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BIOL 102 General Zoology (Lecture)

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is the external covering of an animal.
the enveloping membrane of the
body, including the dermis, epidermis,
hair, nails, and sebaceous, sweat, and
mammary glands.
Functions:
protection
regulation of body temperature excretion of waste
materials
conversion of sunlight into vitamin D
reception of environmental stimuli
locomotion
movement of nutrients and gases.
Forms of body covering:
Plasma membrane (for
unicellular organisms)
Integument consisting of a single
layer of epithelial cells (for
multicellular invertebrates)
Cuticles (for arthropods)
Epidermis with a few cell layers
thick/Shell (for cnidarians)
Tegument (for worms)
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Crustacens Cuticle
Insects Cuticle
Skin
largest organ
has two main layers
Epidermis
Dermis
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Epidermis
Hypodermis
Dermis
Composed of
five strata
Avascular
Made up of 4
types of cells
Stratum corneum
Stratum lucidum
Stratum granulosum
Stratum spinosum
Stratum basale
Melanocytes
Merkel cell
Langerhans cell
Keratinocytes
Keratinocyte
Melanocyte
Langerhans cell
Merkel Cell
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Stratum Description

Corneum


25 30 rows of dead, flat keratinocytes that
contain mostly keratin.
Constant exposure to friction causes callus
formation.
Lucidum Consist of 3 rows of clear, flat, dead
keratinocytes with large amount of keratin
Granulosum

3 5 rows of keratinocytes , in which
organelles are beginning to degenerate
Spinosum 8 10 rows of flattened keratinocytes with
bundles of tonofilaments (intermediate
filament)
Basale

Deepest layer, composed of a single row of
cuboidal or columnar keratinocytes that contain
scattered tonofilaments.
Composed of a strong
connective tissue
containing collagen and
elastic fibers.
Upper layer of the dermis
has finger-like projections
called dermal papillae.
Exhibits flexibility.
Has two layers: papillary
& reticular layers
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Region Description



Papillary


Superficial region

Consists of areolar connective
tissue with thin collagen and fine
elastic fibers

Contain dermal ridges , Meissners
corpuscles (corpuscles of touch) and
free nerve endings.

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Region Description



Reticular


Deeper portion

Consist of dense irregular
connective tissue with bundles of
thick collagen and some coarse
elastic fiber.

Some spaces contain adipose cells,
hair follicles, nerves, sebaceous
glands and sudoriferous glands.

contains Pacinian corpuscle



Also known as subcutaneous tissue, lies below
the dermis.

The hypodermis is composed of loose
connective tissue, including adipose (fat)
tissue.
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have relatively thick skin
secretes cuticle/mucous slime
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multilayered skin that
contains mucous and
sensory cells
dermis contains
denticles
Contains composed of
dermal bone
Permeable and functions
in gas exchange
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Skin layers:
stratified epidermis
dermis containing
mucous and serous
glands and pigmentation
cells
Contains keratin
Skin layers:
Epidermis thick, lacks glands, and is modified into
keratinized scales
Scutes
Beaks
Rattles
Claws
Spiny crests
Dermis
contains blood and lymphatic vessels, nerves, and epidermally
derived sensory bodies
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Skin layers:
Epidermis
usually thin and only two
or three cell layers thick
has uropygial or preen
epidermal gland
has feathers
Dermis
contains blood and
lymphatic vessels, nerves,
and epidermally derived
sensory bodies

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Features:
presence of hair
a greater variety of epidermal glands than in any
other vertebrate class
a highly stratified, cornified epidermis
a dermis many times thicker than the epidermis.
Composition:
stratified squamous epithelium
several layers of variety of cells
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The Anatomy of the Skin
Hair shaft
Sensory receptor
Capillary
Dermal papilla
Epidermis
Hypodermis
Dermis
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The Anatomy of the Skin
Hypodermis
Free nerve
ending
Sebaceous
gland
Sweat gland
Arrector pili
muscle
Hair follicle
Adipose Tissue
Nerve
Artery
Vein
Hair shaft
Capillary
Sensory receptor
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Sudoriferous gland
secretes sweat
through perspiration.
Types:
Eccrine
Apocrine
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Sebaceous gland
secretes oil/sebum
Sebum - a permeability
barrier, an emollient and
a protective agent against
microorganisms.
Hair
a cylindrical,
keratinized, often
pigmented filaments
characteristically
growing from the
epidermis of a
mammal.



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o Nails
a horn-like envelope
covering the dorsal
aspect of the terminal
phalanges of fingers
and toes
Claw - a curved, pointed appendage, found at the end of a
toe or finger in most mammals, birds, and some reptiles.

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o Hoof - is the tip of a toe of an ungulate
mammal, strengthened by a thick horny
covering.
Horns - a pointed projection of the skin on
the head of various animals, consisting of a
covering of horn (keratin and
other proteins) surrounding a core of
living bone.
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o Baleen plates - a filtering
structure in the mouth of most
whales, which they use to feed by
sieving small animals from large
mouthfuls of seawater.