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IJRET : International Journal of Research in Engineering and Technology is an international peer reviewed, online journal published by eSAT Publishing House for the enhancement of research in various disciplines of Engineering and Technology. The aim and scope of the journal is to provide an academic medium and an important reference for the advancement and dissemination of research results that support high-level learning, teaching and research in the fields of Engineering and Technology. We bring together Scientists, Academician, Field Engineers, Scholars and Students of related fields of Engineering and Technology

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__________________________________________________________________________________________

Volume: 03 Special Issue: 07 | May-2014, Available @ http://www.ijret.org 237

GA BASED SELECTIVE HARMONIC MINIMIZATION OF A 11 LEVEL

CASCADED INVERTER USING PV PANELS

Kokila R

1

, F. T. Josh

2

1

PG scholar, EEE department, Karunya University, Tamil Nadu, India

2

Assistant Professor (SG), EEE department, Karunya University, Tamil Nadu, India

Abstract

A method for eliminating the lower order harmonics in a 11 level cascaded inverter is presented in this paper. The input for the

multilevel inverter is taken from solar panels so that the input voltage will be varying with respect to time. Genetic algorithm is a

selective harmonic minimization technique where the switching angles are calculated real time for a set of DC inputs from solar

panels. These values of switching angles are applied to a 11 level cascaded H-bridge inverter. This paper will give details regarding

the method along with the simulation results and calculation of Total Harmonic Distortion(THD). The target harmonics considered

for minimization were 5

th

,7

th

,11

th

and 13

th

harmonics.

Keywords: GA, PV, Cascaded MLI, Selective Harmonic Minimization, THD.

----------------------------------------------------------------------***------------------------------------------------------------------------

1. INTRODUCTION

One of the most prominent issues that is encountered in case

of high power converters is the presence of harmonics. For

elimination of harmonics, several modulation methods are

used. One of the most recent modulation method is Selective

Harmonic Minimization Pulse Width Modulation

(SHMPWM) method.

Selective harmonic elimination techniques for separate DC

sources were proposed in [1],[5] according to which

SHEPWM is an efficient modulation method for obtaining

output waveforms with acceptable harmonic content. But there

are certain drawbacks to SHEPWM method [2] such as the

non-cancelled harmonics are not considered in the algorithm

and could reach high amplitudes and the value of non-zeroed

harmonics cannot be managed to get any optimization

objective. [3] elaborates the elimination of harmonics in

multilevel converters by solving the harmonic elimination

equations by the method of resultant from elimination theory

for the polynomial form of equations. In general case, if the

voltage sources are unequal and varying with time, the

solution set increases. As a result, the degree of polynomials

increase and the time required to solve will also become more.

As a result, the look-up tables will increase exponentially as

the number of DC sources increase. So it needs to deal with

extrapolation leading to time consuming algorithms. A method

was proposed in [2] where the optimal switching angles were

calculated using genetic algorithm. But it did not consider the

variation of DC sources with respect to time. It was limited to

equal DC sources. In [7] , a method in which the harmonics

are eliminated using the theory of symmetric polynomials and

resultants was developed . The problem with this method is

that as the number of DC sources increases, the order becomes

very high. This leads to computational complexity. The

calculation of switching angles was calculated online using

Newton Raphson method in [4]. The limitations of this paper

is that it considers that the voltage sources will be varying ,

but they have the same value at the same time. They vary

keeping the same relative value. All the above papers

considered only the case of equal DC sources. It did not

consider the variation of DC sources with respect to time. In

practical cases, the variation of DC sources with respect to

time has to be considered. So in this work, the DC sources

feeding the multilevel inverters are taken from solar panels,

the value of input voltages of which are considered to be

varying with respect to time. The switching angles are adapted

to this variation of DC sources. Genetic Algorithm(GA) is

used to obtain the switching angles that corresponds to real

values of DC sources. Here 11 level multilevel inverter is

taken into consideration. The target harmonics to be reduced

are 5

th

, 7

th

, 11

th

and 13

th.

This paper is organized as follows. In section II, the set of

equations for harmonic minimization is described and GA is

introduced. In section III, GA based control is explained.

Section IV gives the simulation results of 11 level multilevel

inverter using GA. The value of THD and lower order

harmonics are calculated.

2. PROBLEM DEFINITION

In general case, the variation of DC sources with respect to

time also has to be considered. For example, if we consider the

output of solar panels, fuel cells, batteries etc. to be given as

the input of multilevel inverter, their variations should be

taken into consideration. The corresponding switching angles

given by the algorithm has to respond to this variation of DC

IJRET: International Journal of Research in Engineering and Technology eISSN: 2319-1163 | pISSN: 2321-7308

__________________________________________________________________________________________

Volume: 03 Special Issue: 07 | May-2014, Available @ http://www.ijret.org 238

sources. In this proposed method, GA is used to obtain the

angles corresponding to real values of DC sources.

Fig-1: 11 level cascaded inverter

Fig 1 shows the 11 level cascaded inverter. It requires 5 DC

inputs, in this case, it is taken from solar panels. The output

voltage equations corresponding to Fig 2 can be expressed as

the following equation

1 1 2 2

1,3,5,7,...

4

( ) .( cos( ) cos( )

an dc dc

n

V t V n V n

n

3 3 4 4 5 5

cos( ) cos( ) c os( ) )

dc dc dc

V n V n V n

(1)

Where

1 5

,.....,

dc dc

V V - Input DC sources

1 5

,......., - Output angles

an

V - Inverter output voltage

The proposed approach works as follows:-The input voltages

from the solar panels will be varying with respect to time.

Genetic algorithm works to obtain the switching angles

corresponding to the variation of DC sources in such a way

that minimum total harmonic distortion is obtained. It also

emphasizes in reduction of lower order harmonics such as 5

th

,

7

th

, 11

th

, and 13

th

.

Fig-2:11 level inverter output waveform

3. GA BASED HARMONIC MINIMIZATION

A genetic algorithm (GA) is a stochastic search method shown

to be well suited for problems where many global minimum

and/or highly dimensional search spaces are possible. Each

individual of a set has an associated cost value, referred to as

fitness function that is a measure of how well this individual

performs in the population. In previous works, analytical

solutions were found partially in the range space of input

voltage variation; however, this approach still uses GA first,

because this range is used to calibrate it to perform in the

range where there is no analytical solution. The basic

continuous GA execution flow is shown in Fig 3.

Under the variations of DC sources, it is necessary to maintain

the fundamental output voltage and to cancel out the lower

order harmonics. Here the harmonics 5

th

,7

th

,11

th

, and 13

th

harmonics are the required harmonics to be cancelled. The

triplen harmonics such 3

rd

and 9

th

harmonics are not

considered because in three phase application, it is cancelled

in the line voltage.

IJRET: International Journal of Research in Engineering and Technology eISSN: 2319-1163 | pISSN: 2321-7308

__________________________________________________________________________________________

Volume: 03 Special Issue: 07 | May-2014, Available @ http://www.ijret.org 239

Fig-3: Flowchart for GA execution

The equations for the fundamental voltage, 5

th

, 7

th

, 11

th

and

13

th

harmonics are given below

1 1 2 2 5 5

4

[ cos( ) cos( ) .... cos( )]

fund dc dc dc

V V V V

(2)

5 1 1 2 2 5 5

4

[ cos(5 ) cos(5 ) .... cos(5 )]

5

th dc dc dc

V V V V

(3)

7 1 1 2 2 5 5

4

[ cos(7 ) cos(7 ) ... cos(7 )]

th dc dc dc

V V V V

(4)

11 1 1 2 2 5 5

4

[ cos(11 ) cos(11 ) ... cos(11 )]

11

th dc dc dc

V V V V

(5)

13 1 1 2 2 5 5

4

[ cos(13 ) cos(13 ) ... cos(13 )]

13

th dc dc dc

V V V V

(6)

The equations (2) to (6) are given as the equations to solve the

angles using GA. The fundamental voltage is taken as 230V

rms. The equations (3) to (6) are equated to zero in order to

eliminate them. [6] gives the objective function for the GA as

given in equation(7)

5 7 11 13 1

( , , , , ) | 230|

fund th th th th fund

f V V V V V k V +

2

k

5 3 7

| | | |

th th

V k V

4 11

| |

th

k V

5 13

| |

th

k V (7)

The values for

2

k ,

3

k ,

4

k ,

5

k are generally taken greater

than

1

k . It can be taken as multiples of 10. Calculations were

made for switching angles that correspond to the randomly

taken values of DC sources. The values of coefficients used in

Equation (7) were found through trial and error runs of the

algorithm. They allow the fundamental to be kept very close to

230 V while keeping harmonics close to zero. The GA

program was written using Matlab R2010a. The termination

criteria was given in such a way that the number of iterations

is 100. So the algorithm stops at 100

th

generation and it will

return the best individual as the end product. Table 1 shows

the parameters used for running GA.

Table-1: Parameters for GA

Table-2: Dataset obtained through GA run

Input Voltages(V)

[

1 dc

V

2 dc

V

3 dc

V

4 dc

V

5 dc

V ]

Output Angles(

0

)

[

1

5

]

[40 41 42 43 44] [0.182 21.709 44.615

60.274 88.363]

[40 42 43 44 45] [1.191 23.622 45.623

59.565 74.464]

[40 42 43 44 46] [1.983 30.864 46.557

61.677 89.58]

[41 42 43 44 45] [0.446 27.372 37.528

57.359 82.694]

[42 43 44 45 46] [0.317 20.038 48.37 59.782

81.719]

[43 44 46 47 48] [0.853 22.946 42.399

56.473 87.567]

[44 45 46 47 48] [0.878 18.767 33.007

56.152 73.215]

Population size 100

Number of generations 100

Stall generations 50

Crossover fraction 0.8

IJRET: International Journal of Research in Engineering and Technology eISSN: 2319-1163 | pISSN: 2321-7308

__________________________________________________________________________________________

Volume: 03 Special Issue: 07 | May-2014, Available @ http://www.ijret.org 240

Calculations were made for switching angles that correspond

to the randomly taken values of DC sources. Table 2

represents the dataset obtained through GA run for different

sets of input voltages.

Fig-4: GA fitness plot for 100 generations

Fig 4. shows the fitness plot of GA after 100 generations. The

best and the mean values of fitness functions were obtained.

Best fitness value:1112.7346

Mean fitness value:1154.5118

4. SIMULATION RESULTS AND ANALYSIS

In this section, the simulation results of 11 level cascaded

inverter is presented. The simulation is carried out using

MATLAB/SIMULINK software by the switching angles

obtained from Table 2. The output waveforms and the FFT

analysis were also carried out. The input is given from five

different solar panels. The solar panels were modeled using

the equations as given below.

The photon current is given by

[ ( 298)] /1000

ph scr i

I I K T S (8)

Where

scr

I is the short circuit current

i

K is the short circuit current temperature co-efficient

T is the module operating temperature

S is PV module illumination

The module reverse saturation current is

/ [exp( / ) 1]

rs sc oc s

I I qV N KAT (9)

Where q is electron charge

oc

V is the open circuit voltage

s

N is number of cells connected in series

K is Boltzman constant

A is ideality factor

The module saturation current is

3

[ / ] exp[( / )(1/ 1/ )]

s rs r go r

I I T T qE AK T T (10)

Where

r

T is the reference temperature

go

E is the bandgap

The output current of PV module is

exp ( )

[ 1]

s

p ph p s

s

q V IR

I N I N I

N AKT

(11)

p

N is the number of parallel connected cells

s

R is series resistance

Fig-5: Simulation Diagram of 11 level inverter

IJRET: International Journal of Research in Engineering and Technology eISSN: 2319-1163 | pISSN: 2321-7308

__________________________________________________________________________________________

Volume: 03 Special Issue: 07 | May-2014, Available @ http://www.ijret.org 241

Fig-6: Subsystem of multilevel inverter

Fig-7: Subsystem of solar panel

The output voltage and THD analysis for 11 level inverter

using solar panel inputs are shown in Fig 8 and Fig 9

respectively.

Fig-8: Output waveform of multilevel inverter

Fig-9: FFT analysis

From the FFT analysis, it can be seen that the THD is less and

the lower order harmonics are minimized.

The value of THD and lower order harmonics are given in

table 3.

Table-3: Parameters obtained from the FFT analysis of output

of GA controller

Parameter Value

Fundamental Voltage

fund

V (V)

182.5

THD(%) 13.77

5

th

Harmonic

5

V (%)

0.57

7

th

Harmonic

7

V (%)

4.91

11

th

Harmonic

11

V (%)

1.14

13

th

Harmonic

13

V (%)

4.76

5. CONCLUSIONS

This paper presents an approach for real time computation of

switching angles using GA. The solutions were found in real

time using genetic algorithms to obtain a data set. GA was

also used so as to explore the advantages of approximate

solutions. The 11 level inverter whose inputs were taken from

PV panels was simulated and the output was obtained. The

THD analysis was also carried out. It is observed that the

value of THD was very low. It also reduces the lower order

harmonics such as 5

th

,7

th

, 11

th

and 13

th

. Future work points in

the direction of implementation and performance evaluation

over a greater number of angles. This would allow for

harmonic control while keeping the switching frequency

minimum and complying with THD standards. The literature

4

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3

Conn3

2

Conn2

1 Conn1

g

m

D

S

Q14

g

m

D

S

Q13

g

m

D

S

Q12

g

m

D

S

Q11

Pul se

Generator3

Pul se

Generator2

Pul se

Generator1

Pul se

Generator

IJRET: International Journal of Research in Engineering and Technology eISSN: 2319-1163 | pISSN: 2321-7308

__________________________________________________________________________________________

Volume: 03 Special Issue: 07 | May-2014, Available @ http://www.ijret.org 242

review also pointed the possibility of determining what the

minimum number of angles needed is in order to comply with

certain THD level. Future work also emphasises on the real

time hardware implementation of the GA tuned ANN

technique using adSpace or DSP platform.

REFERENCES

[1]. J. Napoles, J. I. Leon, R. Portillo, L. G. Franquelo, and

M. A. Aguirre, Selective harmonic mitigation technique for

high-power converters, IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 57,

no. 7, pp. 23152323, Jul. 2010.

[2]. J. N. Chiasson, L. M. Tolbert, K. J. McKenzie, and Z. Du,

A unified approach to solving the harmonic elimination

equations in multilevel converters, IEEE Trans. Power

Electron., vol. 19, no. 2, pp. 478490, Mar. 2005.

[3]. J. N. Chiasson, L. M. Tolbert, K. J. McKenzie, and Z. Du,

Elimination of harmonics in a multilevel converter using the

theory of symmetric polynomials and resultants, IEEE Trans.

Control Syst. Technol., vol. 13, no. 2, pp. 216223, Mar.

2005.IEEE Trans. Control Syst. Technol., vol. 13, no. 2, pp.

216223, Mar 2005.

[4]. T. Tang, J. Han, and X. Tan, Selective harmonic

elimination for a cascade multilevel inverter, in Proc. IEEE

Int. Symp. Ind. Electron., Jul. 2006, vol. 2, pp. 977981.

[5]. J. Chavarria, D. Biel, F. Guinjoan, C. Meza, and J. J.

Negroni, Energybalance control of PV cascaded multilevel

grid-connected inverters under level-shifted and phase-shifted

PWMs, IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron.,vol. 60, no. 1, pp. 98

111, Jan. 2013.

[6]. Faete Filho, Helder Zandonadi Maia, Tiago H.A. Mateus,

Burak Ozpineci, Leon M. Tolbert and Joao O. P. Pinto,

Adaptive Selective Harmonic Minimization Based on ANNs

for Cascade Multilevel Inverters With Varying DC Sources ,

IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, Vol. 60, No.5,

pp. 1955 1962, May 2013.

[7]. Chiasson J. N , Ozpineci B, and Tolbert L . M, Harmonic

optimization of multilevel converters using genetic

algorithms, IEEE Power Electron Lett., vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 92

95,Sep.2005.

[8]. T.Ikegami,T.Maezono,F.Nakanishi, Y. Yamagata and

K.Ebihara, Estimation of equivalent circuit parameters of PV

module and its application to optimal operation of PV

system,Elsevier solar energy materials and solar

cells,67(2001),pp.389-395,Jan 2001.

BIOGRAPHIES

Kokila R completed her B.Tech degree in

Electrical and Electronics Engineering at

LBS College of Engineering, Kasaragod.

She is pursuing M.Tech in Power

Electronics and Drives at Karunya

University, Coimbatore. Her area of

interest include Multilevel inverter, soft

computing etc.

Mr. F. T. Josh completed his B. E in

Electrical and Electronics Engineering in

2000. He completed his M.E degree in

Power Electronics and Drives. He has 12

years of experience in teaching. He is

currently working as Assistant

Professor(SG) in Karunya University,

Coimbatore. His areas of interest include Multilevel inverters,

soft computing etc.

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