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2K Ansichten39 SeitenStatistics and Probability Test Bank Chapter 03

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Statistics and Probability Test Bank Chapter 03

© All Rights Reserved

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67%(6)67% fanden dieses Dokument nützlich (6 Abstimmungen)

2K Ansichten39 SeitenStatistics and Probability Test Bank Chapter 03

© All Rights Reserved

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Probability

True/False

1. A contingency table is a tabular summary of probabilities concerning two sets of

complementary events.

Answer: True Difficulty: Medium

2. An event is a collection of sample space outcomes.

Answer: True Difficulty: Easy

3. Two events are independent if te probability of one event is influenced by weter or

not te oter event occurs.

Answer: !alse Difficulty: Medium

". Mutually e#clusive events ave a nonempty intersection.

Answer: !alse Difficulty: Medium $%E!&

'. A sub(ective probability is a probability assessment tat is based on e#perience)

intuitive (udgment) or e#pertise.

Answer: True Difficulty: Medium

*. Te probability of an event is te sum of te probabilities of te sample space

outcomes tat correspond to te event.

Answer: True Difficulty: Medium

+. ,f events A and - are mutually e#clusive) ten .$

- A

& is always e/ual to 0ero.

Answer: True Difficulty: 1ard $%E!&

2. ,f events A and - are independent) ten .$A3-& is always e/ual to 0ero.

Answer: !alse Difficulty: Medium $%E!&

4. ,f events A and - are mutually e#clusive) ten .$A

Answer: True Difficulty: Easy

15. Events tat ave no sample space outcomes in common) and) terefore cannot occur

simultaneously are referred to as independent events.

Answer: !alse Difficulty: Medium

Multiple Choice

11. Two mutually e#clusive events aving positive probabilities are 66666666666666

dependent.

A& Always

-& 7ometimes

8& 9ever

Answer: A Difficulty: 1ard $%E!&

12. 6666666666666666666 is a measure of te cance tat an uncertain event will occur.

A& %andom e#periment

-& 7ample 7pace

8& .robability

D& A complement

E& A population

Answer: 8 Difficulty: Medium

13. A manager as (ust received te e#pense cec:s for si# of er employees. 7e

randomly distributes te cec:s to te si# employees. ;at is te probability tat e#actly

five of tem will receive te correct cec:s $cec:s wit te correct names&.

A& 1

-& <

8& 1=*

D& 5

E& 1=3

Answer: D Difficulty: 1ard

1". ,n wic of te following are te two events A and -) always independent>

A& A and - are mutually e#clusive.

-& Te probability of event A is not influenced by te probability of event -.

8& Te intersection of A and - is 0ero.

D& .$A=-& ? .$A&.

E& - and D.

Answer: E Difficulty: 1ard $%E!&

1'. ,f two events are independent) we can 66666 teir probabilities to determine te

intersection probability.

A& Divide

-& Add

8& Multiply

D& 7ubtract

Answer: 8 Difficulty: Easy

1*. Events tat ave no sample space outcomes in common) and terefore) cannot occur

simultaneously are:

A& ,ndependent

-& Mutually E#clusive

8& ,ntersections

D& @nions

Answer: - Difficulty: Medium

1+. ,f events A and - are independent) ten te probability of simultaneous occurrence of

event A and event - can be found wit:

A& P(A)P(B)

-& P(A)P(

A -

)

8& P(B)P(

- A

)

D& All of te above are correct

Answer: D Difficulty: 1ard $%E!&

12. Te set of all possible e#perimental outcomes is called a$n&:

A& 7ample space

-& Event

8& E#periment

D& .robability

Answer: A Difficulty: Easy

14. A$n& 666666666666 is te probability tat one event will occur given tat we :now

tat anoter event already as occurred.

A& 7ample space outcome

-& 7ub(ective .robability

8& 8omplement of events

D& AongBrun relative fre/uency

E& 8onditional probability

Answer: E Difficulty: Medium

25. Te 6666666 of two events C and D is anoter event tat consists of te sample

space outcomes belonging to eiter event C or event D or bot event C and D.

A& 8omplement

-& @nion

8& ,ntersection

D& 8onditional probability

Answer: - Difficulty: Medium

21. ,f .$A& E 5 and .$-& E 5 and events A and - are independent) ten:

A& P(A) = P(B)

-& P(

- A

)=P(A)

8& P(A

B) = 0

D& P(A

B) = P(A) P(B

A)

Answer: - Difficulty: Medium

22. .$A

A& conditional probability

-& addition rule

8& addition rule for two mutually e#clusive events

D& multiplication rule

Answer: - Difficulty: Medium

23. Te management of a company believes tat weater conditions significantly affect

te level of demand for its product. "2 montly sales reports are randomly selected.

Tese montly sales reports sowed 1' monts wit ig demand) 22 monts wit

medium demand) and ' monts wit low demand. 12 of te 1' monts wit ig demand

ad favorable weater conditions. 1" of te 22 monts wit medium demand ad

favorable weater conditions. Gnly 1 of te ' monts wit low demand ad favorable

weater conditions. ;at is te probability tat weater conditions are poor) given tat

te demand is ig>

A& .2

-& .'

8& .2

D& .2'

E& .+'

Answer: A Difficulty: 1ard

2". Te management believes tat te weater conditions significantly impact te level

of demand and te estimated probabilities of poor weater conditions given different

levels of demand is presented below.

$ & .2) $ & .') $ & .2 P Poor High P Poor Medium P Poor Low

;at is te probability of ig demand given tat te weater conditions are poor.

A& .5*

-& .""

8& .13*"

D& .12

E& .1212

Answer: 8 Difficulty: 1ard

Use the following information to answer questions 25-26:

An automobile insurance company is in te process of reviewing its policies. 8urrently

drivers under te age of 2' ave to pay a premium. Te company is considering

increasing te value of te premium carged to drivers under 2'. According to company

records) 3'H of te insured drivers are under te age of 2'. Te company records also

sow tat 225 of te +55 insured drivers under te age of 2' ad been involved in at least

one automobile accident. Gn te oter and) only 135 of te 1355 insured drivers 2'

years or older ad been involved in at least one automobile accident.

2'. An accident as (ust been reported. ;at is te probability tat te insured driver is

under te age of 2'>

A& 3'H

-& 25.'H

8& 1"H

D& *2.3H

E& "5H

Answer: D Difficulty: 1ard $A7&

2*. ;at is te probability tat an insured driver of any age will be involved in an

accident>

A& 3'H

-& 25.'H

8& *'H

D& *2.3H

E& +4.'H

Answer: - Difficulty: 1ard $A7&

2+. A parmaceutical company manufacturing pregnancy test :its wants to determine te

probability of a woman not being pregnant wen te test results indicate pregnancy. ,t is

estimated tat te probability of pregnancy among potential users of te :it is 15H.

According to te company laboratory test results 1 out of 155 nonBpregnant women tested

pregnant $false positive&. Gn te oter and) 1 out of 255 pregnant women tested nonB

pregnant $false negative&. A woman as (ust used te pregnancy test :it manufactured by

te company and te results sowed pregnancy. ;at is te probability tat se is not

pregnant>

A& 45H

-& 5.4H

8& 2.3H

D& 41.+H

E& 15.2'H

Answer: 8 Difficulty: 1ard

22. A parmaceutical company manufacturing pregnancy test :its wants to determine te

probability of a woman actually being pregnant wen te test results indicate tat se is

not pregnant. ,t is estimated tat te probability of pregnancy among potential users of

te :it is 15H. According to te company laboratory test results 1 out of 155 nonB

pregnant women tested pregnant $false positive&. Gn te oter and) 1 out of 255

pregnant women tested nonBpregnant $false negative&. A woman as (ust used te

pregnancy test :it manufactured by te company and te results sowed tat se is not

pregnant. ;at is te probability tat se is pregnant>

A& 1H

-& 5.4H

8& 5.5'H

D& 2.3H

E& 5.5'*H

Answer: E Difficulty: 1ard

Fill-in-the-Blan

24. A$n& 66666 is te set of all of te distinct possible outcomes of an e#periment.

Answer: 7ample 7pace Difficulty: Medium

35. Te 66666 of an event is a number tat measures te li:eliood tat an event will

occur wen an e#periment is carried out.

Answer: .robability Difficulty: Easy

31. ;en te probability of one event is influenced by weter or not anoter event

occurs) te events are said to be 66666.

Answer: Dependent Difficulty: Medium

32. A process of observation tat as an uncertain outcome is referred to as a$n& 66666.

Answer: E#periment Difficulty: Medium

33. ;en te probability of one event is not influenced by weter or not anoter event

occurs) te events are said to be 66666.

Answer: ,ndependent Difficulty: Medium

3". A probability may be interpreted as a long run 66666 fre/uency.

Answer: %elative Difficulty: Medium

3'. ,f events A and - are independent) ten .$A=-& is e/ual to 66666.

Answer: .$A& Difficulty: Medium

3*. Te simultaneous occurrence of event A and - is represented by te notation:

6666666.

Answer: A

- Difficulty: Easy

3+. A$n& 666666666666666 probability is a probability assessment tat is based on

e#perience) intuitive (udgment) or e#pertise.

Answer: 7ub(ective Difficulty: Medium

32. A$n& 66666666666666 is a collection of sample space outcomes.

Answer: Event Difficulty: Easy

34. .robabilities must be assigned to e#perimental outcomes so tat te probabilities of

all te e#perimental outcomes must add up to 666.

Answer: 1 Difficulty: Easy

"5. .robabilities must be assigned to e#perimental outcomes so tat te probability

assigned to eac e#perimental outcome must be between 6666 and 6666 inclusive.

Answer: 5)1 Difficulty: Easy

"1. Te 6666666666 of event C consists of all sample space outcomes tat do not

correspond to te occurrence of event C.

Answer: 8omplement Difficulty: Easy

"2. Te 6666666 of two events A and - is anoter event tat consists of te sample space

outcomes belonging to eiter event A or event - or bot event A and -.

Answer: @nion Difficulty: Easy

"3. Te 6666666 of two events A and - is te event tat consists of te sample space

outcomes belonging to bot event A and event -.

Answer: ,ntersection Difficulty: Easy

"". 666666666666666666 statistics is an area of statistics tat uses -ayesI teorem to

update prior belief about a probability or population parameter to a posterior belief.

Answer: -ayesian Difficulty: Medium

"'. ,n te application of -ayesI teorem te sample information is combined wit prior

probabilities to obtain 6666666666666666666 probabilities.

Answer: posterior Difficulty: Easy $%E!&

!ssa"

"*. ;at is te probability of rolling a seven wit a pair of fair dice>

Answer: 1=*

*

3*

Difficulty: Medium

"+. ;at is te probability of rolling a value iger tan eigt wit a pair of fair dice>

Answer: .2+++

15

.2+++

3*

Difficulty: Medium

"2. ;at is te probability tat an even number appears on te toss of a die>

Answer: .' Difficulty: Easy

"4. ;at is te probability tat a :ing appears in drawing a single card form a dec: of '2

cards>

Answer: 1=13 Difficulty: Medium

'5. ,f we consider te toss of four coins as an e#periment) ow many outcomes does te

sample space consist of>

Answer: 1*

1* 2

"

Difficulty: Medium

'1. ;at is te probability of at least one tail in te toss of tree fair coins>

Answer: +=2 Difficulty: 1ard

'2. A lot contains 12 items) and " are defective. ,f tree items are drawn at random from

te lot) wat is te probability tey are not defective>

Answer: .2'"'

2 + *

.2'"'

12 11 15

_ _ _

, , ,

Difficulty: 1ard

'3. A person is dealt ' cards from a dec: of '2 cards. ;at is te probability tey are all

clubs>

Answer: .555"4'1

13 12 11 15 4

5.555"4'1

'2 '1 '5 "4 "2

_ _ _ _ _

, , , , ,

Difficulty: 1ard

'". A group as 12 men and " women. ,f 3 people are selected at random from te

group) wat is te probability tat tey are all men>

Answer: .3422'+

12 11 15

.3422'+

1* 1' 1"

_ _ _

, , ,

Difficulty: 1ard

Use the following information to answer questions 55-5#:

8ontainer 1 as 2 items) 3 of wic are defective. 8ontainer 2 as ' items) 2 of wic

are defective. ,f one item is drawn from eac container:

''. ;at is te probability tat bot items are not defective>

Answer: .3+'

' 3

.3+'

2 '

_ _

, ,

Difficulty: Medium

'*. ;at is te probability tat te item from container one is defective and te item

from container 2 is not defective>

Answer: .22'

3 3

.22'

2 '

_ _

, ,

Difficulty: 1ard

'+. ;at is te probability tat one of te items is defective>

Answer: ."'

3 3 3 3

."'

2 ' 2 '

_ _ _ _

+

, , , ,

Difficulty: 1ard

'2. A coin is tossed * times. ;at is te probability tat at least one ead occurs>

Answer: *3=*"

1 1 1 1 1 1 *3

1

2 2 2 2 2 2 *"

_ _ _ _ _ _

' ;

, , , , , ,

Difficulty: Medium

'4. 7uppose .$A& ? ."') .$-& ?.25) .$8& ? .3') .$

A E

& ? .15) .$

- E

& ? .5') and .$

8 E

& ? 5. ;at is .$E&>

Answer: .5''

.$E& ? $."'&$.15& F $.25&$.5'& F $.3'&$5& ? .5''

Difficulty: 1ard

*5. 7uppose .$A& ? ."') .$-& ? .25) .$8& ? .3') .$

A E

& ? .15) .$

- E

& ? .5') and .$

8 E

& ? 5. ;at is .$

E A

&>

Answer: .2122

( ) $.15&$."'& .5"'

$ & $."'&$.15& $.25&$.5'& $.3'&$5& .5''

$ & .5"'

$ & .2122

$ & .5''

P A E

P E

P A E

P A E

P E

+ +

Difficulty: 1ard

*1. 7uppose .$A& ? ."') .$-& ? .25) .$8& ? .3') .$

A E

& ? .15) .$

- E

& ? .5') and .$

8 E

& ? 5. ;at is .$

E -

&>

Answer: 1212

( ) $.25&$.5'& .51

$ & $."'&$.15& $.25&$.5'& $.3'&$5& .5''

$ & .51

$ & .1212

$ & .5''

P B E

P E

P B E

P B E

P E

+ +

Difficulty: 1ard

*2. 7uppose .$A& ? ."') .$-& ? .25) .$8& ? .3') .$

A E

& ? .15) .$

- E

& ? .5') and .$

8 E

& ? 5. ;at is . $

E 8

&>

Answer: 5

( ) 5

$ & $."'&$.15& $.25&$.5'& $.3'&$5& .5''

$ & 5

$ & 5

$ & .5''

P C E

P E

P C E

P C E

P E

+ +

Difficulty: 1ard

*3. Jiven te standard dec: of cards) wat is te probability of drawing a red card) given

tat it is a face card>

Answer: .'

*

$%e &

'2

$%e & .'

12

$ &

'2

P d Face

P d Face

P Face

Difficulty: Medium

*". Jiven a standard dec: of cards) wat is te probability of drawing a face card) given

tat it is a red card>

Answer: 3=13

*

$%e & 3

'2

$ %e &

2*

$%e & 13

'2

P d Face

P Face d

P d

Difficulty: Medium

*'. A macine is made up of 3 components: an upper part) a mid part) and a lower part.

Te macine is ten assembled. ' percent of te upper parts are defectiveK " percent of

te mid parts are defectiveK 1 percent of te lower parts are defective. ;at is te

probability tat a macine is nonBdefective>

Answer: .4524

$.4'&$.4*&$.44& ? .4524 Difficulty: 1ard $A7&

**. A macine is produced by a se/uence of operations. Typically one defective

macine is produced per 1555 parts. ;at is te probability of two nonBdefective

macines being produced>

Answer: .442

$.444&$.444& ? .442 Difficulty: Medium

*+. A pair of dice is trown. ;at is te probability tat one of te faces is a 3) given

tat te sum of te two faces is 4>

Answer: 1=" Difficulty: 1ard

*2. A card is drawn from a standard dec:. ;at is te probability te card is an ace)

given tat it is a club>

Answer: 1=13 Difficulty: Medium

*4. A card is drawn from a standard dec:. Jiven tat a face card is drawn) wat is te

probability it will be a :ing>

Answer: 1=3

$" :ings&=$12 face cards& Difficulty: Medium

+5. ,ndependently a coin is tossed) a card is drawn from a dec:) and a die is trown.

;at is te probability of observing a ead on te coin) an ace on te card) and a five on

te die>

Answer: 1=1'*

1 " 1 1

2 '2 * 1'*

_ _ _

+ +

, , ,

Difficulty: Medium

+1. A family as two cildren. ;at is te probability tat bot are girls) given tat at

least one is a girl>

Answer: 1=3 Difficulty: Medium

+2. ;at is te probability of winning four games in a row) if te probability of winning

eac game individually is 1=2>

Answer: 1=1*

Difficulty: Medium

Use the following to answer questions #$-##:

At a college) +5 percent of te students are women and '5 percent of te students receive

a grade of 8. 2' percent of te students are neiter female nor 8 students. @se tis

contingency table.

8

8

;omen ."' .2' .+5

Men .5' .2' .35

.'5 .'5 1.55

+3. ;at is te probability tat a student is female and a 8 student>

Answer: ."' Difficulty: 1ard $A7&

+". ;at is te probability tat a student is male and not a 8 student>

Answer: .2' Difficulty: 1ard $A7&

+'. ,f te student is male) wat is te probability e is a 8 student>

Answer: .1**+

.5'

$ & .1**+

.35

P C Male

%efer To: 53652

Difficulty: 1ard $A7&

+*. ,f te student as received a grade of 8) wat is te probability tat e is male>

Answer: .15

.5'

$ & .15

.'5

P Male C

Difficulty: 1ard $A7&

++. ,f te student as received a grade of 8) wat is te probability tat se is female>

Answer: .45

."'

$ & .45

.'5

P female C

Difficulty: 1ard $A7&

Use the following information to answer questions #%-#&:

Two percent $2H& of te customers of a store buy cigars. 1alf of te customers wo buy

cigars buy beer. 2' percent wo buy beer buy cigars. Determine te probability tat a

customer using tis contingency table:

-eer

-eer

8igars .51 .51 .52

8igars

.53 .4' .4'

.5" .4* 1.5

+2. -uys beer.

Answer: .5"

$ & .51

$ & .5"

$ & .2'

P Beer Cigar

P Beer

P Beer Cigar

Difficulty: 1ard

+4. 9eiter buys beer nor buys cigars.

Answer: .4'

$ & .51

$ & .5"

$ & .2'

$ & .53

$ & .42 .53 .4'

P Beer Cigar

P Beer

P Beer Cigar

P No Cigar Beer

P No Cigar No Beer

Difficulty: 1ard

Use the following information to answer questions %'-%(:

An urn contains five wite) tree red) and four blac: balls. Tree are drawn at random

witout replacement.

25. ;at is te probability tat no ball is red>

Answer: .3212

4 2 +

.3212

12 11 15

_ _ _

, , ,

Difficulty: 1ard

21. ;at is te probability tat all balls are te same color>

Answer: .5*22

' 3 "

3 3 3

12

3

15 1 "

.5*22

225

C C C

C

+ + + +

Difficulty: 1ard

22. ;at is te probability tat any two people cosen at random were born on te same

day of te wee:>

Answer: 1=+ Difficulty: 1ard

23. A letter is drawn from te alpabet of 2* letters. ;at is te probability tat te

letter drawn is a vowel>

Answer: '=2* Difficulty: Easy

2". 1ow many times must a die be tossed if te e#pected number of ones is five>

Answer: 35 Difficulty: Medium

2'. Aist two properties of a valid discrete probability distribution.

Answer:

$ & 5 ) 1

n

i

i

p for all and

Difficulty: 1ard

2*. ,f A and - are independent events) .$A& ? .2) and .$-& ? .+) determine .$A

-&

Answer: .+*

.$A

-&

.$A

Difficulty: Medium

2+. ,f events A and - are mutually e#clusive) calculate .$

- A

&.

Answer: Mero Difficulty: 1ard

22. ;at is te probability of rolling a si# wit a fair die five times in a row>

Answer: 1=+)++*

1 1 1 1 1 1 1

* * * * * * +++*

_ _ _ _ _ _

, , , , , ,

Difficulty: 1ard

24. ,f a product is made using five individual components) and .$product meets

specifications& ? .42) wat is te probability of an individual component meeting

specifications assuming tat tis probability is te same for all five components>

Answer: .44*5

'

.42

Difficulty: 1ard $A7&

45. ,f .$

- A

& ? .2 and .$-& ? .2) determine te intersection of event A and -.

Answer: .1*

$.2&$.2& ? .1*

Difficulty: Medium

41. ,f .$A

- &? .3 and .$

- A

& ? .4) find .$-&.

Answer: .333

.3

$ & .333

.4

P B

Difficulty: Medium

Use the following information to answer questions &2-('':

Jender

Nob Male $M& !emale $!&

!aculty $!A& 115 15

7alaried staff $77& 35 '5

1ourly staff $17& *5 "5

Employees of a local university ave been classified according to gender and (ob type.

42. ,f an employee is selected at random wat is te probability tat te employee is

male>

Answer: .**+

255

$ & .**+

355

P M

Difficulty: Medium $A7&

43. ,f an employee is selected at random wat is te probability tat te employee is

male and salaried staff>

Answer: 5.15

35

$ & 5.15

355

P M and !!

Difficulty: Medium $A7&

4". ,f an employee is selected at random wat is te probability tat te employee is

female given tat te employee is a salaried member of staff>

Answer: 5.*2'

'5

'

$ & 5.*2'

2

25

P F !!

Difficulty: Medium $A7&

4'. ,f an employee is selected at random wat is te probability tat te employee is

female or wor:s as a member of te faculty>

Answer: 5.+5

155 125 15

$ & 5.+5

355 355 355

P F FA +

Difficulty: Medium $A7&

4*. ,f an employee is selected at random wat is te probability tat te employee is

female or wor:s as an ourly staff member>

Answer: 5.'33

155 155 "5

$ & 5.'33

355 355 355

P F HA +

Difficulty: Medium $A7&

4+. ,f an employee is selected at random wat is te probability tat te employee is a

member of te ourly staff given tat te employee is female>

Answer: 5."5

"5

"

$ & 5."5

15

155

P H! F

Difficulty: Medium $A7&

42. ,f an employee is selected at random wat is te probability tat te employee is a

member of te faculty>

Answer: ."5

125

$ & ."5

355

P FA

Difficulty: Medium $A7&

44. ,s gender and type of (ob mutually e#clusive> E#plain wit probabilities.

Answer: 9o) gender and (ob type is not mutually e#clusive.

255

$ & .**+

355

125

$ & 5."5

355

115

$ & 5

355

P M

P FA

P M FA

Difficulty: Medium $A7&

155. ,s gender and type of (ob statistically independent> E#plain wit probabilities.

Answer:

9o) gender is not independent of type of (ob.

7elect a category of gender $male& and a category of (ob status $faculty&) if te two are

independent of eac oter) tan:

$ & $ &

255

$ & 5.**+

355

115

$ & 5.41*+

125

5.**+ .41*+

P M P M FA

!ince P M

and P M FA

Difficulty: Medium $A7&

Use the following information to answer questions ('(-('):

;or:er H of Dinners .ac:ed H !orgot 9ap:in

Noe 2'H *H

Nan 25H 2H

8eryl 25H 15H

8lay 3'H "H

!our employees wo wor: as driveBtroug attendees at a local fast food restaurant are

being evaluated. As a part of /uality improvement initiative and employee evaluation

tese wor:ers were observed over tree days. Gne of te statistics collected is te

proportion of time employee forgets to include a nap:in in te bag. %elated information is

given in te table) above.

151. ;at is te probability tat 8eryl prepared your dinner and forgot to include a

nap:in>

Answer: 5.52

P(Cher"l

%efer To: 5365*

152. ;at is te probability tat tere is not a nap:in included for a given order>

Answer: 5.5'3

.$9o 9ap:in& ? $.2'&$.5*& F $.25&$.52& F $5.25&$.15& F $.3'&$.5"& ? .5'3

Difficulty: Medium

153. Dou (ust purcased a dinner and found tat tere is no nap:in in your bag) wat is

te probability tat 8eryl as prepared your order>

Answer: 5.3++"

$.2&$.1& .52

$ & 5.3+++"

$.2'&$.5*& $.2&$.52& $.25&$.15& $.3'&$.5"& .5'3

P Cher"l No nap$in

+ + +

Difficulty: 1ard

15". Dou (ust purcased a dinner and found tat tere is no nap:in in your bag) wat is

te probability tat Nan as prepared your order.

Answer: 5.5+'"

$.2&$.52& .55"

$ & 5.5+''

$.2'&$.5*& $.2&$.52& $.25&$.15& $.3'&$.5"& .5'3

P %an No nap$in

+ + +

Difficulty: 1ard

Use the following information to answer questions ('5-((':

Noe is considering pursuing an M-A degree. 1e as applied to two different universities.

Te acceptance rate for applicants wit similar /ualifications is 2'H for @niversity A and

"5H for @niversity -.

15'. ;at is te probability tat Noe will be accepted at bot universities>

Answer: 5.15

$.2'&$."5& ? 5.15 Difficulty: 1ard

15*. ;at is te probability tat Noe will be accepted at @niversity A and re(ected at

@niversity ->

Answer: 5.1'

$.2'&$.*5& ? 5.1' Difficulty: Medium

15+. ;at is te probability tat Noe will not be accepted at eiter university>

Answer: 5."'

$.+'&$.*5& ? 5."' Difficulty: Medium

152. ;at is te probability tat Noe will be accepted at least by one of te two

universities>

Answer: 5.''

1B O$.+'&$.*5&P ? 5.'' Difficulty: Medium

154. ;at is te probability tat Noe will be accepted at one) and only one university>

Answer: 5."'

$.2'&$.*5& F $.+'&$."5& ? 5."' Difficulty: 1ard

115. ,s te acceptance decision at @niversity A independent of te acceptance decision at

@niversity -> 7ow wit probabilities.

Answer:

Des) te two decisions are statistically independent

,f te M-A acceptance decisions are independent at te two universities) tan

.$Accepting at A& ? .$Accepting at A given re(ecting at -&.

$.2'&$.*5& .1'

$ & .2' $ %e & .2'

.*5 .*5

P Accep# a# A P Accep# a# A &ec# a# B

Difficulty: 1ard

Use the following information to answer questions (((-(($:

,n a report on ig scool graduation) it was stated tat 2'H of ig scool students

graduate. 7uppose 3 ig scool students are randomly selected from different scools.

111. ;at is te probability tat all graduate>

Answer: 5.*1"

$2'&$.2'&$.2'& ? 5.*1"

Difficulty: Easy

112. ;at is te probability tat e#actly one of te tree graduate>

Answer: .5'+"

$.2'&$.1'&$.1'&F$.1'&$.2'&$.1'&F$.1'&$.1'&$.2'&? .5'+3+'

Difficulty: 1ard

113. ;at is te probability tat none graduate>

Answer: .553"

$.1'&$.1'&$.1'& ? .5533+'

Difficulty: Easy

Use the following information to answer questions (()-((6:

,t is very common for television series to draw a large audience for special events of for

cliffBanging story lines. 7uppose tat on one of tese occasions) te special sow drew

viewers from 32.2H of all @7 TQ ouseolds. 7uppose tat tree TQ ouseolds are

randomly selected.

11". ;at is te probability tat all tree ouseolds viewed tis special sow>

Answer: .5'*

$.322&$.322&$.322& ? .5''+"

Difficulty: Easy

11'. ;at is te probability tat none of te tree ouseolds viewed tis special sow>

Answer: .23*

$.*12&$.*12&$.*12&?.23*

Difficulty: Easy

11*. ;at is te probability tat e#actly one of te tree ouseolds viewed te special

sow>

Answer: ."32

$.322&$.*12&$.*12&F$.*12&$.322&$.*12&F$.*12&$.*12&$.322&?."3+*

Difficulty: 1ard

Use the following information to answer questions ((#-((&:

A survey is made in a neigborood of 25 voters. *' were Democrats and 1' were

%epublicans. Gf te Democrats) 3' are women) wile ' of te %epublicans are women. ,f

one sub(ect from te group is randomly selected) find te probability:

11+. Te individual is eiter a woman or a Democrat.

Answer: .2+'

.$;

D&

$"5=25& F $*'=25& L $3'=25& ? .2+'

Difficulty: Medium

112. A male %epublican

Answer: .12'

$15=25& ? .12'

Difficulty: Medium

114. A Democrat of a %epublican

Answer: 1.55

Difficulty: Easy

Use the following information to answer questions (2'-(2(:

Gwners are as:ed to evaluate teir e#periences in buying a new car during te past

twelve monts. ;en surveys were analy0ed te owners indicated tey were most

satisfied wit teir e#periences at te following tree dealers $in no particular order&:

7aturn) 1onda) and -uic:.

125. Aist all possible sets of ran:ings for tese tree dealers:

Answer: 17-) -17) 71-) 1-7) -71) 7-1

Difficulty: Easy

121. Assuming tat eac set of ran:ings is e/ually li:ely) wat is te probability tat

$a& Gwners ran:ed 7aturn first>

$b& Gwners ran:ed 7aturn tird>

$c& Gwners ran:ed 7aturn first and 1onda second>

Answer:

$a& 2=*

$b& 2=*

$c& 1=*

Difficulty: Easy

122. ,n a study of cain saw in(uries) '+H involved arms or ands. ,f tree different cain

saw in(ury cases are randomly selected) find te probability tat tey all involved arms or

ands>

Answer: .12'

$.'+&$.'+&$.'+&? .12'

Difficulty: Easy

Use the following information to answer questions (2$-(25:

,n a local survey) 155 citi0ens indicated teir opinions on a revision to a local land use

plan. Gf te *2 favorable responses) tere were "5 males. Gf te 32 unfavorable

responses) tere were 1' males. ,f one citi0en is randomly selected find te probability

123. A female or as an unfavorable opinion

Answer: .*5

.$!

9&

."' F .32 B .23 ? .*5

D 9

M "5 1' *'

! 22 23 "'

*2 32 155

Difficulty: Medium

12". A male as a favorable opinion

Answer: ."5

Difficulty: Easy

12': 1as a favorable opinion or as an unfavorable opinion

Answer: 1.55

Difficulty: Easy

Use the following information to answer questions (26-($'*

+etermine whether the two e,ents are mutuall" e-clusi,e:

12*. A consumer wit an unlisted pone number and a consumer wo does not drive

Answer: 9ot mutually e#clusive

Difficulty: Easy

12+. An unmarried person and a person wit an employed spouse

Answer: Mutually e#clusive

Difficulty: Easy

122. 7omeone born in te @nited 7tates and a @7 citi0en

Answer: 9ot mutually e#clusive

Difficulty: Easy

124. A voter wo favors gun control and a conservative voter

Answer: 9ot mutually e#clusive

Difficulty: Easy

135. A voter wo is a registered Democrat and a voter wo favors a %epublican

candidate

Answer: 9ot mutually e#clusive

Difficulty: Easy

Use the following information to answer questions ($(-($):

,n a recent survey of omes in a ma(or Midwestern city) 15H of te omes ave a fa#

macine and '2H ave a personal computer. 7uppose 41H of te omes wit a fa#

macine also ave a personal computer.

131. ;at percent of omes ave a fa# macine and a personal computer>

Answer: .541 ? 4.1H

Difficulty: 1ard

132. ;at is te probability tat a ome as a fa# macine or a personal computer>

Answer: .'3? '3H

.$.8&F.$!&B.$!

.8&? $.'2&F$.15&B$.54&?.'3

Difficulty: 1ard

133. ;at is te probability tat a ome wit a personal computer as a fa# macine>

Answer: .1+

.$!3.8& ? .$!

Difficulty: 1ard

13". Are te events Rowning a fa# macineS and Rowning a personal computerS

independent> ;y or wy not>

Answer: 9G

.$.83!&

.$.8&

Difficulty: 1ard

13'. A batc of '5 parts contains * defects. ,f two parts are drawn randomly one at a

time witout replacement) wat is te probability tat bot parts are defective>

Answer: .512

$*='5&$'="4&? .512

Difficulty: Medium

13*. A batc of '5 parts contains * defects. ,f two parts are drawn randomly) one at a

time wit replacement) wat is te probability tat bot parts are defective>

Answer: .51"

$*='5&$*='5&? .51"

Difficulty: Medium

13+. ,n te word -@7,9E77) wat is te probability of randomly selecting te letter 7>

Answer: .3+'

3=2? .3+'

Difficulty: Easy

132. 7uppose tat you believe tat te probability you will get a grade of - or better in

,ntroduction to !inance is .*) and te probability tat you will get a grade of - or better in

,ntroduction to Accounting is .'. ,f tese events are independent) wat is te probability

tat you will be a grade of - or better in bot courses>

Answer: .35

$.*&$.'&?.35

Difficulty: Easy $A7&

Use the following information to answer questions ($&-()2:

,n a ma(or Midwestern university) ''H of all undergraduates are female) 2'H belong to a

Jree: organi0ation $fraternity or sorority& and "5H of all males belong to a Jree:

organi0ation.

134. ;at percent of te undergraduates are female and in a Jree: organi0ation>

Answer: +H

!emale Male

Jree: .5+ .12 .2'

9onBJree: ."2 .2+ .+'

.'' ."'

Difficulty: 1ard

1"5. ;at is te probability tat one randomly selected undergraduate will be eiter a

female or belong to a Jree: organi0ation>

Answer: +3H

.$J

Difficulty: 1ard

1"1. ;at is te probability tat an undergraduate is in a Jree: organi0ation given tat

te undergraduate is a female>

Answer: .12+

.$J3!& ? .5+=.'' ? .12+

Difficulty: 1ard

1"2. Are te events Rfemale=not femaleS and Rbelongs to a Jree: organi0ationS

independent>

Answer: 9o

.$J3!&

.$J&

Difficulty: 1ard

Use the following information to answer questions ()$-()6:

At a certain university) 35H of te students ma(or in 0oology. Gf te students ma(oring in

0oology) *5H are males. Gf all te students at te university) +5H are males.

1"3. ;at percentage of te students are males ma(oring in 0oology>

Answer: 12H

Moology

Ma(or

9ot

Moology

Male .12 .'2 .+5

!emale .12 .12 .35

.35 .+5 1.55

Difficulty: 1ard

1"". ;at is te probability tat one randomly selected student is a male or is ma(oring

in 0oology>

Answer: 22H

$.35&F$.+5&B$.12&?.22

Difficulty: 1ard

1"'. ;at proportion of te males are ma(oring in 0oology>

Answer:.2'+

.$M3M& ? .12=.+5? .2'+

Difficulty: 1ard

1"*. Are te events RmaleS and Rma(oring in 0oologyS independent>

Answer: 9o

.$M3M& T.$M&

Difficulty: 1ard

1"+. An advertising campaign is being developed to promote a new boo:store opening in

te newest mall development. To develop an appropriate mailing list it as been decided

to purcase lists of credit card olders from Master8ard and American E#press.

8ombining te lists tey find te following: "5H of te people on te list ave only a

Master8ard and 15H ave only an American E#press card. Anoter 25H old bot

Master8ard and American E#press. !inally) 35H of tose on te list ave neiter card.

7uppose a person on te list is :nown to ave a Master8ard. ;at is te probability tat

person also as an American E#press 8ard>

Answer: .33

.$AE3M8&?.25=.*5?.33

Master8ard 9o Master8ard

American E#press .25 .15 .35

9o American

E#press

."5 .35 .+5

.*5 ."5 1.55

Difficulty: Medium

Use the following information to answer questions ()%B(52:

8onsider a standard dec: of '2 playing cards) a randomly selected card from te dec:)

and te following events: %?red) -?blac:) A?ace) 9?nine) D?diamond and 8?club.

!or eac of te following pair of events) indicated weter te events are mutually

e#clusive

1"2. % and A

Answer: 9o

Difficulty: Easy

1"4. % and 8

Answer: Des

Difficulty: Easy

1'5. A and 9

Answer: Des

Difficulty: Easy

1'1. 9 and 8

Answer: 9o

Difficulty: Easy

1'2. D and 8

Answer: Des

Difficulty: Easy

Use the following information to answer questions (5$-(5):

An automobile insurance company is in te process of reviewing its policies. 8urrently

drivers under te age of 2' ave to pay a premium. Te company is considering

increasing te value of te premium carged to drivers under 2'. According to company

records) 3'H of te insured drivers are under te age of 2'. Te company records also

sow tat 225 of te +55 insured drivers under te age of 2' ad been involved in at least

one automobile accident. Gn te oter and) only 135 of te 1355 insured drivers 2'

years or older ad been involved in at least one automobile accident.

1'3. An accident as (ust been reported. ;at is te probability tat te insured driver is

under te age of 2'>

Answer:

$ 2' & .*23 P Acc <

7tate of 9ature .$7(&

$ &

&

P Acciden# !

$ . &

&

P Acc ! $ .&

&

P ! Acc

71 $under 2'& 5.3' 5."5 5.1" 5.*23

72 $2' or older& 5.*' 5.15 5.5*' 5.31+

1.5 5.25' 1.5

Difficulty: 1ard $A7&

1'". ;at is te probability tat an insured driver of any age will be involved in an

accident>

Answer:

$ & .25' P Acciden#

7tate of 9ature .$7(&

$ &

&

P Acciden# !

$ . &

&

P Acc ! $ .&

&

P ! Acc

71 $under 2'& 5.3' 5."5 5.1" 5.*23

72 $2' or older& 5.*' 5.15 5.5*' 5.31+

1.5 5.25' 1.5

Difficulty: 1ard $A7&

1''. A parmaceutical company manufacturing pregnancy test :its wants to determine

te probability of a woman not being pregnant wen te test results indicate pregnancy. ,t

is estimated tat te probability of pregnancy among potential users of te :it is 15H.

According to te company laboratory test results) 1 out of 155 nonBpregnant women

tested pregnant $false positive&. Gn te oter and) 1 out of 255 pregnant women tested

nonBpregnant $false negative&. A woman as (ust used te pregnancy test :it

manufactured by te company and te results sowed pregnancy. ;at is te probability

tat se is not pregnant>

Answer:

$ & .523 P NP 'P

Aet:

. ? pregnant

9. ? nonBpregnant

T. ? tested pregnant

T9. ? tested nonBpregnant

7tate of 9ature .$7(&

$ &

&

P 'P !

$ &

&

P 'P ! $ &

&

P ! 'P

71 $pregnant& 5.1 5.44' 5.544' 5.41+

72 $not pregnant& 5.4 5.51 5.554 5.523

1.5 5.152' 1.5

Difculty: 1ard

1'*. A parmaceutical company manufacturing pregnancy test :its wants to determine

te probability of a woman actually being pregnant wen te test results indicate tat se

is not pregnant. ,t is estimated tat te probability of pregnancy among potential users of

te :it is 15H. According to te company laboratory test results) 1 out of 155 nonB

pregnant women tested pregnant $false positive&. Gn te oter and) 1 out of 255

pregnant women tested nonBpregnant $false negative&. A woman as (ust used te

pregnancy test :it manufactured by te company and te results sowed tat se is not

pregnant. ;at is te probability tat se is pregnant>

Answer:

$ & .555'* P P N'P

Aet:

. ? pregnant

9. ? nonBpregnant

T. ? tested pregnant

T9. ? tested nonBpregnant

7tate of 9ature .$7(&

$ &

&

P 'NP !

$ &

&

P 'NP ! $ &

&

P ! 'NP

71 $pregnant& 5.1 5.55' 5.555' 5.555'*

72 $not pregnant& 5.4 5.44 5.241 5.444""

1.5 5.241' 1.5

Difficulty: 1ard

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