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^~ L p L a

abpfdk lc ciburo^i jbj_bop

rkfsbopfqv lc tfp`lkpfk pqlrq

`liibdb lc p`fbk`bI qb`eklildvI bkdfkbbofkdI ^ka

j^qebj^qf`p

ib`qrob ff

aK g~ bK `~~~

^~ o

` _~

The triangular beam indicated is made of 4ksi concrete and carries three

#9 rebars of fy=60ksi.

Note that geometry offers itself for calculations regarding the Compression, the

lever-arm, and the depth of a.

^~ o

` _~

carries three (3) #9 rebars of fy=60ksi.

Note that geometry offers itself for calculations regarding the Compression,

the lever-arm, and the depth of .

^~ o

` _~

a later step) and we calculate the area of steel As:

fs=Calculated stress of reinforcement at service loads, fy=specified yield strength of non prestressed reinforcement.

^~ o

` _~

the formula for C. That can be reversed to solve for a:

which gives us a value of 10.29 in.

^~ o

` _~

value of 0.00207, proving that fs=fy

s=strain in steel, y=yield strain.

fs=Calculated stress of reinforcement at service loads, fy=specified yield strength of non prestressed reinforcement.

^~ o

` _~

ciburo^i ar`qfifqv

That wonderful property of structural materials to bend, crack and yet not

break, is one of the possible characteristics of RC.

When flexural forces surpass the limit My, steel reinforcement continues to

elongate. Resistance increases slightly, related to the increase of distance

between C and T. That distance increases as the depth of the concrete

stress block decreases until the concrete fractures. Although the stress of

the steel remains constant, the strain at the point of failure is several times

greater than the steel yield strain y, ..approximately y=fy/Es .002

c~ a

was multiplied by a certain factor (lets say doubled), then the Whitney

block would take a similar magnification (double in this case). The strain

at the tension could only be 0.003. The stretching of the steel at the

range between yield and beam failure would only be 0.001 instead of

0.004 as it was for the section with half as much tension reinforcement.

qI `I ^

_~~ c~

of flexural failure of

concrete members:

Tension

Compression

Balanced

Source: http://www.shef.ac.uk/content/1/c6/04/71/91/fig32_3_concrete_crushing.jpg, Sept.20/09 Source: http://www.tfhrc.gov/structur/pubs/06115/images/fig29.jpg, Sept.20/09

c~ a

compression force. The middle section indicates a T-beam with a

larger cross sectional area in compression, and it is set to

equilibrium through the application of more tensile rebars. Inversely,

the notched section on the right carries less tensile reinforcement.

Note that values of 1c are independent of the sections shape.

a o

factor also reflects

the relative ductility of

the cross section at

failure expressed in

terms of the strain t

as presented by ACI.

To determine the

value of t the

proportional triangle

method can be applied

as seen in the

diagram.

t=0.003[(d/c)-1]

a o

factor also reflects

the relative ductility of

the cross section at

failure.

ductile, flexural failure at

t>0.005, (i.e 2.5 times

larger than y for Grade

60), = 0.90

Failure at tfy/Es is

compression controlled,

non-ductile, and =0.65

For further details and info, please refer to in class reading: pp 40-

41.

j o

magnitude of moments at

critical locations of a flexural

member, estimated through

elastic analysis, can not be

totally precise. Therefore,

designers are allowed to

redistribute moment values

(from support regions to span)

provided that:

tension strain t exceeds

0.0075

moment value that will be

redistributed is 1000(t)

percent<20% of the moment

at the end of the beam.

Source: R.W. Furlong: Basic Decisions for Designing Reinforced Concrete Structures, Morgan Printing, Austin , TX, Sept. 2003

j o

magnitude of moments at

critical locations of a flexural

member, estimated through

elastic analysis, can not be

totally precise. Therefore,

designers are allowed to

redistribute moment values

(from support regions to span)

provided that:

tension strain t exceeds

0.0075

moment value that will be

redistributed is 1000(t)

percent<20% of the moment

at the end of the beam.

Source: R.W. Furlong: Basic Decisions for Designing Reinforced Concrete Structures, Morgan Printing, Austin , TX, Sept. 2003

j o

Source: R.W. Furlong: Basic Decisions for Designing Reinforced Concrete Structures, Morgan Printing, Austin , TX, Sept. 2003

load are maintained by insuring

that the avg of required end

moments plus the max +ve

moment is never reduced.

Midspan moments are

increased when end moments

are reduced, or else end

moments are increased if

midspan moment is reduced.

redistributed moments transfers

more reinforcement on midspan

and less at supports.

not exceed 10(t) multiplied by

the moment at support.

j o

Source: R.W. Furlong: Basic Decisions for Designing Reinforced Concrete Structures, Morgan Printing, Austin , TX, Sept. 2003

as stated earlier, a minimum t

value of 0.01 should be set.

Given an fy value of 60ksi, that

translates to a stretch

approximately 5 times that of the

strain experienced at fy.

configuration in figure) the value

c can be deduced geometrically

to be 0.003d/(0.003+0.001)

which returns: c=0.231d

deduce that

As(fy)=0.196(fc)b(1)d

p~~ s~

*Note: The min effective depth suggests that after As is determined, a cover per ACI guidelines should be determined.

values:

the objective is to minimize the depth of a

beam. The t will be 0.004 and will be 0.81.

As example you can use the following formula for minimum effective

depth.*

never cross.

t of .005

always aim for in order to have a comfortable

condition for our designed element and where

the t is 0.010

OR

f `~ b~W

Select flexural bars for the section and the required moment and determine the Mn, the b1

ratio (ratio of depth of rectangular stress block, a, to the depth to neutral axis c) the distance c

and the strain on the extreme fiber of reinforcement t.

f `~ b~W

^ C

o o~

Assignments will be received at the beginning of class period.

from today.

BEAM DEFLECTION FORMULAE

BEAM TYPE SLOPE AT FREE END DEFLECTION AT ANY SECTION IN TERMS OF x MAXIMUM DEFLECTION

1. Cantilever Beam Concentrated load P at the free end

2

2

Pl

EI

= ( )

2

3

6

Px

y l x

EI

=

3

max

3

Pl

EI

=

2. Cantilever Beam Concentrated load P at any point

2

2

Pa

EI

=

( )

2

3 for 0

6

Px

y a x x a

EI

= < <

( )

2

3 for

6

Pa

y x a a x l

EI

= < <

( )

2

max

3

6

Pa

l a

EI

=

3. Cantilever Beam Uniformly distributed load (N/m)

3

6

l

EI

=

( )

2

2 2

6 4

24

x

y x l lx

EI

= +

4

max

8

l

EI

=

4. Cantilever Beam Uniformly varying load: Maximum intensity

o

(N/m)

3

o

24

l

EI

=

( )

2

3 2 2 3 o

10 10 5

120

x

y l l x lx x

lEI

= +

4

o

max

30

l

EI

=

5. Cantilever Beam Couple moment M at the free end

Ml

EI

=

2

2

Mx

y

EI

=

2

max

2

Ml

EI

=

BEAM DEFLECTION FORMULAS

BEAM TYPE SLOPE AT ENDS DEFLECTION AT ANY SECTION IN TERMS OF x MAXIMUM AND CENTER

DEFLECTION

6. Beam Simply Supported at Ends Concentrated load P at the center

2

1 2

16

Pl

EI

= =

2

2

3

for 0

12 4 2

Px l l

y x x

EI

= < <

3

max

48

Pl

EI

=

7. Beam Simply Supported at Ends Concentrated load P at any point

2 2

1

( )

6

Pb l b

lEI

=

2

(2 )

6

Pab l b

lEI

=

( )

2 2 2

for 0

6

Pbx

y l x b x a

lEI

= < <

( ) ( )

3

2 2 3

6

for

Pb l

y x a l b x x

lEI b

a x l

= +

< <

( )

3 2

2 2

max

9 3

Pb l b

lEI

= at

( )

2 2

3 x l b =

( )

2 2

at the center, if 3 4

48

Pb

l b

EI

= a b >

8. Beam Simply Supported at Ends Uniformly distributed load (N/m)

3

1 2

24

l

EI

= = ( )

3 2 3

2

24

x

y l lx x

EI

= +

4

max

5

384

l

EI

=

9. Beam Simply Supported at Ends Couple moment M at the right end

1

6

Ml

EI

=

2

3

Ml

EI

=

2

2

1

6

Mlx x

y

EI l

=

2

max

9 3

Ml

EI

= at

3

l

x =

2

16

Ml

EI

= at the center

10. Beam Simply Supported at Ends Uniformly varying load: Maximum intensity

o

(N/m)

3

o

1

7

360

l

EI

=

3

o

2

45

l

EI

=

( )

4 2 2 4 o

7 10 3

360

x

y l l x x

lEI

= +

4

o

max

0.00652

l

EI

= at 0.519 x l =

4

o

0.00651

l

EI

= at the center

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