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Calculation of a beams moment capacity:

The triangular beam indicated is made of 4ksi concrete and carries three
#9 rebars of fy=60ksi.

Note that geometry offers itself for calculations regarding the Compression, the
lever-arm, and the depth of a.

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Calculation of a beams moment capacity:

The triangular beam indicated is made of f`c=4ksi concrete and


carries three (3) #9 rebars of fy=60ksi.

Note that geometry offers itself for calculations regarding the Compression,
the lever-arm, and the depth of .



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We begin by the fundamental assumption that fs=fy (we verify this at


a later step) and we calculate the area of steel As:

3 #9 rebars give us a total area of 3 sq. in.

T=As(fy) = (3in^2)(60ksi) = 180 kips


fs=Calculated stress of reinforcement at service loads, fy=specified yield strength of non prestressed reinforcement.

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We compute the compression block so that we have C=T:

Given C=T = 180 kips

The specific geometry of the beam allowed us to generate


the formula for C. That can be reversed to solve for a:
which gives us a value of 10.29 in.



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Verifying our assumption that fs=fy:

As mentioned earlier, cu will carry the value of 0.003

c=/1thus c=10.29in/0.85..= 12.11in

Using the similar triangles method as seen above

thus s is 0.00394 > y which is f`c/fy that is 60ksi/29000ksi yielding a


value of 0.00207, proving that fs=fy
s=strain in steel, y=yield strain.
fs=Calculated stress of reinforcement at service loads, fy=specified yield strength of non prestressed reinforcement.

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Computing the Mn:

We can derive from the geometry that jd=d-(2a/3)

Thus it would be safe to claim that

..which yields the result of 285.4 k`





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That wonderful property of structural materials to bend, crack and yet not
break, is one of the possible characteristics of RC.

When flexural forces surpass the limit My, steel reinforcement continues to
elongate. Resistance increases slightly, related to the increase of distance
between C and T. That distance increases as the depth of the concrete
stress block decreases until the concrete fractures. Although the stress of
the steel remains constant, the strain at the point of failure is several times
greater than the steel yield strain y, ..approximately y=fy/Es .002

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On a section that fractures when the strain of steel is 0.006, if the As


was multiplied by a certain factor (lets say doubled), then the Whitney
block would take a similar magnification (double in this case). The strain
at the tension could only be 0.003. The stretching of the steel at the
range between yield and beam failure would only be 0.001 instead of
0.004 as it was for the section with half as much tension reinforcement.



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There are three methods


of flexural failure of
concrete members:

Tension

Compression

Balanced
Source: http://www.shef.ac.uk/content/1/c6/04/71/91/fig32_3_concrete_crushing.jpg, Sept.20/09 Source: http://www.tfhrc.gov/structur/pubs/06115/images/fig29.jpg, Sept.20/09



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The section in the left carries four rebars to counterbalance the


compression force. The middle section indicates a T-beam with a
larger cross sectional area in compression, and it is set to
equilibrium through the application of more tensile rebars. Inversely,
the notched section on the right carries less tensile reinforcement.
Note that values of 1c are independent of the sections shape.

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The capacity reduction


factor also reflects
the relative ductility of
the cross section at
failure expressed in
terms of the strain t
as presented by ACI.

To determine the
value of t the
proportional triangle
method can be applied
as seen in the
diagram.

t=0.003[(d/c)-1]



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The capacity reduction


factor also reflects
the relative ductility of
the cross section at
failure.

For tension controlled,


ductile, flexural failure at
t>0.005, (i.e 2.5 times
larger than y for Grade
60), = 0.90

Failure at tfy/Es is
compression controlled,
non-ductile, and =0.65


For further details and info, please refer to in class reading: pp 40-
41.

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ACI recognizes that the


magnitude of moments at
critical locations of a flexural
member, estimated through
elastic analysis, can not be
totally precise. Therefore,
designers are allowed to
redistribute moment values
(from support regions to span)
provided that:

At failure, the extreme fiber


tension strain t exceeds
0.0075

The relative amount of


moment value that will be
redistributed is 1000(t)
percent<20% of the moment
at the end of the beam.
Source: R.W. Furlong: Basic Decisions for Designing Reinforced Concrete Structures, Morgan Printing, Austin , TX, Sept. 2003



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ACI recognizes that the


magnitude of moments at
critical locations of a flexural
member, estimated through
elastic analysis, can not be
totally precise. Therefore,
designers are allowed to
redistribute moment values
(from support regions to span)
provided that:

At failure, the extreme fiber


tension strain t exceeds
0.0075

The relative amount of


moment value that will be
redistributed is 1000(t)
percent<20% of the moment
at the end of the beam.
Source: R.W. Furlong: Basic Decisions for Designing Reinforced Concrete Structures, Morgan Printing, Austin , TX, Sept. 2003

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Source: R.W. Furlong: Basic Decisions for Designing Reinforced Concrete Structures, Morgan Printing, Austin , TX, Sept. 2003

Equilibrium of forces at limit


load are maintained by insuring
that the avg of required end
moments plus the max +ve
moment is never reduced.
Midspan moments are
increased when end moments
are reduced, or else end
moments are increased if
midspan moment is reduced.

Practically, designing for


redistributed moments transfers
more reinforcement on midspan
and less at supports.

Moment redistributed should


not exceed 10(t) multiplied by
the moment at support.



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Source: R.W. Furlong: Basic Decisions for Designing Reinforced Concrete Structures, Morgan Printing, Austin , TX, Sept. 2003

To facilitate the redistribution process


as stated earlier, a minimum t
value of 0.01 should be set.
Given an fy value of 60ksi, that
translates to a stretch
approximately 5 times that of the
strain experienced at fy.

When t is 0.01 (see lower


configuration in figure) the value
c can be deduced geometrically
to be 0.003d/(0.003+0.001)
which returns: c=0.231d

By substituting this value we can


deduce that
As(fy)=0.196(fc)b(1)d

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*Note: The min effective depth suggests that after As is determined, a cover per ACI guidelines should be determined.

To recap and bring to surface a few standardized


values:

A recommended _Max will be applied when


the objective is to minimize the depth of a
beam. The t will be 0.004 and will be 0.81.

As example you can use the following formula for minimum effective
depth.*

The _Min is a threshold value that we shall


never cross.

The _lim is the limit that keeps us still within an


t of .005

The _10 is an ideal condition that we should


always aim for in order to have a comfortable
condition for our designed element and where
the t is 0.010
OR



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Select flexural bars for the section and the required moment and determine the Mn, the b1
ratio (ratio of depth of rectangular stress block, a, to the depth to neutral axis c) the distance c
and the strain on the extreme fiber of reinforcement t.

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Assignments will be received at the beginning of class period.

Reading: Furlong Chapt. 4.1 & 4.2

Assignment 2 will be due one week


from today.
BEAM DEFLECTION FORMULAE

BEAM TYPE SLOPE AT FREE END DEFLECTION AT ANY SECTION IN TERMS OF x MAXIMUM DEFLECTION
1. Cantilever Beam Concentrated load P at the free end



2
2
Pl
EI
= ( )
2
3
6
Px
y l x
EI
=
3
max
3
Pl
EI
=
2. Cantilever Beam Concentrated load P at any point



2
2
Pa
EI
=
( )
2
3 for 0
6
Px
y a x x a
EI
= < <
( )
2
3 for
6
Pa
y x a a x l
EI
= < <
( )
2
max
3
6
Pa
l a
EI
=
3. Cantilever Beam Uniformly distributed load (N/m)



3
6
l
EI

=
( )
2
2 2
6 4
24
x
y x l lx
EI

= +
4
max
8
l
EI

=
4. Cantilever Beam Uniformly varying load: Maximum intensity
o
(N/m)



3
o
24
l
EI

=
( )
2
3 2 2 3 o
10 10 5
120
x
y l l x lx x
lEI

= +
4
o
max
30
l
EI

=
5. Cantilever Beam Couple moment M at the free end



Ml
EI
=
2
2
Mx
y
EI
=
2
max
2
Ml
EI
=

BEAM DEFLECTION FORMULAS

BEAM TYPE SLOPE AT ENDS DEFLECTION AT ANY SECTION IN TERMS OF x MAXIMUM AND CENTER
DEFLECTION
6. Beam Simply Supported at Ends Concentrated load P at the center



2
1 2
16
Pl
EI
= =
2
2
3
for 0
12 4 2
Px l l
y x x
EI

= < <



3
max
48
Pl
EI
=
7. Beam Simply Supported at Ends Concentrated load P at any point

2 2
1
( )
6
Pb l b
lEI

=
2
(2 )
6
Pab l b
lEI

=
( )
2 2 2
for 0
6
Pbx
y l x b x a
lEI
= < <
( ) ( )
3
2 2 3
6
for
Pb l
y x a l b x x
lEI b
a x l

= +


< <

( )
3 2
2 2
max
9 3
Pb l b
lEI

= at
( )
2 2
3 x l b =
( )
2 2
at the center, if 3 4
48
Pb
l b
EI
= a b >
8. Beam Simply Supported at Ends Uniformly distributed load (N/m)



3
1 2
24
l
EI

= = ( )
3 2 3
2
24
x
y l lx x
EI

= +
4
max
5
384
l
EI

=
9. Beam Simply Supported at Ends Couple moment M at the right end

1
6
Ml
EI
=
2
3
Ml
EI
=
2
2
1
6
Mlx x
y
EI l

=



2
max
9 3
Ml
EI
= at
3
l
x =
2
16
Ml
EI
= at the center

10. Beam Simply Supported at Ends Uniformly varying load: Maximum intensity
o
(N/m)

3
o
1
7
360
l
EI

=
3
o
2
45
l
EI

=
( )
4 2 2 4 o
7 10 3
360
x
y l l x x
lEI

= +
4
o
max
0.00652
l
EI

= at 0.519 x l =
4
o
0.00651
l
EI

= at the center