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An Introduction to

MAGNET
for
Static 2D Modeling
Infolytica
Corporation
J D Edwards
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0he information in this document is su&1ect to change without notice.
Contents
Chapter 1 Introduction 1
Overview ...................................................................................................... .1
Modeling in 2D and 3D .................................................................................3
Magnetic concepts .......................................................................................4
Using MagNet effectively .............................................................................8
Getting help ................................................................................................. .
Chapter 2 Tutorial: Ccore Electro!a"net 11
!ntrod"ction ............................................................................................... .11
Device Model .............................................................................................. 12
#"ilding the $odel ..................................................................................... 14
%olving the $odel....................................................................................... 21
&ost'processing ........................................................................................ . 24
Modifying the $odel................................................................................... 28
&ostscript................................................................................................... . 3
Chapter # Case $tudies: Translational Geo!etry %1
!ntrod"ction ............................................................................................... .41
('core electro$agnet ................................................................................. 41
Magnetic latch with a per$anent $agnet .................................................4)
#"s*ar forces ............................................................................................. 48
+ield in a cylindrical cond"ctor ................................................................. )4
,ylindrical screen in a "nifor$ field .........................................................)-
.ransfor$er e/"ivalent circ"it .................................................................. -2
0aria*le 1el"ctance %tepper Motor ..........................................................-2
3inear synchrono"s $otor ........................................................................ 22
Chapter % Case $tudies: &otational Geo!etry '(
!ntrod"ction ............................................................................................... .2
M"t"al ind"ctance of coa4ial coils............................................................ 83
30D. displace$ent transd"cer ................................................................. 8-
Magnetic p"ll'off force ............................................................................... 8
Moving'coil transd"cer .............................................................................. 3
Chapter ) $criptin" ('
!ntrod"ction ............................................................................................... .2
(4a$ple $odel .......................................................................................... . 2
%cript for the $odel....................................................................................
,reating a new script ............................................................................... 151
6"to$ation with (4cel ............................................................................. 152
Appendi* A +ield E,uations and $olution 111
+ield e/"ations ........................................................................................ . 111
#o"ndary conditions and sy$$etry....................................................... 113
N"$erical sol"tion ................................................................................... 11)
Appendi* - Ener"y. +orce and Inductance 11(
%tored energy and co'energy .................................................................. 11
+orce calc"lation ...................................................................................... 121
!nd"ctance calc"lation ............................................................................. 122
Appendi* C /pen -oundary I!ple!entation 12)
&eferences 12(
Chapter 1 1
Introduction
2007 Infolytica Corporation
Chapter 2
!ntrod"ction
Overview
0he principal aim of this document is to introduce new users to the power of Mag3et for sol/ing
#D static magnetic field pro&lems. . tutorial with detailed instructions ta4es the first5time
user through the most important features of Mag3et. 0his is followed &y a series of case
studies
illustrating modeling techni6ues and introducing further features of the pac4age. 0he document
concludes with an introduction to ad/anced features that ma4e Mag3et a uni6uely powerful tool.
7hat is MagNet8
Mag3et is the most ad/anced pac4age currently a/aila&le for modeling electromagnetic de/ices
on a personal computer. It pro/ides a 7/irtual la&oratory8 in which the user can create models
from magnetic materials and coils! /iew displays in the form of field plots and graphs! and get
numerical /alues for 6uantities such as flu9 lin4age and force. . Mag3et user needs only an
elementary 4nowledge of magnetic concepts to model e9isting de/ices! modify designs! and test
new ideas.
Mag3et is designed as a full 3D5modeling tool for sol/ing static magnetic field and eddy5current
pro&lems. Many de/ices can &e represented /ery well &y #D models! so Mag3et offers the option
of #D modeling! with a su&stantial sa/ing in computing resources and solution time. With #D
models! Mag3et can also handle pro&lems where currents are induced &y the motion of part of
the system.
. feature of Mag3et is its use of the latest methods of sol/ing the field e6uations and calculating
6uantities such as force and tor6ue. 0o get relia&le results! the user does not need to &e an e9pert
in electromagnetic theory or numerical analysis. 3e/ertheless the user does need to &e aware of
the factors that go/ern the accuracy of the solution. :ne of the aims of this document is to show
how the user can o&tain accurate results. In #D! pro&lems can &e sol/ed /ery rapidly! so it is
usually not necessary to consider the trade5off &etween speed and accuracy. In 3D modeling! on
the other hand! this is an important consideration.
;or the ad/anced user! Mag3et offers powerful facilities for user5defined ad1ustment of the
model parameters! calculation of further results from the field solution! and control of the
operation of the pac4age with scripts and scripting forms.
2007 Infolytica Corporation
2 Introduction to Ma"Net
3i$itations
0he information gi/en in this document has &een prepared specifically for the entry5le/el
/ersion of Mag3et. 0his /ersion is restricted to static magnetic fields and #D models! without
facilities for parameteri<ation: the automatic solution of se6uences of pro&lems with modified
model
parameters. *ecause parameteri<ation is such a useful feature! the document includes e9amples of
its use! &ut alternati/e methods are also pro/ided for users who ha/e only the entry5le/el /ersion
of Mag3et.
6 g"ide to the doc"$ent
0he ne9t sections in chapter 2 gi/e some &ac4ground information for first5time users of software
for electromagnetics! particularly for users whose 4nowledge of elementary magnetism is
insecure. It is helpful &ut not essential to read some of this &efore proceeding to the ne9t chapter.
Chapter # is a practical introduction to Mag3et in the form of a tutorial. It ta4es the user through
all the steps of modeling a simple magnetic de/ice! with full e9planations of the operations and
the interpretation of the results. 0his chapter is an essential prere6uisite for chapters 3 and ).
Chapters 3 and ) contain case studies in which Mag3et is applied to a /ariety of magnetic
pro&lems. 0hese can &e used in two ways: as reference material! and as a series of graded
e9ercises for de/eloping s4ills after completion of the tutorial.
Chapter = introduces scripting in Mag3et! including the use of Microsoft >9cel to control
Mag3et. "cripting is now a/aila&le in all /ersions of Mag3et! and chapter = indicates some of the
ways of using this feature.
Chapter ? gi/es an introduction to the powerful Calculator facility that is &uilt in to Mag3et!
which ena&les the user to carry out further processing of the solution. 0he latest release of
Mag3et includes some new facilities for displaying field 6uantities that formerly re6uired the
Calculator! so most users will not need to refer to this chapter.
.ppendi9 . contains further information a&out the magnetic field e6uations and the solution
methods used in Mag3et for #D pro&lems. 3o/ice users do not re6uire most of this material! &ut
ad/anced users may find the additional insight helpful. 0he discussion of &oundary conditions is
rele/ant to all users! and includes the &asis of the @el/in transformation techni6ue for open5
&oundary pro&lems.
.ppendi9 * co/ers energy! force and inductance calculation. 0his includes the deri/ation of some
of the e6uations used in the case studies! and further information a&out the methods used in
Mag3et.
.ppendi9 C e9plains how to implement the @el/in transformation for open5&oundary pro&lems.
%econd edition
0his edition has &een re/ised to ta4e account of the latest features of Mag3et A/ersion ?.#2.2 at
the time of writingB. 0he Tools and Extensions menus now include field5plotting facilities! which
in most cases ma4e it unnecessary to use the Calculator for such purposes! so the chapter on the
Calculator has &een mo/ed to the end. .n important addition to the document is the use of the
@el/in transformation techni6ue for handling some open5&oundary pro&lems. 0his techni6ue is
used in the case study on &us&ar forces in chapter 3! and for the pro&lem of forces &etween
permanent5magnet &loc4s in chapter =. ;inally! the opportunity has &een ta4en to ma4e the
dimensions more realistic in some of the case studies.
2007 Infolytica Corporation
Chapter 1 #
Introduction
Modeling in 2D and 3D
"ome practical pro&lems are essentially three5dimensional C e9amples include the rotor of a claw5
pole alternator and the end5winding regions of rotating .C machines. ro&lems of this 4ind
re6uire the full 3D modeling capa&ility of Mag3et. In many cases! howe/er! a #D model will
gi/e useful results. 0here are two common types of de/ice geometry that allow 3D o&1ects to &e
modeled in two dimensions: translational geometry and rotational geometry.
.ranslational geo$etry
0ranslational geometry means that the o&1ect has a constant cross5sectional shape generated &y
translation C mo/ing the shape in a fi9ed direction. 0he diagram &elow shows a C5core formed in
this way.
With translational geometry! any slice perpendicular to the a9is has the same shape. Dotating
electrical machines can often &e represented in this way! and so can many other de/ices such as
transformers and actuators. Ine/ita&ly this #D appro9imation neglects fringing and lea4age fields
in the third dimension! so the model must &e used with caution. 0he shape is usually drawn in the
x-y plane! with the z-a9is as the a9is of translation.
1otational geo$etry
Dotational geometry means that the o&1ect has a shape formed &y rotation a&out an a9is! li4e
turning on a lathe. 0he diagram &elow shows an o&1ect formed in this way from the same &asic C
shape used in the diagram a&o/e.
:&1ects with rotational geometry are usually descri&ed in cylindrical polar coordinates! with the
z5a9is as the a9is of rotation. 0he rotated shape is then defined in an r-z plane! which ma4es an
angle with the 3D x-a9is. 0his geometry differs from translational geometry in two important
respects. ;irst! it is a true representation of a real 3D o&1ect! so highly accurate solutions are
possi&le. "econdly! there are different e6uations to &e sol/ed! and different methods re6uired for
calculating 6uantities such as force and inductance. ;or all &uilt5in calculations Mag3et handles
these differences automatically! &ut the user needs to &e aware of the difference when using the
Calculator facilities.
In Mag3et! the #D cross5section of a rotationally symmetric model must &e drawn in the x-y
plane! with the y-a9is as the a9is of rotation. 0he x-y coordinates then correspond to the r-z
coordinates of the con/entional cylindrical polar coordinate representation.
2007 Infolytica Corporation
% Introduction to Ma"Net
Magnetic concepts
Mag3et can &e used to model practical de/ices without 4nowing anything a&out the differential
e6uations of electromagnetism or the numerical methods used to sol/e them. 0his section re/iews
some &asic magnetic concepts that are re6uired for ma4ing effecti/e use of Mag3etE more
ad/anced topics are co/ered in appendi9 .. 0he system of units used is the "I or M@". system!
although other systems will &e mentioned in the conte9t of magnetic materials.
Magnetic fl"4 density #
0he fundamental magnetic concept is the magnetic field descri&ed &y the /ector B! which is
termed the magnetic flux density. In two dimensions this field is commonly represented &y cur/ed
lines! 4nown as flu9 lines! which show &oth the direction and the magnitude of B. 0he direction
of a line gi/es the direction of B! and the spacing of the lines indicates the magnitudeE the closer
the lines! the greater the magnitude. 0he diagram &elow shows the flu9 plot for a simple
electromagnet where the C5shaped steel core on the left attracts the steel &ar on the right. 0he
two sides of the magneti<ing coil are represented &y s6uares.
.lthough the magnetic field is an a&stract concept! the effects of B are concrete and physical. 0he
force in a de/ice such as this electromagnet can &e e9pressed in terms of B. In simplified terms!
the flu9 lines can &e treated as elastic &ands pulling the &ar towards the magnet with a tensile
stress Aforce per unit areaB gi/en &y B
#
F #
0
. In this e9pression! B is the magnitude of the /ector
B! and
0
G ) 20
C-
is a fundamental constant. 0he unit of B is the tesla A0B! and the unit of
0
is the henry per meter A'FmB.
. direct physical interpretation of B is gi/en &y the Lorent< e6uation for the magnetic force on an
electric charge q mo/ing with /elocity u:
f = qu B
A252B
If the mo/ing charge is an electric current flowing in a conductor! then e6uation 252 leads to the
familiar e9pression f G Bli for the force on a conductor of length l carrying a current i. If the
conductor itself is mo/ing with /elocity u! then the Lorent< force causes a displacement of charge
in the conductor! leading to the e9pression e G Blu for the induced /oltage.
;re6uently it is not the flu9 density B that is re6uired! &ut the magnetic flu9 and the flu9 lin4age
. ;lu9 is defined as G BA when the flu9 density B is constant and perpendicular to a surface of
area A. If the field is not constant or perpendicular to the surface then the flu9 is gi/en &y an
integral! &ut the principle is the same. ;lu9 lin4age is the sum of the flu9es for all the turns of a
coilE this is G N for a coil of N turns where each turn lin4s a flu9 . 0he concept of flu9 gains
its /alue from ;aradayHs law of electromagnetic induction! which states that the /oltage induced
in a coil is e G d F dt. If the flu9 lin4age results from current flow! either in the same coil or in
a different coil! this leads to the definition of inductance as flu9 lin4age per ampere. 0he
calculation of inductance is discussed in appendi9 *.
Magnetic intensity 9
>lectric currents gi/e rise to magnetic fields. 0he currents may flow in conductors or coils! or
they may ta4e the form of electron spin currents in the atoms of a magnetic material. In either
case the pro&lem is to define the relationship &etween the magnetic field descri&ed &y B! and the
currents which are the source of the field. In see4ing a mathematical form for this relationship
that can &e used to sol/e practical pro&lems! it is useful to introduce a new magnetic 6uantity H,
which is related &oth to B and to the currents that are the source of B.
;or a magnetic field in free space! set up &y currents flowing in conductors! H is defined through
the e6uation B =
0
H . 0he relationship &etween H and the currents is then gi/en &y .mpIreHs
circuital law:

H.dl =

i A25#B
where the integral on the left is ta4en round a closed path! and the summation on the right is the
sum of all the currents enclosed &y the path. 0his e6uation ma4es it easy to calculate the field of a
simple system such as a long straight conductor or a toroidal coil! and it is the &asis of the
magnetic circuit concept! which is widely used for appro9imate calculations in electromagnetic
de/ices. In its differential form it leads to general methods that are applica&le to any pro&lemE this
point is e9panded in appendi9 ..
0he 6uantity H is 4nown as the magnetic intensityE from e6uation 25# it has units of amperes per
meter A.FmB. ;or magnetic fields in free space! there would &e little ad/antage in using HE
e6uation 25# could &e e9pressed in terms of B and
0
. When magnetic materials are present!
howe/er! the situation is completely different.
Magnetic $aterials
When a coil is wound on a core of magnetic material such as iron or steel! instead of a non5
magnetic material such as wood! the &eha/ior changes dramatically. If the core is closed! the coil
has a much higher inductance. If the core is open! so that the coil &eha/es as a magnet! the
e9ternal magnetic field is greatly increased. 0he material of the core has itself &ecome the source
of a magnetic field that reinforces the effects of the coil.
0he &eha/ior of magnetic materials can &e descri&ed &y modifying the relationship &etween B
and H. We may put:
B =
0
AH + MB
A253B
where H is the magnetic intensity gi/en &y e6uation 25#! and M is an induced magneti<ation in
the material which depends on H. 0hus H can &e regarded as the cause! which is related to
currents in conductorsE B is the effect! gi/ing rise to forces and induced /oltages.
+
l
u
*

d
e
n
s
i
t
y

B

0
T
1
;rom the point of /iew of the de/ice designer! the magneti<ation M is unimportantE what matters
is the relationship &etween H and the resulting B. 0his relationship can &e e9tremely comple9E
the /ectors may not &e in the same direction! and the present /alue of B may depend on the past
history as well as the present /alue of H. ;or many practical purposes! howe/er! these
comple9ities can &e ignored and the properties of the material e9pressed &y a simple cur/e
relating B to H. 0his is the B5H cur/e or magneti<ation characteristic of the material. . typical
e9ample is the cur/e for transformer steel shown &elow. 0his cur/e has three distinct regions: the
steep initial part of the cur/e! where a small increase in H produces a large increase in BE the
4nee
of the cur/eE and the saturated region &eyond the 4nee! where a large increase in H is re6uired for
any percepti&le increase in B. With this material! a flu9 density of a&out 2.) 0 mar4s the onset of
saturation. Mag3et pro/ides B-H cur/es for a wide range of magnetic materials! and also ena&les
the user to create new material cur/es.
123
124
12%
122
1
523
524
52%
522
5
5 1555 2555 #555 %555 )555
Ma"netic intensity H 0A6!1
Transformer steel magnetization characteristic
With soft magnetic materials such as transformer steel the magneti<ation /irtually
disappears when the e9ternal field is remo/ed! so the B-H cur/e passes through the origin.
;or these materials it is con/enient to e9press the relationship &etween B and H as
B =
0

r
H
A25)B
where
r
is a dimensionless property of the material 4nown as the relatie !ermea"ility. . non5
magnetic material has a relati/e permea&ility of 2. ;or a material such as transformer steel!
r
is
not constant &ut /aries with B or HE it has an initial /alue of se/eral thousand! &ut may fall &elow
200 in the saturation region. 0o simplify the study of some de/ices! and to speed up the solution!
it is useful to ha/e a fictitious material with a constant permea&ility corresponding to a linear
relationship &etween B and H. Mag3et pro/ides se/eral linear materials! with relati/e
permea&ility /alues ranging from 20 to 20
?
.
+
l
u
*

d
e
n
s
i
t
y

B

0
T
1
&er$anent $agnets
ermanent magnets ha/e the property that some magneti<ation remains in the material when the
e9ternal field is remo/ed. ;or these materials the important part of the B-H cur/e is the second
6uadrant! 4nown as the demagneti<ation characteristic! shown &elow for a ceramic ferrite.
52%
52#
522
521
5
#55 255 155 5
Ma"netic intensity H 07A6!1
#eramic ferrite demagnetization characteristic
ermanent5magnet materials ha/e two distincti/e parameters: the remanence B
r
and the coerci/ity
H
c
! which are defined as follows. B
r
is the /alue of B remaining in the material when the applied
H is <ero. H
c
is the negati/e /alue of H that must &e applied to reduce B to <ero. ;or the ceramic
ferrite characteristic shown a&o/e! the /alue of B
r
is 0.) 0! and the /alue of H
c
is C#-0 4.Fm. .n
additional parameter is the recoil permea&ility! which specifies the &eha/ior when the magnetic
conditions change. With some materials! if the magnitude of the negati/e Aor demagneti<ingB H is
increased and then reduced! the operating point does not retrace the original cur/e! &ut instead it
follows a recoil line with a smaller slope. 0he recoil permea&ility is the slope of this line di/ided
&y
0
E it is thus a relati/e permea&ility! and its /alue is often close to 2.
"ome permanent5magnet materials such as samarium co&alt ha/e a B-H characteristic which is
/irtually a straight line from A0! B
r
B to ACH
c
! 0B! and the recoil line has the same slope. 0hese
materials are treated as linear! and are specified &y the /alues of B
r
and H
c
instead of a B-H cur/e.
Units
:ccasionally the B-H data for magnetic materials are gi/en in units other than the "I or M@".
units of tesla and ampereFmeter respecti/ely. 0he following unit con/ersions may &e re6uired.
B: 2 tesla G 20 4ilogauss G ?).=2? 4ilolinesFinch
#
.
H: 2 ampereFmeter G 2#.=??20
C
3
oersted G #=.)20
C
3
ampereFinch.
%tatic and ti$e'varying fields
. static field does not change with time. ;or a gi/en model structure! the field is determined &y
the constant source currents or permanent magnets. If the source currents /ary with time! then
eddy currents may &e induced in any conducting materials in the model! and these currents will
modify the magnetic field. When the source currents are sinusoidal alternating 6uantities! and the
magnetic materials are linear! the eddy currents and the resulting magnetic field will also &e
sinusoidal. 0his is termed a time5harmonic field. ;or general transient pro&lems in/ol/ing time5
/arying fields! and the particular case of time5harmonic fields! the e6uations to &e sol/ed are
different from those of the static field gi/en in appendi9 .. 0he full /ersion of Mag3et pro/ides
transient and time5harmonic sol/ers in addition to static sol/ers for fields in two and three
dimensions. In many applications in/ol/ing alternating fields! howe/er! eddy5current effects are
small. In these cases a static field solution gi/es good results! as will &e shown in some of the
case studies.
Using MagNet effectively
0his section contains a few practical pointers to getting the &est out of Mag3et. "ome of the
suggestions may not ma4e much sense until the user has had some e9perience of using Mag3et!
at least to the e9tent of wor4ing through the tutorial in chapter #.
.he principle of progressive refine$ent
0he time ta4en for Mag3et to sol/e a pro&lem will depend on the comple9ity of the model and
the desired solution accuracy. ;or this reason alone it is not ad/isa&le to attempt an e9ceedingly
detailed model of a practical de/ice with e/ery geometric feature faithfully copied. 0here is also
a practical reason for a/oiding comple9 models initially. 0he first model is almost certain to
contain mista4esE if it is /ery detailed it will ta4e a long time to sol/e! and an e/en longer time to
re&uild when the solution has re/ealed the mista4es.
It is generally &est to &egin with a /ery simple model that preser/es the essential features of the
de/ice. "hapes and dimensions can &e simplified. "ome parts do not need to &e modeled at all.
;or e9ample! real coils will ha/e non5magnetic insulation separating the coil from the steel core
of the de/ice. 0here is no need to model such insulationE the coils can &e drawn touching the steel
without any significant error. 0he case studies in chapters 3 and ) gi/e some indication of what
can &e done with simple models.
;or the first solution of a new model! it is desira&le to get a flu9 plot as 6uic4ly as possi&le!
&ecause the flu9 plot is an effecti/e tool for re/ealing errors in the structure of the model. .t
this stage! there is no need to use the powerful adaption feature of Mag3et to impro/e the
solution accuracy.
When the new model is producing a sensi&le flu9 plot! and the numerical results for forces!
tor6ues and inductances are plausi&le! the sol/er and adaption options can &e used to impro/e the
accuracy. 0he case studies gi/e e9amples of the settings that may &e re6uired.
Getting acc"rate res"lts
Mag3et uses the finite5element method to sol/e the field e6uations. ;or a #D model! the entire
region is su&di/ided into a mesh of triangular elements! and within each element the true field is
appro9imated &y a polynomial. 0he accuracy can &e impro/ed &y increasing the order of the
polynomial: this is one of the sol/er options. It can &e further impro/ed &y using smaller elements
in critical regions of the model! which is done automatically when the user sets the adaption
options.
With any numerical method! perfect accuracy is unattaina&le. >/en with full use of the options
for impro/ing the accuracy! the solution generated &y Mag3et will contain errors. In most cases
these errors will &e insignificant! and are li4ely to &e smaller than the changes caused &y
manufacturing tolerances or /ariations in the magnetic properties of the materials.
Calculated /alues for forces and tor6ues are particularly sensiti/e to errors in the field solution! so
these /alues are li4ely to change significantly as the solution accuracy is impro/ed. If these are
the 6uantities of interest in the de/ice! then it is sensi&le to continue refining until the /alues
appear to ha/e con/erged. If you 4now that some tor6ue /alues or force components should &e
<ero! then you should continue until they are small in comparison with the useful /alues.
"imilarly! where 6uantities are e9pected to &e e6ual in magnitude! the difference should &e a
small fraction of the mean magnitude.
With certain types of pro&lem! the automatic method of refining the mesh may not yield an
accurate solution in Mag3et. . typical e9ample is the calculation of force or tor6ue in a de/ice
where the acti/e airgap is /ery small in comparison with the dimensions of the iron parts. 'ere
the /alues may not con/erge towards a limit as the refinement le/el is increased. Cases li4e
this re6uire the user to ta4e control of the mesh structure &y specifying the num&er of
su&di/isions along the edges of some parts of the model.
Getting help
Mag3et is a powerful and comple9 pac4age with many features that are not co/ered in this
introductory document. .lthough care has &een ta4en to ma4e the instructions in the document
clear and accurate! there may &e occasions when the user is in difficulty. 0he first point of
assistance is the comprehensi/e help facility in Mag3et! which gi/es detailed e9planations of the
features and instructions for their use.
;urther help is a/aila&le from the Infolytica we& site: h tt p : FF www. i n fo l y t ica. com! where there is
e9tensi/e tutorial material and a gallery of e9amples of the application of Mag3et to a /ariety of
electromagnetic modeling pro&lems.
Chapter 2 11
Tutorial: Ccore Electro!a"net
2007 Infolytica Corporation
Chapter #
."torial: ,'core (lectro$agnet
!ntrod"ction
0his chapter ta4es the user through the complete se6uence of using Mag3et to model a simple
electromagnetic de/ice: the C5core electromagnet shown &elow. 0he o&1ecti/es are as
follows:
0o e9amine the magnetic field in the /arious parts of the magnetic circuit.
0o determine the force on the s6uare armature plate.
0o determine the self5inductance of the coil.
0o modify the model &y changing the coil current! the core material! the shape of the
core! and the position of the armature.
0his is an e9ample of a de/ice that can &e represented 6uite well &y a #D model with translational
geometry! e/en though it is not /ery long in the direction of translation. 0he important lea4age
field &etween the poles is accurately modeled! and the part of the fringing field that is neglected
in a #D model has only a minor effect on the calculation of force. ;ringing and lea4age are
discussed later! on pages #) and ?#. .n important limitation of the model! howe/er! is that the
calculated inductance is /ery inaccurate &ecause the lea4age field in the third dimension has &een
neglected. If an accurate /alue for the inductance is re6uired! a 3D model must &e used. Desults
from #D and 3D models are compared on page 3J.
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Device Model
#rief description
0he diagram &elow shows the cross5section of the electromagnet with the dimensions in
millimeters. >ach side of the coil is a s6uare of side #0 mm! and the core is 20 mm thic4
throughout. 0he armature and the core each ha/e a depth of )0 mm! perpendicular to the plane of
the drawing. 0he coil has 2000 turns! and the current is initially #.0 ..
%5 ) 15
25 25
15
25 15 25 %5
Coil side 1 Coil side 2
Core
15
"ince the electromagnet is surrounded &y air! the magnetic field theoretically e9tends to infinity!
ma4ing it an o!en "oundary pro&lem. In practice the field decays rapidly with distance! and is
insignificant at a distance of a&out 20 times the magnet dimensions.
. techni6ue is a/aila&le in Mag3et for e9act modeling of an open &oundary! and for some types
of pro&lem this is the &est approach: an e9ample is gi/en in chapter 3. 'owe/er! for many
de/ices such as this electromagnet! good results can &e o&tained with the simpler techni6ue of
specifying an outer &oundary at a distance of = to 20 times the magnet dimensions.
Modeling the electromagnet in/ol/es the following steps:
Draw the cross5section of the core.
>9tend it in a straight line to form a solid &ody! and specify the material of the core.
In the same way! construct the armature and the two coil sides.
"pecify the coil.
Define the &ounded region of the pro&lem as an air "ox within which the field will &e
calculated.
Instruct the program to sol/e the e6uations and display the
results. 0hese steps are descri&ed in detail in the ne9t sections.
2007 Infolytica Corporation
Chapter 2
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Tutorial: Ccore Electro!a"net
Getting started
0he instructions gi/en &elow assume that you are familiar with Microsoft Windows! that you
ha/e installed Mag3et! and started the application &y dou&le5clic4ing the Mag3et icon. 0he
Mag3et Main window! shown &elow! should &e /isi&le.
8ro9ect :ar ;iew window
1 >9amine the Mag3et Main window! and identify the parts listed &elow.
0he ro1ect &ar displays information a&out the model! with ta&s at the top la&eled
:&1ect! Material! etc.
0he Kiew window is the wor4 area where you construct the model and /iew the
results.
*etween the ro1ect &ar and the Kiew window is a /ertical tool&ar with &uttons
for drawing and &uilding models.
.t the top of the Main window! there is the usual menu &ar! and two hori<ontal
tool&ars.
2 Clic4 the ma9imi<e &o9 in the Main window! so that the window fills the screen.
3 Mo/e the pointer to find the /ertical split &ar &etween the ro1ect &ar and the /ertical
tool&ar.
The !ointer changes to a s!lit sym"ol.
4 Drag the split &ar to the right a short distance! and release it.
Depeat until all the ta&s are /isi&le at the top of the ro1ect &ar.
) Mo/e the pointer o/er the &uttons on the tool&ars! pausing on each for the 7tooltip8
message that descri&es the action of the &utton.
.ll of the tool&ar &uttons are duplicated on the menus. ;or e9ample! the Draw
menu gi/es access to the same drawing tools as the &uttons on the /ertical
tool&ar.
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1% Introduction to Ma"Net
#"ilding the $odel
In Mag3et! the default units of length are meters. It is more con/enient to wor4 with dimensions
in millimeters. roceed as follows to change the default units and grid settings.
!nitial settings
1 :n the ;ile menu! clic4 3ew. .lternati/ely! clic4 the 3ew &utton.
2 :n the ;ile menu! clic4 "a/e. .lternati/ely! clic4 the "a/e &utton.
"elect or create a suita&le folder for storing the model.
3 "a/e the model with the name C-core electromagnet.
The model name in the $"%ect !age should change to #-core electromagnet.
4 :n the 0ools menu! clic4 "et Lnits to display a dialog:
) Clic4 the Length drop5down list.
"elect Millimeters.
- Clic4 :@ to close the dialog.
2 :n the Kiew menu! clic4 "et Construction Mrid to display a dialog:
8 "et the >9tent and "pacing /alues as follows:
Minimum (: 60 Ma9imum (: 20
Minimum Y: 20 Ma9imum Y: 20
( spacing: 5 Y spacing: 5
Clic4 :@.
25
15
Coil side 1
15
Coil side 2
25
Core 15
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Chapter 2
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Tutorial: Ccore Electro!a"net
Displaying the grid
Display the whole of the construction grid as follows.
15 :n the Kiew menu! clic4 Construction Mrid.
&ou should see a grid of a fe' ery small !oints( 'idely s!aced.
11 Clic4 the Dynamic Noom &utton a&o/e the ro1ect &ar.
12 In the Kiew window! drag the pointer downwards to <oom out! so that more of the
grid is /isi&le! and then release the &utton.
Depeat as re6uired until the whole grid is /isi&le. If you go too far! drag upwards
to <oom in.
If this is unsuccessful! clic4 the Kiew .ll &utton

to restore the original /iew! and then <oom again.
Instead of the Dynamic Noom &utton! you can use the Noom In or
Noom :ut &uttons. With these &uttons! each mouse clic4 changes the
<oom factor &y one increment.
Drawing the $agnet core
0he default drawing mode is "nap to Mrid! which means that lines! arcs and circles drawn with
the mouse will loc4 to the grid points. Drawing tools can &e acti/ated from &uttons on the /ertical
tool&ar! as shown in the instructions! or selected from the Draw menu. 0he de/ice cross5section!
with dimensions in millimeters! is reproduced &elow.
In Mag3et! all drawing ta4es place on a #D construction slice. ;or #D models this is 1ust the x-y
plane! &ut for 3D models the construction slice can &e mo/ed to other planes.
1 Clic4 the .dd Line &utton.
2 Draw the outline of the C5core as follows! starting at the &ottom left5hand corner
Apoint in the diagramB.
Mo/e the pointer. :&ser/e the coordinates displayed on the "tatus &ar at the
&ottom of the screen.
Clic4 near the grid point at AC)0! C#0B.
Mo/e the pointer near A0! C#0B and clic4.
Mo/e the pointer near A0! C20B and clic4.
Continue in this way for the rest of the core.
)o not dra' the lines for the coil sides or the armature at this stage. *ee the next
!age for the method of deleting any lines dra'n in the 'rong !lace.
%5 ) 15
25
25 %5
8
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14 Introduction to Ma"Net
3 If you ha/e drawn any lines in the wrong place! correct them as follows.
ress >sc to stop line drawing.
Clic4 the "elect Construction "lice Lines &utton.
Clic4 the line that you want to delete.
The selected line should turn red.
ress the Delete 4ey.
Clic4 the .dd Line &utton and redraw the line.
4 When you ha/e finished drawing! press >sc to terminate line drawing.
) 0he finished outline of the core should loo4 li4e this:
,o$pleting the $agnet core
1 Clic4 the "elect Construction "lice "urfaces &utton.
2 Clic4 anywhere inside the core.
The interior of the core should fill 'ith a red !attern.
3 Clic4 the Ma4e Component in a Line &utton to display a dialog:
4 In the dialog &o9! change the Distance to 40.
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) Clic4 the Material drop5down list.
- "croll down through the list and select the material CD20: Cold rolled 2020 steel.
2 Change the 3ame from ComponentO2 to Core.
8 Clic4 :@.
A com!onent named #ore should "e sho'n in the $"%ect !age of the Pro%ect "ar.
Ma;ing the ar$at"re
1 Clic4 the .dd Line &utton! and draw the outline of the armature.
Ma4e sure that that there is a = mm gap &etween the armature and the core.
2 Clic4 the "elect Construction "lice "urfaces &utton! and clic4 inside the armature.
3 Clic4 the Ma4e Component in a Line &utton.
The )istance should "e sho'n as +, mm( and the -aterial as #./,: #old .olled
/,/, steel.
Change the 3ame to Armature.
Clic4 :@.
4 0he :&1ect page of the ro1ect &ar should show two components: Core and
.rmature.
0f the name of a com!onent is 'rong( you can edit the name in the $"%ect !age "y
selecting the name and !ressing 12.
%5 ) 15
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15
25 15 25 %5
Coil side 1 Coil side 2
Core
15
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13 Introduction to Ma"Net
Ma;ing the two coil sides
1 Draw the outline of coil side 2.
&ou do not need to dra' a com!lete square. 3ust dra' the additional lines required
for this sha!e.
2 "elect the coil side! and ma4e the component with the following entries in the dialog
&o9:
0he Distance should &e )0 mm.
;or the material! select Copper: =.--e- "iemensFmeter.
>nter the 3ame as Coil side 1.
3 In a similar way! ma4e Coil side #.
4 0he :&1ect page should show two new components for these coil sides.
Defining the coil
0he ne9t step is to lin4 the two sides to form a coil! and to specify the num&er of turns and the
current.
1 In the :&1ect page! clic4 Coil side 2.
The com!onent name should "e highlighted( and the left-hand coil side mar4ed in the
5ie' 'indo'.
2 'old down the Ctrl 4ey! and clic4 Coil side #.
Both com!onent names should "e highlighted( and the coil sides mar4ed in the 5ie'
'indo'.
3 :n the Model menu! clic4 Ma4e "imple Coil.
#oil6/ should a!!ear in the $"%ect !age.
4 "elect the Coil page of the ro1ect &ar! &y clic4ing the Coil ta&.
#oil details should "e dis!layed.
) Clic4 on 2 0urn Athe si9th item in the list for CoilO2B.
ress ;#.
The dis!lay should change to an edit "ox dis!laying the num"er /.
Change 2 to 1000 and press >nter.
- Clic4 on 0 . rms.
ress ;#.
Change 0 to 2 and press >nter.
Although the "ox sho's .-* current( in this static !ro"lem it is actually the
alue of the constant coil current.
2 "elect the :&1ect page of the ro1ect *ar! &y clic4ing the :&1ect ta&.
This dis!lays the names of the model com!onents again.
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Chapter 2
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Tutorial: Ccore Electro!a"net
6ir *o4
.n outer &oundary is added to the model &y creating a new component called an air "ox( which
encloses all the other components. 0he default &oundary condition for the air &o9 is ;lu9
0angential Asee appendi9 .B! which means that the outer &oundary is a flu9 line. 0his is a
reasona&le appro9imation if the &oundary is sufficiently far away from the de/ice.
0he air &o9 is much larger than the electromagnet! so it is not con/enient to draw it with the
mouse. Instead! coordinates are entered with the 4ey&oard.
If the air &o9 is made in the same way as the other components! it will contain holes
corresponding to the shapes of those components. 0his is undesira&le! &ecause it will cause
pro&lems later when the model is modified. 0o pre/ent holes &eing formed! an option must &e
selected in the Ma4e Component in a Line dialog! as descri&ed in step 22 &elow.
1 :n the 0ools menu! clic4 @ey&oard Input *ar if there is no chec4 mar4 &eside it.
The 7ey"oard 0n!ut "ar should "e dis!layed at the "ottom of the -ain 'indo'(
a"oe the *tatus "ar( 'ith a text "ox for entering coordinates.
2 Clic4 the .dd Circle &utton.
The *tatus "ar at the "ottom of the 'indo' should sho':
"pecify the center point and a point on the radius of the circleP
3 Clic4 in the te9t &o9 of the @ey&oard Input &ar.
If the co5ordinates are not shown as A0! 0B! edit the te9t.
4 ress >nter! or clic4 the >nter &utton.
The status text should change to:
CenterG A0! 0! 0B! DadiusG A0! 0! 0B
If the status te9t has not changed! press >nter again.
) Change the co5ordinates in the te9t &o9 to A400! 0B. ress >nter! or clic4 the >nter
&utton.
This should create a circle of radius +,, mm( 'hich is too large to dis!lay. The
status text should change "ac4 to: "pecify the center point and a point on theP
If the status te9t has not changed! press >nter again.
- ress >sc to terminate circle drawing.
2 Clic4 the Kiew .ll &utton.
This dis!lays the large circle for the air "ox.
8 In the Kiew menu! clic4 Construction Mrid.
This turns off the dis!lay of grid !oints( 'hich is no longer required.
Clic4 the "elect Construction "lice "urfaces &utton.
15 Clic4 anywhere inside the circle.
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25 Introduction to Ma"Net
11 Clic4 the Ma4e Component in a Line &utton
to ma4e the air &o9.
Ignore 'oles must &e acti/e. If the chec4 &o9 is empty! clic4 the &o9.
This is essential9 other'ise later !arts of the tutorial 'ill fail.
0he Distance should &e )0 mm.
;or the material! select .ID.
A0. is at the to! of the list of :o' 1requency -aterials. )o not select 5irtual Air(
'hich is a s!ecial material in -agNet.
>nter the 3ame as Air o!.
Clic4 :@.
12 ;rom the ;ile menu! select "a/e! or clic4 the "a/e &utton.
0t is good !ractice to sae often( in case the !rogram crashes.
0iewing the $odel
0o /iew the electromagnet in more detail again! use the <oom &uttons as follows.
1 Clic4 the Noom In &utton.
osition the pointer outside the model.
'old down the left mouse &utton! and drag out a ru&&er5&and &o9 enclosing the
entire model.
Delease the &utton.
The region contained in the "ox 'ill ex!and to fill the 5ie' 'indo'.
2 0o ad1ust the si<e of the displayed /iew! use the <oom &uttons as follows:
Clic4 the Noom In or Noom :ut &utton as re6uired.
lace the mouse pointer at a point in the model that you want to remain fi9ed on
screen.
Clic4 as many times as re6uired to change the si<e of the displayed /iew.
If necessary! use the scroll &ars to ad1ust the position of the displayed /iew.
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Tutorial: Ccore Electro!a"net
%olving the $odel
Mag3et uses the finite5element method of sol/ing the electromagnetic field e6uations. 0his
su&di/ides a #D model into small triangular elements! forming a mesh that co/ers the entire
region. 0he true field within each element is appro9imated &y a polynomial in terms of the field
/alues at a small num&er of points! and Mag3et sol/es for the un4nown field /alues at these
points for all the elements. ;or e9ample! a first5order polynomial 1ust gi/es a linear interpolation
&etween the field /alues at the /ertices of the triangles.
0he accuracy will &e higher with a fine mesh or a high5order polynomial. *y default! a first5order
polynomial is used! which is fast &ut not /ery accurate.
!nitial sol"tion
1 :n the Kiew menu! clic4 Initial #D Mesh.
This should sho' the default mesh that -agNet uses to sole the field equations.
2 :n the "ol/e menu! clic4 "tatic #D.
The *oler Progress dialog should a!!ear "riefly. ;hen the solution is com!lete( the
Post Processing "ar should "e dis!layed at the "ottom of the -ain 'indo'.
3 Close the ost rocessing &ar as follows:
:n the 0ools menu! clic4 ost rocessing *ar.
.lternati/ely! clic4 the 'ide &o9 on the left5hand side of the &ar.
0iewing the fl"4 plot
1 "elect the ;ield page of the ro1ect &ar &y clic4ing the ;ield ta&.
The 1ield !age has ta"s at the "ottom for #ontour( *haded and Arro'. The #ontour
!age is actie "y default.
2 Clic4 ;lu9 ;unction! then clic4 Lpdate Kiew.
A contour !lot of the flux function is the ordinary flux !lot. 0t should "e similar to the
!lot "elo'. The !lot is irregular "ecause the solution is not ery accurate at this
stage.
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22 Introduction to Ma"Net
!$proving the sol"tion acc"racy
0o impro/e the solution accuracy! the polynomial order of the elements can &e increased as
follows.
1 :n the "ol/e menu! clic4 "et "ol/er :ptions to display a dialog:
Increase the olynomial :rder from 2 to # &y clic4ing the up arrow.
Clic4 :@.
2 :n the "ol/e menu! clic4 "tatic #D.
;hen the soler finishes( the flux lines should "e smoother( indicating a more
accurate solution.
3 "a/e the model again.
1efining the $esh
Increasing the polynomial order has made some impro/ement! &ut the real pro&lem is that the
mesh is too coarse in parts of the model. Mag3et can refine the mesh automatically C a process
termed ada!tion.
1 :n the "ol/e menu! clic4 "et .daption :ptions to display a dialog:
Clic4 Lse h5adaption.
In the ercentage of >lements to Define &o9! enter 25
In the 0olerance &o9! enter 0.5
At each ste!( -agNet 'ill select the 'orst 2<= of elements and generate ne'
elements 'ith half their dimensions.
2 Clic4 :@.
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Tutorial: Ccore Electro!a"net
3 :n the "ol/e menu! clic4 "tatic #D.
The *oler Progress dialog sho's the ada!tion ste!s. The !rocess continues until the
change in the calculated alue of stored energy is less than the s!ecified tolerance of
,.<=. The resulting flux !lot should resem"le the diagram "elo'.
4 >9amine the change in the mesh as follows.
:n the Kiew menu! clic4 Initial #D Mesh.
This should sho' the original mesh.
:n the Kiew menu! clic4 "olution Mesh.
This should sho' the refined mesh.
) "a/e the model again.
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2% Introduction to Ma"Net
&ost'processing
.fter a field solution has &een o&tained! other 6uantities can &e calculated and displayed. 0his is
termed !ost-!rocessing. Mag3et has a ost rocessing &ar that displays glo&al 6uantities such as
force and flu9 lin4age! and also gi/es access to the Calculator! which is descri&ed in chapter ?. In
addition! color maps of the field can &e displayed! and the mouse used to display field /alues at
any point in the model.
Getting fl"4 density val"es
1 In the ;ield page of the ro1ect &ar:
Clic4 the "haded ta&
Clic4 Q*Q "moothed
Clic4 Lpdate Kiew.
This should sho' a color ma! of the flux density magnitude( su!erim!osed on the flux
!lot.
2 :n the /ertical tool&ar! clic4 the ;ield ro&e &utton.
Mo/e the mouse pointer anywhere in the model region! ut do not clic".
0he "tatus &ar should show two /alues at the left5hand side: the flu9 function!
and Q*Q "moothed.
0gnore the flux function. The other num"er is the flux density magnitude at the
!osition of the !ointer.
Mo/e the pointer without clic4ing! and o&ser/e the change on the "tatus &ar.
3 'old the mouse still! with the pointer anywhere in the model region! and clic4 once.
. new area should appear &elow the Kiew window! called the 0e9t :utput &ar.
0his displays the coordinates of the point! and the flu9 density magnitude.
>/ery clic4 in the model region displays a new set of /alues.
4 Close the 0e9t :utput &ar &y clic4ing this item on the 0ools menu! or clic4ing the
'ide &o9 on the left5hand side of the &ar.
3otice two features of the magnetic field in this de/ice. ;irst! the magnetic field in the airgap
&etween the poles and the armature is not confined to the pole region! &ut spreads into the
surrounding airE this is termed fringing. "econdly! some flu9 ta4es a short cut across the space
&etween the poles! instead of crossing the airgap and passing through the armatureE this is termed
lea4age.
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Tutorial: Ccore Electro!a"net
Graphs of fl"4 density
Mag3et pro/ides four items 55 three on the Tools menu and one on the Extensions menu 55 for
plotting graphs of field /alues in the model. 0he first three of these items ena&le the user to define
a path as a line! arc or circle and then display graphs of field /alues along the path. 0he fourth is a
simple 1ield *am!ler! which displays graphs of /alues along lines parallel to the x or y a9es.
Field Sampler
It is instructi/e to display graphs of the flu9 density components B
x
and B
y
along a line passing
through the airgap &etween the armature and the poles! with end5point coordinates A#.=! C30B and
A#.=! 30B. 0his will show the /ariation of the flu9 density in each airgap! and the rapid decay
&eyond the edges of the poles.
1 :n the >9tensions menu! clic4 1ield *am!ler to display a dialog:
2 In the Data >ntry panel! clic4 >nd oint.
3 >nter data /alues as follows for the ( and Y coordinates:
( Y
"tart #.= C30
>nd #.= 30
Iterations 2 ?2
*ince the y-coordinate range is >, mm( setting the iteration alue to >/ 'ill sam!le
the field at increments of / mm.
4 In the Mraph :ptions! select Y Kalues.
) Clic4 %uery .nd Create Mraph.
A gra!h 'indo' should "e dis!layed.
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24 Introduction to Ma"Net
- Clic4 the Ma9imi<e &o9 to e9pand the graph window.
2 In the graph data area! clic4 the *9 or *y ta& to display the corresponding graphs.
The gra!h of Bx should resem"le the follo'ing:
8 .fter /iewing the graphs! close the Mraph window and ma9imi<e the Kiew window.
Glo*al /"antities
0he Mlo&al %uantities section of the ost rocessing &ar has pages for displaying the calculated
/alues of energy! force and flu9 lin4age for the model. 3umerical results gi/en &elow were
o&tained with /ersion ?.#2.2 of Mag3et.
Energy
*y default! the ost rocessing &ar should display the >nergy page. If this is not /isi&le! clic4 the
Mlo&al %uantities ta& on the left! and then clic4 the >nergy ta&. If you cannot see two /alues
displayed! do the following.
Mo/e the pointer to find the split &ar &etween the ost rocessing &ar and the
@ey&oard Input &ar.
The !ointer changes from an arro' to a s!lit sym"ol.
Drag the split &ar upward a short distance and release it. Depeat until the /alues are
/isi&le.
You may also need to drag the te9t panels in the ost rocessing &ar.
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Tutorial: Ccore Electro!a"net
0he displayed /alues should &e similar to the following:
"tored Magnetic >nergy 0.3#02 R
Co5energy 0.3#2= R
"ee appendi9 * for a discussion of energy and co5energy. 0he difference &etween these two
/alues is an indication of the le/el of saturation in the steel parts of the model.
Flux linkage and inductance
In the ost rocessing &ar! clic4 the ;lu9 Lin4age ta&. 0he displayed /alue of the flu9 lin4age
with the coil should &e similar to the following:
CoilO2 0.3#0S W&
0he self5inductance of the coil may &e calculated from the flu9 lin4age:
: =

=
0.3#0S
= 0.2?0) ' = 2?0.) m'
i #.0
.lternati/ely! the self5inductance may &e calculated from the stored magnetic energy:
: =
#;
=
# 0.3#02
= 0.2?00 ' = 2?0.0 m'
i
#
A#.0B
#
"ee appendi9 * for details of these methods of calculating inductance.
Forces
Mag3et automatically calculates forces on all &odies in the model. . &ody is defined as one of:
a set of connected components surrounded &y air!
a current5carrying component.
In this case! there are two &odies: the armature! and the set comprising the core and the two coil
sides.
1 :n the ost rocessing &ar! clic4 the ;orce ta&.
2 If you cannot see the force /alues displayed for the two &odies! do the following.
Mo/e the pointer to find the split &ar &etween the ost rocessing &ar and the
@ey&oard Input &ar.
The !ointer changes from an arro' to a s!lit sym"ol.
Drag the split &ar upward a short distance and release it. Depeat until the force
/alues are /isi&le.
You may also need to drag the te9t panels in the ost rocessing &ar.
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23 Introduction to Ma"Net
0he force components and magnitudes! in newtons! should &e similar to the following:
Bod# f
x
f
y
f
z
Q f Q
Core T
Coil side 2 T Coil side #
T#).#3 C0.03?) 0 #).#3
.rmature C#).#0 0.02)0 0 #).#0
"ince this is a #D model! the z components are <ero.
*y symmetry! the y components should also &e <ero. 0he non5<ero /alues are an
indication of numerical error in the solution! &ut they are /ery small in comparison with
the x /alues.
0he x components should &e e6ual and opposite. 0he small difference in magnitude is
another indication of numerical error.
0he signs indicate a force to the left on the armature! and a force to the right on the core
and coil sides. 0his signifies a force of attraction! as e9pected from the flu9 plot.
Modifying the $odel
:nce a model has &een constructed! it is a straightforward matter to ma4e changes. >ach o&1ect in
the model! listed in the :&1ect page of the ro1ect &ar! has a set of properties that can &e modified.
In addition! e/ery property of the model can &e !arameterized: it can &e gi/en a list of /alues! and
Mag3et will create a corresponding set of pro&lems. ;or the electromagnet! it is useful to /ary the
coil current and the armature position in this way. If Mag3et is licensed for parameteri<ation! the
set of pro&lems will &e sol/ed automatically. 0his feature is disa&led with the &asic /ersion of
Mag3et! &ut a license to acti/ate it can &e purchased su&se6uently.
0arying the coil c"rrent
Parameterization
1 In the :&1ect page of the ro1ect &ar! right clic4 the CoilO2 o&1ect! and select
roperties to display a dialog:
2 Clic4 the arameters ta&.
$"sere that there is a alue 2 in the Ex!ression field for the #urrent !arameter:
3 >dit the >9pression field for the Current parameter so that it contains the following
list of /alues:
2, 4, 6, $, 10
4 ress >nter to accept the list.
0f the field turns red( there is an error in the field( 'hich must "e corrected.
) Clic4 :@ to close the roperties dialog.
- In the :&1ect page of the ro1ect *ar! clic4 the name of the model
AC5core electromagnetB.
This cancels the selection of the #oil6/ o"%ect. 0f it is left selected( it interferes
'ith the field !lots descri"ed "elo'.
2 "elect the ro&lem page of the ro1ect *ar.
:&ser/e that fi/e pro&lems ha/e &een created! each with a different coil current.
If Mag3et is licensed for parameteri<ation! all of the pro&lems will &e mar4ed for
solution! otherwise only the first pro&lem will &e mar4ed.
8 :n the "ol/e menu! clic4 "tatic #D.
If Mag3et is not licensed for parameteri<ation! only the first pro&lem will &e
sol/ed automatically. In this case! the others can &e sol/ed manually as follows:
:pen the Coil arameters page! and delete the first item from the Current
parameter list! so that the list &ecomes 4, 6, $, 10. Clic4 Close.
:n the "ol/e menu! clic4 "tatic #D again. 0his sol/es for a current of ) ..
Depeat this process for currents of ?! S and 20 ..
;or each of the solutions in turn! inspect the solution as descri&ed &elow.
Post-processing 1
0he instructions &elow are applica&le when Mag3et is licensed for parameteri<ation. ;or the
&asic /ersion! only one pro&lem ID will &e /isi&le in any of the lists! and it will not &e possi&le to
display animations or graphs of results.
1 "elect the ;ield page of the ro1ect &ar.
Notice that the Pro"lem 0) num"er is set to /.
2 Kiew the contour plot and the shaded plot for Q*Q as &efore.
3 Clic4 the ro&lem ID drop5down list on the ;ield page! and select 3! corresponding to
a current of ? ..
4 Clic4 Lpdate Kiew to display the plots for pro&lem 3.
The flux lines are less smooth than 'ith !ro"lem /( "ecause the solution is less
accurate at the higher flux densities in this !ro"lem. 0t is !ossi"le to im!roe the
accuracy "y reducing the tolerance setting in the Ada!tion $!tions dialog.
) Lse the ;ield ro&e as &efore to e9plore the flu9 density /alues in different parts of
the model.
Notice that flux density alues are much higher than "efore( exceeding 2 tesla in !art
of the core.
- Display a graph of the B-H characteristic for the core material as follows:
"elect the Material page of the ro1ect &ar.
In the Model Materials! right5clic4 CD20: Cold rolled 2020 steel and select
roperties to display a dialog:
Clic4 the Magnetic ermea&ility ta& and resi<e the dialog &o9 to display the B-H
characteristic:
:&ser/e that the material saturates at a&out 2.S 0.
Clic4 Close.
Lse the ;ield ro&e to find where the core is saturated.
2 "imilarly! inspect the plots for ro&lem ID =! corresponding to a current of 20 ..
8 In the ;ield page! clic4 .nimate.
-agNet generates an image of the !lot for each !ro"lem 0)( and then dis!lays them
in sequence in a se!arate 'indo'.
Ma9imi<e the .nimation window! and then use the &uttons at the &ottom of the
display to control the speed etc.
15 Close the .nimation window.
0his will display a "a/e Changes dialog. Clic4 3o.
Post-processing 2
1 :n the ost rocessing &ar! clic4 the ;orce ta&.
1orce alues for !ro"lem / are dis!layed.
2 Clic4 the ro&lem ID drop5down list on the ost rocessing &ar! and select ro&lem
#.
:&ser/e the force /alues for pro&lem #.
3 "imilarly! o&ser/e the force /alues for the other pro&lems.
4 Display a graph of force /alues as follows.
;or the .rmature! clic4 in the te9t &o9 for the ;orce Kector! where the force
components are shown.
The ?ra!h *election "utton should "e ena"led.
Clic4 the Mraph "election &utton to display a graph:
The ta"s at the "ottom of the data area select the x( y or z com!onent of force.
$nly the x-com!onent is of interest in this model. Note that the current alues are
not dis!layed in this gra!h( "ecause -agNet uses this method to sho' the
ariation of force 'ith any !arameter. The current alues corres!onding to the
!ro"lem num"ers / to < are 2( +( >( @ and /, A res!ectiely.
Ma9imi<e the graph window.
) 0he force /alues might &e e9pected to increase as the s6uare of the current. :&ser/e
that the magnitude of the x-component of force does not increase in this way! &ecause
the core is saturating at high current /alues.
- Close the graph window.
6ltering the core $aterial
0he procedure &elow will change the core material from ordinary low5car&on steel ACD20B to a
high 6uality magnet iron ADem4oB. . similar procedure can &e used to change the material of any
other component in the model.
1 Display the model again:
:n the Kiew menu! clic4 "olid Model.
2 "elect the :&1ect page of the ro1ect &ar.
3 Dight5clic4 the Core component! and select roperties to display a dialog:
4 Clic4 the Material ta&! and from the drop5down list select Dem4o: "oft pure iron.
) Clic4 :@ to apply this change and close the Core roperties dialog.
The color of the core should hae changed to re!resent the ne' material.
- :n the "ol/e menu! clic4 "tatic #D.
2 Kiew the solution results as &efore.
Dem4o has a higher saturation flu9 density than CD20! so a greater proportion of the core is
unsaturated! resulting in a larger force on the armature. 0he results should &e similar to the
following! which were o&tained with Mag3et /ersion ?.#2.2.
Material %orce at 2 A %orce at 6 A %orce at 10 A
CD20 #).#0 3 2)?.J 3 #0J.) 3
Dem4o #).-- 3 2=2.) 3 ##0.= 3
0his change of material has made a small impro/ement. ;or significant impro/ement! the
shape of the core must &e changed.
,hanging the geo$etry
With large /alues of coil current! part of the core is saturated magnetically! so the electromagnet
is less effecti/e. 0he diagram &elow shows a change to the shape of the core that will put more
material in the critical areas! there&y reducing the /alue of the flu9 density in these parts of the
core.
25
25 25
) 15
15
25 25
25
25 %5
15
0o ma4e this change! the original model will &e modified with the shift and distort facilities in
Mag3et. *efore doing this! the original drawing lines will &e deleted as descri&ed &elow.
1 "a/e the model as C-core electromagnet mod.
2 :n the Kiew menu! clic4 Construction Mrid.
This dis!lays the construction grid again.
3 Clic4 the "elect Construction "lice Lines &utton.
4 "elect all the lines as follows:
osition the pointer outside the model.
'old down the left mouse &utton! and drag out a ru&&er5&and &o9 enclosing the
entire model.
Delease the &utton.
All the lines should "e mar4ed in red. A line 'ill not "e mar4ed if the ru""er-"and
"ox fails to enclose it com!letely.
If some lines are not mar4ed! select all the lines again.
) :n the 4ey&oard! press the Delete 4ey.
All the mar4ed lines should "e deleted.
- Mo/e the left5hand coil side as follows:
In the :&1ect page! clic4 Coil side 2.
:n the Model menu! clic4 "hift Components to display a dialog:
In the "hift Kector te9t &o9! change the te9t to &10, 0, 0'.
Clic4 :@ to apply this shift and close the dialog.
The left-hand coil side should hae moed /, mm to the left.
2 Change the shape of the core as follows:
:n the Model menu! clic4 Distort Kertices.
The model ertices are mar4ed in the 5ie' 'indo':
;1
;2
Clic4 the /erte9 la&eled K2 in the diagram.
The selected ertex is colored red.
Mo/e the pointer to the re6uired position! displaced from the original position &y
20 mm in &oth x and y. Do not press the mouse &utton while doing this.
A.u""er "andB lines follo' the !ointer.
Clic4 again to mo/e the /erte9 to the new position:
;1
;2
Depeat for the /erte9 K#.
8 0his has only changed part of the component. Complete the change as follows:
Clic4 the "how (YACNB &utton a&o/e the Kiew window.
This sho's the "ac4 ie' of the model:
;1
;#
;%
;2
Mo/e /ertices K3 and K) to the same positions as K2 and K#.
Clic4 the "how (YATNB &utton.
This restores the original ie'.
:n the "ol/e menu! clic4 "tatic #D.
15 Kiew the solution results as &efore.
With a core material of Dem4o! the results should &e similar to the following! which were
o&tained with Mag3et /ersion ?.#2.2.
Model %orce at 2 A %orce at 6 A %orce at 10 A
:riginal #).J? 3 2=2.) 3 ##0.= 3
Modified #=.2J 3 ##).0 )3J.=
In the a&sence of saturation! the force would increase &y J times when the current increases from
# . to ? .! and &y #= times when the current increases from # . to 20 .. With the modified
model! the force increase is S.SJ times at ? .! and 2-.= times at 20 .. 0hus! the change has
almost eliminated saturation for currents of up to ?.. 0here is considera&le impro/ement in the
performance at 20 .! &ut saturation is still significant at this current.
Moving the ar$at"re
If the armature is displaced from its position of alignment with the magnet poles! there will &e a
restoring force that /aries with the displacement. 0o e9amine this effect! another form of
parameteri<ation will &e used to mo/e the armature component relati/e to the rest of the model.
0his introduces the topic of user-defined !arameters.
In the Model roperties dialog! there is a arameters page where the user can create a new named
parameter and gi/e it a range of /alues. 0he new parameter can &e used to modify other
properties of model components! so that they depend on one parameter. In this case! a user5
defined parameter will &e used to /ary the y5coordinate of a shift ector that determines the
displacement of the armature.
It is necessary to remo/e the list of /alues from the coil current parameter! otherwise Mag3et will
generate a new pro&lem for each com&ination of /alues for the current parameter and the shift
parameter.
Creating a user-defined parameter
1 In the :&1ect page! right5clic4 the model name C5core electromagnet mod! and select
roperties to display a dialog:
2 "elect the arameters page and scroll down to the end of the list of parameters:
3 In the first /acant arameter field! enter ()ift.
4 In the 0ype drop5down list for this parameter! select 3um&er.
) In the >9pression field! enter the following list of /alues:
0, 1, 2, *, 4, 5
- ress >nter to accept the list.
0f the field turns red( there is an error in the field( 'hich must "e corrected.
2 Clic4 :@ to close the Model roperties dialog.
Parameterizing the model
1 In the :&1ect page! right5clic4 CoilO2 and select roperties.
2 In the Coil roperties dialog! open the arameters page.
3 >dit the list of Current /alues so that only the /alue # remains.
4 Close the Coil roperties dialog.
) In the :&1ect page! right5clic4 .rmature and select roperties.
- In the .rmature roperties dialog! open the arameters page.
2 "croll down the list of parameters to find "hiftKector:
8 In the >9pression field! enter the following array for the /ector! including the s6uare
&rac4ets:
+0, ,()ift,mm, 0-
The name of the user-defined !arameter *hift must "e !receded "y a = sym"ol. The
suffix =mm conerts alues from millimeters to the "asic units of meters.
ress >nter to accept the array.
0f the field turns red( there is an error in the field( 'hich must "e corrected.
15 Clic4 :@ to close the roperties dialog.
11 "elect the ro&lem page of the ro1ect &ar.
:&ser/e that fi/e pro&lems ha/e &een created! each with a different armature
shift /ector.
"hift AmmB 0 2 # 3 ) =
C;9 A3B #=.2J #=.03 #).?= #3.J3 ##.J2 #2.SS
C;y A3B 0.03 0.SS 2.-= #.=2 3.2J 3.S#
Soling and post-processing
1 "ol/e as "tatic #D.
;ith the "asic ersion of -agNet( only the first !ro"lem 'ill "e soled automatically.
*olutions of the other !ro"lems can "e o"tained "y the method descri"ed on !age 2C.
2 Kiew the solution and the glo&al 6uantities in the same way as &efore.
3 Display graphs of the x and y components of force on the armature.
The results should "e similar to the follo'ing( 'hich 'ere o"tained 'ith -agNet
ersion >.2/./.
&ostscript
0he ta&le &elow compares the #D results for the original C5core electromagnet with the results
from a 3D model! using Mag3et /ersion ?.#2.2.
2. *.
"tored magnetic energy 0.3#02 R 0.)SJ# R
Co5energy 0.3#2= R 0.)J-0 R
;lu9 lin4age 0.3#0S W& 0.)SSS W&
"elf5inductance 2?0.) m' #)).) m'
;orce on the armature #).#0 3 #).-? 3
0hese results show that the #D model predicts the force of attraction with good accuracy! &ut it
seriously under5estimates the flu9 lin4age and hence the inductance of the coil. 0he 3D solution
includes all the fringing and lea4age field components! some of which are ignored in the #D
model. In this de/ice the fringing field ma4es only a small difference to the force on the armature!
&ut the lea4age field has a significant effect on the flu9 lin4age. 0here is a corresponding increase
in the stored magnetic energy and co5energy.
0he 3D solution gi/es an inductance /alue that is =#U higher than the #D result! whereas the
force /alue is only #.3U higher.
Chapter #
%1
Case $tudies: Translational Geo!etry
2007 Infolytica Corporation
Chapter 3
,ase %t"dies:
.ranslational Geo$etry
!ntrod"ction
0he case studies in this chapter co/er a range of modeling pro&lems for de/ices with translational
geometry. De/ices with rotational geometry are discussed in chapter ). 0hese case studies are
arranged in order of increasing difficulty! progressi/ely introducing further features of Mag3et!
so it is ad/isa&le to wor4 through them in se6uence. 0he detailed descriptions of &asic Mag3et
operations gi/en in chapter # will not &e repeated! &ut any new operations will &e fully e9plained.
In some of the case studies! a #D model does not always gi/e accurate results &ecause the de/ice
is not /ery long in the translational direction. "ince the user needs to &e aware of the limitations
of #D modeling! these case studies also include 3D results for comparison. ;or all of the case
studies in chapter 3 and chapter )! the instructions assume that a new model is &eing started! as
descri&ed in the tutorial in chapter #. 0o a/oid tedious repetition! this instruction is gi/en in
a&&re/iated form in the case studies.
"ome of the case studies re6uire shapes to &e drawn from arcs and straight lines. Drawing an arc
re6uires the user to specify the coordinates of the center! the start point and the end point. .rcs
are always drawn counter5cloc4wise from the start point to the end point. If the arc

drawing tool is selected from the Draw tool&ar! the order of the points is center! start! end.
0he Draw menu has other arc tools with the points in different orders.
('core electro$agnet
0he diagram &elow shows an >5core electromagnet. It is similar in principle to the C5core
electromagnet of chapter #! &ut it is a &etter magnetic design &ecause the coil is nearer to the
airgap! and &oth sides of the coil are acti/e. 0he o&1ecti/es are to determine the self5inductance of
the coil and the force on the armature! and to e9plore the magnetic field distri&ution in the de/ice.
#* #*
8
#5 #5
2007 Infolytica Corporation
%2 Introduction to Ma"Net
Modeling the device
0he diagram &elow shows the #D model of the de/ice! with the dimensions as multiples of a
&asic unit xE the airgap length g is independent of x. 0he shaded areas are the two coil regions!
representing the two sides of the coil shown in the 3D /iew a&o/e.
4*
*
"
* *
2* * *
%*
0he dimensions in this diagram are chosen so that the armature and the core can &e made from
laminations punched from sheet steel without any waste! as shown in the diagram &elow.
0he &asic dimension x is 20 mm! the airgap length g is = mm! and the depth of the electromagnet
is ?0 mm. 0he coil has 2000 turns! carrying a current of #.0 ..
45
15
)
15 15
25 15 15
%5
.s with the C5core electromagnet! an air &o9 must &e drawn around the model with a radius of
a&out 20 times the model dimensions.
Creating the model
1 "tart a new model and sa/e it as /-core electromagnet.
2 "et the model length units to millimeters.
3 "et and display the construction grid.
4 Let the coordinate origin &e the point in the center of the top edge of the middle
pole.
) Construct components for the core and the armature:
"weep distance: ?0 mm.
Material: CD20: Cold rolled 2020 steel.
- Construct components for the two coil sides:
"weep distance: ?0 mm.
Material: Copper: =.--e- "iemensFmeter.
2 Ma4e a single coil from the two components:
3um&er of turns: 2000.
Current: #.0 ..
8 Construct an air &o9 from a circle centered at the origin! with a radius of )00 mm:
Ignore 'oles must &e acti/e in Ma4e Component In . Line.
"weep distance: ?0 mm.
Soling and post-processing
0he following sol/er settings should gi/e an accurate #D solution without e9cessi/e computing
time. 0he user is in/ited to try the effect of different settings.
1 "et the options for sol/ing as follows in the "ol/e menu:
"ol/er :ptions: Material 0ype Default!
3ewton tolerance 2U! Ma9imum 3ewton Iterations #0!
CM tolerance 0.02U.
olynomial order #.
.daption :ptions: Lse h5adaption!
ercentage of >lements to Define #=U!
0olerance 0.#U!
Ma9imum 3um&er of "teps 20.
2 "ol/e as "tatic #D.
3 Inspect the contour plot of the flu9 function and the shaded plot of the smoothed QBQ
/alues.
4 Inspect the computed glo&al 6uantities! and calculate self5inductance /alues as
follows Asee appendi9 * for detailsB:
;rom the flu9 lin4age: : G F i( where is the flu9 lin4age for the coil! and i
is the coil current.
;rom the stored energy: : G #; F i
#
! where ; is the stored magnetic energy.
%a$ple res"lts
0he results &elow were o&tained with Mag3et /ersion ?.#2.2. ;or comparison! results from a 3D
solution are also gi/en.
2. *.
"tored magnetic energy: 0.-=3# R 0.SS-? R
Co5energy: 0.-=?2 R 0.SJ0= R
;orce on core and coils: T?).2) 3 T??.)0 3
;orce on armature: C?3.J3 3 C??.#2 3
;lu9 lin4age: 0.-=)? W& 0.SSS# W&
Inductance from flu9 lin4age: 0.3--3 ' 0.)))2 '
Inductance from stored energy: 0.3-?? ' 0.))3S '
Disc"ssion
2! model
"ince the airgap length and the coil ampere5turns are the same as for the C5core electromagnet!
the airgap flu9 density /alues are e9pected to &e similar. 0he total pole5face area is three times as
great! so the force of attraction and the self5inductance are also e9pected to &e a&out three times
as great! which is the case. If the coil ends are neglected! the coil resistance will &e only twice that
of the C5core electromagnet! so the >5core electromagnet appears to &e a &etter electromagnetic
de/ice.
"! model
.s with the C5core electromagnet! the 3D solution gi/es a significantly higher /alue for the self5
inductance: in this case 2=U higher than the #D result. "imilarly! the 3D solution gi/es a higher
/alue for the force: 3.?U higher than the #D result for the force on the armature. ;or comparison!
with the C5core electromagnet the 3D solution gi/es an inductance /alue that is =#U higher than
the #D result! and a force /alue that is #.3U higher.
8
25
25
Magnetic latch with a per$anent $agnet
0he diagram &elow shows a magnetic latch! which ta4es the form of a C5core permanent magnet
with steel poles and a steel armature. 0his is similar to the C5core electromagnet of chapter #!
e9cept that the e9citation for the magnetic circuit is pro/ided &y a permanent magnet. 0he
dimensions of the poles! armature and airgap are the same as for the C5core electromagnet! and
the thic4ness of the permanent magnet is #0 mm.
Modeling the device
0he diagram &elow shows the cross5section of the de/ice with the dimensions in mm. .ll parts
ha/e a depth of )0 mm. 0he poles and the armature are made from 2020 cold5rolled steel! and the
magnet from .lnico5J3*.
%5 ) 15
15
25
15
.s with the C5core electromagnet! an air &o9 must &e drawn around the model with a radius of
a&out 20 times the model dimensions.
Creating the model
1 "tart a new model and sa/e it as 0M latc).
2 "et the model length units to millimeters.
3 "et and display the construction grid.
4 Let the coordinate origin &e the point mid5way &etween the poles.
) Construct components for the poles and the armature:
"weep distance: )0 mm.
Material: CD20: Cold rolled 2020 steel.
- Construct the component for the magnet:
"weep distance: )0 mm.
Material: .LJ3: .lnico5J3*.
0ype: uniform.
Direction: A0! 2! 0B.
This s!ecifies that the "loc4 is uniformly magnetized( 'ith the magnetization ector in
the !ositie y direction.
2 Construct an air &o9 from a circle centered at the origin! with a radius of )00 mm:
Ignore 'oles must &e acti/e in Ma4e Component in a Line.
"weep distance: )0 mm.
Soling and post-processing
0he following sol/er settings should gi/e an accurate #D solution without e9cessi/e computing
time. 0he user is in/ited to try the effect of different settings.
1 "et the options for sol/ing as follows in the "ol/e menu:
"ol/er :ptions: Material 0ype Default!
3ewton tolerance 2U! Ma9imum 3ewton Iterations #0!
CM tolerance 0.02U.
olynomial order #.
.daption :ptions: Lse h5adaption!
ercentage of >lements to Define #=U!
0olerance 0.2U!
Ma9imum 3um&er of "teps 20.
2 "ol/e as "tatic #D.
3 Inspect the contour plot of the flu9 function and the shaded plot of the smoothed QBQ
/alues.
4 Inspect the computed glo&al 6uantities.
%a$ple res"lts
0he results &elow were o&tained with Mag3et /ersion ?.#2.2. ;or comparison! results from a 3D
solution are also gi/en.
2. *.
"tored magnetic energy: C0.?0=0 R C0.J22# R
Co5energy: 0.?0=0 R 0.J2)? R
;orce on poles and magnet: T3-.#0 3 T32.-= 3
;orce on armature: C3-.2- 3 C32.?= 3
Disc"ssion
Energy
0he stored magnetic energy /alues are negati/e in this model &ecause B and H are in opposite
directions in the permanent5magnet material! so the energy density calculated from e6uation *52
A.ppendi9 *B is negati/e in this part of the model. When the total energy is calculated &y
integrating the energy density o/er the /olume of the model! the negati/e energy in the
permanent5magnet material e9ceeds the positi/e energy in the rest of the model. Kersions of
Mag3et earlier than ?.22.# reported a positi/e /alue for the stored energy! calculated &y a
different method. "ee the Mag3et help for further information.
2! model
0he airgap flu9 density is somewhat higher than in the C5core electromagnet! gi/ing an increased
force of attraction! and the ma9imum flu9 density in the steel is also higher. *ecause the
permanent magnet has a low recoil permea&ility! there is much more lea4age flu9 at the &ac4 of
the magnet than with the coil in the C5core electromagnet.
"! model
In this 3D model the force on the armature is 2=U lower than the /alue from the #D model. In
contrast! with the C5core electromagnet! the force from a 3D model is #.3U larger. 0he reduction
in force can &e e9plained as follows. 0here is significant flu9 lea4age &etween the poles at the
ends! which is ignored in the #D model. 0his is reflected in the larger /alue for stored magnetic
energy in the 3D model. .s a result! less flu9 crosses the airgap! so there is a reduction in the
force of attraction. 0his effect is greater if the width of the permanent magnet is reduced.
= f
#"s*ar forces
0he diagram &elow shows two long non5magnetic &us&ars! where the force due to the currents is
to &e calculated in two cases: currents in the same direction! and currents in opposite directions.
;or this case study the &ars are 0.# m apart! 0.# m high! and 0.2 m wide. 0he current density is
= .Fmm
#
! so the current in each &ar is 200 4..
0here is a simple analytical e9pression for the force per unit length &etween two infinitely long
&us&ars in free space:
# 20
-
4 i
2
i
#
d
V3FmW A352B
where i
2
and i
#
are the currents in the &ars! 4 is a constant that depends on the shape of the
conductors and their separation! and d is the distance &etween centers of the &us&ars. 0his is
&ased on the formula gi/en &y *ewley V2W and "teele V#W. 0he /alue of 4 in this case study can &e
calculated from the analytical formula to &e 0.J)JS0 when d G 0.3 m! so the theoretical force is
?.33#0 43FmE this ser/es as a chec4 on the results from Mag3et.
Modeling the device
0he diagram &elow shows the #D model of the &us&ars! with dimensions in meters.
521
522 521
522 522
-ar<1 -ar<2
0heoretically the field e9tents to infinity! &ut an accurate representation of this open5&oundary
condition in Mag3et depends on the directions of the currents. If the currents are in opposite
directions! so that the net current is <ero! then the @el/in transformation method descri&ed in
.ppendi9 . can &e used to represent the open &oundary e9actly. 'owe/er! if the currents are in
the same direction! this method cannot &e used. 0he magnitude of the force will &e the same as in
the other case! &ut the field distri&ution will &e different. If /alues of the flu9 density are re6uired!
a closed &oundary must &e used in the form of an air &o9 sufficiently far from the &us&ars to
model the open5&oundary condition accurately.
,"rrents in opposite directions
0o use the @el/in transformation method! the open &oundary e9tension to Mag3et must ha/e
&een installed! as descri&ed in .ppendi9 C. If this has not &een done! create the model as
descri&ed &elow! and then continue with the section headed #urrents in the same direction Apage
=2B. 3ote that an air &o9 will &e created automatically &y the open &oundary e9tension! so the
user should not create an air &o9 in this case.
Creating the #asic model
1 "a/e the new model as Busars 1.
2 "et the model length units to meters.
3 "et and display the construction grid.
4 Let the coordinate origin &e the center of the #D model! so that the &us&ars are
disposed symmetrically a&out the origin.
) Construct a component for each &us&ar:
"weep distance: 2 m.
Material: Copper: =.--e- "iemensFmeter.
3ame the components *ar 2 and *ar #.
- Ma4e a single coil from the two components:
3um&er of turns: 2.
Current: 2.0e= ..
2 "elect and delete all the construction5slice lines.
$dding the open #oundary
1 :n the *oundary menu! select :pen *oundary to display the dialog:
2 Change radius of the inner &oundary to 1.5! and the scale factor to 0.1.
3 Clic4 :@.
This should create t'o cylindrical air "oxes( one named airspace enclosing the
"us"ars( and a much smaller "ox named e9terior. Each circular edge is su"diided
into +, !oints( and there is an een !eriodic "oundary condition lin4ing the
corres!onding edges of the t'o "oxes. This ma4es the interior of the small "ox
re!resent the s!ace outside the large "ox. The screen dis!lay should resem"le the
follo'ing:
Soling and post-processing
1 "et the options for sol/ing as follows in the "ol/e menu:
"ol/er :ptions: Material 0ype Default!
3ewton tolerance 2U! Ma9imum 3ewton Iterations #0!
CM tolerance 0.002U.
olynomial order #.
.daption :ptions: Lse h5adaption!
ercentage of >lements to Define #=U!
0olerance 0.02U!
Ma9imum 3um&er of "teps 20.
2 "ol/e as "tatic #D.
3 Inspect the resulting solution mesh as well as the force /alues.
4 Compare the force with the theoretical /alue of ?.33# 43.
Chapter #
)1
Case $tudies: Translational Geo!etry
,"rrents in the sa$e direction
.t sufficiently large distances from the conductors! the field lines will appro9imate to circles. .
circular air &o9 is therefore a suita&le choice for the closed &oundary. 0he default ;lu9 0angential
&oundary condition is appropriate in this case! &ut the pro&lem is to choose a suita&le si<e for the
&o9. . range of si<es will &e e9amined &y ma4ing the si<e of the &o9 a parameter.
%odifying the model
1 :pen the model *us&ars 2 and sa/e the model as Busars 2.
2 In the :&1ect page! select and delete the following open &oundary items:
the e9terior!
the airspace.
3 "elect and delete the construction slice arcs for the these items.
4 Construct a new air &o9! with a radius of 0.) m! centered at the origin.
Ignore 'oles must &e acti/e in Ma4e Component In . Line.
"weep distance 2 m.
) "elect the Coil page of the ro1ect &ar.
- If the tree directory for CoilO2 is not /isi&le! clic4 the T sign ne9t to CoilO2.
2 Dight5clic4 the item *ar #!;aceO# *ar #!;aceO2.
8 "elect De/erse Coil "ide Direction.
The dis!lay should change to:
Bar 2(1ace6/ Bar 2(1ace62.
In the Model arameters page! define a new parameter Bo!1adius with /alues:
0.4! 1! 2! 4
15 In the hori<ontal tool&ar! clic4 the Lpdate Window .utomatically &utton.
11 Clic4 the Dynamic Dotation &utton.
12 In the Kiew window! drag the pointer to rotate the model so that the front and
&ac4 faces of the air &o9 are /isi&le:
)2 Introduction to Ma"Net
13 In the /ertical tool&ar! clic4 the "elect Component Kertices &utton.
The air "ox has four ertices( sho'n as square dots at the ends of the lines in the
diagram a"oe.
14 Clic4 a /erte9 of the air &o9! then right5clic4 and select roperties.
The 5ertex Pro!erties dialog is dis!layed.
1) In the Kerte9 page! note the Local osition parameter.
1or exam!le( DE,.+( ,F
1- :pen the arameters page.
12 In the >9pression field for the osition parameter! enter an e9pression such as:
+,Bo!1adius, 0- where the sign corresponds to the sign in the Local osition
parameter.
18 Depeat the procedure for the other three /ertices.
&ie'ing the parameterized model
1 In the ro1ect &ar! clic4 the ro&lem ta&.
2 Clic4 pro&lem #! then clic4 Lpdate Kiew.
$"sere the increased size of the air "ox in relation to the "us"ars.
3 "imilarly! /iew pro&lems 3! )! and = in succession.
$"sere the !rogressie increase in the radius of the air "ox. *ince this is a 2)
model( the de!th of the air "ox has no significance.
Soling and post-processing
1 "et the options for sol/ing as follows in the "ol/e menu:
"ol/er :ptions: Material 0ype
Default!
3ewton tolerance 2U! Ma9imum 3ewton Iterations #0!
CM tolerance 0.002U.
olynomial order #.
.daption :ptions: Lse h5adaption!
ercentage of >lements to Define #=U!
0olerance 0.02U!
Ma9imum 3um&er of "teps 20.
2 "ol/e as "tatic #D.
;ith the "asic ersion of -agNet( only the first !ro"lem 'ill "e soled automatically.
*olutions of the other !ro"lems can "e o"tained "y the method descri"ed in cha!ter 2
D!age 2CF.
3 3ote the /alues of force o&tained with different si<es of air &o9.
Chapter #
)#
Case $tudies: Translational Geo!etry
%a$ple res"lts
0he results &elow were o&tained with Mag3et /ersion ?.#2.2.
Currents in opposite directions
With the @el/in open &oundary! the computed force /alues are as follows:
;orce on *arO2 C?33#.3 3
;orce on *arO# ?33#.) 3
Mean force magnitude ?33#.) 3
Currents in the same direction
Kalues for the mean force magnitude on the two &ars are as follows! for different air &o9 si<es.
Air o! radius %orce
0.) m ?S03 3
2 m ?3)) 3
# m ?33# 3
) m ?33# 3
Disc"ssion
0he analytical /alue for the force is ?33#.0 3. With currents in opposite directions! the open
&oundary method gi/es a result /ery close to this /alue. With currents in the same direction!
where a closed &oundary is re6uired! the force is o/er5estimated &y -.)U when the air &o9 radius
is 0.) m. .n air&o9 radius of # m! which is a&out 20 times the radius of the model! is sufficient to
gi/e high accuracy in the force calculation. 0o achie/e this accuracy! the default CM tolerance
has &een reduced to 0.002U! and the adaption tolerance has &een set to a /ery low /alue of
0.02U. 3e/ertheless! this #D model sol/es /ery rapidly &ecause there are no magnetic materials
present.
)% Introduction to Ma"Net
+ield in a cylindrical cond"ctor
0he magnetic field of a long solid cylindrical conductor is well 4nownE the flu9 lines are circles
centered on the a9is. :utside the conductor! the magnitude of the flu9 density /aries as 2Fr! where
r is the radial distance from the a9is. Inside the conductor the magnitude /aries directly with r! so
the field /anishes on the a9is.
If a cylindrical hole is &ored in the conductor from one end to the other! there will &e no magnetic
field in this hole pro/ided the hole is coa9ial with the conductor. In other words! there is no field
inside a hollow cylindrical conductor.
. remar4a&le result! which is not widely 4nown! is the nature of the field in the hole when it is
&ored off5center! so that its a9is is displaced from the a9is of the cylinder! as shown in the
diagram &elow. 0his field is perfectly uniform C the flu9 lines are parallel straight lines in a
direction normal to the plane containing the two a9es V3W.
Modeling the device
.lthough the dimensions of the cylinders are not critical! the si<e and position of the hole re6uire
a little care. In theory! the optimum hole si<e is half the diameter of the cylinder! positioned
&etween the a9is and the circumference. 0he hole then 1ust &rea4s through the surface of the
cylinder! &ut this is difficult to model in Mag3et. If the circles are drawn so that the hole is a
tangent to the cylinder! the material will &e too thin and the model will not gi/e accurate results.
. satisfactory arrangement is shown in the diagram a&o/e! where the minimum thic4ness of
material in the cylinder is 20 mm! the radius of the solid cylinder is S0 mm and the radius of the
hole is 30 mm. . current of ?J 4. will then gi/e a flu9 density close to 0.2 0 in the hole.
Creating the model
1 "tart a new model and sa/e it as C#lindrical conductor.
2 "et the model length units to millimeters.
3 "et and display the construction grid.
4 Let the coordinate origin &e the center of the solid cylinder.
) Construct the single component for this model from the area &etween two circles!
with the center of the hole at A)0! 0B:
Ignore 'oles must not e acti2e in Ma4e Component In . Line.
"weep distance: 200 mm.
Material: Copper: =.--e- "iemensFmeter.
- Ma4e a coil from this component:
3um&er of turns: 2.
Current: ?J000 ..
2 Construct an air &o9 from a circle centered at the origin! radius =00 mm:
Ignore 'oles must &e acti/e in Ma4e Component In . Line.
"weep distance: 200 mm.
Chapter #
))
Case $tudies: Translational Geo!etry
Soling and post-processing
1 "et the options for sol/ing as follows in the "ol/e menu:
"ol/er :ptions: Material 0ype Default!
3ewton tolerance 2U! Ma9imum 3ewton Iterations #0!
CM tolerance 0.0002U.
olynomial order #.
.daption :ptions: Lse h5adaption!
ercentage of >lements to Define #=U!
0olerance 0.002U!
Ma9imum 3um&er of "teps 20.
2 "ol/e as "tatic #D.
3 Inspect the contour plot of the flu9 function and the shaded plot of QBQ smoothed.
$"sere the nature of the flux lines in the hole. Gse the 1ield Pro"e to get alues of
the flux density at seeral !oints in the hole.
4 Lse the ;ield "ampler on the >9tensions menu to o&tain /alues for B
y
o/er a grid of
nine e6ually spaced points in the hole as follows.
In the Data >ntry panel! clic4 "pacing.
>nter data /alues as follows for the ( and Y coordinates:
( Y
"tart #0 C#0
"pacing #0 #0
Iterations 3 3
;rom the ;ield 3ame drop5down list! select *y "moothed.
Clic4 %uery.
A set of nine alues of By should "e dis!layed in the text area at the to! of the 1ield
*am!ler dialog.
%a$ple res"lts
0he ta&le &elow shows the de/iation of B
y
from the mean /alue B
y0
of 0.200002 0 o/er a grid of
nine e6ually spaced points in the hole. 0he 6uantity displayed is the percentage de/iation B
y
F
B
y0
. 0hese results were o&tained with Mag3et /ersion ?.#2.2.
x AmmB
y AmmB
#0 )0 ?0
C#0 T0.002-U C0.000#U C0.0022U
0 T0.0020U C0.000#U C0.002)U
T#0 T0.002?U C0.0003U C0.0022U
)4 Introduction to Ma"Net
,ylindrical screen in a "nifor$ field
Description of the pro*le$
0he diagram &elow shows the flu9 plot of a hollow iron cylinder placed in a trans/erse magnetic
field. In the a&sence of the cylinder the field is uniform! so the diagram demonstrates the
screening effect of the cylinder.
0his pro&lem ma4es an interesting case study for Mag3et! firstly &ecause the results can &e
compared with an analytical solution if the magnetic material is linear V3W! and secondly &ecause
it illustrates a techni6ue for producing a uniform magnetic field. ;or this case study! the inner
radius of the cylinder is #) mm! the outer radius is 30 mm! the relati/e permea&ility of the iron is
2000! and the magnitude of the applied field is 0.2 0.
Modeling the device
0o produce a uniform magnetic field in Mag3et! we use a 7coil8 formed from two sla&s! as
shown in the diagram &elow. 0he arrows show the direction of current flow! and the coil is
assumed to &e /ery long in this direction! gi/ing a #D field.
Chapter #
)'
Case $tudies: Translational Geo!etry
If this coil is surrounded &y air! the field ta4es the form shown &elow.
.s this flu9 plot shows! the field in the middle of the coil is appro9imately uniform. It can &e
made e9actly uniform &y a simple modification: the coil is enclosed in a close5fitting air &o9 with
a ;ield 3ormal &oundary condition on four surfaces. 0he diagram &elow shows the resulting field
pattern.
*oundary conditions are discussed in appendi9 .. 0his use of the ;ield 3ormal condition
effecti/ely em&eds the de/ice in a material of infinite permea&ility. ;lu9 lines ha/e to enter the
top and &ottom &ounding surface at right angles! and they find return paths round the sides Anot
/isi&le in Mag3etB of <ero reluctance. 0he result is a perfectly uniform field of finite e9tent!
which is a useful appro9imation to the theoretical uniform field of infinite e9tent. When an iron
cylinder is placed in this field! the result is shown in the flu9 plot on page =?.
0he relationship &etween the coil current and the flu9 density is found from .mpIreHs circuital
law C e6uation 25# of Chapter 2. 0he result is:
i
B
0
=
0
l
V0W A35#B
where B
0
is the flu9 density in the a&sence of an iron cylinder! i is the coil current! and l is the
length of each coil side in the direction of the field. 0he result does not depend on the separation
&etween the coil sides! or on their thic4ness.
-
;or the screening pro&lem! we need to generate a uniform field o/er a region that is significantly
larger than the cylinder. . region #)0 mm s6uare should &e satisfactory for a cylinder with an
outer diameter of ?0 mm. 0he re6uired current is therefore:
i =
B
0
l
=
0.2 0.#)
= 2J.20
4.
A353B

0
) 20
Creating the model
1 "tart a new model and sa/e it as C#lindrical screen 1.
2 "et the model length units to millimeters.
3 "et and display the construction grid! using a spacing of ? mm.
4 Let the coordinate origin &e the center of the hollow cylinder! which is also the center
of the coil.
) Construct the cylinder from two concentric circles! of radii #) mm and 30 mm.
Lse a sweep distance of 200 mm and the material ML3: Delati/e permea&ility
2000.
- Construct the left5hand coil side from a rectangle #)0 mm long and ? mm wide:
Left5hand edge: 2#0 mm from the origin.
"weep distance: 200 mm.
Material: Copper: =.--e- "iemensFmeter.
3ame of the component: Coil side 1.
2 Ma4e the right5hand coil side &y copying! as follows.
"elect the left5hand coil side &y clic4ing Coil side 2 in the :&1ect page.
In the Model menu! clic4 "hift Components.
Clic4 the chec4 &o9 for ma4ing a copy.
>nter the following /alue for the shift /ector:
A2*4, 0, 0B
Clic4 :@.
Dename the new component Coil side 2.
8 Ma4e a coil from the two coil sides:
3um&er of turns: 2.
Current: 2J200 ..
$ir #ox and #oundary conditions
1 Construct a s6uare air &o9 that encloses the coil! with a side length of #)0 mm:
Ignore 'oles must &e acti/e in Ma4e Component In . Line.
"weep distance: 200 mm.
2 In the :&1ect page! clic4 the T sym&ol &eside the air &o9 component to display its
tree directory.
3 "elect four faces as follows:
"elect ;aceO3 &y clic4ing.
'old down the "hift 4ey and clic4 ;aceO?.
1our faces should "e highlighted.
4 In the *oundary menu! clic4 ;ield 3ormal.
$ne "oundary condition should a!!ear in the $"%ect !age.
) Lse the Dynamic Dotation tool to inspect the faces of the air &o9.
$"sere the !attern for the 1ield Normal "oundary condition on four faces.
Soling and post-processing
- "et the options for sol/ing as follows in the "ol/e menu:
"ol/er :ptions: Material 0ype Default!
3ewton tolerance 2U! Ma9imum 3ewton Iterations #0!
CM tolerance 0.02U.
olynomial order #.
.daption :ptions: Lse h5adaption!
ercentage of >lements to Define #=U!
0olerance 0.02U!
Ma9imum 3um&er of "teps 20.
2 "ol/e as "tatic #D.
8 Inspect the flu9 plot and the shaded plot of Q*Q smoothed.
Lse the field pro&e to e9plore the flu9 density /alues inside and outside the
cylinder! and in the material of the cylinder.
Confirm that the /alue inside the cylindrical ca/ity is a&out 2U of the /alue far
away from the cylinder.
"how that the field is uniform inside the cylindrical ca/ity &y increasing the num&er
of flu9 lines as follows:
In the ro1ect &ar! select the Kiew page.
Dight5clic4 Contour lot and select roperties
Change the 3um&er of Inter/als from #2 to 2001.
Clic4 .pply.
The region outside the caity should turn "lac4 "ecause there are so many flux lines(
"ut in the caity the lines should "e straight and !arallel.
(4ploiting sy$$etry
It is possi&le to e9ploit the symmetry of this pro&lem &y modeling only one 6uarter of the de/ice!
as shown &elow. 0he coil current is half of the /alue for the full model! and the re6uired &oundary
conditions are ;ield 3ormal on faces .! * and C! and ;lu9 0angential on face D. 0his is a useful
techni6ue for more comple9 models.
C
D
-
Creating the model
A
1 "tart a new model and sa/e it as C#lindrical screen 2.
2 "et the model length units to millimeters.
3 "et and display the construction grid! using a spacing of ? mm.
4 Let the coordinate origin &e the center of the hollow cylinder! which is also the center
of the coil.
) Construct the 6uarter cylinder from two concentric arcs! of radii #) mm and 30 mm!
as follows:
Clic4 the .dd .rc &utton.
Clic4 near the origin for the center of the arc.
Clic4 near the point A#)! 0B for the first point on the arc.
Clic4 near the point A0! #)B for the second point on the arc.
Draw the second arc of radius 30 mm in a similar way.
.dd two lines to complete the outline.
Ma4e the component! using a sweep distance of 200 mm and the material ML3:
Delati/e permea&ility 2000.
- Construct the coil side from a rectangle 2#0 mm long and ? mm wide:
Dight5hand edge: 2#0 mm from the origin.
"weep distance: 200 mm.
Material: Copper: =.--e- "iemensFmeter.
3ame of the component: Coil side.
2 Ma4e a coil from the single coil side:
3um&er of turns: 2.
Current: -J?0 ..
$ir #ox and #oundary conditions
1 "elect and delete all the construction5slice lines and circles.
2 Construct a s6uare air &o9 that encloses the coil:
"ide 2#0 mm.
"weep distance: 200 mm.
3 In the :&1ect page! clic4 the T sym&ol &eside the air &o9 component to display its
tree directory.
4 "elect three faces corresponding to .! * and C in the diagram as follows:
"elect ;aceO3 &y clic4ing.
'old down the "hift 4ey and clic4 ;aceO=.
Three faces should "e highlighted.
) In the *oundary menu! clic4 ;ield 3ormal.
- In a similar way! apply the ;lu9 0angential &oundary condition to ;aceO?.
2 Lse the Dynamic Dotation tool to inspect the faces of the air &o9! to chec4 that the
&oundary conditions ha/e &een applied correctly.
Soling and post-processing
1 "et the options for sol/ing as follows in the "ol/e menu:
"ol/er :ptions: Material 0ype Default!
3ewton tolerance 2U! Ma9imum 3ewton Iterations #0!
CM tolerance 0.02U.
olynomial order #.
.daption :ptions: Lse h5adaption!
ercentage of >lements to Define #=U!
0olerance 0.02U!
Ma9imum 3um&er of "teps 20.
2 "ol/e as "tatic #D.
3 Inspect the flu9 plot and the shaded plot of Q*Q smoothed.
4 Chec4 that the flu9 density /alues are similar to those o&tained with the full model of
the cylinder and coil.
Disc"ssion
0he theoretical /alue V3W for the flu9 density inside the cylindrical ca/ity is 2.202 m0 for the
cylinder used in this case study! when it is placed in a uniform field of 200 m0! of infinite e9tent.
When a/eraged o/er a grid of nine points in the hole! the /alue in the model is 2.2?3 m0. 0he
difference of =.?U can &e attri&uted to the appro9imate representation of an infinite field. In
practice this error is unimportant! &ecause the screening effect is strongly dependent on the
relati/e permea&ility of the screen! which is li4ely to &e highly /aria&le in practice. 0o see this
effect! try replacing the linear material ML3 with a non5linear material such as CD20.
. .
.ransfor$er e/"ivalent circ"it
0he diagram &elow shows a con/entional shell5type transformer with the secondary wound o/er
the top of the primary. ;or simplicity! the windings ha/e e6ual num&ers of turns in this case
study.
0he full e6ui/alent circuit for the transformer is shown &elow! where x
2
and x
#
are the primary
and secondary lea4age reactances respecti/ely! and H
m
is the magneti<ing reactance.
%x
2
%x
#
2 #
%H
m
.
c
0hese reactances are related to the magnetic field through the inductances:
x
2
= l
2
!
x
#
= l
#
!
H
m
=
-
A35)B
where is the angular fre6uency. .lthough this appears to &e a time5harmonic pro&lem! a static
solution will &e sufficient for determining these inductances &ecause transformers are normally
designed to minimi<e eddy5currents in the core.
When the windings ha/e e6ual num&ers of turns! the lea4age inductances l
2
and l
#
are defined as
follows:
l
2
= :
2
- ! l
#
= :
#

-
A35=B
where - is the mutual inductance! and :
2
and :
#
are the self5inductances of the two windings.
0hese lea4age inductances represent flu9 produced &y one winding which fails to lin4 with the
second winding! &ut 7lea4s8 into the surrounding air Aor other non5magnetic materialB instead.
;rom appendi9 *! the mutual inductance is gi/en &y
- =

# 2
=

2#
A35?B
i
2
i
#
where
#2
is the flu9 lin4age with winding # when winding 2 carries a current i
2
! and
2#
is
the flu9 lin4age with winding 2 when winding # carries a current i
#
.
i
Mag3et calculates flu9 lin4ages for each coil! so it is possi&le in principle to determine :
2
! :
#
and
-! and hence to find the /alues for the reactances in the e6ui/alent circuit. . potential difficulty
with this approach! howe/er! is that the lea4age inductances in e6uation 35= are the small
differences &etween large 6uantities. .ny errors in the calculation of :
2
! :
#
and - will &e
magnified enormously in the resulting /alues of l
2
and l
#
. . similar pro&lem occurs in
e9perimental wor4! where it is not possi&le to measure :
2
! :
#
and - with sufficient accuracy to
get good results for l
2
and l
#
&y su&traction.
>9perimentally! the reactance parameters are determined from open5circuit and short5circuit tests.
In the open5circuit test! the secondary is open5circuited so that 0
#
G 0! and the normal /oltage is
applied to the primary winding. Measurements at the primary terminals gi/e the /alue of the total
primary reactance x
2
T H
m
.
In the short5circuit test! the secondary terminals are short5circuited and a low /oltage is applied
to the primary! sufficient to circulate the normal full5load current. 0he secondary current is then
close to its normal full5load /alue. Lnder these conditions the current flowing in the magneti<ing
reactance H
m
is negligi&le! so measurements at the primary terminals gi/e the total lea4age
reactance x G x
2
T x
#
. It is not possi&le to determine x
2
and x
#
separately &y this method! so it is
usually assumed that each is e6ual to half of the total.
0o simulate the conditions of a short5circuit test in Mag3et! the windings are supplied with e6ual
and opposite currents. ;rom appendi9 *! the sum of the lea4age inductances is gi/en &y
l
2
+ l
#
#;
s
=
#
! A35-B
s
where i
s
is the current in each winding and ;
s
is the stored energy.
Modeling the device
0he diagram &elow shows the model for the transformer! with the dimensions in meters. 0he core
depth! perpendicular to the plane of the diagram! is 0.? m. 0he primary coil sides are la&eled 2
and 2XE the secondary coil sides are la&eled # and #X.
523
521
521 521
522
521 521
521
524
021 011
52% 52%
01=1 02=1
>ach coil has 2000 turns. Lnder no5load conditions! when only one coil carries current! the
current is #.0 .. ;or the simulated short5circuit condition where the coils carry e6ual and opposite
currents! the current is #00 .! gi/ing a current density of = M.Fm
#
Aor = .Fmm
#
B.
;or this pro&lem it is necessary to use a linear material! &ecause e6uations 35= to 35- are /alid for
a linear system only. . suita&le choice is ML3! with a constant relati/e permea&ility of 2000!
which is reasona&ly representati/e of transformer steel under normal operating conditions.
*ecause there is /irtually no e9ternal field! the air &o9 can &e 6uite close to the core of the
transformer.
Creating the model
1 "tart a new model and sa/e it as 3ransformer.
2 "et the model length units to meters.
3 "et and display the construction grid.
4 Let the coordinate origin &e in the center of the transformer.
) Construct a component for the core:
Ignore 'oles must not e acti2e in Ma4e Component In . Line.
"weep distance: 0.? m.
Material: ML3: Delati/e permea&ility 2000.
- Construct components for the four coil sides:
"weep distance: 0.? m.
Material: Copper: =.--e- "iemensFmeter.
2 ;or the primary winding! ma4e a single coil from two components &y selecting the
"tart ;ace of side 2 and the >nd ;ace of side 2X.
3um&er of turns: 2000.
Current: #.0 ..
8 ;or the secondary winding! ma4e a single coil from two components &y selecting the
end face of side # and the start face of side #X. 0his is the opposite of the primary
winding.
3um&er of turns: 2000.
Current: 0 ..
Construct an air &o9 from a rectangle with /ertices at the following points:
AC0.=! C0.)B! A0.=! C0.)B! A0.=! 0.)B! AC0.=! 0.)B.
Ignore 'oles must &e acti/e in Ma4e Component In . Line.
"weep distance: 0.? m.
Soling and post-processing
1 "et the options for sol/ing as follows in the "ol/e menu:
"ol/er :ptions: Material 0ype Default!
3ewton tolerance 2U! Ma9imum 3ewton Iterations #0!
CM tolerance 0.02U.
olynomial order #.
.daption :ptions: Lse h5adaption!
ercentage of >lements to Define #=U!
0olerance 0.0=U!
Ma9imum 3um&er of "teps 20.
2 "ol/e as "tatic #D.
This solution is for the no-load condition 'ith the !rimary energized.
3 Inspect the contour plot of the flu9 function and the shaded plot of the smoothed Q*Q
/alues.
4 Inspect the computed glo&al 6uantities and calculate inductances as follows Asee
appendi9 * for detailsB:
"elf5inductance: :
2
G
11
F i
2
( where
11
is the flu9 lin4age with the primary! and
i
2
is the coil current.
Mutual inductance: - G
21
F i
2
! where
21
is the flu9 lin4age with the secondary.
) Change the primary current to 0 . and the secondary current to #.0 .. "ol/e again
and calculate the inductances:
"elf5inductance: :
#
G
22
F i
#
( where
22
is the flu9 lin4age with the
secondary! and i
#
is the coil current.
Mutual inductance: - G
12
F i
#
! where
12
is the flu9 lin4age with the primary.
- Change the primary current to #00 . and the secondary current to #00 .. "ol/e again
and calculate the total lea4age inductance from e6uation 35-
%a$ple res"lts
0he results &elow were o&tained with Mag3et /ersion ?.#2.2. ;or comparison! results are also
gi/en for a 3D model of the same de/ice.
i
2
G #.0 .! i
#
G 0 2. *. "tored
magnetic energy: #2#.2J#3 R #2#.J#30 R ;lu9
lin4age
11
: #2#.2J#3 W& #2#.J##J W& ;lu9
lin4age
21
: #22.J)2) W& #2#.=0?S W&
"elf5inductance :
2
: 20?.0J?# ' 20?.)?2= '
Mutual inductance -: 20=.J-0- ' 20?.#=3) '
Lea4age inductance l
2
: 0.2#== ' 0.#0S2 '
i
2
G 0! i
#
G #.0 .
"tored magnetic energy: #2#.2J#2 R #2#.JS0S R
;lu9 lin4age
22
: #2#.2J#2 W& #2#.JS0S W&
;lu9 lin4age
12
: #22.J)20 W& #2#.=0-2 W&
"elf5inductance :
#
: 20?.0J?2 ' 20?.)J0) '
Mutual inductance -: 20=.J-0= ' 20?.#=3? '
Lea4age inductance l
#
: 0.2#=? ' 0.#3?J '
i
2
G #00 .! i
#
G #00 .
"tored magnetic energy: =0#0 R SS-? R
Lea4age inductance l
2
T l
#
: 0.#=20 ' 0.))3S '
Disc"ssion
2! results
0he first two solutions gi/e /ery similar /alues for self5inductance! mutual inductance and
lea4age inductance. .t first sight this is surprising &ecause the primary winding occupies the
space &etween the secondary and the center lim& of the core! so the two are not o&/iously
e6ui/alent. *ut in a #D model! if the core were infinitely permea&le the current and flu9 patterns
would ha/e a symmetry that results in e6ual inductance /alues. >/idently a permea&ility of 2000
is sufficient to gi/e /ery similar results.
0he result from the energy calculation is identical to the sum of the two lea4age reactances
computed from the separate flu9 lin4ages. 0his is useful confirmation of the accuracy of the flu9
calculation! and shows that it is sometimes possi&le to o&tain a good /alue for the lea4age
reactance &y su&traction.
"! results
0hese results are significantly different from the #D solution. *oth of the lea4age inductances are
larger than their #D counterparts &ecause of the end5winding field! and as e9pected the secondary
/alue is considera&ly larger than the primary /alue.
0he lea4age inductance from the energy calculation is slightly smaller than the sum of the two
lea4age reactances computed from the separate flu9 lin4ages! which is an indication of numerical
error in the 3D result.
0aria*le 1el"ctance %tepper Motor
0he diagrams &elow show 3D and #D models of a simple /aria&le5reluctance stepper motor.
0he motor has a 35phase stator! with two coils in each phase shown &y the colors in the #D
model. 'ere! the red phase is energi<ed! pulling one pair of rotor poles into alignment with the
corresponding stator poles. "uccessi/ely energi<ing the red! yellow and &lue coils will ma4e the
rotor mo/e through successi/e rotational steps of 30Y.
Modeling the device
.lthough it would &e possi&le to e9ploit the symmetry of the structure and model only half of the
de/ice! it is simpler to model the complete motor. "olutions are o&tained 6uic4ly in #D! so there
is only a small penalty in computing time.
@ey dimensions of the motor are as follows:
"tator outer radius 2#0 mm
"tator core radial depth #0
mm
"tator inner radius ==
mm
"tator pole width #0
mm
"tator coil width ?0
mm
"tator coil depth )=
mm
Dotor outer radius =0
mm
Dotor hu& radius #0
mm
Dotor pole width #0
mm
Motor a9ial length 200 mm
(uilding the stator core and poles
0he stator core and poles will &e made &y drawing intersecting lines and circles! and deleting the
unwanted parts.
1 "tart a new model and sa/e it as (te44er motor.
2 "et the model length units to millimeters.
3 "et and display the construction grid with a spacing of = mm.
4 Let the coordinate origin &e in the center of the motor.
) Draw circles of radius 2#0 mm! 200 mm! and == mm.
- Draw two /ertical lines of length ##0 mm Aspaced #0 mm apartB that will form the
two /ertical poles. .t this stage! the drawing should resem&le the following:
2 "elect the two lines.
8 In the Draw menu! clic4 Dotate >dges.
In the Dotate >dges dialog! enter the rotation angle as ?0 degrees and clic4 the chec4
&o9 for .pply the transformation to a copy of the selection.
15 Clic4 .pply! and then clic4 :@.
This should create t'o more sets of lines for the other !oles.
11 "elect all the lines and circles.
12 In the Draw menu! clic4 "egment >dges.
This diides the lines and arcs at the intersections.
13 "elect and delete the unwanted line and circle segments! to lea/e the stator core and
poles.
14 "elect the stator surface and ma4e the component in a line:
"weep distance: 200 mm.
Material: ML3: Delati/e permea&ility 2000.
(uilding the stator coils
:ne coil will &e made and then copied to the other locations.
1 Draw the two sides of the top stator coil! as rectangles of #0 mm &y 3= mm.
2 Ma4e the two components named Coil 2a and Coil 2&:
"weep distance: 200 mm.
Material: Copper: =.--e- "iemensFmeter.
0f desired( ne' conductor materials 'ith red( yello' and "lue colors can "e defined
for the coils. *ee the next case study on !age I2.
3 In the :&1ect page! select &oth coil components.
4 In the Model menu! clic4 Dotate Components.
) In the Dotate Components dialog! enter the rotation angle as ?0 degrees and clic4 the
chec4 &o9 for .pply the transformation to a copy of the selection.
- Clic4 .pply four times! then clic4 :@.
2 Dename the copies Coil #a! Coil #&! etc.
8 Identify the four coil sides on the /ertical poles and display the tree directories.
These should "e #oil /a( #oil /"( #oil +a( and #oil +".
"tarting with Coil 2a! select ;aceO2.
15 'old down the Ctrl 4ey and select the appropriate face A;aceO2 or ;aceO#B of each of
the other three coil sides! so that those on the left of the pole will carry current in the
opposite direction to those on the right.
11 Ma4e a simple coil:
3um&er of turns: 2000
Current: # ..
12 In a similar way! ma4e the coils for the other two phases! &ut with the current set to 0.
(uilding the rotor and the air #ox
1 *uild the rotor in a similar way to the stator! starting with two circles and two sets of
straight lines:
Material: ML3: Delati/e permea&ility 2000.
"weep distance: 200mm.
*ince the rotor !ole sides are !arallel to the coordinate axes( it is not necessary to
use the .otate Edges facility to dra' the second set of lines.
2 Construct an air &o9 from a circle of radius 2#0 mm.
Ignore 'oles must &e acti/e in Ma4e Component In . Line.
"weep distance: 200 mm.
There is negligi"le flux lea4age outside the stator( so there is no need to leae a ga!
"et'een the air "ox and the stator.
Soling and post-processing
1 "et the options for sol/ing as follows in the "ol/e menu:
"ol/er :ptions: Material 0ype Default!
3ewton tolerance 2U! Ma9imum 3ewton Iterations #0!
CM tolerance 0.02U.
olynomial order #.
.daption :ptions: Lse h5adaption!
ercentage of >lements to Define #=U!
0olerance 0.2U!
Ma9imum 3um&er of "teps 20.
2 "ol/e as "tatic #D.
3 Inspect the contour plot of the flu9 function and the shaded plot of the smoothed Q*Q
/alues.
0he flu9 plot should resem&le the diagram &elow on the left.
0he diagram on the right shows the effect of connecting a coil the wrong way
round.
If the coil connections are wrong! open the Coil page! right5clic4 on a coil side!
and clic4 De/erse Coil "ide Direction. Depeat for the other coil side.
,orrect coil connections !ncorrect coil connections
4 >9amine the effect of switching the coil currents &y setting the current in CoilO2 to 0
and the current in CoilO# to #.0 ..
$irgap field components
In many electrical machine pro&lems! it is useful to &e a&le to display the /alues of the radial
component of the flu9 density in the airgap. Mag3et does not ha/e a &uilt5in facility to do this
automatically! &ut it may &e achie/ed with the Calculator descri&ed in chapter ?. It is necessary to
define a circular contour in the airgap! and then e9tract the component of flu9 density normal to
the contour. Degistered users can download a script from the Mag3et Documentation Center at
www. i n f o l y ti ca .com that uses this method to generate a graph of the re6uired field component for
any #D model.
Chapter #
'1
Case $tudies: Translational Geo!etry
Parameterization
1 In the Model arameters page! define a new parameter Angle as a num&er with the
list of /alues: 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, *0.
2 ;or the Dotor component! display the arameters page of the roperties dialog and
enter the following e9pression for the Dotation.ngle parameter:
,Angle,deg
The rotor 'ill "e rotated in the anticloc4'ise direction for successie alues of the
.otorAngle !arameter in degrees.
3 "ol/e as "tatic #D.
;ith the "asic ersion of -agNet( only the first !ro"lem 'ill "e soled automatically.
*olutions of the other !ro"lems can "e o"tained "y the method descri"ed in cha!ter 2
D!age 2CF.
4 In the ost rocessing &ar! open the ;orce page and e9amine the magnitude of the
tor6ue on the rotor for each pro&lem.
If Mag3et is licensed for parameteri<ation! display a graph of the x5component
of force on the secondary.
Sample results
0he following /alues were o&tained for the magnitude of the tor6ue on the rotor! with Mag3et
/ersion ?.#2.2:
1otor angle &5' .is4lacement angle &5' 3or6ue magnitude &7m'
0 30 2.-2?
= #= #.S)0
20 #0 3.-22
2= 2= 3.?3?
#0 20 3.2)J
#= = #.22J
30 0 0.00#
0he displacement angle is the angle &etween the a9is of a rotor pole and the a9is of the energi<ed
stator pole.
Disc"ssion
0he dimensions of this simple stepper motor ha/e &een chosen to ma4e the model easy to &uild!
with no attempt at an optimal design. In particular! the radial depth of the core is e9cessi/e! with a
correspondingly low flu9 density. 0he stator and rotor poles are narrow! so the restoring tor6ue
decreases rapidly when the rotor displacement angle e9ceeds #0Y. Conse6uently! the tor6ue
de/eloped at each switching transition is 6uite low.
'2 Introduction to Ma"Net
3inear synchrono"s $otor
0he diagram &elow shows a #D model of part of a simple linear synchronous motor with surface5
mounted permanent magnets.
$econdary
8ri!ary
0he primary has a full5pitched 35phase winding in a laminated steel core! with ? slots per pole!
and the secondary comprises &loc4s of permanent5magnet material on a steel &ac4ing. .lternating
currents in the primary winding will produce a tra/eling magnetic field! and at one instant of time
the flu9 plot is shown &elow for a load angle of J0Y.
0his model represents two pole pitches of an infinitely long machine. "ince the field pattern
repeats e/ery two pole pitches! the field /alues will &e identical at corresponding points on the
two ends. 0o represent this condition in Mag3et! a !eriodic "oundary condition is specified for
the two ends. *ecause of the symmetry of this de/ice! it is possi&le to model 1ust one pole pitch!
since the field /alues repeat with opposite signs at inter/als of a pole pitch.
If a field has identical /alues at corresponding points! an een !eriodic "oundary condition is
usedE if it has e6ual and opposite /alues! an odd !eriodic "oundary condition is used.
. simple model can &e used to study the effect of /arying the load angle &y altering the phase
angle of the 35phase currents. 0o study cogging effects when the secondary magnets mo/e past
the primary slots! a more comple9 model is re6uired! with separate air &o9es for the primary and
secondary.
Modeling the device: single air region
0he diagram &elow shows one pole pitch of the de/ice! with dimensions in millimeters. 3um&ers
in &rac4ets are the primary winding slot num&ers. 0he coils ha/e 200 turns per slot! the pea4
/alue of the current is 22 .! and the current phase angle range is C30Y to C2?=Y! corresponding to
a load5angle range of 0 to C23=Y.
25 255
1)
25
25
15
25
15
011 021 0#1 0%1 0)1 041
%5
45
15 25 25
2%5
25
15
0o speed up the solution! linear materials will &e used for the model: ML3 for the primary and
secondary cores! and M0) for the permanent magnet. 0hese are reasona&ly representati/e of
ordinary steels and ceramic ferrite! respecti/ely.
;or the coils! new materials will &e defined with the same properties as copper! &ut with
distincti/e red! yellow and &lue colors to identify the phases. 0he color se6uence for the slots
will &e red! &lue! yellow! where the &lue slots will carry re/ersed current from the &lue phase.
0his gi/es the normal ?0Y phase progression &etween coil groups for an .C machine winding.
"ince there is negligi&le flu9 lea4age from the primary and secondary core regions into the
surrounding air! it is not necessary to enclose the model in an air &o9. .ll that is re6uired is to
ma4e a component representing the airgap region &etween the primary and the secondary. When
the model is sol/ed! the flu9 tangential &oundary condition will &e applied automatically to the
outer &oundaries of the primary and secondary! so no flu9 will escape from these regions.
'owe/er! the simplest way to create this air region is to ma4e an enclosing air &o9 which touches
the outer surfaces of the primary and secondary. 0his also ma4es it easier to apply the re6uired
periodic &oundary condition to the model.
Constructing the model
1 "tart a new model and sa/e it as 8(M 1.
2 "et the model length units to millimeters.
3 "et and display the construction grid.
4 Let the coordinate origin &e the top left5hand corner of the primary core.
) "et the grid spacing to 20 mm in x and = mm in y! and e9tent /alues to suit the
drawing.
- Construct components for the primary core and the secondary core:
"weep distance: 200 mm.
Material: ML3: Delati/e permea&ility 2000.
2 Construct a component for the permanent magnet:
"weep distance: 200 mm.
Material: M0): *rem 0.) mur 2.0
0ype: Lniform.
Direction: A0! 2! 0B.
8 Define a new red conductor material as follows.
In the ro1ect &ar! select the Material page.
"elect Low ;re6uency Materials.
Dight5clic4! and select 3ew Lser Material.
;rom the Defaults *ased :n drop5down list! select Copper: =.--e-
"iemensFmeter.
In the 3ame &o9! enter Co44er red.
;rom the Display Color drop5down list! select red.
Clic4 ;inish.
#o!!er red should "e sho'n as a user-defined material.
"imilarly! define new materials Copper yellow and Copper &lue.
15 Construct the first two coil sides in slots 2 and #:
"weep distance: 200 mm.
Material: Copper red.
3ames: "lot 2! "lot #.
11 "imilarly! construct the remaining coil sides:
"lots 3 and ): Copper &lue.
"lots = and ?: Copper yellow.
Coils and currents
Coils will &e constructed from pairs of coil sides. It is necessary to select indi/idual faces of the
coil sides! to ensure that the current directions are correct.
1 Ma4e the first coil as follows:
Display the tree directories for "lot 2 and "lot #.
Clic4 ;aceO2 A"tart ;aceB for "lot 2.
'old down the Ctrl 4ey! and clic4 ;aceO2 A"tart ;aceB for "lot #.
In the Model menu! clic4 Ma4e "imple Coil.
Change the coil name to Ded phase.
"et the num&er of turns to 200. Ignore the current.
2 In the same way! ma4e the Yellow phase using the coil sides in "lot = and "lot ?.
3 ;or the *lue phase! follow a similar procedure! &ut select ;aceO# A>nd ;aceB for the
coil sides in "lot 3 and "lot ). 0his re/erses the direction for the *lue phase.
4 In the Model arameters page! define user5defined parameters:
Magnitude as a numeric with the /alue 11.
0)ase as a numeric with a list of /alues: *0,
45, 60, 95, :0, 105, 120, 1*5, 150, 165.
) In the Coil arameters page for each of the three phases! enter the following Current
e9pressions:
Ded phase: UMagnitudeZcosAUhaseUdegB.
Yellow phase: UMagnitudeZcosAAUhaseC2#0BUdegB.
*lue phase: UMagnitudeZcosAAUhaseT2#0BUdegB.
=deg conerts degrees to radians.
$ir region and #oundary conditions)
1 Construct an air &o9 from a rectangle that 1ust encloses the model:
Ignore 'oles must &e acti/e in Ma4e Component In .
Line.
"weep distance: 200
mm.
Material:
.ID.
2 .pply an :dd eriodic &oundary condition as follows.
Display the tree directory for the air
&o9.
Clic4 ;aceO?! to select the left5hand end
face.
In the *oundary menu! clic4 :dd
eriodic.
In the dialog! Clic4 "et
0ransformation.
In the dialog! Clic4 "hift Kector! and enter &240, 0,
0'.
Clic4 :@ to close each
dialog.
3 Chec4 the &oundary condition as follows.
In the :&1ect page! there should &e an item
*oundaryConditionO2A:B.
Dotate the model so that the face of left5hand end of the air &o9 is
/isi&le.
Chec4 that the face is mar4ed with the T and C sym&ols of the odd periodic
&oundary condition.
Chec4 the right5hand end in the same
way.
Soling and post-processing
1 "et the options for sol/ing as follows in the "ol/e menu:
"ol/er :ptions: Material 0ype
Default!
3ewton tolerance 2U! Ma9imum 3ewton Iterations #0!
CM tolerance 0.02U.
olynomial order #.
.daption :ptions: Lse h5adaption!
ercentage of >lements to Define #=U!
0olerance 0.2U!
Ma9imum 3um&er of "teps 20.
2 "ol/e as "tatic #D.
;ith the "asic ersion of -agNet( only the first !ro"lem 'ill "e soled automatically.
*olutions of the other !ro"lems can "e o"tained "y the method descri"ed in cha!ter 2
D!age 2CF.
3 Inspect the flu9 plot and the shaded plot of Q*Q smoothed for each pro&lem.
4 In the ost rocessing &ar! open the ;orce page and e9amine the force components
on the two &odies for each pro&lem.
If Mag3et is licensed for parameteri<ation! display a graph of the x5component
of force on the secondary.
Sample results
0he following /alues were o&tained for the x-component of force on the secondary! with Mag3et
/ersion ?.#2.2:
0)ase &5' 8oad angle &5' %orce &7'
C30 0 C0.#?
C)= C2= C2-.S)
C?0 C30 C3).S?
C-= C)= C)S.0S
CJ0 C?0 C?#.2?
C20= C-= C-0.=3
C2#0 CJ0 C-).)3
C23= C20= C-3.##
C2=0 C2#0 C??.--
C2?= C23= C==.#?
Modeling the device: two air *o4es
0o e9amine cogging effects! it is necessary to mo/e the secondary relati/e to the primary. 0his
can &e done &y enclosing each part of the motor in its own air &o9! and shifting the secondary &o9
with its contents relati/e to the primary &o9. :ne new parameter is re6uired to control the shift of
all the secondary components! &ut the phase of the primary current will &e held constant. 0he
principal change to the model is the creation of two air &o9es and the assignment of a periodic
&oundary condition.
$ir regions and #oundary conditions
1 :pen the model L"M2 and sa/e it as 8(M 2.
2 Delete the original air &o9! &ut lea/e the construction5slice drawing lines.
3 Draw a new line through the middle of the airgap to di/ide the original rectangle into
two smaller rectangles: one enclosing the secondary core and magnets! and the other
enclosing the primary.
4 "elect each rectangle in turn! and create the corresponding air &o9! with a sweep
distance of 200 mm.
) Clic4 the "elect Component >dges &utton.
- "elect the common edge of the two air &o9es! in the middle of the airgap.
2 :n the Mesh tool&ar! clic4 the Lniform >dge "u&di/ision &utton.
8 :n the Mesh tool&ar! in the left te9t &o9 enter #).
The common edge of the t'o air "oxes should "e diided into 2+ segments. This hel!s
to create a more regular mesh in the airga! region.
Display the tree directories for &oth air &o9es.
15 Dotate the model so that the end faces of the air &o9es are /isi&le! together with the
surface where the top face of one &o9 merges with the &ottom face of the other &o9.
The diagram "elo' sho's a ty!ical ie' at this stage.
11 Clic4 the air &o9 faces in turn in the :&1ect page! and o&ser/e which faces are
selected in the Kiew window.
In each air &o9! identify the face for the left5hand end and the face for the
common surface.
"elect all four faces &y holding down the Ctrl 4ey and clic4ing the faces in turn.
The model ie' should resem"le the follo'ing:
12 .pply an :dd eriodic &oundary condition as follows.
In the *oundary menu! clic4 :dd eriodic.
In the dialog! Clic4 "et 0ransformation.
In the dialog! Clic4 "hift Kector! and enter &240, 0, 0'.
Clic4 :@ to close each dialog.
13 Dotate the model to /iew the &oundary condition.
$"sere that the air "ox interface surface has "een extended "y 2+, mm in the
!ositie x direction. 0t is no' !ossi"le to moe one air "ox relatie to the other( and
the extended surface 'ill a!!ly the correct constraints to the field alues.
Parameterization
14 In the Model arameters page! change the list of /alues for the hase parameter to
the single /alue *0.
1) Define a new parameter ()ift as a num&er with the list of /alues: 0, 10, 20, *0, 40,
50, 60, 90, $0, :0.
1- ;or each secondary component Acore! magnet and air &o9B! open the arameters page
and enter the following e9pression for the "hift Kector:
+,()ift,mm, 0, 0-
All of the secondary com!onents 'ill "e moed in the !ositie x direction for
successie alues of the *hift !arameter.
Soling and post-processing
"ol/e the model and inspect the results as &efore. If Mag3et is licensed for parameteri<ation! it
is instructi/e to create an animation of the field plots.
Sample results
0he following /alues were o&tained for the x-component of force on the secondary! with Mag3et
/ersion ?.#2.2:
()ift &mm' 8oad angle &5' %orce &7'
0 0 C0.00
20 C2= C##.#S
#0 C30 C##.=J
30 C)= C2J.=?
)0 C?0 C3).-=
=0 C-= C?3.S)
?0 CJ0 C?-.=-
-0 C20= C=J.J3
S0 C2#0 C?#.2-
J0 C23= CJ0.?S
Disc"ssion
;or the simple linear synchronous motor used in this case study! the techni6ue of shifting the
secondary shows clearly the cogging effect of the primary slot openings on the force
characteristic.
0o simplify the modeling! a full5pitched winding has &een used! so that each slot carries current
from only one phase. 'owe/er! it is a straightforward matter to define upper and lower coil sides
in each slot! and it is then possi&le to model two5layer chorded windings.
0he methods of using periodic &oundary conditions can &e applied to other de/ices such as
rotating electrical machines! where it is only necessary to model one pole pitch of the physical
de/ice. In spite of their shape! rotating machines must also &e modeled using translational
geometry.
Chapter %
'(
Case $tudies: &otational Geo!etry
Chapter )
,ase %t"dies:
1otational Geo$etry
!ntrod"ction
0his chapter follows the same pattern as Chapter 3E it co/ers a /ariety of modeling pro&lems for
de/ices with rotational geometry! arranged in order of increasing difficulty.
Constructing a model with rotational geometry is different from the procedures used in chapters #
and 3. 0he model is constructed as part of a solid of re/olution &y rotating shapes a&out an a9is.
0his a9is must &e the y-a9is of the normal x-y drawing plane. Components are formed &y
sweeping in an arc instead of sweeping in a line. 0he su&tended angle of the arc is unimportant
for a #D model! so the Mag3et default angle of J0Y will &e used for all of the case studies. 0his
construction techni6ue is descri&ed in the first case study: Inductance of a *roo4s coil.
;lu9 plots are not as easy to interpret with rotational geometry as they are with translational.
Consider the case of an infinitely long straight solenoid. 0he magnetic field is confined to the
interior of the solenoid! where it is perfectly uniform and parallel to the a9is. 0his de/ice can &e
modeled in Mag3et &y setting &oundary conditions C see the case study on a cylindrical screen in
a uniform field on page =?. 0he diagram &elow shows the flu9 plot generated &y Mag3et! with
the a9is of the solenoid on the left. 0his diagram represents the flu9 in the right5hand half of a
cross5section of the de/ice.
0he spacing &etween the flu9 lines decreases with increasing distance from the a9is. ;or users
who are familiar with ordinary #D flu9 plots for translational geometry in the x-y plane! the plot
gi/es the impression that the flu9 density increases with distance from the a9is. 0his is an
illusion. If r is the radial distance &etween two successi/e flu9 lines! and B is the a9ial flu9
density! then the increment of flu9 is:
= B* = B # rr
A)52B
0here are e6ual increments of flu9 &etween the lines! so is constant. If B is constant! it
follows that r must &e in/ersely proportional to r.
%elf'ind"ctance of a #roo;s coil
0he diagram &elow shows a *roo4s coil. It is a short solenoidal coil with a s6uare cross5section!
ha/ing an inner radius e6ual to the length of one side of the s6uare. 0his shape is generated &y
rotating a s6uare a&out a /ertical a9is! as shown in the diagram on the ne9t page.
*roo4s coils ha/e a simple shape! and are close to the optimum of a coil that has the largest
inductance for wire of a gi/en length and cross5sectional area. 0he inductance can &e calculated
analytically! so this is another useful test pro&lem for chec4ing the accuracy of the results
produced &y Mag3et. ;rom the formula in Mro/er V=W for solenoidal coils! the inductance is:
: = 2.?JJ) 20
?
rN
#
V'W A)5#B
where r is the mean radius of the coil in meters and N is the num&er of turns. 0he coil to &e
analy<ed has the following dimensions: inner radius G 0.2 m! outer radius G 0.# m! so r G 0.2= m!
height G 0.2 m! and N G 200. 0he inductance from e6uation )5# is thus #.=)J m'.
. /alue for the coil current must &e specified &efore the pro&lem can &e sol/ed in Mag3et!
although a /alue is not re6uired in the description of the pro&lem. 0here are no magnetic
materials present in this de/ice! so it is a linear pro&lem in which the flu9 is directly proportional
to the current. "ince the inductance is the flu9 lin4age per unit current! it must &e independent of
the current! so any reasona&le /alue of current may &e usedE a /alue of 2 . is chosen ar&itrarily.
Modeling the device
0he diagram &elow shows the cross5section in the x-y plane that is rotated a&out the y a9is to
form the coil! with dimensions in meters. 0his is an open &oundary pro&lem! &ut the @el/in
transformation method cannot &e used with rotational geometry! so the coil must &e enclosed in
an
air &o9 that is large enough to gi/e an accurate inductance /alue. . suita&le si<e is an a9ial length of
# m and a radius of # m C see the 7Discussion8 on page S#.
521 521
8
521
Creating the model
1 "tart a new model and sa/e it as Broo"s coil.
2 "et the model length units to meters.
3 "et and display the construction grid.
4 Let the coordinate origin &e the center of the coil! which is the point on the /ertical
a9is in the diagram a&o/e.
) Draw the cross5section of the coil component as a s6uare of side 0.2 m.
- Ma4e the component as follows.
Clic4 the "elect Construction "lice "urfaces &utton.
Clic4 anywhere inside the s6uare.
Clic4 the Ma4e Component in an .rc &utton.
"elect the material: Copper: =.--e- "iemensFmeter.
Change the component name.
Lea/e the angle set at J0Y! center at A0! 0B and the a9is /ector set to A0! C2B.
Clic4 :@.
2 Ma4e a coil from this component.
3um&er of turns: 200
Current: 2.0 ..
8 Draw the cross5section of an air &o9 with /ertices at
A0! C2B! A#! C2B! A#! 2B! A0! 2B and sweep it in an arc:
Ignore 'oles must &e acti/e in Ma4e Component In .n .rc.
.ngle: J0Y.
Center: A0! 0B.
.9is /ector: A0! C2B.
Material: .ID.
Soling and post-processing
1 "et the options for sol/ing as follows in the "ol/e menu:
"ol/er :ptions: Material 0ype Default!
3ewton tolerance 2U! Ma9imum 3ewton Iterations #0!
CM tolerance 0.02U.
olynomial order #.
.daption :ptions: Lse h5adaption!
ercentage of >lements to Define #=U!
0olerance 0.02U!
Ma9imum 3um&er of "teps 20.
2 "ol/e as "tatic #D.
3 Inspect the contour plot of the flu9 function and the shaded plot of the smoothed Q*Q
/alues.
4 Inspect the computed glo&al 6uantities! and calculate self5inductance /alues as
follows Asee appendi9 * for detailsB:
;rom the flu9 lin4age: : G F i( where is the flu9 lin4age for the coil! and i
is the coil current.
;rom the stored energy: : G #; F i
#
! where ; is the stored magnetic energy.
%a$ple res"lts
0he results &elow were o&tained with Mag3et /ersion ?.#2.2:
"tored magnetic energy: 0.002#-3 R
Coenergy: 0.002#-3 R
;lu9 lin4age: 0.00#=)? W&
Inductance from flu9 lin4age: #.=)? m'
Inductance from stored energy: #.=)? m'
Disc"ssion
0he computed /alue of the self5inductance is only 0.2U lower than the theoretical /alue! which
indicates that the surfaces of the air &o9 ha/e &een ta4en sufficiently far away from the coil. In
this case the radius of the &o9 is 20 times the outer radius of the coil! and the a9ial length is #0
times the a9ial length of the coil. 0he contour plot of the flu9 function shows no apparent
7s6uashing8 of the flu9 pattern near the &o9 surfaces. 0hese ratios of air &o9 dimensions to coil
dimensions may &e ta4en as guides for other pro&lems where the inductance of an air5cored coil
is to &e computed &ut there is no 4nown analytical solution.
M"t"al ind"ctance of coa4ial coils
0he diagram &elow shows the cross5section of a pair of *roo4s coils with a common a9is. 0his
/iew is rotated a&out the /ertical a9is to generate the coil shape. "ome of the flu9 produced &y
one coil will lin4 the other coil! so the coils are magnetically coupledE a mutual inductance - may
&e defined in the same way as for the transformer on page ?#. .s with the self5inductance of a
single *roo4s coil! the mutual inductance can &e calculated analytically.
521 521
521
coil 2
521 8
521 521
521
coil 1
0he coils ha/e the same dimensions as for the single *roo4s coil Apage S0B! and the num&er of
turns is N G 200. 0he spacing is 0.2 m! which is e6ual to the height of one coil. ;rom Mro/er V)W!
the mutual inductance of this configuration is
: = 3.#-3? 20
-
rN
#
V'W A)53B
0hus! the theoretical /alue of the mutual inductance is 0.)J20 m'.
0here are two methods of determining the mutual inductance with Mag3et. 0he first method is to
use the relationships &ased on the flu9 lin4age with one coil when current flows in the other coil.
;or this linear system! appendi9 * gi/es:
- =

# 2
=

2#
A)5)B
i
2
i
#
where
#2
is the flu9 lin4age with winding # when winding 2 carries a current i
2
! and
2#
is
the flu9 lin4age with winding 2 when winding # carries a current i
#
.
0he second method of determining mutual inductance is &ased on the stored energy. Consider
two cases: AaB e6ual currents! so that i
2
G i
#
G iE A&B e6ual and opposite currents! so that
i
2
G Ci
#
G i. ;rom appendi9 *! the mutual inductance is gi/en &y
- =
;
a
;
"
! A)5=B
#i
#
where ;
a
and ;
"
are the stored energy /alues in the two cases.
Modeling the device
0his de/ice is modeled in a similar way to the single *roo4s coil on page S0.
Creating the model
1 "tart a new model and sa/e it as 3;o Broo"s coils.
2 "et the model length units to meters.
3 "et and display the construction grid.
4 Let the coordinate origin &e the center of the coil pair! which is the point on the
/ertical a9is in the diagram on page S3.
) Draw the cross5section of each coil component as a s6uare of side 0.2 m! and sweep
it in an arc a&out the y5a9is:
.ngle: J0Y.
Center: A0! 0B.
.9is /ector: A0! C2B.
Material: Copper: =.--e- "iemensFmeter.
- Ma4e two coils:
3um&er of turns in each coil: 200.
Current in CoilO2: 2.0 .
Current in CoilO#: 0.
2 Draw the cross5section of an air &o9 with /ertices at
A0! C2B! A#! C2B! A#! 2B! A0! 2B and sweep it in an arc:
Ignore 'oles must &e acti/e in Ma4e Component In .n .rc.
.ngle: J0Y.
Center: A0! 0B.
.9is /ector: A0! C2B.
Material: .ID.
Soling and post-processing
1 "et the options for sol/ing as follows in the "ol/e menu:
"ol/er :ptions: Material 0ype Default!
3ewton tolerance 2U! Ma9imum 3ewton Iterations #0!
CM tolerance 0.02U.
olynomial order #.
.daption :ptions: Lse h5adaption!
ercentage of >lements to Define #=U!
0olerance 0.02U!
Ma9imum 3um&er of "teps 20.
2 "ol/e as "tatic #D.
3 Inspect the contour plot of the flu9 function and the shaded plot of the smoothed Q*Q
/alues.
4 Inspect the computed glo&al 6uantities and calculate inductances as follows Asee
appendi9 * for detailsB:
"elf5inductance: :
2
G
11
F i
2
( where
11
is the flu9 lin4age with coil 2! and i
2
is the coil current.
Mutual inductance: - G
21
F i
2
! where
21
is the flu9 lin4age with coil #.
) Change the current in coil 2 to 0 . and the current in coil # to 2.0 .. "ol/e again and
calculate the inductances:
"elf5inductance: :
#
G
22
F i
#
( where
22
is the flu9 lin4age with coil #! and 0
#
is the coil current.
Mutual inductance: - G
12
F i
#
! where
12
is the flu9 lin4age with coil 2.
- Change the current in coil 2 to 2.0 .. "ol/e again and record the /alue of the stored
energyE this is ;
a
.
2 De/erse the direction of current in coil # Asee &elowB! &ut lea/e the current /alues
unaltered. "ol/e again and record the /alue of the stored energyE this is ;
"
.
0o re/erse the direction! open the Coil page! right5clic4 on the coil side! and clic4
De/erse Coil "ide Direction.
8 Calculate the mutual inductance from e6uation )5=.
%a$ple res"lts
0he results &elow were o&tained with Mag3et /ersion ?.#2.2:
0
2
G 2.0 .! 0
#
G 0
"tored magnetic energy: 0.002#-3 R
;lu9 lin4age
11
: 0.00#=)? W&
;lu9 lin4age
21
: 0.000)SJ= W&
"elf5inductance :
2
: #.=)? m'
Mutual inductance -: 0.)SJ= '
0
2
G 0! 0
#
G 2.0 .
"tored magnetic energy: 0.002#-3 R
;lu9 lin4age
22
: 0.00#=)? W&
;lu9 lin4age
12
: 0.000)SJ) W&
"elf5inductance :
#
: #.=)? m'
Mutual inductance -: 0.)SJ) m'
0
2
G 2.0 .! 0
#
G 2.0 .
"tored magnetic energy: 0.00303=)S R
0
2
G 2.0 .! 0
#
G 2.0 . Are/ersed directionB
"tored magnetic energy: 0.00#0=?-? R
Mutual inductance -: 0.)SJ) m'
Disc"ssion
0he computed /alue of the self5inductance is the same as for a single *roo4s coil Asee page S0B!
which is a&out 0.2U lower than the theoretical /alue. .ll three methods of calculation gi/e the
similar /alues for the mutual inductance! which is a&out 0.3U lower than the theoretical /alue.
0hese results indicate that the air &o9 is large enough to gi/e an accurate result! and that the
sol/er options are correctly chosen.
'
30D. displace$ent transd"cer
0he linear /aria&le differential transformer ALKD0B is a de/ice for measuring small
displacements C typically a few millimeters. It comprises three fi9ed coils and a mo/ing iron slug
as shown in the sectional /iew &elow. 0he central coil is energi<ed with alternating currentE the
two outer coils are connected in series opposition and act as sensing coils.
When the slug is centrally positioned! as shown a&o/e! the /oltages induced in the sensing coils
are e6ual! so the output from the transducer is <ero. If the slug is displaced from this position! the
/oltage in one sensing coil increases while the /oltage in the other decreasesE the differential
/oltage will /ary from <ero in an almost linear manner. 0he designer has the pro&lem of ensuring
that the /oltageFdisplacement characteristic is a linear one.
.lthough the de/ice uses alternating current! it can &e modeled as a static pro&lem &ecause it
does not depend on eddy currents in the slug. 0he /oltage depends on the flu9 lin4age with the
sensing coils! which can &e determined from a static field solution.
Modeling the device
0he diagram &elow shows the cross5section of the transducer in the x-y plane! with the iron slug
in its mid position. In practice there is a small clearance &etween the slug and the coils! &ut this is
ignored in the model. It is re6uired to find the differential flu9 lin4age with the sensing coils in
successi/e positions of the slug! with displacement increments of 0.= mm. 0his will &e done
automatically &y defining a set of /alues for a displacement parameter and using this parameter
in a shift /ector for the slug component.
#
2
#
8
%
#
0he slug has a radius of # mm and a length of - mmE the dimensions of the coils are shown in
millimeters in the diagram! where the inner radius is # mm. 0he central coil has 200 turns and
a current of 0.2 .E the outer coils each ha/e #00 turns! with no current.
Creating the model
1 "tart a new model and sa/e it as 8<.3.
2 "et the model length units to millimeters.
3 "et and display the construction grid.
4 Let the coordinate origin &e the center of the coil system! which is the point on the
/ertical a9is in the diagram on page S?.
) Draw the cross5section of each coil component! and sweep it in an arc a&out the y5
a9is:
.ngle: J0Y.
Center: A0! 0B.
.9is /ector: A0! C2B.
Material: Copper: =.--e- "iemensFmeter.
- Ma4e a coil from the middle component:
3um&er of turns: 200.
Current: 0.2 .
2 Ma4e a single coil from the two outer components &y selecting the start face of one
component and the end face of the other component.
3um&er of turns: #00.
Current: 0 .
8 Draw the cross5section of the slug and sweep it in an arc:
.ngle: J0Y.
Center: A0! 0B.
.9is /ector: A0! C2B.
Material: ML3: Delati/e permea&ility 2000.
Draw the cross5section of an air &o9 with /ertices at
A0! C30B! A?0! C30B! A?0! 30B! A0! 30B and sweep it in an arc:
Ignore 'oles must &e acti/e in Ma4e Component In .n .rc.
.ngle: J0Y.
Center: A0! 0B.
.9is /ector: A0! C2B.
Material: .ID.
Parameterization
1 In the Model arameters page! define a new parameter ()ift with the following
/alues 1.5, 1.0, 0.5, 0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5.
2 In the slug Component arameters page! specify the shift /ector as
+0, ,()ift,mm, 0-.
Soling and post-processing
3 "et the options for sol/ing as follows in the "ol/e menu:
"ol/er :ptions: Material 0ype Default!
3ewton tolerance 2U! Ma9imum 3ewton Iterations #0!
CM tolerance 0.02U.
olynomial order #.
.daption :ptions: Lse h5adaption!
ercentage of >lements to Define #=U!
0olerance 0.0=U!
Ma9imum 3um&er of "teps 20.
4 "ol/e as "tatic #D.
;ith the "asic ersion of -agNet( only the first !ro"lem 'ill "e soled automatically.
*olutions of the other !ro"lems can "e o"tained "y the method descri"ed in cha!ter 2
D!age 2CF.
) Inspect the contour plot of the flu9 function and the shaded plot of the smoothed Q*Q
/alues.
- Inspect the computed glo&al 6uantities.
0f -agNet is licensed for !arameterization( dis!lay a gra!h of the differential flux
lin4age against dis!lacement. The differential flux lin4age is the flux lin4age 'ith the
com!lete sensing coil( 'hich is the difference "et'een the flux lin4ages of the
indiidual coil com!onents.
Sample results
0he results &elow were o&tained with Mag3et /ersion ?.#2.2:
Displacement Differential flu9
AmmB lin4age AW&B
C2.= C?.)J?
C2.0 C).-32
C0.= C#.)S2
0 T0.00#
T0.= T#.)S)
T2.0 T).-32
T2.= T?.)JS
Disc"ssion
;rom the symmetry of the de/ice! the differential flu9 lin4age should &e a symmetrical function
of the displacement. 0he small departures from symmetry in the sample results may &e attri&uted
to lac4 of symmetry in the mesh that Mag3et generates automatically! and can &e reduced &y
further solution refinement.
Magnetic p"ll'off force
0he diagram &elow shows a steel sphere attracted to a cylindrical &ar magnet. 0he pro&lem is to
calculate the force re6uired to pull the sphere away from the magnet! and to estimate the
accuracy of the force calculation.
Modeling the device
Mag3et calculates forces on &odies automatically! &ut there must &e an air space around the
&ody. 0herefore an artificial gap must &e introduced &etween the sphere and the magnet. .ccurate
calculation is difficult if the gap is /ery small. .lso! the user needs to 4now how small to ma4e
the gap and the li4ely error that results from it. :ne solution is to sol/e for a num&er of different
gap lengths and e9trapolate the force /alues to o&tain the pull5off force. arameteri<ation is a
con/enient way of tac4ling this pro&lem.
In this case study the sphere has a diameter of #0 mm! and the magnet has a diameter of #0 mm
and a length of #0 mm. It will &e modeled initially with the sphere in contact with the magnet. .
controlled gap will &e introduced &y defining a set of /alues for a displacement parameter and
using this parameter in a shift /ector for the sphere.
Creating the model
1 "tart a new model and sa/e it as Magnet and s4)ere.
2 "et the model length units to millimeters.
3 "et and display the construction grid.
4 Let the coordinate origin &e the center of the sphere.
) Draw the cross5section of the sphere as a closed semicircle of radius 20 mm and
sweep it in an arc:
.ngle: J0Y.
Center: A0! 0B.
.9is /ector: A0! C2B.
Material: CD20: Cold rolled 2020 steel.
- Draw the cross5section of the magnet as a rectangle of width 20 mm and height
#0 mm! and sweep it in an arc:
.ngle: J0Y.
Center: A0! 0B.
.9is /ector: A0! C2B.
Material: Ceramic ferrite.
0ype: Lniform.
Direction: A0! 2! 0B.
2 Draw the cross5section of an air &o9 as a closed semicircle of radius 2?0 mm and
sweep it in an arc:
Ignore 'oles must &e acti/e in Ma4e Component In .n .rc.
.ngle: J0Y.
Center: A0! 0B.
.9is /ector: A0! C2B.
Material: .ID.
Parameterization
1 In the Model arameters page! define a new parameter ()ift with the following
/alues: 0.1, 0.2, 0.*, 0.4, 0.5.
2 In the sphere Component arameters page! specify the shift /ector as
+0, ,()ift,mm, 0-.
Note the negatie sign for the y shift. 0f this is omitted( the s!here 'ill intersect
the magnet( and the solution 'ill fail.
Soling and post-processing
1 "et the options for sol/ing as follows in the "ol/e menu:
"ol/er :ptions: Material 0ype
Default!
3ewton tolerance 2U! Ma9imum 3ewton Iterations #0!
CM tolerance 0.02U!
olynomial order ).
The highest !olynomial order is used here for su"sequent com!arison 'ith other
solutions.
.daption :ptions: Lse h5adaption!
ercentage of >lements to Define #=U!
0olerance 0.02U!
Ma9imum 3um&er of "teps 20.
2 "ol/e as "tatic #D.
;ith the "asic ersion of -agNet( only the first !ro"lem 'ill "e soled automatically.
*olutions of the other !ro"lems can "e o"tained "y the method descri"ed in cha!ter 2
D!age 2CF.
3 Inspect the contour plot of the flu9 function and the shaded plot of the smoothed Q*Q
/alues.
4 Inspect the computed glo&al 6uantities. 0a4e the force of attraction to &e the mean of
the magnitudes of the y5components of force on the sphere and the magnet.
) Depeat the study with polynomial orders # and 3 for the same model! and with
polynomial order ) for new models with air &o9 radii of S0 mm and 3#0 mm.
%a$ple res"lts
0he results &elow were o&tained with Mag3et /ersion ?.#2.2 for an air &o9 radius of 2?0 mm:
Displacement
AmmB
.9ial force
on sphere AB
.9ial force
on magnet A3B
Mean
force A3B
0.2 ).SS2 ).S-S ).SS0
0.# ).-32 ).-#S ).-30
0.3 ).=S? ).=S3 ).=S=
0.) ).))= ).))? ).))?
0.= ).30J ).320 ).320
;itting a smooth cur/e to the mean force /alues and e9trapolating to <ero displacement gi/es a
/alue of =.0= 3 for the pull5off force.
Depeating the solution with different polynomial orders! and with different si<ed &oundaries! ga/e
the following results for the force on the sphere:
.9ial force A3B with a &oundary radius of 2?0 mm:
Displacement
AmmB
olynomial
order #
olynomial
order 3
olynomial
order )
0.2 ).S-- ).SS2 ).SS2
0.# ).-#J ).-32 ).-32
0.3 ).=S? ).=S= ).=S?
0.) ).))) ).))? ).))=
0.= ).3?2 ).2== ).30J
.9ial force A3B with polynomial order ):
Displacement
AmmB
*oundary
radius S0 mm
*oundary
radius 2?0 mm
*oundary
radius 3#0 mm
0.2 ).S#0 ).SS2 ).SSS
0.# ).?-2 ).-32 ).-3S
0.3 ).=#- ).=S? ).=J#
0.) ).3SS ).))= ).)=2
0.= ).#=) ).30J ).32=
Disc"ssion
. &oundary radius of 3#0 mm gi/es the smallest difference &etween the computed /alues of force
on the two components. .t a displacement of 0.3 mm! reducing the &oundary radius to S0 mm
changes the force &y 2.3U! &ut increasing the radius to 3#0 mm changes the force &y only 0.23U.
0he polynomial order has /ery little effect on the results when adaption is used with a small
tolerance of 0.02U. It appears that the computed results for a radius of 3#0 mm are close to
con/ergence on the true /alues! and the numerical error is unli4ely to e9ceed 2U. "ince the force
depends on the s6uare of the flu9 density! a change of only 0.=U in the remanence of the
magnetic material would gi/e a force change of 2U. 0he accuracy of the computed force /alue is
therefore limited &y the /aria&ility of material properties rather than numerical errors.
Moving'coil transd"cer
0he diagram &elow shows a half section of a 3D model of a mo/ing5coil transducer. It comprises
a permanent magnet that creates a radial magnetic field in the airgap &etween the center pole and
the top plate! and a solenoidal coil that is free to mo/e in the a9ial direction. When current is
passed through the mo/ing coil! an a9ial force is de/eloped. 0his structure is found in
loudspea4ers! headphones! /i&ration generators! mo/ing5coil actuators and chemical &alances.
Mo>in" coil
Center pole
Top plate
8er!anent
!a"net
-otto! plate
It is re6uired to find the coil inductance and e9plore the linearity of the forceFcurrent relationship
under the following conditions:
/aria&le coil current with the coil in its mid position!
/aria&le coil position with the current at its rated /alue.
Modeling the device
0he diagram &elow shows shape that must &e rotated a&out the /ertical a9is to form the de/ice!
with dimensions in millimeters. 0he mo/ing coil is # mm thic4 and 2J mm deepE it is positioned
in the center of the airgap! which has a radial length of ) mm. 0he material for the center pole!
top plate and &ottom plate is 2020 cold5rolled steel! and the permanent5magnet material is
ceramic ferrite. 0he mo/ing coil has 300 turns and the rated current is 2 ..
2
'
24
8
)
25 '
1)
15 15 2)
)
%5
0o determine the inductance of the coil! it is necessary to allow for the contri&ution of the
permanent magnet to the total flu9 lin4age with the coil. If
i
is the flu9 lin4age when the
coil carries a current i! and
0
is the flu9 lin4age with no current! the coil inductance is gi/en
&y
: =

i

0
i
A)5?B
0he force on the coil will &e calculated for the following conditions:
0he coil current is /aried in steps of 0.# . with the coil in its mid position.
0he coil position is /aried in steps of 2 mm with the current at its rated
/alue.
Constructing the model
1 "tart a new model and sa/e it as Mo2ing coil.
2 "et the model length units to millimeters.
3 "et and display the construction grid.
4 Let the coordinate origin &e the center of the top face of the center pole! which is the
point in the diagram on page J3.
) Draw the cross5section of each steel component and sweep it in an arc:
.ngle: J0Y.
Center: A0! 0B.
.9is /ector: A0! C2B.
Material: CD20: Cold rolled 2020 steel.
- Draw the cross5section of the permanent5magnet component! and sweep it in an arc:
.ngle: J0Y.
Center: A0! 0B.
.9is /ector: A0! C2B.
Material: Ceramic ferrite.
0ype: Lniform.
Direction: A0! C2! 0B.
2 Draw the cross5section of the coil component and sweep it in an arc:
.ngle: J0Y.
Center: A0! 0B.
.9is /ector: A0! C2B.
Material: Copper: =.--e- "iemensFmeter.
8 Ma4e the coil:
3um&er of turns: 300
Current: 2 ..
Draw the cross5section of an air &o9 as a closed semicircle of radius 300 mm!
centered at the origin! and sweep it in an arc:
Ignore 'oles must &e acti/e in Ma4e Component In .n .rc.
.ngle: J0Y.
Center: A0! 0B.
.9is /ector: A0! C2B.
Material: .ID.
Parameterization current
In the Coil arameters page! enter the following list of /alues for the Coil Current
parameter:
1.0, 0.$, 0.6, 0.4, 0.2, 0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.$, 1.0
Soling and post-processing current
1 "et the options for sol/ing as follows in the "ol/e menu:
"ol/er :ptions: Material 0ype
Default!
3ewton tolerance 2U! Ma9imum 3ewton Iterations #0!
CM tolerance 0.02U.
olynomial order #.
.daption :ptions: Lse h5adaption!
ercentage of >lements to Define #=U!
0olerance 0.#U!
Ma9imum 3um&er of "teps 20.
2 "ol/e as "tatic #D.
;ith the "asic ersion of -agNet( only the first !ro"lem 'ill "e soled automatically.
*olutions of the other !ro"lems can "e o"tained "y the method descri"ed in cha!ter 2
D!age 2CF.
3 Inspect the contour plot of the flu9 function and the shaded plot of the smoothed Q*Q
/alues.
4 Inspect the computed glo&al 6uantities for the different current /alues.
0f -agNet is licensed for !arameterization( dis!lay a gra!h of the y-com!onent of
force on the coil.
) Determine the coil inductance for a current of C2 . from e6uation )5= on page J3.
Parameterization displacement
1 In the Coil arameters page! change the current parameter /alues from a list to the
single num&er: 1.0
2 In the Model arameters page! define a new parameter ()ift with the following
/alues: 5, 4, *, 2, 1, 0, 1, 2, *, 4, 5
3 In the Coil Component arameters page! specify the shift /ector as
+0, ,()ift,mm, 0-
Soling and post-processing displacement
1 "ol/e as "tatic #D.
2 Inspect the contour plot of the flu9 function and the shaded plot of the smoothed Q*Q
/alues.
3 Inspect the computed glo&al 6uantities for the different displacement /alues.
0f -agNet is licensed for !arameterization( dis!lay a gra!h of the y-com!onent of
force on the coil.
Sample results
0he results &elow were o&tained with Mag3et /ersion ?.#2.2:
Coil in mid position: Coil current G C2.0 .
Coil current
A.B
.9ial force
on coil AB
Displacement
AmmB
.9ial force
on coil AB
C2.0 C-.J32 C=.0 C-.-32
C0.S C?.30# C).0 C-.J#3
C0.? C).?J# C3.0 CS.0)?
C0.) C3.20= C#.0 CS.0=-
C0.# C2.=)0 C2.0 CS.02-
0.0 0 0.0 C-.J32
0.# 2.=2- 2.0 C-.-S2
0.) 3.00J #.0 C-.=-?
0.? ).)-? 3.0 C-.3#?
0.S =.J2? ).0 C-.022
2.0 -.330 =.0 C?.?)?
Coil in mid position( coil current G C2.0 .:
;lu9 lin4age

: C0.0S2?J= W&
;lu9 lin4age
0
: C 0.0-?30? W&
"elf5inductance :: =.3SJ m'
Disc"ssion
0here is noticea&le non5linearity in the forceFcurrent characteristic! which is not symmetrical
for positi/e and negati/e current /alues. Its origin is the flu9 generated &y the coil current itself!
which aids or opposes the permanent5magnet flu9 in the airgap. 0he origin of the effect can &e
demonstrated &y su&stituting a non5magnetic material such as aluminum for the ceramic ferrite
material! since the recoil permea&ility of ceramic ferrite is close to 2. . current magnitude of
2.0 . in the coil then gi/es an a9ial force of C0.3S- 3! independent of the direction of the current.
0his force is in the negati/e y direction! drawing the coil in to the magnet! and it is proportional to
the s6uare of the current.
0he forceFdisplacement characteristic is also non5linear! and the asymmetry in this characteristic
reflects the asymmetry of the fringing field a&o/e and &elow the top plate of the magnet. *oth of
these non5linear effects are sources of distortion in mo/ing5coil loudspea4ers.
0he inductance calculated from e6uation )5? on page J3 is a static /alue! which ignores eddy
currents in the magnetic circuit! particularly the center pole! when the coil carries alternating
current.
Chapter )
('
$criptin"
Chapter =
%cripting
!ntrod"ction
Lp to this point! Mag3et has &een used interacti/ely! with the mouse and the 4ey&oard! to &uild
models and analy<e the results. Mag3et can also &e controlled &y scri!ts and scri!ting forms.
"cripts are te9t files containing commands that control Mag3et. . script can &e recorded during a
Mag3et session. When this script is run! all the operations that were carried out during the
recording session will &e repeated automatically. "cripts created in this way can &e edited to
change the operations! and scripts that are more powerful can &e created with the K*"cript
programming language.
Decording a script is often an effecti/e way of finding out how to use the Mag3et scripting
commands! in preparation for writing special5purpose user scripts.
"cripting forms ta4e scripting a stage further &y pro/iding a graphical user interface for the
user to interact with the script. . form can ha/e te9t &o9es for entering /alues! &uttons for
starting actions! and areas for displaying results. "cripting forms are not co/ered in this
document! &ut sources of information are gi/en &elow.
0he most ad/anced 4ind of scripting uses another application to communicate with Mag3et
through the Microsoft .cti/e( .utomation Interface. Microsoft >9cel! for e9ample! can &e used
in this way. . script in the form of an >9cel macro can command Mag3et to &uild and sol/e a
model! using data entered on the spreadsheet! and then get results &ac4 from Mag3et to display
on the spreadsheet. .n e9ample of this form of scripting is gi/en in the section 7.utomation with
>9cel8 on page 20#.
Further information
0he Mag3et help gi/es full particulars of the Mag3et scripting commands. It also has a lin4 to
the Infolytica "cripting Manual! which is a useful introduction to writing user scripts and
scripting forms.
(4a$ple $odel
0o illustrate the principles of scripting! a simple model will &e used. 0he diagram &elow shows
two permanent5magnet &loc4s! magneti<ed in a direction parallel to the line .*. 0hey will attract
each other if they are magneti<ed in the same direction! &ut they will repel each other if the
direction is re/ersed in one &loc4. 0he &loc4s are deep enough for a #D model to &e used.
A
8
-
(3 Introduction to Ma"Net
0he cross5section of each &loc4 is a s6uare of side #0 mm! the gap &etween the &loc4s is #0 mm!
and the &loc4s are 200 mm deep. 0he material is ceramic ferrite.
0his is an open &oundary pro&lem! which is &est handled &y the open &oundary techni6ue
descri&ed in the &us&ar forces case study on page )S. 'owe/er! this ma4es use of an e9tension to
Mag3et! and the user interaction would not &e recorded in a script. 0herefore! for this e9ample! a
simple circular &oundary will &e used. If it is re6uired to record the open &oundary construction
in a script! it must &e created manually as descri&ed in .ppendi9 C.
,reating the $odel
1 "a/e the file as 0M Bloc"s.
2 "et the model length units to millimeters.
3 "et and display the construction grid.
4 Let the coordinate origin &e the point mid5way &etween the &loc4s! so that the
&loc4s are disposed symmetrically a&out the origin.
) Construct a component for each &loc4:
"weep distance: 200 mm.
Material: Ceramic ;errite.
0ype: uniform.
Direction: A2! 0! 0B.
This s!ecifies that the "loc4 is uniformly magnetized( 'ith the magnetization ector in
the !ositie x direction.
- "elect and delete all the construction5slice lines.
2 Create a circular air &o9 with a radius of #00 mm.
%olving and post'processing
1 "et the options for sol/ing as follows in the "ol/e menu:
"ol/er :ptions: Material 0ype Default!
3ewton tolerance 2U! Ma9imum 3ewton Iterations #0!
CM tolerance 0.02U.
olynomial order #.
.daption :ptions: Lse h5adaption!
ercentage of >lements to Define #=U!
0olerance 0.0=U!
Ma9imum 3um&er of "teps 20.
2 "ol/e as "tatic #D.
3 Inspect the contour plot of the flu9 function.
4 Inspect the forces on the &loc4s.
Chapter )
((
$criptin"
%cript for the $odel
,reating a User %cript 3og file
Decording a script is similar to recording a macro in applications li4e Word or >9cel. :nce you
ha/e opened a Lser "cript Log file! commands representing the operations carried out with the
mouse and the 4ey&oard will &e recorded in the file. 0his continues until you pause or stop the
Lser "cript. 0he following steps will create a script file for &uilding and sol/ing the model.
1 "a/e the M *loc4s model and close the file.
2 :n the 0ools menu! clic4 "cripting and select "tart Lser "cript.
A *ae As dialog "ox is dis!layed.
3 >nter the file name as 0M Bloc"s.2s and clic4 "a/e.
4 :n the ;ile menu! clic4 3ew.
) Construct the model again! using the same procedure as &efore! &ut omitting the
initial step of sa/ing the model.
- "et the sol/er and adaption options as &efore! and sol/e the model.
2 When the solution is complete! on the 0ools menu! clic4 "cripting and "top Lser
"cript.
1"nning the script
1 :n the ;ile menu! clic4 3ew.
Do not sa/e the current model.
2 :n the 0ools menu! clic4 "cripting and select Dun "cript.
An $!en dialog "ox is dis!layed.
3 "elect the file M *loc4s./&s and clic4 :pen.
The model should "e re-created and soled. #hec4 that eerything is the same as
"efore.
15
5
Introduction to Ma"Net
(diting the script
0he recorded script should ha/e re5created the original model without any changes. It can &e
edited to change the model! for e9ample to change the si<e of the &loc4s. 0ry the following.
1 In Windows! open the 3otepad te9t editor.
2 :n the 3otepad ;ile menu! clic4 :pen.
3 .n :pen dialog &o9 is displayed.
4 In the ;ile 3ame &o9! change the entry from Z.t9t to =.2s and press >nter.
This ena"les scri!t files to "e dis!layed in the dialog "ox.
) 3a/igate to the folder containing the script file M *loc4s./&s! and open the file.
- >9amine the file contents. 0here should &e some commands similar to the following:
Call getDocument().getView().newLine(-10, -10, -30, -10)
Call getDocument().getView().newLine(-30, -10, -30, 10)
Call getDocument().getView().newLine(-30, 10, -10, 10)
Call getDocument().getView().newLine(-10, 10, -10, -10)
P
P
Call getDocument().getView().newLine(10, -10, 10, 10)
Call getDocument().getView().newLine(10, 10, 30, 10)
Call getDocument().getView().newLine(30, 10, 30, -10)
Call getDocument().getView().newLine(30, -10, 10, -10)
These commands dra' lines to form squares of side 2, mm. The order may "e different(
de!ending on the 'ay the squares 'ere dra'n 'hen the scri!t 'as recorded.
2 >dit the lines so that all the y-coordinate /alues are dou&led in /alue:
Call getDocument().getView().newLine(-10, -20, -30, -20)
Call getDocument().getView().newLine(-30, -20, -30, 20)
Call getDocument().getView().newLine(-30, 20, -10, 20)
Call getDocument().getView().newLine(-10, 20, -10, -20)
P
P
Call getDocument().getView().newLine(10, -20, 10, 20)
Call getDocument().getView().newLine(10, 20, 30, 20)
Call getDocument().getView().newLine(30, 20, 30, -20)
Call getDocument().getView().newLine(30, -20, 10, -20)
8 :n the ;ile menu! clic4 "a/e.
Deturn to Mag3et.
15 Dun this modified script. It should construct a different model.
11 Chec4 the result.
Chapter 2#'
2#'
$criptin"
,reating a new script
"ome operations are possi&le with scripts! &ut are not possi&le when using Mag3et interacti/ely.
;or e9ample! the ;ield ro&e only wor4s with the mouse C it is not possi&le to enter the
coordinates with the 4ey&oard. 0he script listed &elow will wait for the user to enter x and y
coordinate /alues! and then display the flu9 density magnitude at the point. It does this repeatedly
until the user clic4s the 3o &utton.
8ine (cri4t
2
'Script to get value o! "#" at point in a 2D !iel$
#
3
Set %e& ' getDocument.getSolution.get%e&(1)
)
Set (iel$ ' getDocument.getSolution.getS)tem(iel$ *
=
(%e&,+"#" moot&e$+)
?
,eDim Value(0)
-
Do
S
- ' .nput#o/(+0nter t&e - co-or$inate1+,,0)
J
2 ' .nput#o/(+0nter t&e 2 co-or$inate1+,,0)
20
Call (iel$.get(iel$3t4oint (-, 2, 0, Value)
22
,epone ' %g#o/(+5&e value o! "#" i + 6 Value(0) 6 C&r(10) *
2#
6 +0nter anot&er point7+, V82e9o)
23
Loop :ntil (,epone ' V89o)
. &rief e9planation of the script is gi/en &elow.
8ine Comment
2 .ny line starting with a single 6uote character AXB is a comment! which is ignored when the
script runs.
# *lan4 lines are ignored when the script runs.
3 0his gets the solution mesh and creates an o&1ect handle Mesh! re6uired in line =.
) 0his gets the re6uired field and creates an o&1ect handle Field! re6uired in line 20. .n
underscore preceded &y a space character means the statement continues on the ne9t line.
= 0his is the continuation of line ).
? .n array with one element is created! for use in lines 20 and 22.
- 0his is the start of a repeat loop that ends at line 23.
S 0he K*"cript Input*o9 function is used to get the x co5ordinate /alue entered &y the user.
J 0he K*"cript Input*o9 function is used to get the y co5ordinate /alue entered &y the user.
20 0he re6uired field /alue is returned in the first element of the array Value.
22 0he K*"cript Msg*o9 is used to display the result and get a yesFno response from the user.
"trings are enclosed &etween dou&le 6uote A[B characters.
0he \ operator 1oins strings and con/erts num&ers to strings.
ChrA20B is a special character! used to start a new line in the message &o9.
2# 0his is the continuation of line 22. Deturned /alues are K&Yes or K&3o.
23 0his is the end of the repeat loop that started at line -.
2#3 Introduction to Ma"Net
Creating and using the script
1 Lse 3otepad to create the script! and enter the lines e9actly as listed on the pre/ious
page e!ce4t t)at t)e line numers must e omitted.
2 Chec4 each line /ery carefully. 0here must &e no mista4es! or the script will pro&a&ly
fail.
3 "a/e the script in a file named %ield0roe.2s.
4 In Mag3et! open a file for any e9isting model.
) Dun the ;ieldro&e script.
- If the script fails with an error message! note the line num&er listed in the message
&o9! and edit the script file with 3otepad to correct the error.
2 When the script is wor4ing! display a shaded plot of Q*Q smoothed. Confirm that the
/alues are similar to those o&tained with the ;ield ro&e &utton.
8 0o get /alues of another field! change the 6uantity specified in line = to one of the
fields listed in the ;ield page! for e9ample "B y smoothed".
6"to$ation with (4cel
0his section shows how Microsoft >9cel can communicate with Mag3et /ia the .cti/e(
.utomation Interface to set up and analy<e the model of two permanent5magnet &loc4s. 0he
diagram &elow shows part of the >9cel wor4sheet.
0he core of the >9cel implementation is a set of macros or su&routines! written in Kisual *asic!
which are similar in principle to the scripts discussed a&o/e. 0here are four &uttons on the
wor4sheet! each lin4ed to a macro! which do the following:
"tart Mag3et: start the Mag3et application and set the length units.
Close Mag3et: close the model file! close the application and release resources.
Mag3et Kisi&ility: ma4e Magnet /isi&le or in/isi&le.
Dun Model: get data /alues from cells D= to D22! send commands to Mag3et to &uild
and sol/e the model! get the x5components of force on the &loc4s from Mag3et! and
display the results in cells D23 and D2).
Chapter 2#(
2#(
$criptin"
0he macro acti/ated &y the Dun Model &utton is the core of the implementation. ;or clarity! this
macro calls other su&routines that carry out specific tas4s such as creating one magnet &loc4.
0he sections &elow descri&e how to set up the >9cel wor4sheet and create the su&routines. 0his is
an ad/anced topic! which assumes some familiarity with Microsoft >9cel and the Kisual *asic for
.pplications AK*.B macro language used in >9cel.
Degistered users can download a copy of the complete >9cel wor4&oo4! containing the wor4sheet
and the macro module! from the Learning Center at www. i n f o l y ti ca .com.
(4cel wor;sheet < 1
1 "tart >9cel.
2 >nsure that the ;orms and Kisual *asic tool&ars are present as follows:
:n the Kiew menu! clic4 0ool&ars.
If ;orms is not chec4ed! clic4 ;orms.
Lse the same procedure for Kisual *asic.
osition any new tool&ars as re6uired.
3 :n the ;ile menu! clic4 3ew.
4 "a/e the file as 0M Bloc"s.!ls
) >nter the te9t and numerical /alues e9actly as shown on the left! e9cept for cells D23
and D2).
In cells D23 and D2)! enter 0 Anumeral <eroB.
"et the formatting for cells D= to DJ to one decimal place.
"et the formatting for cells D23 and D2) to three decimal places.
.ll other cells can use the default formatting.
0is"al #asic $od"le < 1
*efore creating &uttons on the wor4sheet! it is helpful to create some of the Kisual *asic
su&routines they will use.
1 :n the Kisual *asic tool&ar! clic4 the Kisual *asic >ditor &utton
.lternati/ely! on the 0ools menu! pause o/er Macro! and select Kisual *asic
>ditor from the drop5down list.
This should dis!lay the 5isual Basic Editor in a ne' "lan4 'indo'.
2 :n the Insert menu! clic4 Module
This should o!en a ne' #ode 'indo' named -odule/( 'ith an insertion !oint for
text entry.
3 0ype the te9t listed on the ne9t page! ta4ing care to copy it accurately. "ee the section
7Comments on the Code8 for an e9planation of the content.
2%5 Introduction to Ma"Net
'4ermanent magnet 8loc; wit& %ag9et.
Dim %ag 3 <8=ect, Doc 3 <8=ect, Con 3 <8=ect
Dim Cur 3 <8=ect, Sol 3 <8=ect
Dim L/ 3 Dou8le, L) 3 Dou8le, L> 3 Dou8le
Dim Lg 3 Dou8le, %/ 3 Dou8le
Dim %aterial 3 Variant
Dim Vii8le 3 #oolean, ,unning 3 #oolean
<ption 0/plicit
Su8 Start%ag9et()
' Su8routine calle$ 8) t&e Start %ag9et 8utton.
' Start %ag9et an$ et varia8le.
.! ,unning 5&en
Call %g#o/(+%ag9et i alrea$) running.+, v8<?<nl))
0le
Set %ag ' Create<8=ect(+%agnet.3pplication+)
%ag.Vii8le ' Vii8le
Set Doc ' %ag.newDocument
Set Con ' %ag.@etContant
Set Cur ' Doc.getCurrentView
,unning ' 5rue
0n$ .!
0n$ Su8
Su8 Cloe%ag9et()
' Su8routine calle$ 8) t&e Cloe %ag9et 8utton.
' Cloe %ag9et an$ reet varia8le.
.! 9ot ,unning 5&en
Call %g#o/(+%ag9et i not running.+, v8<?<nl))
0le
Call Cur.Cloe(Con.in!o(ale)
Call %ag.0/it
Set %ag ' 9ot&ing
,unning ' (ale
Vii8le ' (ale
0n$ .!
0n$ Su8
Su8 Vii8ilit)()
' Su8routine calle$ 8) t&e %ag9et Vii8ilit) 8utton.
' 5oggle t&e %ag9et vii8ilit) !lag.
.! 9ot ,unning 5&en
Call %g#o/(+%ag9et i not running.+, v8<?<nl))
0le
.! Vii8le 5&en
Vii8le ' (%g#o/(+%ag9et i vii8le. C&ange to invii8le7+, *
v82e9o) ' v89o)
.! 9ot Vii8le 5&en
%ag.Vii8le ' (ale
0n$ .!
0le
Vii8le ' (%g#o/(+%ag9et i invii8le. C&ange to vii8le7+, *
v82e9o) ' v82e)
.! Vii8le 5&en
%ag.Vii8le ' 5rue
0n$ .!
0n$ .!
0n$ .!
0n$ Su8
(4cel wor;sheet < 2
1 Deturn to the >9cel window &y clic4ing the >9cel icon on the Windows tas4 &ar.
2 :n the ;orms tool&ar! clic4 *utton.
3 Clic4 on wor4sheet cell .2? to insert a &utton.
A "utton and a dialog "ox should a!!ear.
4 In the Macro 3ame drop5down list! select "tartMag3et.
) Clic4 :@.
- Clic4 inside the new &utton! and change the te9t to (tart Mag7et.
2 'old down the .lt 4ey! and ad1ust the si<e and position of the &utton &y dragging the
&order.
The "utton 'ill sna! to the 'or4sheet cells.
8 Clic4 outside the &utton! so that the &utton is no longer mar4ed with a &order.
.fter this! a/oid clic4ing the &utton. 0wo more &uttons are re6uired &efore
testing can &egin.
"a/e the file.
15 In a similar way! insert two more &uttons:
. &utton named Close Mag3et! lin4ed to the CloseMag3et su&routine.
. &utton named Mag3et Kisi&ility! lin4ed to the Kisi&ility su&routine.
.esting < 1
1 Clic4 "tart Mag3et.
If the macro is wor4ing correctly! the Mag3et application should start! &ut there
will &e no /isi&le acti/ity.
If the macro contains fatal errors! there will &e a Kisual *asic dialog similar to
the following.
In this case! clic4 De&ug.
This should ta4e you to the line in the 5isual Basic code 'here the error
occurred.
Correct the error! and press ;= to continue.
Continue in this way until the macro appears to &e wor4ing.
2 Clic4 Mag3et Kisi&ility
If there are errors! correct them as &efore.
Clic4 Yes to ma4e Mag3et /isi&le.
0he Mag3et icon should appear on the Windows tas4 &ar.
3 Clic4 the Mag3et icon to display Mag3et.
4 Deturn to >9cel.
) Clic4 Close Mag3et.
0he Mag3et application should close: the icon will /anish from the tas4 &ar.
If there are errors! correct them as &efore.
- Chec4 that all three &uttons wor4 correctly.
. message &o9 should &e displayed if you try to start Mag3et again when it is
already running! or use either of the other two &uttons when Mag3et is not
running.
2 >nsure that Mag3et is closed &efore continuing with the de/elopment.
If you start a second instance of Mag3et! it may not wor4 correctly.
If this happens! press CtrlT.ltTDelete and use the Windows 0as4 Manager to
close all instances of Mag3et.
,o$pletion
1 Deturn to the Kisual *asic editor.
2 0ype in the remainder of the code listed &elow.
Su8 ,un%o$el()
' Su8routine calle$ 8) t&e ,un %o$el 8utton.
' #uil$ an$ olve t&e mo$el.
Dim (/ 3 Variant, () 3 Variant, (> 3 Variant
.! 9ot ,unning 5&en
Call %g#o/(+%ag9et i not running.+, v8<?<nl))
0le
' #uil$ t&e 4% 8loc; mo$el
9ew%o$el
@etData
Call #uil$#loc;(L/, L), L>, (L/ A Lg) B 2, 0, +#loc;1+, 5rue)
Call #uil$#loc;(L/, L), L>, -(L/ A Lg) B 2, 0, +#loc;2+, %/ C 0)
Create#oun$ar)
' Solve t&e mo$el an$ get reult !rom %ag9et.
Call Doc.olveStatic2D
Dit& S&eet(+S&eet1+)
Call Sol.get(orce<n#o$)(1, 1, (/, (), (>)
.Cell(13, E).Value ' (/
Call Sol.get(orce<n#o$)(1, 2, (/, (), (>)
.Cell(1E, E).Value ' (/
0n$ Dit&
0n$ .!
0n$ Su8
Su8 9ew%o$el()
' Cloe t&e current mo$el an$ tart a new mo$el.
Call Cur.Cloe(Con.in!o(ale)
Set Doc ' %ag.newDocument
Set Con ' %ag.@etContant
Set Cur ' Doc.getCurrentView
Set Sol ' Doc.getSolution
Call Doc.etDe!aultLengt&:nit(+%illimeter+)
Call Doc.etScale$5o(it(5rue)
Call Doc.et4ol)nomial<r$er(++, 2)
Call Doc.ueF3$aption(5rue)
Call Doc.etF3$aption,e!inement(0.2G)
Call Doc.et3$aption5olerance(0.001)
0n$ Su8
Su8 @etData()
' @et $ata value !rom column D on S&eet1.
Dit& S&eet(+S&eet1+)
L/ ' .Cell(G, E) ' #loc; / $imenion
L) ' .Cell(H, E) ' #loc; ) $imenion
L> ' .Cell(I, E) ' #loc; > $imenion
Lg ' .Cell(J, E) ' @ap 8etween 8loc;
%/ ' .Cell(10, E) ' %agneti>ation $irection1 A1 or -1.
%aterial ' .Cell(11, E) ' %aterial name
0n$ Dit&
0n$ Su8
Su8 #uil$#loc;(D/ 3 Dou8le, D) 3 Dou8le, D> 3 Dou8le, *
</ 3 Dou8le, <) 3 Dou8le, 9ame 3 String, 4oitive 3 #oolean)
' #uil$ a magnet 8loc;, $imenion D/ 8) D) 8) D>, center at (</, <)).
' 9ame i t&e component name.
' 4oitive ' 5rue !or Ave, (ale !or -ve magneti>ation $irection.
Dim -1 3 Dou8le, -2 3 Dou8le
Dim 21 3 Dou8le, 22 3 Dou8le
-1 ' </ - D/ B 2
21 ' <) - D) B 2
-2 ' -1 A D/
22 ' 21 A D)
Call Cur.newLine(-1, 21, -2, 21)
Call Cur.newLine(-2, 21, -2, 22)
Call Cur.newLine(-2, 22, -1, 22)
Call Cur.newLine(-1, 22, -1, 21)
,eDim 3rra)<!Value(0)
3rra)<!Value(0) ' Con.in!oSliceSur!ace
Call Cur.elect3t(</, <), Con.in!oSetSelection, 3rra)<!Value)
3rra)<!Value(0) ' 9ame
.! 4oitive 5&en
Call Cur.ma;eComponent.n3Line(D>, 3rra)<!Value, *
+9ame'+ A %aterial A +K5)pe':ni!ormKDirection'L1,0,0M+, *
Con.in!o%a;eComponent,emoveVertice)
0le
Call Cur.ma;eComponent.n3Line(D>, 3rra)<!Value, *
+9ame'+ A %aterial A +K5)pe':ni!ormKDirection'L-1,0,0M+, *
Con.in!o%a;eComponent,emoveVertice)
0n$ .!
0n$ Su8
Su8 Create#oun$ar)()
' #uil$ t&e air pace an$ e/terior region.
' 3ppl) 8oun$ar) con$ition !or t&e ?elvin tran!ormation.
Dim ,8 3 Dou8le, Su8$iv 3 String
Cont ?ra$ ' 1.G, ?mag ' 0.1, 9$iv ' 20
' ?ra$1 ra$iu !actor !or air pace
' ?mag1 cale !actor !or e/terior
' 9$iv1 num8er o! e$ge u8$iviion
' Calculate ra$iu o! interior air region an$ 8uil$ t&e component.
,8 ' ?ra$ N SOr((L/ A Lg) P 2 A L) P 2)
Call Cur.newCircle(0, 0, ,8)
,eDim 3rra)<!Value(0)
3rra)<!Value(0) ' Con.in!oSliceSur!ace
Call Cur.elect3t(0, 0, Con.in!oSetSelection, 3rra)<!Value)
3rra)<!Value(0) ' +3ir pace+
Call Cur.ma;eComponent.n3Line(L>, 3rra)<!Value, +9ame'3.,+, *
Con.in!o%a;eComponent.gnoreFole <r
Con.in!o%a;eComponent,emoveVertice)
' Set e$ge u8$iviion
Su8$iv ' +5)pe':ni!ormKSu8$iviion'+ 6 9$iv 6 +KDenit),atio'0.G+
3rra)<!Value(0) ' +3ir pace,(aceQ2,0$geQ1+
Call Doc.aign%e&0$geSu8$iviion(3rra)<!Value, Su8$iv)
3rra)<!Value(0) ' +3ir pace,(aceQ2,0$geQ2+
Call Doc.aign%e&0$geSu8$iviion(3rra)<!Value, Su8$iv)
' #uil$ t&e e/terior component.
Call Cur.newCircle(,8, ,8, ?mag N ,8)
3rra)<!Value(0) ' Con.in!oSliceSur!ace
Call Cur.elect3t(,8, ,8, Con.in!oSetSelection, 3rra)<!Value)
3rra)<!Value(0) ' +0/terior+
Call Cur.ma;eComponent.n3Line(?mag N L>, 3rra)<!Value, +9ame'3.,+, *
Con.in!o%a;eComponent.gnoreFole <r
Con.in!o%a;eComponent,emoveVertice)
' Set e$ge u8$iviion
Su8$iv ' +5)pe':ni!ormKSu8$iviion'+ 6 9$iv 6 +KDenit),atio'0.G+
3rra)<!Value(0) ' +0/terior,(aceQ2,0$geQ1+
Call Doc.aign%e&0$geSu8$iviion(3rra)<!Value, Su8$iv)
3rra)<!Value(0) ' +0/terior,(aceQ2,0$geQ2+
Call Doc.aign%e&0$geSu8$iviion(3rra)<!Value, Su8$iv)
' 3ppl) 8oun$ar) con$ition to eac& &al! o! t&e air component.
3rra)<!Value(0) ' +3ir pace,(aceQ3+
Call Doc.create#oun$ar)Con$ition(3rra)<!Value, +#C1+)
,eDim S&i!tVec(2)
S&i!tVec(0) ' ,8
S&i!tVec(1) ' ,8
S&i!tVec(2) ' 0
,eDim Center(2)
Center(0) ' 0
Center(1) ' 0
Center(2) ' 0
Call Doc.et0ven4erio$ic(+#C1+, ?mag, 9ull, 9ull, 9ull, *
S&i!tVec, Center)
3rra)<!Value(0) ' +3ir pace,(aceQE+
Call Doc.create#oun$ar)Con$ition(3rra)<!Value, +#C2+)
Call Doc.et0ven4erio$ic(+#C2+, ?mag, 9ull, 9ull, 9ull, *
S&i!tVec, Center)
0n$ Su8
3 Deturn to >9cel.
4 Insert a new &utton named Dun Model! lin4ed to the Kisual *asic su&routine
DunModel.
) 0est this &utton.
If necessary! correct errors as &efore.
- If it is difficult to find the errors! proceed as follows.
2 lace the insertion point anywhere in the DunModelAB su&routine.
8 *egin single5step de&ugging as follows.
ress ;S.
The su"routine header line is mar4ed in yello'.
ress ;S three times.
The line Ne'-odel is mar4ed in yello'.
ress ;S again.
The su"routine Ne'-odel is entered.
Continue in this way to step through successi/e lines of the su&routine.
If you get an error dialog! clic4 De&ug to continue.
0o help locate the error! inspect /aria&le /alues &y pausing the pointer o/er each
/aria&le name.
Correct the error and press ;S to continue.
15 If the program has to &e reset! it is important to close Mag3et &efore continuing.
If you start a second instance of Mag3et! it may not wor4 correctly.
If this happens! press CtrlT.ltTDelete and use the Windows 0as4 Manager to
close all instances of Mag3et.
11 When all the errors ha/e &een corrected! single5stepping will reach the end of the
DunModelAB su&routine! and the result will &e the same as if the Dun Model &utton
had &een clic4ed on the >9cel wor4sheet.
12 Chec4 that the force /alues are similar to those displayed in the /iew of the
>9cel wor4sheet on page 20=.
If there are significant differences! single5step through the macro again.
Carefully chec4 the numerical /alues of /aria&les in the macro! and the details of
the Mag3et model! to find the error.
Using the wor;sheet
1 0ry re/ersing the direction of magneti<ation! &y entering C2 in cell D20! and clic4
Dun Model.
The signs of the force alues should reerse( and the magnitudes should "e slightly
different from the !reious alues.
2 Change the material to a similar linear material &y entering
0M04> Brem 0.4 mur 1.0 in cell D22! and clic4 Dun Model.
0his te9t must &e entered accurately! or the model will fail &ecause the material
is un4nown.
0he solution will &e /ery much faster! &ecause no 3ewton steps are re6uired.
3 0ry changing the dimensions of the &loc4s and the gap &etween the &loc4s.
,o$$ents on the code
0he commands differ in some respects from those found in a Lser "cript Log file and listed in the
Mag3et help. In particular! a named constant such as in!oSetSelection has to &e gi/en in the
form %ag.@etContant.in!oSetSelection. In the macro! this is simplified to
Con.in!oSetSelection &y the o&1ect /aria&le assignment Set Con '
%ag.@etContant.
Su#routine Start%ag*et
0his su&routine starts the Mag3et program! and assigns /alues to some o&1ect /aria&les for
con/enience in the rest of the module. 0he /alue of the glo&al /aria&le ,unning indicates
whether Mag3et is already running. It has the /alue (ale initially! &ut is set to 5rue
when Mag3et is started! and reset to (ale when Mag3et is closed.
Su#routine Close%agnet
0his su&routine closes the current model if one has &een &uilt! then closes the Mag3et program
and resets /aria&le.
Su#routine &isi#ility
0his su&routine determines whether the Mag3et window should &e /isi&le! &y testing the /alue of
the glo&al /aria&le Vii8le. 0he /alue A5rue or (aleB is set &y the userHs response to a
6uestion in a dialog &o9.
Su#routine +un%odel
0his su&routine calls other su&routines descri&ed &elow to get data from the wor4sheet and &uild
the model. It sol/es the model! and display results for force on the wor4sheet.
Su#routine *e'%odel
0his su&routine closes the current model and starts a new model. It also resets some o&1ect
/aria&les so that they refer to the new model! and sets the Mag3et sol/ing parameters.
Su#routine ,et!ata
0his su&routine gets data from designated cells on the first wor4sheet! which is assumed to ha/e
the >9cel default name "heet2. 0he su&routine does no data chec4ing! and simply assumes that
/alid data ha/e &een entered in numeric form in the wor4sheet. . production /ersion of the
su&routine should include chec4s for the data format! and con/ersion from strings to num&ers if
re6uired.
Su#routines (uild(lock
0his su&routine creates a &loc4 of permanent5magnet material! using data supplied in the
parameter list. It is called twice &y the su&routine "ol/eModel to create the two &loc4s. 0he
Mag3et commands are similar to those found in a Lser "cript Log file! apart from the string
manipulation to use the name of the material from the wor4sheet.
Su#routine Create(oundary
0his su&routine creates an interior air space component surrounding the model! and a small
e9terior air component. It sets the num&er of edge su&di/isions and lin4s the components with an
e/en periodic &oundary condition.
Appendi* A 111
+ield E,uations and $olution
.ppendi9 .
+ield (/"ations and %ol"tion
+ield e/"ations
0he elementary concepts of electromagnetism co/ered in Chapter 2 are sufficient for using
Mag3et to sol/e practical pro&lems. It is helpful! howe/er! if the user also has some
understanding of the &asic theory gi/en &elow. "ee Cheng V=W for a good introductory account of
electromagnetic theory.
0he static magnetic field is descri&ed &y the magnetic flu9 density B and the magnetic intensity
H! which satisfy the e6uations
curlH = ? ! A.52B
di/B = 0 ! A.5#B
B = H =
0

r
H ! A.53B
where ? is the current density which is the source of the magnetic field. >6uation .52 is the
differential form of .mpIreHs circuital law C e6uation 25# of Chapter 2 C and e6uation .5#
em&odies the fact that there are no free magnetic poles! so magnetic flu9 lines are closed cur/es.
0o sol/e these e6uations we use e6uation .5# to e9press the flu9 density B in terms of another
/ector A through the e6uation
B = curlA ! A.5)B
where A is 4nown as the magnetic /ector potential. >6uation .52 then &ecomes
2

curl curlA = ? ! A.5=B

which is sol/ed numerically &y the finite5element method to determine the magnetic field in the
de/ice Asee the section 73umerical "olution8 on page 22=B.
In two dimensions the magnetic /ector potential has some /ery useful properties. ;or the x-y
plane of translational geometry! the current and therefore the /ector potential is in the z direction.
112 Introduction to Ma"Net
0he components of B are then gi/en &y
B
x
=
A
!
y
B =

A
y
x
A.5?B
where A G A
z
is the magnitude of the /ector potential. 0he scalar 6uantity A will &e termed the
magnetic potential. ;rom e6uation .5? it may &e shown that e6uipotentials C lines of constant A C
are flu9 lines. Moreo/er! the magnetic flu9 &etween any two points in the x-y plane! for a depth
d in the z direction! is gi/en &y
= d A A
2
A
#
B ! A.5-B
where A
2
and A
#
are the /alues of A at those points. 0hus A is the flu9 per meter depth! with units
of W&Fm. 0he flu9 plots for translational geometry in Mag3et are contours of constant A.
With the r-z plane of rotational geometry! a modified potential is re6uired for numerical sta&ility
and accuracy V#WE Mag3et uses the 6uantity
G = rA . A.5
SB It may &e shown that lines of constant G are flu9 lines in rotational geometry! and that the
flu9
&etween two points is gi/en &y
= # AG
2
G
#
B ! A.5JB
where G
2
and G
#
are the /alues of G at those points. 0hus G is the flu9 per radian. 0he flu9 plots
for rotational geometry in Mag3et are contours of constant G.
It is important to note that the components of B are not gi/en &y e6uation .5? in rotational
geometry with r and z su&stituted for x and y. In cylindrical polar coordinates! we ha/e:
B =
A
=
2 G
!
B
=
2
(rA =
2
G
A.520B
r
z r z
z
r r r r
It follows that the CLDL command in the Calculator Asee chapter 3B will gi/e incorrect results in
rotational geometry. "ince the Calculator commands *(! *Y and *M.M implicitly use the
CLDL command! these are similarly affected. 0he situation is further complicated &y the fact that
the flu9 function G is used for the flu9 plots in Mag3et! &ut the Calculator M>0 ":LL command
returns the /ector potential A.
#o"ndary conditions and sy$$etry
#o"ndary conditions
0o sol/e the field e6uations! it is necessary to specify what happens to the field &eyond the
de/ice. 0heoretically the field e9tends to infinity! which implies an 7open &oundary8 C a
&oundary at infinity. ;or the restricted case of some #D static pro&lems in translational geometry!
an open &oundary can &e modeled with the @el/in transformation techni6ue V-W! which is used in
some electromagnetics pac4ages. Mag3et does not use this techni6ue automatically! &ut it can &e
applied to specific pro&lems in a simple way. Its use is descri&ed &elow on page 22)! and an
e9ample is gi/en in the &us&ar forces case study on page )S. If the @el/in transformation
techni6ue is not applica&le! it is necessary to specify an artificial far5field &oundary.
In #D! an artificial &oundary ta4es the form of a closed cur/e along which a property of the field
is specified. 0he field property is the "oundary condition. 0wo 4inds of &oundary condition are
relati/ely easy to implement when sol/ing the field e6uations:
0he Dirichlet! or flux tangential! &oundary condition. 0he flu9 function AA or GB is
constant o/er any portion of the &oundary with this condition! so the portion &ecomes
part of a flu9 line.
0he 3eumann! or field normal! &oundary condition. 0he direction of B is at right angles
to any portion of the &oundary with this condition! so the flu9 lines enter the portion at
right angles.
0he default &oundary condition in Mag3et is flu9 tangential! so the entire outer &oundary will
&ecome a flu9 line unless the user specifies otherwise. ;or most pro&lems this is the &est choice.
It is e6ui/alent to putting the model in a ca/ity of a material with <ero permea&ility! so that no
flu9 can escape from the model. If the &oundary is ta4en sufficiently far away from the
components of the model! it is a good appro9imation to an open &oundary. . radius of a&out 20
times the model dimensions will &e sufficient in many applications.
If the field normal &oundary condition is applied to the entire &oundary! the effect is e6ui/alent to
putting the model in a ca/ity of a material with infinite permea&ility. 0his has the opposite effect
to the flu9 tangential &oundary: it draws flu9 away from the model. 0his &oundary condition is
usually not as good as the flu9 tangential &oundary for representing an open &oundary! &ut it has a
num&er of uses:
It is a simple way of simulating the effect of a magnetic screen around the model.
It can &e used for creating artificial field patterns! such as the uniform field of finite
e9tent in the case study on the cylindrical screen Apage =?B.
It can &e used to reduce the si<e of a model &y e9ploiting symmetry Asee &elowB.
;or any gi/en artificial &oundary shape! it may &e shown that the true field in the model lies
&etween two e9tremes: the result with a flu9 tangential &oundary condition! and the result with a
field normal &oundary condition. . method of chec4ing the si<e of the &oundary is therefore to
repeat the solution using the other &oundary condition and compare the results.
%y$$etry and periodicity
. line of symmetry in a de/ice is fre6uently either a flu9 line or a line normal to flu9 lines. 0hese
conditions can &e represented &y drawing a closed &oundary round part of the model and
imposing the flu9 tangential or field normal conditions as re6uired. In this way! only a portion of
the de/ice needs to &e modeled. "ee the case study on the cylindrical screen Apage =?B for an
e9ample.
De/ices such as rotating electrical machines ha/e a periodic structure! where the magnetic field
conditions in one part of the de/ice are similar to the conditions in another part. It is possi&le to
represent the de/ice &y a model of a small part! for e9ample one or two pole pitches in a rotating
machine. 0he periodic nature of the de/ice is represented &y a constraint &etween the field /alues
at the two ends of the representati/e portion. 0his constraint is termed a !eriodic "oundary
condition. If the field /alues at the two ends are e6ual in magnitude and sign! the constraint is an
een !eriodic &oundary condition. . model of two complete pole pitches of a machine would
re6uire this constraint. If the field /alues are e6ual in magnitude &ut opposite in sign! the
constraint is an odd !eriodic &oundary condition. . model of one pole pitch of a machine would
re6uire this constraint! and an e9ample is gi/en in the case study of linear synchronous motors on
page -#.
Open *o"ndaries
Consider a #D static pro&lem with translational symmetry that has an open &oundary. Let the #D
model &e enclosed in a circle of radius .! so that all the material parts of the model are inside the
circle. 0he field region comprises two parts: the finite interior of the circle! and the infinite space
outside the circle. "ince the infinite space region is current5free! so that ? G 0! it follows from
e6uation .52 that the magnetic intensity H can &e represented &y the gradient of a scalar
potential:
H = grad
!
0here is a further restriction! howe/er: for e6uation .522 to hold! we must also ha/e:

H dl =
0
0he integral form of e6uation .52 is .mpereHs circuital law:

H dl =

i
A.522B
A.52#B
A.523B
where the right5hand side is the sum of all currents passing through the contour of integration.
>6uation .52# therefore implies that the model cannot contain any un&alanced currents.
ro/ided e6uation .522 holds! the @el/in transformation V-W gi/es the following useful result: the
infinite space outside the circle of radius . is e6ui/alent to the interior of another circle of any
finite radius! if the potentials of all corresponding points on the two circles are identical. 0o
implement this in Mag3et! it is necessary to construct two air &o9es: a normal circular air &o9
surrounding the model! and a second circular air &o9 to represent the infinite e9ternal space. 0o
force the potentials to ha/e the same /alues at corresponding points! an e/en periodic &oundary
condition is imposed on corresponding cur/ed surfaces of the two air &o9es. 0his can &e done
automatically if the :pen *oundary >9tension descri&ed in .ppendi9 C is installed.
Appendi* A 11)
+ield E,uations and $olution
N"$erical sol"tion
!ntrod"ction
0he core of Mag3et is a powerful techni6ue for sol/ing the electromagnetic field e6uations
numerically. Most of this process is automatic and /irtually transparent to the user! &ut it is
necessary to control the process &y setting the sol/er and adaption options. .s with the
fundamental e6uations! it is helpful if the user has some understanding of the method.
Mag3et employs the finite5element method VSW to sol/e the #D form of e6uation .5= for the
magnetic potential. With this method! the region of the pro&lem is di/ided into a mesh of
triangular elements! and the potential in each element is appro9imated &y a simple function of the
x and y Aor r and zB coordinates. 0he simplest function is a linear /ariation with positionE this
gi/es first5order elements! where the potential inside a triangular element is o&tained from the
potentials at the three /ertices or nodes. 'igh5order elements use high5order polynomials and
additional nodes to represent the potential. 0he pro&lem of sol/ing e6uation .5= then reduces to
the solution of a set of linear e6uations for the un4nown potentials at all the nodes. 0his must &e
repeated se/eral times if the model contains non5linear magnetic materials.
0he accuracy of the finite5element solution depends on three factors: the nature of the field! the
si<e of the elements! and the element order. In regions where the direction or magnitude of the
field is changing rapidly! high accuracy re6uires small elements or a high element order. In
addition! the methods used to find the finite5element solution are iterati/e! with an ad1usta&le
error criterion for terminating the process.
%olver
When non5linear magnetic materials are present! the permea&ility depends on the local /alue of
B. >6uation .5= is sol/ed as follows:
Constant /alues of permea&ility are chosen for each element! from the initial slope of the
material B-H cur/e.
0he resulting linear e6uations are sol/ed numerically for the magnetic potential! using the
semi5iterati/e con%ugate gradient method.
0he flu9 density /alues are calculated from the magnetic potential! and these results are
used to calculate new /alues for the element permea&ilities.
0he process is repeated until the element permea&ility /alues ha/e con/erged.
C, steps
.t each step in the con1ugate gradient process! the change in the solution is monitored. 0he
process continues until the change is less than the CM 0olerance. ;or most static pro&lems! the
default /alue of 0.02U should &e satisfactory. 0ime5harmonic eddy5current pro&lems fre6uently
re6uire a /alue at least 20 times smaller for accurate results.
114 Introduction to Ma"Net
%ethod of permea#ility calculation
;or 3D pro&lems! Mag3et gi/es a choice of the 3ewton5Daphson method or successi/e
su&stitution for calculating updated element permea&ility /alues. 0he default 3ewton5Daphson
method normally con/erges more rapidly! &ut there can &e con/ergence pro&lems with some
material characteristics! in which case the successi/e su&stitution method is re6uired. :nly the
3ewton5Daphson method is a/aila&le for #D pro&lems.
*e'ton steps
.t each step in the permea&ility calculation process! the change in the solution is monitored. 0he
process continues either until the change is less than the 3ewton 0olerance! or until the limit of
Ma9imum 3ewton Iterations is reached. ;or most pro&lems! the default /alues of 2U and #0
iterations should &e satisfactory. >9amples of pro&lems where these settings are not sufficient are
AaB permanent5magnet materials in contact with non5linear soft magnetic materials! in a de/ice
where the flu9 density /alues are /ery high! and A&B closed magnetic circuits in iron surrounding a
current Ali4e a closed slot in an electrical machineB. ;or these 4inds of pro&lem! the tolerance
should &e reduced to 0.02U and the iteration limit increased to =0 or more.
Polynomial order
0he sol/er polynomial order setting is a glo&al /alue that applies throughout the model. Its
default /alue of 2 gi/es a fast solution of low accuracy. It is useful for initial tests on a comple9
model. :rder 2 is not satisfactory in rotational geometry! so Mag3et will use order #
automatically in this case e/en if the user specifies order 2. ;or 3D models the polynomial order
of elements in particular components can &e specified separately Asee 7Control of the mesh
structure8 on page 22-B! &ut for #D models the sol/er polynomial order option sets the /alue that
will &e used for the entire model.
With some models! increasing the polynomial order is as effecti/e as using adaption to impro/e
the solution accuracy. In most cases! howe/er! good results will &e o&tained &y setting the
polynomial order to # and using adaption as descri&ed &elow. In special cases! a high order must
&e used in con1unction with adaption: see the case study on magnetic pull5off force Apage SJB.
6daption
.daption is the process of automatic refinement of the mesh to impro/e the solution accuracy.
;or 3D models there is a choice of two adaption methods: h5type adaption! where element si<es
are hal/ed! and p5type adaption! where the element polynomial order is increased. ;or #D models!
only h5type adaption is a/aila&le.
. conse6uence of the finite5element appro9imation to the true field is a discontinuity in the /alue
of B from one element to the ne9t. Mag3et determines which elements to refine &y calculating
the discontinuity error /alues. .t each adaption step! elements with the largest error are refined
first. 0he adaption option ercentage of >lements to Define determines the percentage of the total
num&er of elements that will &e refined at each step. 0he default /alue of =U is appropriate for
3D models! where the num&er of elements increases /ery rapidly at each step. ;or #D models! a
/alue of #=U is generally satisfactory.
Appendi* A 11'
+ield E,uations and $olution
.fter each adaption step! the change in the calculated /alue of stored magnetic energy is
monitored. .daption continues until this change is less than a specified tolerance! or the specified
num&er of steps has &een reached. .s the case studies demonstrate! the default tolerance of 2U is
generally too large for a high5accuracy solution. If the 6uantity of interest is the force or tor6ue!
rather than an energy5related 6uantity such as inductance! a more accurate solution may &e
re6uired! and the change in the stored magnetic energy may not &e a good indicator. In such cases
it is often ad/antageous to set the tolerance to a /ery low A&ut non5<eroB /alue! and control the
mesh refinement &y ad1usting the ma9imum num&er of adaption steps. 0he optimum setting can
&e determined &y changing the num&er of steps and monitoring the change in the force or tor6ue
/alue.
,ontrol of the $esh str"ct"re
If the user ta4es no action! Mag3et will determine the initial mesh automatically. .daption can
then &e used to refine the mesh to get an accurate solution. ;or most #D pro&lems! this should &e
satisfactory. In cases where this process fails! or gi/es /ery long solution times! the user can
e9ercise control of the mesh structure &y specifying the following 6uantities.
Ma9imum element si<e: the ma9imum element edge length. 0his can &e increased to
force adaption to start with a coarse mesh! or reduced to gi/e a fine mesh.
Cur/ature refinement ratio: a measure of the ma9imum de/iation when a cur/ed part of
the model is appro9imated &y the straight5line edge of an element.
Cur/ature refinement minimum element si<e: limits o/er5discreti<ation of tight cur/es
when the elements are refined.
0hese properties can &e set for the entire model! or on indi/idual components! surfaces and edges.
In addition! the mesh can &e controlled &y edge su"diision. 0his feature of Mag3et ena&les the
user to specify the num&er of segments on a gi/en component edge Aline or arcB when the initial
mesh is generated. 0he su&di/isions can &e linear or logarithmic. In translational geometry! linear
su&di/ision gi/es segments of e6ual length. In rotational geometry! linear su&di/ision along a
radial edge will gi/e segment lengths that decrease with distance from the a9is.
Details of the procedures for setting these properties are gi/en in the Mag3et help.
Appendi* - 11(
Ener"y. +orce and Inductance
2007 Infolytica Corporation
.ppendi9 *
(nergy= +orce and !nd"ctance
%tored energy and co'energy
Definitions
When a magnetic field is esta&lished in a de/ice &y increasing the currents in the coils from <ero
to some final /alue! energy must &e supplied in addition to the i
#
. ohmic loss in the conducting
material. 0his energy is considered to &e stored in the magnetic fieldE if hysteresis is neglected!
it can &e reco/ered when the currents are reduced to <ero.
0he diagram &elow shows part of the B-H cur/e for a magnetic material. If point " represents the
final magnetic condition in a particular part of the material! then it may &e shown VJW that the
energy density! or energy stored per unit /olume! is gi/en &y:
' =

H dB
VRFm
3
W A*52B
-
a
ener"y
d-
:
coener"y2
o
d? c ?
0he energy density is the area &etween the B-H cur/e and the B a9is! which is the area oa" in the
diagram.
. related 6uantity is the co5energy density gi/en &y
'" =

B dH VRFm
3
W. A*5#B
0he co5energy density is the area &etween the cur/e and the H a9isE this is e6ual to the area oc" in
the diagram. "ince the sum of the two densities! ' T 'J! must e6ual the area of the rectangle oa"c!
we ha/e
'" =

B dH = B H ' = B H

H dB
VRFm
3
W. A*53B
If the material is linear! then the energy density and the co5energy density are &oth e6ual to half
the area of the rectangle oa"c. ;or a non5linear material the energy density is less than this area!
and the co5energy density is greater than this areaE we therefore ha/e
' # ]B.H # '"
A*5)B
0he total energy stored in the de/ice is 1ust the integral of the energy density o/er the /olume:
; =

'd =

(

H
dBd
VRW. A*5=B
"imilarly! the total co5energy is the integral of the co5energy density o/er the /olume:
;
"
=

'
"
d =

(B H

H
dBd
VRW. A*5?B
When a de/ice is sol/ed in Mag3et! the stored energy and co5energy /alues displayed in the
>nergy ta& of the ost5processing &ar are the /alues of ; and ;J gi/en &y e6uations *5= and *5?.
6pplications
We ha/e seen that the stored energy and the co5energy are identical for linear materials! &ut for
non5linear materials the co5energy is greater than the stored energy. 0he difference &etween the
two /alues is a measure of the non5linearity! and hence the degree of saturation! of the magnetic
materials in the de/ice.
0he usual definition of inductance is the flu9 lin4age per ampere Asee page 2##B. If the stored
energy is calculated in the usual way as ]:i
#
! this will differ from &oth the stored energy ; and
the co5energy ;JE in fact it is e6ual to the e6ui/alent linear energy
;
lin
=

]B Hd VRW A*5-B
which is greater than ; and less than ;J. If a precise /alue of the stored energy is re6uired! for
e9ample when energy is dumped from a highly saturated inductor! then the /alue of the stored
energy ; will &e a &etter estimate than the /alue of ]:i
#
.
0he co5energy finds its application in the /irtual wor4 method of calculating forces and tor6uesE
this is 6uite different from the method used in Mag3et and descri&ed on page 2#2. If the current
is held constant and a part of the de/ice is gi/en a displacement s in any direction! it may &e
shown that the component of force in the direction of s is gi/en &y
1 =
; "
$
; "
A*5SB
s
s s
If two models are constructed which differ &y s in a distance s! then the force may &e calculated
from e6uation *5S &y ta4ing the difference of the co5energy /alues. . similar e6uation holds for
tor6ue in terms of an angular displacement :
T =
; "
$
; "
A*5JB

=
B B
n
%
+orce calc"lation
3orent> force
0he force per unit /olume on a current5carrying conductor in a magnetic field is
f = ? B
A*520B
which is another form of the Lorent< e6uation gi/en in e6uation 252 of chapter 2. 0he total force
is therefore gi/en &y the integral
and the total tor6ue a&out a point P is
% =

?
Bd
3 =

r ?
Bd
A*522B
A*52#B
where r is the radius /ector from P to the /olume element! and the integral is ta4en o/er the
/olume of the conductor. 0hese e6uations are 4nown to gi/e good results when the flu9 density B
is determined numerically &y the finite5element method! so Mag3et implements e6uations *522
and *52# to calculate the force and the tor6ue on current5carrying regions in the model.
Ma4well stress
>6uations *522 and *52# can &e used only for current5carrying conductorsE they do not gi/e the
force and tor6ue on magnetic materials. If a de/ice includes magnetic materials as well as
current5carrying conductors! Mag3et uses a method of force calculation &ased on the Ma9well
stress concept VJ! 20W which gi/es the stress! or force per unit area! directly in terms of the
magnetic flu9 density. If B
n
and B
t
are the components of flu9 density normal and tangential to a
surface! and %
n
and %
t
are the corresponding components of stress! then:
B
#
B
#
% =
n t
#
0
n t
t
A*523B
A*52)B

0
ro/ided that the surface is closed! and passes entirely through air! the total force and tor6ue may
&e determined &y integrating the stresses o/er the surface. 0his result is completely generalE it is
independent of the nature of the o&1ects inside the surface! which may include currents! soft
magnetic materials or permanent magnets.
If the Ma9well stress method is used to calculate forces from a standard numerical solution for
the field! it is difficult to get accurate results. 0he integral for the force or tor6ue may &e
unrelia&le if it comprises terms which alternate in sign! leading to an accumulation of numerical
errors. It is also /ery sensiti/e to the accuracy of the numerical solution. Lsers re6uire
considera&le s4ill and e9perience to get good results &y this method.
Mag3et a/oids this difficulty with the con/entional Ma9well stress method &y implementing a
no/el tuna&le method V22W. 0his re6uires no s4ill on the part of the user! and it gi/es accurate
/alues for the force and the tor6ue.
i
i
#
+orces on *odies
Mag3et calculates the forces and tor6ues on all the &odies in a de/ice automatically. . &ody is
defined in two ways:
0ype 2: a set of connected regions which is completely surrounded &y airE
0ype #: any current5carrying region.
0he tuna&le Ma9well stress method is used for all &odies of type 2! and the Lorent< force method
is used for all &odies of type #. If there are any &odies of type # in a de/ice that are in contact
with magnetic materials! they will also &e included in &odies of type 2. In such cases! the force on
the magnetic material alone may &e determined &y su&traction.
!nd"ctance calc"lation
+l"4 lin;age
0he magnetic properties of any pair of coupled coils may &e descri&ed in circuit terms &y self5
inductances :
2
and :
#
and mutual inductances -
2#
and -
#2
. If coil 2 carries a current i
2
! the flu9
lin4ages with coils 2 and # are gi/en &y

2
= N
2

2
= :
2
i
2
! A*5
2=B

2#
= N
#

2#
= -
2#
i
2
! A*5
2?B
where N
2
and N
#
are the num&ers of turns on the coils. "imilarly! if coil # carries a current i
#
! the
flu9 lin4ages are

#
= N
#

#
= :
#
i
#
! A*52-B

#2
= N
2

#2
= -
#2
i
#
. A*5
2SB 0he inductances are the flu9 lin4ages per ampere! and are gi/en &y:

2
:
2
=
2
: =



#
#

2#
A*52JB
A*5#0B
-
2#
=
-
#2
=
i
2



#2
i
#
A*5#2B
A*5##B
;or a linear system! all four coefficients are independent of current and -
2#
G -
#2
G -. When
N
2
G N
#
! lea4age inductances l
2
and l
#
may &e defined as follows:
l
2
= :
2
- ! l
#
= :
#

-
A*5#3B
0hese lea4age inductances represent flu9 produced &y one winding which fails to lin4 with the
second winding! &ut 7lea4s8 into the surrounding air Aor other non5magnetic materialB instead.
;or de/ices in which the magnetic materials are linear and soft! there is an alternati/e method of
calculation &ased on energy.
s
i
(nergy $ethods
;or a linear system! the stored magnetic energy in a pair of coils is gi/en &y
# #
; = ]:
2
i
2
+ ] :
#
i
#
+ -i
2
i
#
. A*5#)B
.lternati/e methods of calculating mutual inductance and lea4age inductance can &e deri/ed &y
e6uating this e9pression to the stored energy gi/en &y e6uation *5=.
0o calculate mutual inductance! consider two situations: AaB identical currents! so that i
2
G i
#
G iE
A&B e6ual and opposite currents! so that i
2
G Ci
#
G i. 0he stored energy /alues are:
;
a
= ] :
2
i
#
+ ]:
#
i
#
+ -i
#
A*5#=B
from which it follows that
;
"
= ] :
2
i
#
+ ] :
#
i
#
-i
#
A*5#?B
- =
;
a
;
"
. A*5#-B
#i
#
>6uation *5#3 for the lea4age inductances may &e unsatisfactory when the /alues are gi/en &y
the small differences &etween large 6uantities. .n energy method can &e &ased on a simulation of
the transformer short5circuit test! where the two coils carry e6ual and opposite currents. In terms
of the lea4age inductances! e6uation *5#) &ecomes
# # #
; = ]l
2
i
2
+ ]l
#
i
#
+ ]- Ai
2
+
i
#
B
. A*5#SB
;or a simulated short5circuit test where i
2
G Ci
#
G i
s
! the stored energy is
;
s
G ]Al
2
+ l
#
Bi
#
! A*5#JB
which gi/es
l
2
+ l
#
#;
s
=
#
. A*530B
s
.s with the physical short5circuit test! this method can determine only the sum of the lea4age
inductances! not their indi/idual /aluesE &ut it may gi/e more precise results for the sum than
e6uation *5#3.
Appendi* C 12)
/pen -oundary I!ple!entation
2007 Infolytica Corporation
.ppendi9 C
Open #o"ndary !$ple$entation
!ntrod"ction
0his appendi9 descri&es two methods of implementing the @el/in transformation model of an
open &oundary descri&ed in .ppendi9 . Apage 22)B. 0he preferred method is to install an
e9tension to Mag3et that will implement the open &oundary automatically. If the e9tension has
not &een installed! it is possi&le to achie/e the same result manually. 'owe/er! the manual
method re6uires care if it is to gi/e correct results.
Implementing the @el/in transformation in/ol/es the following steps:
Create a cylindrical air &o9 which encloses the model.
Create another small cylindrical air &o9! outside the first air &o9.
"u&di/ide the circular edges of &oth air &o9es.
.pply an e/en period &oundary condition to corresponding parts of the two air &o9es.
0his open &oundary techni6ue is only applica&le to #D pro&lems with translational geometry! and
there is a further restriction: the alge&raic sum of the currents must &e <ero.
Open *o"ndary e4tension to MagNet
Infolytica Corporation has pro/ided an e9tension to Mag3et which can &e installed as descri&ed
&elow. 0wo files are re6uired! which supported users can o&tain on re6uest from Infolytica:
$BoundaryAH.exe and $!en Boundary code for EentHandlers file.txt
0he component is installed &y copying it into the directory containing the Mag3et e9ecuta&le and
then dou&le5clic4ing on the e9ecuta&le! $BoundaryAH.exe C this will register the component and
only needs to &e done once. :ne other piece of code must &e installed. It is a section of code that
must &e added to the >/ent'andlers./&s file located in the su&5directory! Wor4dir. 0he code is
pro/ided in the file $!en Boundary code for EentHandlers file.txt for the user to copy and paste.
0he modification to the >/ent'andlers file is as follows in the .pplication^:nLoad su&routine.
3ote that the modifications are in &oldface and that the userHs particular /ersion of
.pplication^:nLoad may &e slightly different.
Option Explicit
' Adds a menu item in the Extensions menu.
' Chr(3! is a "uote ("!. Can't use " directly #ecause that $ould
' terminate the VB strin%.
&u# Application'On(oad(!
' 5&i co$e allow menu item to 8e a$$e$ to t&e %ag9et,
' 0lec9et or 5&erm9et @:. on program tartup.
Dim #oun$ar)
Set #oun$ar)' get%enu8ar().get%enu(+6#oun$ar)+)
Call #oun$ar).appen$Separator()
Call #oun$ar).appen$.tem(+6<pen #oun$ar)+, *
+Call Create<8=ect(+ 6 *
C&r(3E) 6 +<pen*#oun$ar).cl<pen*#oun$ar)+ 6 *
C&r(3E) 6 *
+).Create0/terior(get0/ecuta8leDirector)())+)
End &u#
124 Introduction to Ma"Net
2007 Infolytica Corporation
When these pieces of code are installed! the :pen *oundary component will &e accessi&le from
the *oundary menu in the main Mag3et tool&ar.
"electing the :pen *oundary option in the *oundary menu Aafter the modelHs geometry has &een
createdB will &ring up a dialog &o9 with defaults. 0o run the option with the default /alues! the
user should 1ust select :@. 0he &oundary should then &e added. 3ote that there is no need to put
an air region around the de/ice &eing analy<ed C simply construct the de/ice and the open
&oundary system will do the rest. If the user wants to modify the construction of the open
&oundary region! the dialog &o9 pro/ides three controls:
0he first is the radius of the inner &oundary. 0he system determines the o/erall
dimensions of the de/ice to &e analy<ed and computes the radius of the circumcircle. 0he
inner radius of the open &oundary can &e set up to &e a multiple of this circle radius C the
default is 2.2 times. Increasing this /alue mo/es the &oundary away from the de/ice and!
as a result! includes more air in the interior region.
0he second control specifies the radius of the circle that contains the e9terior region. .
scale factor of 2 sets it to &e the same as the inner region radius. 0he default of 0.02
creates a small circle. It should &e noted that the si<e of the e9terior circle is actually
irrele/ant since it has no effect on the accuracy of the results. If this /alue is made too
&ig! the current system may cause the inner and outer regions to intersect! thus causing
errors. It is suggested that! initially! this /alue &e left at the default settings.
0he third control sets the num&er of meshing su&di/isions on the &oundary. In other
words! it controls how good an appro9imation to the circle the &oundary actually is.
Increasing this num&er will &etter appro9imate the circle &ut at a cost of massi/ely
increasing the num&er of elements in the interior and e9terior regions. 'owe/er! if &etter
accuracy is needed! it may &e necessary to increase this num&er.
2007 Infolytica Corporation
Appendi* C 12'
/pen -oundary I!ple!entation
Man"al open *o"ndary
If it is not possi&le to install the open &oundary e9tension to Mag3et! the procedure descri&ed
&elow will achie/e the same result. ;or simplicity! the instructions assume that the physical
model can &e enclosed in a cylindrical air &o9 with a radius of 2.0 model units! centered at the
origin! and that each semicircular edge has &een di/ided into #0 segments. 0hese /alues can &e
changed as re6uired.
1 Create an air &o9 of radius 2.0! centered at the origin! named @nterior.
2 Clic4 the "elect Component >dges &utton.
3 "elect the upper semicircular edge of the airspace component.
4 :n the Mesh tool&ar! clic4 the Lniform >dge "u&di/ision &utton.
) :n the Mesh tool&ar! in the left te9t &o9 enter #0.
The selected semicircle should "e diided into 2, segments.
- Depeat this procedure with the lower semicircular edge.
2 In the :&1ect page! select the Interior component.
8 :n the Model menu! clic4 0ransform Components to display a dialog:
Clic4 "cale ;actor and enter the /alue 0.1 in the te9t &o9.
Clic4 "hift Kector and edit the te9t &o9: A1.0! 1.0! 0B.
Clic4 .pply the 0ransformation to a Copy of the "election.
Clic4 :@.
A ne' air "ox should a!!ear in the 5ie' 'indo'( and a ne' com!onent in the $"%ect
!age.
In the :&1ect page! change the name of the new component to /!terior.
15 Display the tree directory for the Interior component.
11 "elect ;aceO3! and then:
:n the *oundary menu! clic4 >/en eriodic to display the eriodic Data dialog.
Clic4 "et 0ransformation to display the "et eriodic 0ransformation dialog.
Clic4 "cale ;actor and enter the /alue 0.1 in the te9t &o9.
Clic4 "hift Kector and edit the te9t &o9: A1.0! 1.0! 0B.
Note that these settings must "e identical to those used in the Transform
#om!onents dialog to create the external com!onent.
Clic4 :@ to close the "et eriodic 0ransformation dialog.
Clic4 :@ to close the eriodic Data dialog.
A ne' item Boundary#ondition6/ DEPF should a!!ear in the $"%ect !age.
12 "elect ;aceO)! and repeat the procedure of step 22.
2007 Infolytica Corporation
123 Introduction to Ma"Net
%cript for the open *o"ndary
0he manual procedure can &e automated with the Kisual *asic script listed &elow. "ee Chapter =
for further information a&out scripting. 0his script creates the e9terior air&o9 without using the
transformation facility! to a/oid pro&lems with renaming the component.
Dim Doc, View
Set Doc ' getDocument()
et View ' Doc.getView()
Call View.newCircle(0, 0, 1)
Call View.elect3t(0.G, 0.G, in!oSetSelection, 3rra)(in!oSliceSur!ace))
,0D.% 3rra)<!Value(0)
3rra)<!Value(0)' +.nterior+
Call View.ma;eComponent.n3Line(1, 3rra)<!Value, +9ame'3.,+, *
in!o%a;eComponent.gnoreFole <r in!o%a;eComponent,emoveVertice)
,0D.% 3rra)<!Value(0)
3rra)<!Value(0)' +.nterior,(aceQ1,0$geQ1+
Call Doc.aign%e&0$geSu8$iviion(3rra)<!Value, *
+5)pe':ni!ormKSu8$iviion'20KDenit),atio'0.G+)
,0D.% 3rra)<!Value(0)
3rra)<!Value(0)' +.nterior,(aceQ2,0$geQ1+
Call Doc.aign%e&0$geSu8$iviion(3rra)<!Value, *
+5)pe':ni!ormKSu8$iviion'20KDenit),atio'0.G+)
,0D.% 3rra)<!Value(0)
Call View.newCircle(1, 1, 0.1)
Call View.elect3t(1.0G, 1.0G, in!oSetSelection, 3rra)(in!oSliceSur!ace))
,0D.% 3rra)<!Value(0)
3rra)<!Value(0)' +0/terior+
Call View.ma;eComponent.n3Line(0.1, 3rra)<!Value, +9ame'3.,+, *
in!o%a;eComponent.gnoreFole <r in!o%a;eComponent,emoveVertice)
,0D.% 3rra)<!Value(0)
3rra)<!Value(0)' +0/terior,(aceQ1,0$geQ1+
Call Doc.aign%e&0$geSu8$iviion(3rra)<!Value, *
+5)pe':ni!ormKSu8$iviion'20KDenit),atio'0.G+)
,0D.% 3rra)<!Value(0)
3rra)<!Value(0)' +0/terior,(aceQ2,0$geQ1+
Call Doc.aign%e&0$geSu8$iviion(3rra)<!Value, *
+5)pe':ni!ormKSu8$iviion'20KDenit),atio'0.G+)
3rra)<!Value(0)' +.nterior,(aceQ3+
Call Doc.create#oun$ar)Con$ition(3rra)<!Value, +#oun$ar)Con$itionQ1+)
,0D.% S&i!tVector(2)
S&i!tVector(0)' 1
S&i!tVector(1)' 1
S&i!tVector(2)' 0
,0D.% Center(2)
Center(0)' 0
Center(1)' 0
Center(2)' 0
Call Doc.et0ven4erio$ic(+#oun$ar)Con$itionQ1+, 0.1, 9ull, 9ull, 9ull, *
S&i!tVector, Center)
Call View.elect<8=ect(+.nterior,(aceQ3+, in!oSetSelection)
Call View.elect<8=ect(+.nterior,(aceQE+, in!oSetSelection)
,0D.% 3rra)<!Value(0)
3rra)<!Value(0)' +.nterior,(aceQE+
Call Doc.create#oun$ar)Con$ition(3rra)<!Value, +#oun$ar)Con$itionQ2+)
Call Doc.et0ven4erio$ic(+#oun$ar)Con$itionQ2+, 0.1, 9ull, 9ull, 9ull, *
S&i!tVector, Center)
12(
2007 Infolytica Corporation
1eferences
&eferences
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solutions to oissonHs e6uationH! 0EEE Transactions on -agnetics! 24! 2JSS! pp. 2J3)5#J3?.
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24, 2JSS! pp. )3J5)#.