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Chapter 3

Probability
True/False
1. A contingency table is a tabular summary of probabilities concerning two sets of
complementary events.
Answer: True Difficulty: Medium
2. An event is a collection of sample space outcomes.
Answer: True Difficulty: Easy
3. Two events are independent if te probability of one event is influenced by weter or
not te oter event occurs.
Answer: !alse Difficulty: Medium
". Mutually e#clusive events ave a nonempty intersection.
Answer: !alse Difficulty: Medium $%E!&
'. A sub(ective probability is a probability assessment tat is based on e#perience)
intuitive (udgment) or e#pertise.
Answer: True Difficulty: Medium
*. Te probability of an event is te sum of te probabilities of te sample space
outcomes tat correspond to te event.
Answer: True Difficulty: Medium
+. ,f events A and - are mutually e#clusive) ten .$
- A
& is always e/ual to 0ero.
Answer: True Difficulty: 1ard $%E!&
2. ,f events A and - are independent) ten .$A3-& is always e/ual to 0ero.
Answer: !alse Difficulty: Medium $%E!&
4. ,f events A and - are mutually e#clusive) ten .$A

-& is always e/ual to 0ero.


Answer: True Difficulty: Easy
15. Events tat ave no sample space outcomes in common) and) terefore cannot occur
simultaneously are referred to as independent events.
Answer: !alse Difficulty: Medium
Multiple Choice
11. Two mutually e#clusive events aving positive probabilities are 66666666666666
dependent.
A& Always
-& 7ometimes
8& 9ever
Answer: A Difficulty: 1ard $%E!&
12. 6666666666666666666 is a measure of te cance tat an uncertain event will occur.
A& %andom e#periment
-& 7ample 7pace
8& .robability
D& A complement
E& A population
Answer: 8 Difficulty: Medium
13. A manager as (ust received te e#pense cec:s for si# of er employees. 7e
randomly distributes te cec:s to te si# employees. ;at is te probability tat e#actly
five of tem will receive te correct cec:s $cec:s wit te correct names&.
A& 1
-& <
8& 1=*
D& 5
E& 1=3
Answer: D Difficulty: 1ard
1". ,n wic of te following are te two events A and -) always independent>
A& A and - are mutually e#clusive.
-& Te probability of event A is not influenced by te probability of event -.
8& Te intersection of A and - is 0ero.
D& .$A=-& ? .$A&.
E& - and D.
Answer: E Difficulty: 1ard $%E!&
1'. ,f two events are independent) we can 66666 teir probabilities to determine te
intersection probability.
A& Divide
-& Add
8& Multiply
D& 7ubtract
Answer: 8 Difficulty: Easy
1*. Events tat ave no sample space outcomes in common) and terefore) cannot occur
simultaneously are:
A& ,ndependent
-& Mutually E#clusive
8& ,ntersections
D& @nions
Answer: - Difficulty: Medium
1+. ,f events A and - are independent) ten te probability of simultaneous occurrence of
event A and event - can be found wit:
A& P(A)P(B)
-& P(A)P(
A -
)
8& P(B)P(
- A
)
D& All of te above are correct
Answer: D Difficulty: 1ard $%E!&
12. Te set of all possible e#perimental outcomes is called a$n&:
A& 7ample space
-& Event
8& E#periment
D& .robability
Answer: A Difficulty: Easy
14. A$n& 666666666666 is te probability tat one event will occur given tat we :now
tat anoter event already as occurred.
A& 7ample space outcome
-& 7ub(ective .robability
8& 8omplement of events
D& AongBrun relative fre/uency
E& 8onditional probability
Answer: E Difficulty: Medium
25. Te 6666666 of two events C and D is anoter event tat consists of te sample
space outcomes belonging to eiter event C or event D or bot event C and D.
A& 8omplement
-& @nion
8& ,ntersection
D& 8onditional probability
Answer: - Difficulty: Medium
21. ,f .$A& E 5 and .$-& E 5 and events A and - are independent) ten:
A& P(A) = P(B)
-& P(
- A
)=P(A)
8& P(A

B) = 0
D& P(A

B) = P(A) P(B

A)
Answer: - Difficulty: Medium
22. .$A

-& ? .$A& F .$-& B .$A

-& represents te formula for te


A& conditional probability
-& addition rule
8& addition rule for two mutually e#clusive events
D& multiplication rule
Answer: - Difficulty: Medium
23. Te management of a company believes tat weater conditions significantly affect
te level of demand for its product. "2 montly sales reports are randomly selected.
Tese montly sales reports sowed 1' monts wit ig demand) 22 monts wit
medium demand) and ' monts wit low demand. 12 of te 1' monts wit ig demand
ad favorable weater conditions. 1" of te 22 monts wit medium demand ad
favorable weater conditions. Gnly 1 of te ' monts wit low demand ad favorable
weater conditions. ;at is te probability tat weater conditions are poor) given tat
te demand is ig>
A& .2
-& .'
8& .2
D& .2'
E& .+'
Answer: A Difficulty: 1ard
2". Te management believes tat te weater conditions significantly impact te level
of demand and te estimated probabilities of poor weater conditions given different
levels of demand is presented below.
$ & .2) $ & .') $ & .2 P Poor High P Poor Medium P Poor Low
;at is te probability of ig demand given tat te weater conditions are poor.
A& .5*
-& .""
8& .13*"
D& .12
E& .1212
Answer: 8 Difficulty: 1ard
Use the following information to answer questions 25-26:
An automobile insurance company is in te process of reviewing its policies. 8urrently
drivers under te age of 2' ave to pay a premium. Te company is considering
increasing te value of te premium carged to drivers under 2'. According to company
records) 3'H of te insured drivers are under te age of 2'. Te company records also
sow tat 225 of te +55 insured drivers under te age of 2' ad been involved in at least
one automobile accident. Gn te oter and) only 135 of te 1355 insured drivers 2'
years or older ad been involved in at least one automobile accident.
2'. An accident as (ust been reported. ;at is te probability tat te insured driver is
under te age of 2'>
A& 3'H
-& 25.'H
8& 1"H
D& *2.3H
E& "5H
Answer: D Difficulty: 1ard $A7&
2*. ;at is te probability tat an insured driver of any age will be involved in an
accident>
A& 3'H
-& 25.'H
8& *'H
D& *2.3H
E& +4.'H
Answer: - Difficulty: 1ard $A7&
2+. A parmaceutical company manufacturing pregnancy test :its wants to determine te
probability of a woman not being pregnant wen te test results indicate pregnancy. ,t is
estimated tat te probability of pregnancy among potential users of te :it is 15H.
According to te company laboratory test results 1 out of 155 nonBpregnant women tested
pregnant $false positive&. Gn te oter and) 1 out of 255 pregnant women tested nonB
pregnant $false negative&. A woman as (ust used te pregnancy test :it manufactured by
te company and te results sowed pregnancy. ;at is te probability tat se is not
pregnant>
A& 45H
-& 5.4H
8& 2.3H
D& 41.+H
E& 15.2'H
Answer: 8 Difficulty: 1ard
22. A parmaceutical company manufacturing pregnancy test :its wants to determine te
probability of a woman actually being pregnant wen te test results indicate tat se is
not pregnant. ,t is estimated tat te probability of pregnancy among potential users of
te :it is 15H. According to te company laboratory test results 1 out of 155 nonB
pregnant women tested pregnant $false positive&. Gn te oter and) 1 out of 255
pregnant women tested nonBpregnant $false negative&. A woman as (ust used te
pregnancy test :it manufactured by te company and te results sowed tat se is not
pregnant. ;at is te probability tat se is pregnant>
A& 1H
-& 5.4H
8& 5.5'H
D& 2.3H
E& 5.5'*H
Answer: E Difficulty: 1ard
Fill-in-the-Blan
24. A$n& 66666 is te set of all of te distinct possible outcomes of an e#periment.
Answer: 7ample 7pace Difficulty: Medium
35. Te 66666 of an event is a number tat measures te li:eliood tat an event will
occur wen an e#periment is carried out.
Answer: .robability Difficulty: Easy
31. ;en te probability of one event is influenced by weter or not anoter event
occurs) te events are said to be 66666.
Answer: Dependent Difficulty: Medium
32. A process of observation tat as an uncertain outcome is referred to as a$n& 66666.
Answer: E#periment Difficulty: Medium
33. ;en te probability of one event is not influenced by weter or not anoter event
occurs) te events are said to be 66666.
Answer: ,ndependent Difficulty: Medium
3". A probability may be interpreted as a long run 66666 fre/uency.
Answer: %elative Difficulty: Medium
3'. ,f events A and - are independent) ten .$A=-& is e/ual to 66666.
Answer: .$A& Difficulty: Medium
3*. Te simultaneous occurrence of event A and - is represented by te notation:
6666666.
Answer: A

- Difficulty: Easy
3+. A$n& 666666666666666 probability is a probability assessment tat is based on
e#perience) intuitive (udgment) or e#pertise.
Answer: 7ub(ective Difficulty: Medium
32. A$n& 66666666666666 is a collection of sample space outcomes.
Answer: Event Difficulty: Easy
34. .robabilities must be assigned to e#perimental outcomes so tat te probabilities of
all te e#perimental outcomes must add up to 666.
Answer: 1 Difficulty: Easy
"5. .robabilities must be assigned to e#perimental outcomes so tat te probability
assigned to eac e#perimental outcome must be between 6666 and 6666 inclusive.
Answer: 5)1 Difficulty: Easy
"1. Te 6666666666 of event C consists of all sample space outcomes tat do not
correspond to te occurrence of event C.
Answer: 8omplement Difficulty: Easy
"2. Te 6666666 of two events A and - is anoter event tat consists of te sample space
outcomes belonging to eiter event A or event - or bot event A and -.
Answer: @nion Difficulty: Easy
"3. Te 6666666 of two events A and - is te event tat consists of te sample space
outcomes belonging to bot event A and event -.
Answer: ,ntersection Difficulty: Easy
"". 666666666666666666 statistics is an area of statistics tat uses -ayesI teorem to
update prior belief about a probability or population parameter to a posterior belief.
Answer: -ayesian Difficulty: Medium
"'. ,n te application of -ayesI teorem te sample information is combined wit prior
probabilities to obtain 6666666666666666666 probabilities.
Answer: posterior Difficulty: Easy $%E!&
!ssa"
"*. ;at is te probability of rolling a seven wit a pair of fair dice>
Answer: 1=*
*
3*

Difficulty: Medium
"+. ;at is te probability of rolling a value iger tan eigt wit a pair of fair dice>
Answer: .2+++
15
.2+++
3*


Difficulty: Medium
"2. ;at is te probability tat an even number appears on te toss of a die>
Answer: .' Difficulty: Easy
"4. ;at is te probability tat a :ing appears in drawing a single card form a dec: of '2
cards>
Answer: 1=13 Difficulty: Medium
'5. ,f we consider te toss of four coins as an e#periment) ow many outcomes does te
sample space consist of>
Answer: 1*
1* 2
"

Difficulty: Medium
'1. ;at is te probability of at least one tail in te toss of tree fair coins>
Answer: +=2 Difficulty: 1ard
'2. A lot contains 12 items) and " are defective. ,f tree items are drawn at random from
te lot) wat is te probability tey are not defective>
Answer: .2'"'
2 + *
.2'"'
12 11 15
_ _ _


, , ,

Difficulty: 1ard
'3. A person is dealt ' cards from a dec: of '2 cards. ;at is te probability tey are all
clubs>
Answer: .555"4'1
13 12 11 15 4
5.555"4'1
'2 '1 '5 "4 "2
_ _ _ _ _


, , , , ,

Difficulty: 1ard
'". A group as 12 men and " women. ,f 3 people are selected at random from te
group) wat is te probability tat tey are all men>
Answer: .3422'+
12 11 15
.3422'+
1* 1' 1"
_ _ _


, , ,

Difficulty: 1ard
Use the following information to answer questions 55-5#:
8ontainer 1 as 2 items) 3 of wic are defective. 8ontainer 2 as ' items) 2 of wic
are defective. ,f one item is drawn from eac container:
''. ;at is te probability tat bot items are not defective>
Answer: .3+'
' 3
.3+'
2 '
_ _


, ,


Difficulty: Medium
'*. ;at is te probability tat te item from container one is defective and te item
from container 2 is not defective>
Answer: .22'
3 3
.22'
2 '
_ _


, ,



Difficulty: 1ard
'+. ;at is te probability tat one of te items is defective>
Answer: ."'

3 3 3 3
."'
2 ' 2 '
_ _ _ _
+

, , , ,



Difficulty: 1ard
'2. A coin is tossed * times. ;at is te probability tat at least one ead occurs>
Answer: *3=*"
1 1 1 1 1 1 *3
1
2 2 2 2 2 2 *"
_ _ _ _ _ _

' ;

, , , , , ,

Difficulty: Medium
'4. 7uppose .$A& ? ."') .$-& ?.25) .$8& ? .3') .$
A E
& ? .15) .$
- E
& ? .5') and .$
8 E
& ? 5. ;at is .$E&>
Answer: .5''
.$E& ? $."'&$.15& F $.25&$.5'& F $.3'&$5& ? .5''
Difficulty: 1ard
*5. 7uppose .$A& ? ."') .$-& ? .25) .$8& ? .3') .$
A E
& ? .15) .$
- E
& ? .5') and .$
8 E
& ? 5. ;at is .$
E A
&>
Answer: .2122
( ) $.15&$."'& .5"'
$ & $."'&$.15& $.25&$.5'& $.3'&$5& .5''
$ & .5"'
$ & .2122
$ & .5''
P A E
P E
P A E
P A E
P E

+ +



Difficulty: 1ard
*1. 7uppose .$A& ? ."') .$-& ? .25) .$8& ? .3') .$
A E
& ? .15) .$
- E
& ? .5') and .$
8 E
& ? 5. ;at is .$
E -
&>
Answer: 1212
( ) $.25&$.5'& .51
$ & $."'&$.15& $.25&$.5'& $.3'&$5& .5''
$ & .51
$ & .1212
$ & .5''
P B E
P E
P B E
P B E
P E

+ +



Difficulty: 1ard
*2. 7uppose .$A& ? ."') .$-& ? .25) .$8& ? .3') .$
A E
& ? .15) .$
- E
& ? .5') and .$
8 E
& ? 5. ;at is . $
E 8
&>
Answer: 5
( ) 5
$ & $."'&$.15& $.25&$.5'& $.3'&$5& .5''
$ & 5
$ & 5
$ & .5''
P C E
P E
P C E
P C E
P E

+ +



Difficulty: 1ard
*3. Jiven te standard dec: of cards) wat is te probability of drawing a red card) given
tat it is a face card>
Answer: .'
*
$%e &
'2
$%e & .'
12
$ &
'2
P d Face
P d Face
P Face



Difficulty: Medium
*". Jiven a standard dec: of cards) wat is te probability of drawing a face card) given
tat it is a red card>
Answer: 3=13
*
$%e & 3
'2
$ %e &
2*
$%e & 13
'2
P d Face
P Face d
P d



Difficulty: Medium
*'. A macine is made up of 3 components: an upper part) a mid part) and a lower part.
Te macine is ten assembled. ' percent of te upper parts are defectiveK " percent of
te mid parts are defectiveK 1 percent of te lower parts are defective. ;at is te
probability tat a macine is nonBdefective>
Answer: .4524
$.4'&$.4*&$.44& ? .4524 Difficulty: 1ard $A7&
**. A macine is produced by a se/uence of operations. Typically one defective
macine is produced per 1555 parts. ;at is te probability of two nonBdefective
macines being produced>
Answer: .442
$.444&$.444& ? .442 Difficulty: Medium
*+. A pair of dice is trown. ;at is te probability tat one of te faces is a 3) given
tat te sum of te two faces is 4>
Answer: 1=" Difficulty: 1ard
*2. A card is drawn from a standard dec:. ;at is te probability te card is an ace)
given tat it is a club>
Answer: 1=13 Difficulty: Medium
*4. A card is drawn from a standard dec:. Jiven tat a face card is drawn) wat is te
probability it will be a :ing>
Answer: 1=3
$" :ings&=$12 face cards& Difficulty: Medium
+5. ,ndependently a coin is tossed) a card is drawn from a dec:) and a die is trown.
;at is te probability of observing a ead on te coin) an ace on te card) and a five on
te die>
Answer: 1=1'*

1 " 1 1
2 '2 * 1'*
_ _ _
+ +

, , ,

Difficulty: Medium
+1. A family as two cildren. ;at is te probability tat bot are girls) given tat at
least one is a girl>
Answer: 1=3 Difficulty: Medium
+2. ;at is te probability of winning four games in a row) if te probability of winning
eac game individually is 1=2>
Answer: 1=1*


Difficulty: Medium
Use the following to answer questions #$-##:
At a college) +5 percent of te students are women and '5 percent of te students receive
a grade of 8. 2' percent of te students are neiter female nor 8 students. @se tis
contingency table.
8
8
;omen ."' .2' .+5
Men .5' .2' .35
.'5 .'5 1.55
+3. ;at is te probability tat a student is female and a 8 student>
Answer: ."' Difficulty: 1ard $A7&
+". ;at is te probability tat a student is male and not a 8 student>
Answer: .2' Difficulty: 1ard $A7&
+'. ,f te student is male) wat is te probability e is a 8 student>
Answer: .1**+
.5'
$ & .1**+
.35
P C Male



%efer To: 53652
Difficulty: 1ard $A7&
+*. ,f te student as received a grade of 8) wat is te probability tat e is male>
Answer: .15
.5'
$ & .15
.'5
P Male C



Difficulty: 1ard $A7&
++. ,f te student as received a grade of 8) wat is te probability tat se is female>
Answer: .45
."'
$ & .45
.'5
P female C



Difficulty: 1ard $A7&
Use the following information to answer questions #%-#&:
Two percent $2H& of te customers of a store buy cigars. 1alf of te customers wo buy
cigars buy beer. 2' percent wo buy beer buy cigars. Determine te probability tat a
customer using tis contingency table:
-eer
-eer
8igars .51 .51 .52
8igars
.53 .4' .4'
.5" .4* 1.5
+2. -uys beer.
Answer: .5"
$ & .51
$ & .5"
$ & .2'
P Beer Cigar
P Beer
P Beer Cigar





Difficulty: 1ard
+4. 9eiter buys beer nor buys cigars.
Answer: .4'
$ & .51
$ & .5"
$ & .2'
$ & .53
$ & .42 .53 .4'
P Beer Cigar
P Beer
P Beer Cigar
P No Cigar Beer
P No Cigar No Beer







Difficulty: 1ard
Use the following information to answer questions %'-%(:
An urn contains five wite) tree red) and four blac: balls. Tree are drawn at random
witout replacement.
25. ;at is te probability tat no ball is red>
Answer: .3212

4 2 +
.3212
12 11 15
_ _ _


, , ,

Difficulty: 1ard
21. ;at is te probability tat all balls are te same color>
Answer: .5*22

' 3 "
3 3 3
12
3
15 1 "
.5*22
225
C C C
C
+ + + +




Difficulty: 1ard
22. ;at is te probability tat any two people cosen at random were born on te same
day of te wee:>
Answer: 1=+ Difficulty: 1ard
23. A letter is drawn from te alpabet of 2* letters. ;at is te probability tat te
letter drawn is a vowel>
Answer: '=2* Difficulty: Easy
2". 1ow many times must a die be tossed if te e#pected number of ones is five>
Answer: 35 Difficulty: Medium
2'. Aist two properties of a valid discrete probability distribution.
Answer:
$ & 5 ) 1
n
i
i
p for all and


Difficulty: 1ard
2*. ,f A and - are independent events) .$A& ? .2) and .$-& ? .+) determine .$A

-&


Answer: .+*
.$A

-& ? .$A& F .$-& L .$A

-&
.$A

-& ? $.+& F $.2& L $.+&$.2& ? .+*


Difficulty: Medium
2+. ,f events A and - are mutually e#clusive) calculate .$
- A
&.
Answer: Mero Difficulty: 1ard
22. ;at is te probability of rolling a si# wit a fair die five times in a row>
Answer: 1=+)++*
1 1 1 1 1 1 1
* * * * * * +++*
_ _ _ _ _ _


, , , , , ,

Difficulty: 1ard
24. ,f a product is made using five individual components) and .$product meets
specifications& ? .42) wat is te probability of an individual component meeting
specifications assuming tat tis probability is te same for all five components>
Answer: .44*5
'
.42

Difficulty: 1ard $A7&
45. ,f .$
- A
& ? .2 and .$-& ? .2) determine te intersection of event A and -.
Answer: .1*
$.2&$.2& ? .1*
Difficulty: Medium
41. ,f .$A

- &? .3 and .$
- A
& ? .4) find .$-&.
Answer: .333
.3
$ & .333
.4
P B

Difficulty: Medium
Use the following information to answer questions &2-('':
Jender
Nob Male $M& !emale $!&
!aculty $!A& 115 15
7alaried staff $77& 35 '5
1ourly staff $17& *5 "5
Employees of a local university ave been classified according to gender and (ob type.
42. ,f an employee is selected at random wat is te probability tat te employee is
male>
Answer: .**+
255
$ & .**+
355
P M

Difficulty: Medium $A7&
43. ,f an employee is selected at random wat is te probability tat te employee is
male and salaried staff>
Answer: 5.15
35
$ & 5.15
355
P M and !!

Difficulty: Medium $A7&
4". ,f an employee is selected at random wat is te probability tat te employee is
female given tat te employee is a salaried member of staff>
Answer: 5.*2'
'5
'
$ & 5.*2'
2
25
P F !!

Difficulty: Medium $A7&
4'. ,f an employee is selected at random wat is te probability tat te employee is
female or wor:s as a member of te faculty>
Answer: 5.+5
155 125 15
$ & 5.+5
355 355 355
P F FA +

Difficulty: Medium $A7&
4*. ,f an employee is selected at random wat is te probability tat te employee is
female or wor:s as an ourly staff member>
Answer: 5.'33
155 155 "5
$ & 5.'33
355 355 355
P F HA +

Difficulty: Medium $A7&
4+. ,f an employee is selected at random wat is te probability tat te employee is a
member of te ourly staff given tat te employee is female>
Answer: 5."5
"5
"
$ & 5."5
15
155
P H! F

Difficulty: Medium $A7&
42. ,f an employee is selected at random wat is te probability tat te employee is a
member of te faculty>
Answer: ."5
125
$ & ."5
355
P FA

Difficulty: Medium $A7&
44. ,s gender and type of (ob mutually e#clusive> E#plain wit probabilities.
Answer: 9o) gender and (ob type is not mutually e#clusive.
255
$ & .**+
355
125
$ & 5."5
355
115
$ & 5
355
P M
P FA
P M FA




Difficulty: Medium $A7&
155. ,s gender and type of (ob statistically independent> E#plain wit probabilities.
Answer:
9o) gender is not independent of type of (ob.
7elect a category of gender $male& and a category of (ob status $faculty&) if te two are
independent of eac oter) tan:
$ & $ &
255
$ & 5.**+
355
115
$ & 5.41*+
125
5.**+ .41*+
P M P M FA
!ince P M
and P M FA


Difficulty: Medium $A7&
Use the following information to answer questions ('(-('):
;or:er H of Dinners .ac:ed H !orgot 9ap:in
Noe 2'H *H
Nan 25H 2H
8eryl 25H 15H
8lay 3'H "H
!our employees wo wor: as driveBtroug attendees at a local fast food restaurant are
being evaluated. As a part of /uality improvement initiative and employee evaluation
tese wor:ers were observed over tree days. Gne of te statistics collected is te
proportion of time employee forgets to include a nap:in in te bag. %elated information is
given in te table) above.
151. ;at is te probability tat 8eryl prepared your dinner and forgot to include a
nap:in>
Answer: 5.52
P(Cher"l

Forgo# nap$in) ? $.25&$.15& ?5.52 Difficulty: Medium


%efer To: 5365*
152. ;at is te probability tat tere is not a nap:in included for a given order>
Answer: 5.5'3
.$9o 9ap:in& ? $.2'&$.5*& F $.25&$.52& F $5.25&$.15& F $.3'&$.5"& ? .5'3
Difficulty: Medium
153. Dou (ust purcased a dinner and found tat tere is no nap:in in your bag) wat is
te probability tat 8eryl as prepared your order>
Answer: 5.3++"
$.2&$.1& .52
$ & 5.3+++"
$.2'&$.5*& $.2&$.52& $.25&$.15& $.3'&$.5"& .5'3
P Cher"l No nap$in
+ + +

Difficulty: 1ard
15". Dou (ust purcased a dinner and found tat tere is no nap:in in your bag) wat is
te probability tat Nan as prepared your order.
Answer: 5.5+'"
$.2&$.52& .55"
$ & 5.5+''
$.2'&$.5*& $.2&$.52& $.25&$.15& $.3'&$.5"& .5'3
P %an No nap$in
+ + +

Difficulty: 1ard
Use the following information to answer questions ('5-((':
Noe is considering pursuing an M-A degree. 1e as applied to two different universities.
Te acceptance rate for applicants wit similar /ualifications is 2'H for @niversity A and
"5H for @niversity -.
15'. ;at is te probability tat Noe will be accepted at bot universities>
Answer: 5.15
$.2'&$."5& ? 5.15 Difficulty: 1ard
15*. ;at is te probability tat Noe will be accepted at @niversity A and re(ected at
@niversity ->
Answer: 5.1'
$.2'&$.*5& ? 5.1' Difficulty: Medium
15+. ;at is te probability tat Noe will not be accepted at eiter university>
Answer: 5."'
$.+'&$.*5& ? 5."' Difficulty: Medium
152. ;at is te probability tat Noe will be accepted at least by one of te two
universities>
Answer: 5.''
1B O$.+'&$.*5&P ? 5.'' Difficulty: Medium
154. ;at is te probability tat Noe will be accepted at one) and only one university>
Answer: 5."'
$.2'&$.*5& F $.+'&$."5& ? 5."' Difficulty: 1ard
115. ,s te acceptance decision at @niversity A independent of te acceptance decision at
@niversity -> 7ow wit probabilities.
Answer:
Des) te two decisions are statistically independent
,f te M-A acceptance decisions are independent at te two universities) tan
.$Accepting at A& ? .$Accepting at A given re(ecting at -&.

$.2'&$.*5& .1'
$ & .2' $ %e & .2'
.*5 .*5
P Accep# a# A P Accep# a# A &ec# a# B

Difficulty: 1ard
Use the following information to answer questions (((-(($:
,n a report on ig scool graduation) it was stated tat 2'H of ig scool students
graduate. 7uppose 3 ig scool students are randomly selected from different scools.
111. ;at is te probability tat all graduate>
Answer: 5.*1"
$2'&$.2'&$.2'& ? 5.*1"
Difficulty: Easy
112. ;at is te probability tat e#actly one of te tree graduate>
Answer: .5'+"
$.2'&$.1'&$.1'&F$.1'&$.2'&$.1'&F$.1'&$.1'&$.2'&? .5'+3+'
Difficulty: 1ard
113. ;at is te probability tat none graduate>
Answer: .553"
$.1'&$.1'&$.1'& ? .5533+'
Difficulty: Easy
Use the following information to answer questions (()-((6:
,t is very common for television series to draw a large audience for special events of for
cliffBanging story lines. 7uppose tat on one of tese occasions) te special sow drew
viewers from 32.2H of all @7 TQ ouseolds. 7uppose tat tree TQ ouseolds are
randomly selected.
11". ;at is te probability tat all tree ouseolds viewed tis special sow>
Answer: .5'*
$.322&$.322&$.322& ? .5''+"
Difficulty: Easy
11'. ;at is te probability tat none of te tree ouseolds viewed tis special sow>
Answer: .23*
$.*12&$.*12&$.*12&?.23*
Difficulty: Easy
11*. ;at is te probability tat e#actly one of te tree ouseolds viewed te special
sow>
Answer: ."32
$.322&$.*12&$.*12&F$.*12&$.322&$.*12&F$.*12&$.*12&$.322&?."3+*
Difficulty: 1ard
Use the following information to answer questions ((#-((&:
A survey is made in a neigborood of 25 voters. *' were Democrats and 1' were
%epublicans. Gf te Democrats) 3' are women) wile ' of te %epublicans are women. ,f
one sub(ect from te group is randomly selected) find te probability:
11+. Te individual is eiter a woman or a Democrat.
Answer: .2+'
.$;

D& ? .$;& F .$D& L .$;

D&
$"5=25& F $*'=25& L $3'=25& ? .2+'
Difficulty: Medium
112. A male %epublican
Answer: .12'
$15=25& ? .12'
Difficulty: Medium
114. A Democrat of a %epublican
Answer: 1.55
Difficulty: Easy
Use the following information to answer questions (2'-(2(:
Gwners are as:ed to evaluate teir e#periences in buying a new car during te past
twelve monts. ;en surveys were analy0ed te owners indicated tey were most
satisfied wit teir e#periences at te following tree dealers $in no particular order&:
7aturn) 1onda) and -uic:.
125. Aist all possible sets of ran:ings for tese tree dealers:
Answer: 17-) -17) 71-) 1-7) -71) 7-1
Difficulty: Easy
121. Assuming tat eac set of ran:ings is e/ually li:ely) wat is te probability tat
$a& Gwners ran:ed 7aturn first>
$b& Gwners ran:ed 7aturn tird>
$c& Gwners ran:ed 7aturn first and 1onda second>
Answer:
$a& 2=*
$b& 2=*
$c& 1=*
Difficulty: Easy
122. ,n a study of cain saw in(uries) '+H involved arms or ands. ,f tree different cain
saw in(ury cases are randomly selected) find te probability tat tey all involved arms or
ands>
Answer: .12'
$.'+&$.'+&$.'+&? .12'
Difficulty: Easy
Use the following information to answer questions (2$-(25:
,n a local survey) 155 citi0ens indicated teir opinions on a revision to a local land use
plan. Gf te *2 favorable responses) tere were "5 males. Gf te 32 unfavorable
responses) tere were 1' males. ,f one citi0en is randomly selected find te probability
123. A female or as an unfavorable opinion
Answer: .*5
.$!

9$!& F .$9& L .$!

9&
."' F .32 B .23 ? .*5
D 9
M "5 1' *'
! 22 23 "'
*2 32 155
Difficulty: Medium
12". A male as a favorable opinion
Answer: ."5
Difficulty: Easy
12': 1as a favorable opinion or as an unfavorable opinion
Answer: 1.55
Difficulty: Easy
Use the following information to answer questions (26-($'*
+etermine whether the two e,ents are mutuall" e-clusi,e:
12*. A consumer wit an unlisted pone number and a consumer wo does not drive
Answer: 9ot mutually e#clusive
Difficulty: Easy
12+. An unmarried person and a person wit an employed spouse
Answer: Mutually e#clusive
Difficulty: Easy
122. 7omeone born in te @nited 7tates and a @7 citi0en
Answer: 9ot mutually e#clusive
Difficulty: Easy
124. A voter wo favors gun control and a conservative voter
Answer: 9ot mutually e#clusive
Difficulty: Easy
135. A voter wo is a registered Democrat and a voter wo favors a %epublican
candidate
Answer: 9ot mutually e#clusive
Difficulty: Easy
Use the following information to answer questions ($(-($):
,n a recent survey of omes in a ma(or Midwestern city) 15H of te omes ave a fa#
macine and '2H ave a personal computer. 7uppose 41H of te omes wit a fa#
macine also ave a personal computer.
131. ;at percent of omes ave a fa# macine and a personal computer>
Answer: .541 ? 4.1H
Difficulty: 1ard
132. ;at is te probability tat a ome as a fa# macine or a personal computer>
Answer: .'3? '3H
.$.8&F.$!&B.$!

.8&? $.'2&F$.15&B$.54&?.'3
Difficulty: 1ard
133. ;at is te probability tat a ome wit a personal computer as a fa# macine>
Answer: .1+
.$!3.8& ? .$!

.8&=.$.8& ? .54=.'2? .1+


Difficulty: 1ard
13". Are te events Rowning a fa# macineS and Rowning a personal computerS
independent> ;y or wy not>
Answer: 9G
.$.83!&

.$.8&
Difficulty: 1ard
13'. A batc of '5 parts contains * defects. ,f two parts are drawn randomly one at a
time witout replacement) wat is te probability tat bot parts are defective>
Answer: .512
$*='5&$'="4&? .512
Difficulty: Medium
13*. A batc of '5 parts contains * defects. ,f two parts are drawn randomly) one at a
time wit replacement) wat is te probability tat bot parts are defective>
Answer: .51"
$*='5&$*='5&? .51"
Difficulty: Medium
13+. ,n te word -@7,9E77) wat is te probability of randomly selecting te letter 7>
Answer: .3+'
3=2? .3+'
Difficulty: Easy
132. 7uppose tat you believe tat te probability you will get a grade of - or better in
,ntroduction to !inance is .*) and te probability tat you will get a grade of - or better in
,ntroduction to Accounting is .'. ,f tese events are independent) wat is te probability
tat you will be a grade of - or better in bot courses>
Answer: .35
$.*&$.'&?.35
Difficulty: Easy $A7&
Use the following information to answer questions ($&-()2:
,n a ma(or Midwestern university) ''H of all undergraduates are female) 2'H belong to a
Jree: organi0ation $fraternity or sorority& and "5H of all males belong to a Jree:
organi0ation.
134. ;at percent of te undergraduates are female and in a Jree: organi0ation>
Answer: +H
!emale Male
Jree: .5+ .12 .2'
9onBJree: ."2 .2+ .+'
.'' ."'
Difficulty: 1ard
1"5. ;at is te probability tat one randomly selected undergraduate will be eiter a
female or belong to a Jree: organi0ation>
Answer: +3H
.$J

!& ? .'' F .2' B.5+?.+3


Difficulty: 1ard
1"1. ;at is te probability tat an undergraduate is in a Jree: organi0ation given tat
te undergraduate is a female>
Answer: .12+
.$J3!& ? .5+=.'' ? .12+
Difficulty: 1ard
1"2. Are te events Rfemale=not femaleS and Rbelongs to a Jree: organi0ationS
independent>
Answer: 9o
.$J3!&

.$J&
Difficulty: 1ard
Use the following information to answer questions ()$-()6:
At a certain university) 35H of te students ma(or in 0oology. Gf te students ma(oring in
0oology) *5H are males. Gf all te students at te university) +5H are males.
1"3. ;at percentage of te students are males ma(oring in 0oology>
Answer: 12H
Moology
Ma(or
9ot
Moology
Male .12 .'2 .+5
!emale .12 .12 .35
.35 .+5 1.55
Difficulty: 1ard
1"". ;at is te probability tat one randomly selected student is a male or is ma(oring
in 0oology>
Answer: 22H
$.35&F$.+5&B$.12&?.22
Difficulty: 1ard
1"'. ;at proportion of te males are ma(oring in 0oology>
Answer:.2'+
.$M3M& ? .12=.+5? .2'+
Difficulty: 1ard
1"*. Are te events RmaleS and Rma(oring in 0oologyS independent>
Answer: 9o
.$M3M& T.$M&
Difficulty: 1ard
1"+. An advertising campaign is being developed to promote a new boo:store opening in
te newest mall development. To develop an appropriate mailing list it as been decided
to purcase lists of credit card olders from Master8ard and American E#press.
8ombining te lists tey find te following: "5H of te people on te list ave only a
Master8ard and 15H ave only an American E#press card. Anoter 25H old bot
Master8ard and American E#press. !inally) 35H of tose on te list ave neiter card.
7uppose a person on te list is :nown to ave a Master8ard. ;at is te probability tat
person also as an American E#press 8ard>
Answer: .33
.$AE3M8&?.25=.*5?.33
Master8ard 9o Master8ard
American E#press .25 .15 .35
9o American
E#press
."5 .35 .+5
.*5 ."5 1.55
Difficulty: Medium
Use the following information to answer questions ()%B(52:
8onsider a standard dec: of '2 playing cards) a randomly selected card from te dec:)
and te following events: %?red) -?blac:) A?ace) 9?nine) D?diamond and 8?club.
!or eac of te following pair of events) indicated weter te events are mutually
e#clusive
1"2. % and A
Answer: 9o
Difficulty: Easy
1"4. % and 8
Answer: Des
Difficulty: Easy
1'5. A and 9
Answer: Des
Difficulty: Easy
1'1. 9 and 8
Answer: 9o
Difficulty: Easy
1'2. D and 8
Answer: Des
Difficulty: Easy
Use the following information to answer questions (5$-(5):
An automobile insurance company is in te process of reviewing its policies. 8urrently
drivers under te age of 2' ave to pay a premium. Te company is considering
increasing te value of te premium carged to drivers under 2'. According to company
records) 3'H of te insured drivers are under te age of 2'. Te company records also
sow tat 225 of te +55 insured drivers under te age of 2' ad been involved in at least
one automobile accident. Gn te oter and) only 135 of te 1355 insured drivers 2'
years or older ad been involved in at least one automobile accident.
1'3. An accident as (ust been reported. ;at is te probability tat te insured driver is
under te age of 2'>
Answer:
$ 2' & .*23 P Acc <

7tate of 9ature .$7(&
$ &
&
P Acciden# !
$ . &
&
P Acc ! $ .&
&
P ! Acc
71 $under 2'& 5.3' 5."5 5.1" 5.*23
72 $2' or older& 5.*' 5.15 5.5*' 5.31+
1.5 5.25' 1.5
Difficulty: 1ard $A7&
1'". ;at is te probability tat an insured driver of any age will be involved in an
accident>
Answer:
$ & .25' P Acciden#

7tate of 9ature .$7(&
$ &
&
P Acciden# !
$ . &
&
P Acc ! $ .&
&
P ! Acc
71 $under 2'& 5.3' 5."5 5.1" 5.*23
72 $2' or older& 5.*' 5.15 5.5*' 5.31+
1.5 5.25' 1.5
Difficulty: 1ard $A7&
1''. A parmaceutical company manufacturing pregnancy test :its wants to determine
te probability of a woman not being pregnant wen te test results indicate pregnancy. ,t
is estimated tat te probability of pregnancy among potential users of te :it is 15H.
According to te company laboratory test results) 1 out of 155 nonBpregnant women
tested pregnant $false positive&. Gn te oter and) 1 out of 255 pregnant women tested
nonBpregnant $false negative&. A woman as (ust used te pregnancy test :it
manufactured by te company and te results sowed pregnancy. ;at is te probability
tat se is not pregnant>
Answer:
$ & .523 P NP 'P

Aet:
. ? pregnant
9. ? nonBpregnant
T. ? tested pregnant
T9. ? tested nonBpregnant
7tate of 9ature .$7(&
$ &
&
P 'P !
$ &
&
P 'P ! $ &
&
P ! 'P
71 $pregnant& 5.1 5.44' 5.544' 5.41+
72 $not pregnant& 5.4 5.51 5.554 5.523
1.5 5.152' 1.5
Difculty: 1ard
1'*. A parmaceutical company manufacturing pregnancy test :its wants to determine
te probability of a woman actually being pregnant wen te test results indicate tat se
is not pregnant. ,t is estimated tat te probability of pregnancy among potential users of
te :it is 15H. According to te company laboratory test results) 1 out of 155 nonB
pregnant women tested pregnant $false positive&. Gn te oter and) 1 out of 255
pregnant women tested nonBpregnant $false negative&. A woman as (ust used te
pregnancy test :it manufactured by te company and te results sowed tat se is not
pregnant. ;at is te probability tat se is pregnant>
Answer:
$ & .555'* P P N'P

Aet:
. ? pregnant
9. ? nonBpregnant
T. ? tested pregnant
T9. ? tested nonBpregnant
7tate of 9ature .$7(&
$ &
&
P 'NP !
$ &
&
P 'NP ! $ &
&
P ! 'NP
71 $pregnant& 5.1 5.55' 5.555' 5.555'*
72 $not pregnant& 5.4 5.44 5.241 5.444""
1.5 5.241' 1.5
Difficulty: 1ard