KERTAS 5)

One and a half hours (Satu jam setengah)



MAJLIS PEPERIKSAAN MALAYSIA
(MALAYSIAN EXAMINATIONS COUNCIL)


SIJIL TINGGI PERSEKOLAHAN MALAYSIA
(MALAYSIA HIGHER SCHOOL CERTIFICATE)



Instructions to candidates:

DO NOT OPEN THIS QUESTION PAPER UNTIL YOU ARE TOLD TO DO SO.

Answer all questions. Write your answer in the spaces provided. All working should be shown.
Numerical answers should be given to an appropriate number of significant figures; units should
be quoted where appropriate.

Arahan kepada calon:

JANGAN BUKA KERTAS SOALAN INI SEHINGGA ANDA DIBENARKAN BERBUAT
DEMIKIAN.

Jawab semua soalan. Tulis jawapan anda dalam ruang yang disediakan. Semua kerja
hendaklah ditunjukkan.
Jawapan berangka hendaklah diberikan hingga bilangan angka bererti yang sesuai; unit
hendaklah dinyatakan di mana-mana yang sesuai.

This question paper consists of

printed pages and blank page.
(Kertas soalan ini terdiri daripada halaman bercetak dan halaman kosong.)
Majlis Peperiksaan Malaysia
STPM 960/5

88
1 The rate of heat loss
t
Q
d
d
of a hot body at temperature to the surroundings at temperature
0
is
given by
), (
d
d
0
= kA
t
Q

where k is a constant which depends on the nature of its surface and A the surface area of the body
which is exposed to the surroundings. The rate at which thermal energy is lost from the body is given
by
t
mc
t
Q
d
d
d
d
= ,
where m is the mass of the body and c the specific heat capacity of the body. Thus
) (
d
d
0

=
mc
kA
t
.
An apparatus set-up used by a student to study the rate of cooling of a body is shown in the
diagram below.




















Starting with water which was nearly boiling, the student recorded the temperature of hot water
at time t for each five minute interval, with the temperature of the surroundings
0
= 27 C. Then the
student plotted a graph of against t as shown in page __.










960/5

89
1 Kadar kehilangan haba
t
Q
d
d
satu jasad panas pada suhu kepada persekitaran pada suhu
0

diberikan oleh
), (
d
d
0
= kA
t
Q

dengan k pemalar yang bergantung pada sifat permukaannya dan A luas permukaan jasad yang
terdedah kepada persekitaran. Kadar kehilangan tenaga terma daripada jasad itu diberikan oleh
t
mc
t
Q
d
d
d
d
= ,
dengan m jisim jasad dan c muatan haba tentu jasad itu. Oleh itu
) (
d
d
0

=
mc
kA
t
.
Susunan radas yang digunakan oleh seorang pelajar untuk mengkaji kadar penyejukan satu jasad
ditunjukkan dalam gambar rajah di bawah.





















Bermula dengan air yang hampir mendidih, pelajar itu mencatat suhu air panas pada masa t bagi
setiap selang lima minit, dengan suhu persekitaran
0
= 27 C. Pelajar itu kemudian memplot graf
lawan t seperti yang ditunjukkan pada halaman __.











960/5
Termometer
Bikar
Air panas
Pengacau
Penutup kayu
Pelapik kayu

90






















































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91






















































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Graf lawan t

92
(a) On the graph of against t, draw tangent lines at = 40 C, 50 C, 60 C, 70 C and 80 C,
and determine the corresponding slopes
t d
d
. Tabulate , ) (
0
and
t d
d
. [5 marks]



















































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93
(a) Pada graf lawan t, lukis garis tangen pada = 40 C, 50 C, 60 C, 70 C, dan 80 C, dan
tentukan kelerengan
t d
d
yang sepadan. Jadualkan , (
0
), dan
t d
d
. [5 markah]



















































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94
(b) Plot a graph of
t d
d
against ) (
0
. [5 marks]



















































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95






















































960/5
(b) Plot graf
0
d
lawan ( ).
dt


[5 markah]

96
(c) State two precautionary measures which need to be taken so that the variation of temperature
of hot water with time t in the cooling process gives a good result. [2 marks]

....................................................................................................................................................................

....................................................................................................................................................................

(d) Given that m = 1.0 kg, c = 4200 J kg
1
K
1
and A = 0.1 m
2
. Based on the graph of
t d
d

against ) (
0
, determine the value of k for the apparatus set-up. [3 marks]











































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97
(c) Nyatakan dua langkah berjaga-jaga yang perlu diambil supaya ubahan suhu air panas
dengan masa t dalam proses penyejukan itu memberikan keputusan yang baik. [2 markah]

....................................................................................................................................................................

....................................................................................................................................................................

(d) Diberikan m = 1.0 kg, c = 4200 J kg
1
K
1
, dan A = 0.1 m
2
. Berdasarkan graf
t d
d

lawan ) (
0
, tentukan nilai k bagi susunan radas itu. [3 markah]











































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98
2 An apparatus set-up to determine the resistivity of a wire is shown in the diagram below.
















Initially the wire of length is placed between O and P. The switch was closed and an ammeter
reading I was recorded. The jockey was then touched and slid along the wire until the original
reading I was obtained at point J. The distance x was then measured and recorded. The experiment
was repeated using different values of .
The readings of , I and x obtained are as follows.

( 0.1) cm 105 100 95 90 85
(I 0.01) A 0.72 0.74 0.80 0.82 0.84
(x 0.1) cm 64.0 63.3 55.7 52.7 51.5

The diameters D of the wire for three different measurements were recorded as 0.56 mm,
0.57 mm and 0.56 mm.
The resistivity of the wire is given by
Ix
E D
4
2

= , where E is the e.m.f. of the dry cell.


(a) If E = 1.5 V, calculate the value of and its error without using the graphical method.
[4 marks]









(b) Describe a simple method to determine the e.m.f. of the dry cell. [2 marks]

....................................................................................................................................................................

....................................................................................................................................................................


960/5

P O
J

99
2 Susunan radas untuk menentukan kerintangan seutas dawai ditunjukkan dalam gambar rajah
di bawah.
















Pada mulanya seutas dawai yang panjangnya ditempatkan di antara O dengan P. Suis ditutup
dan bacaan ammeter I direkodkan. Joki kemudian disentuhkan dan digelongsorkan pada dawai
tersebut sehingga bacaan I yang asal diperoleh di titik J. Jarak x kemudian diukur dan direkodkan. Uji
kaji ini diulangi dengan menggunakan nilai yang berlainan.
Bacaan , I, dan x yang diperoleh adalah seperti yang berikut.

( 0.1) cm 105 100 95 90 85
(I 0.01) A 0.72 0.74 0.80 0.82 0.84
(x 0.1) cm 64.0 63.3 55.7 52.7 51.5

Garis pusat D dawai untuk tiga pengukuran yang berlainan direkodkan sebagai 0.56 mm,
0.57 mm, dan 0.56 mm.
Kerintangan dawai tersebut diberikan sebagai
Ix
E D
4
2

= , dengan E sebagai d.g.e. sel kering.


(a) Jika E = 1.5 V, hitung nilai dan ralatnya tanpa menggunakan kaedah bergraf. [4 markah]










(b) Perihalkan satu kaedah ringkas untuk menentukan d.g.e. sel kering itu. [2 markah]

....................................................................................................................................................................

....................................................................................................................................................................

960/5

P O
J
Akumulator Suis
Sel kering
Joki
Dawai gelongsor

100
(c) The position of J determined in this experiment is called the balance point. With the aid of a
diagram, describe another way to determine the position of J using the same apparatus and a
galvanometer. [2 marks]













....................................................................................................................................................................

....................................................................................................................................................................

....................................................................................................................................................................

(d) In this experiment, it was found that the accuracy of the experiment would increase when a
longer slide wire was used. Explain why this is the case. [2 marks]

....................................................................................................................................................................

....................................................................................................................................................................

....................................................................................................................................................................

(e) Suggest two precautions which should be taken in order to increase the accuracy of the
experiment. [2 marks]

....................................................................................................................................................................

....................................................................................................................................................................

....................................................................................................................................................................

....................................................................................................................................................................













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101
(c) Kedudukan J yang ditentukan dalam uji kaji ini disebut titik keseimbangan. Dengan bantuan
gambar rajah, perihalkan satu cara lain untuk menentukan kedudukan J dengan menggunakan radas
yang sama dan sebuah galvanometer. [2 markah]













....................................................................................................................................................................

....................................................................................................................................................................

....................................................................................................................................................................

(d) Dalam uji kaji ini, didapati bahawa kejituan uji kaji akan meningkat apabila dawai gelongsor
yang lebih panjang digunakan. Jelaskan mengapa hal ini demikian. [2 markah]

....................................................................................................................................................................

....................................................................................................................................................................

....................................................................................................................................................................

(e) Cadangkan dua langkah berjaga-jaga yang perlu diambil untuk meningkatkan kejituan uji kaji
ini. [2 markah]

....................................................................................................................................................................

....................................................................................................................................................................

....................................................................................................................................................................

....................................................................................................................................................................













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102
(f) Using the data and resistivity formula given, describe briefly the graphical method to
determine the resistivity of wire. [3 marks]




















































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103
(f) Dengan menggunakan data dan rumus kerintangan yang diberikan, perihalkan secara ringkas
kaedah bergraf untuk menentukan kerintangan dawai. [3 markah]






















































104
3 (a) State a simple method to estimate the focal length of a convex lens. [1 mark]

....................................................................................................................................................................

....................................................................................................................................................................

(b) An apparatus set-up to determine the focal length of a convex lens is shown in the diagram
below. A light bulb was used as an object.










A student obtained several object distances u and the corresponding image distances v. A graph
of v against u was then plotted as shown on page . A graph of v = u was also drawn.
Determine the focal length
1
f of the convex lens from the graphs. [3 marks]
































960/5


105
3 (a) Nyatakan kaedah ringkas untuk menganggar panjang fokus satu kanta cembung. [1 markah]

....................................................................................................................................................................

....................................................................................................................................................................

(b) Susunan radas untuk menentukan panjang fokus satu kanta cembung ditunjukkan seperti
dalam gambar rajah di bawah. Satu mentol digunakan sebagai objek.










Seorang pelajar memperoleh beberapa jarak objek u dan jarak imej v yang sepadan. Satu graf v
lawan u kemudian diplot seperti yang ditunjukkan pada halaman . Graf v = u juga dilukis.
Tentukan panjang fokus
1
f kanta cembung dari graf itu. [3 markah]
































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Kanta
cembung
Mentol
Plastisin
Tabir

106
raph of v against u





















































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107






















































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Graf v lawan u

108
(c) A concave lens was then placed in contact with the convex lens to form a combined lens as
shown in the diagram below. The experiment was repeated.










(i) The results were recorded. Complete the table. [2 marks]

u/cm v/cm
u
1
/cm
1

v
1
/cm
1

100.00 25.5
67.0 30.0
50.0 35.9
40.0 38.5
33.0 57.0
25.0 154.0




























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109
(c) Satu kanta cekung kemudian diletakkan bersentuhan dengan kanta cembung itu untuk
membentuk satu kanta gabungan seperti yang ditunjukkan dalam gambar rajah di bawah. Uji kaji
diulangi.











(i) Keputusan direkodkan. Lengkapkan jadual ini. [2 markah]

u/cm v/cm
u
1
/cm
1

v
1
/cm
1

100.00 25.5
67.0 30.0
50.0 35.9
40.0 38.5
33.0 57.0
25.0 154.0


























960/5

Kanta
cembung
Mentol
Plastisin
Tabir
Kanta
cekung


110
(ii) Plot a graph of
v
1
against
u
1
, and extrapolate the line to intersect both the axes.
[3 marks]

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111
(ii) Plot graf
v
1
lawan
u
1
, dan ekstrapolasikan garis itu untuk memotong kedua-dua paksi.
[3 markah]
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112
(iii) Write down the value of the intercept on each axis, and determine the focal length f of
the combined lens. [2 marks]

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(iv) Based on your graph, state two reasons why the experiment is considered not accurate.
[2 marks]

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(d) The focal length f of the combined lens is related to the focal length f
1
of the convex lens and
the focal length f
2
of the concave lens by the equation
2 1
1 1 1
f f f
+ = .
Calculate the focal length f
2
of the concave lens. [2 marks]

































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113
(iii) Tulis nilai pintasan pada setiap paksi, dan tentukan panjang fokus f kanta gabungan.
[2 markah]

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(iv) Berdasarkan graf anda, nyatakan dua sebab mengapa uji kaji itu dianggap tidak jitu.
[2 markah]

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(d) Panjang fokus f kanta gabungan dihubungkan dengan panjang fokus f
1
kanta cembung dan
panjang fokus f
2
kanta cekung oleh persamaan
2 1
1 1 1
f f f
+ = .
Hitung panjang fokus f
2
kanta cekung itu. [2 markah]

































960/5