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THE SAT: A USERS GUIDE

3 2010 Kaplan, Inc.


U
S
E
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S

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U
I
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Review timing and data with students.
Remind students to stay focused on every section of the test and to not worry
about which section is experimental.
Here are some commonly asked student questions:
(1) Why take the SAT? The SAT is a college-admissions test its not about
impressing your high school teachers, or adding more work to your life; its
all about getting you into the college of your choice!
(2) What do my scores show colleges? The SAT is a critical-thinking test.
It tests how well you respond to new questions and information. By doing so,
the SAT helps colleges predict how youll do in college. Unlike Subject Tests
or classroom tests, the SAT rewards logical thinking about new content more
than it rewards background knowledge.
(3) Which SAT scores do colleges see? You to select which scores get sent
and to where they get sent.
(4) Which colleges accept the SAT? In the US, all colleges that accept
the ACT also accept the SAT. For more information, e-mail or make an
appointment with an admissions counselor at the college to get their advice.
(5) How often can I take the SAT? The SAT is offered several times per
year. Youre allowed to take it as many times as you want, but should be sure
your scores will be reported in time to be included in your applications. The
SAT website includes tools to make sure youre on track for application.
3
THE SAT: A USERS GUIDE
THE SAT: What will you see?
Critical
Reading
1
2
4
3
5
6
7
8
9
10
25 minutes
25 minutes
25 minutes
2 Critical Reading
1 Writing
2 Math
1 Unscored
1 Critical Reading
1 Math
25 minutes
25 minutes
20 minutes
20 minutes
25 minutes
25 minutes
10 minutes Writing
Essay
48
Sentence Completions
Reading Comp
Grid-Ins
Multiple Choice
Improving Paragraphs
Identifying Sentence
Errors
Improving Sentences
Math
Writing

19
10
44
18
25

6
Question Type Section Timing On the Test
00a_SAT_TEL_FM.indd 3 6/2/10 5:56 PM
12
KAPLAN SAT COURSE BOOK
2010 Kaplan, Inc.
Instruction
611 min.
Direct Instruction Explain and guide students through Picking Numbers.
Picking Numbers
Most students find it easier to perform calculations with numbers.
Picking Numbers involves substituting concrete values for abstract
variables, and then testing the discovered result by plugging that
value into each answer choice. This turns difficult algebra into easy
arithmetic, and even if students can perform the necessary algebra,
Picking Numbers is typically more efficient. When Picking Numbers,
use language that reinforces testing the answers: We know the answer
should be 7 when x is 5, so plug in 5 to each choice and see which one gives
us 7.
Admissible: the number follows the rules of the question stem
Accessible: the number is small and easy to work with
If the question states that x is a positive even integer, what number
would you pick for x? 2, 4, etc.
Question 1 (italicized steps refer to Kaplan Method, bold steps refer to
strategy steps on lesson page)
Step 1: You must find the answer choice thats always odd
Step 2: You are told a is an integer, and there are variables in the choices
Step 3: Picking Numbers Steps:
Step 1: students should pick small values, like 2 or 3.
Step 2: If students choose 2:
(A) a
2
= 2
2
= 4 Eliminate.
(B) a
2
+ 1 = 2
2
+ 1 = 5 Keep. Ask students, Are we done yet?
(no) Check all answer choices when Picking Numbers.
(C) 2a
2
+ 1 = 2(2
2
) + 1 = 9 Keep.
(D) 3a
2
+ 2 = 3(2
2
) + 2 = 16 Eliminate.
(E) 4a
2
+ 4 = 4(2
2
) + 4 = 20 Eliminate.
Step 3: If students choose 3, plug it into the remaining choices:
(B) a
2
+ 1 = 3
2
+ 1 = 10 Eliminate. Ask students, Are we done
yet? (No have to check answer (C).)
(C) 2a
2
+ 1 = 2(3
2
) + 1 = 19 Keep. Wow the students with your
efficiency!
Step 4: Verify answer choice as correct.
Transition: Lets look at the second strategy: Backsolving.
SAT COURSE BOOK
MATH
12
I. PICKING NUMBERS PointBuilder
Know this about Picking Numbers
Most students find it easier to perform calculations with (circle one): numbers/variables.
When you come across a variable or other unknown, consider Picking Numbers.
Make sure the numbers you pick are permissible and manageable.
Permissible:
Manageable:
If the question states that x is a positive even integer, what number would you pick for x?
1. Which of the following expressions will produce an
odd number for any integer a ?
(A) a
2
(B) a
2
+ 1
(C) 2a
2
+ 1
(D) 3a
2
+ 2
(E) 4a
2
+ 4
Step 1 Pick permissible and manageable numbers to
stand in for unknown values:
a =
Step 2 Plug your numbers into the problem and
solve it.
a. a
2
=
b. a
2
+ 1 =
c. 2a
2
+ 1 =
d. 3a
2
+ 2 =
e. 4a
2
+ 4 =
Step 3 You must try all the answer choices. If more
than one answer choice works, return to Step 1
and pick another number.
a = ______
a. a
2
=
b. a
2
+ 1 =
c. 2a
2
+ 1 =
d. 3a
2
+ 2 =
e. 4a
2
+ 4 =
TOPIC 1: ALGEBRA THE BASICS
13
II. BACKSOLVING PointBuilder
Know this about Backsolving
Like Picking Numbers, Backsolving allows you to plug numbers into the problem but in this case,
the numbers you use are found in the answer choices.
TIP: When the answer choices contain simple integers, you might be able to Backsolve.
For most questions, start Backsolving using the middle answer choice, (C).
If (C) is incorrect, you can usually eliminate two more answer choices simply by determining
whether the value youre looking for must be higher or lower.
In some cases you will start with an answer choice other than (C).
If a question asks for the smallest possible value, start with answer choice .
If a question asks for the largest possible value, start with answer choice .
2. Of the participants at a certain conference,
1
3
are
teachers,
2
1
are principals, and the remaining 12 are
superintendents. Each participant holds only one
position. What is the total number of participants at the
conference?
(A) 36
(B) 48
(C) 60
(D) 72
(E) 76
Step 1 Backsolve, starting with choice (C); that is,
plug (C) into the problem and see if it works.
Step 2 Eliminate and continue as needed. If (C) does
not work, eliminate it; determine whether you
need a higher or lower number, and continue
Backsolving with the next appropriate answer
choice.
01_SAT_MATH_TEL_C1_T1.indd 12 6/2/10 5:02 PM
45
TOPIC 2:
NUMBER PROPERTIES AND DIVISIBILITY 2010 Kaplan, Inc.
T
O
P
I
C

2
Instruction
1520 min.
Direct Instruction Introduce and explain Prime Numbers. Keep in mind
that students who breezed through factors and multiples may have a more
difficult time with primes.
A prime number is an integer that
only has itself and 1 as factors.
Is 1 prime? No, 1 is not considered
prime because it only has one factor,
itself.
The smallest prime number is 2. Its
also the only even prime number
emphatically reinforce that 2
is a great prime when using the
Picking Numbers Strategy, due to its
different properties.
Can primes be negative? No, by
definition, prime numbers can only be
natural numbers. (Direct more curious
students to:
http://primes.utm.edu/notes/faq/
negative_primes.html)
Every positive, nonprime number greater than 1 can be expressed as the
product of two distinct integers. Explain that nonprime numbers are known
as composite numbers.
Introduce and explain the factor tree when working through the
factorization of 36. Students divide the given number into pairs of factors
that multiply to get that number, and continue to break down the branches
until only primes remain:
What is the prime factorization of 36?
36
6 # 6
2 # 3 # 2 # 3 = 36
What are the distinct prime factors
of 36?
2 and 3. In terms of the SAT Math
section, distinct means different.
Explain the reasoning for including all four: multiplying all the prime factors
of a number should result in that number. Be explicit about this distinction;
its a classic trap on Test Day.
Question 4
Step 1: Students should recognize that the question asks for the product
of a and b.
Step 2: Students should know theyre looking for the greatest prime
factors of 42 and 27.
Step 3: Lead students as they factor out 42 and 27 using the factor tree.
42 27
7 # 6 3 # 9
3 # 2 3 # 3
The greatest prime factor of 42 is 7, so a = 7. The GCPF of 27 is 3, so
b = 3. Thus, ab = 21; (D) is correct.
Step 4: Verify that students doublecheck their work before moving on.
Transition: Great job on Number Properties and Divisibility. Time for
Guided Group Work.
SAT COURSE BOOK
MATH
44
B Know this about Multiples on the SAT
A multiple is: What are the first few multiples of 3?
5 is a factor/multiple of 10.
10 is a factor/multiple of 5.
Is every multiple of 8 a multiple of 4?
Is every multiple of 4 a multiple of 8?
Every positive integer is both a factor and a multiple of .
3. How many positive two-digit integers are both
multiples of 8 and divisible by 6?
(A) None
(B) Four
(C) Seven
(D) Fourteen
(E) Twenty-one
Step 1 What is the question?
Step 2 What information am I given?
Step 3 What can I do with the information?
Step 4 Am I finished?
TOPIC 2: NUMBER PROPERTIES AND DIVISIBILITY
45
C Know this about Prime Numbers on the SAT
A prime number is:
The smallest prime number is:
Is 1 prime?
Can primes be negative?
Every positive, nonprime number greater than 1 can be expressed as the product of
What is the prime factorization of 36? What are the distinct prime factors of 36?
4. If a is the greatest prime factor of 42 and b is the
greatest prime factor of 27, what is the value of ab?
(A) 9
(B) 10
(C) 14
(D) 21
(E) 27
Step 1 What is the question?
Step 2 What information am I given?
Step 3 What can I do with the information?
Step 4 Am I finished?
02_SAT_MATH_TEL_C1_T2.indd 45 6/2/10 4:28 PM
202
KAPLAN SAT COURSE BOOK
2010 Kaplan, Inc.
Instruction
1419 min.
Direct Instruction Familiarize students with the potentially confusing
concept of absolute value; explain it as the distance from zero on the number
line. Use question 3 to demonstrate the two equations necessary to solve
for the absolute value of an unknown; the portion inside the absolute value
could have been positive or negative before the absolute value was applied.
Finally, emphasize that Backsolving is frequently helpful with questions
regarding absolute value.
The absolute value of a number is its distance from zero on the number line.
Because distance cannot be negative, absolute value is always either positive
or zero.
The absolute value of both 7 and -7 is 7.
Both 8 and -8 have an absolute value of 8. Both n and -n have an absolute
value of n.
Question 3
This question nicely illustrates the benefit of Backsolving when dealing with
absolute value. Have students check their work by Backsolving. Also, point
out that noticing x 1 0 allows students to initially eliminate (C), (D) and (E)
Step 1: The question asks for the value of x.
Step 2: Elicit, x 1 0 and the absolute value of
4 x
2
-
= 14.
Step 3: Start off by solving for x with 14:
2
4 x - ^ h
= 14
x - 4 = 28
x = 32
As x 1 0, 32 is incorrect. Given that the absolute value of the expression
is 14, try solving for x with -14:
2
4 x - ^ h
= -14
x - 4 = -28
x = -24
Step 4: Choice A is the answer.
Transition: Finally, lets combine Inequalities and Absolute Value with
Number Lines.
SAT COURSE BOOK
MATH
202
III. ABSOLUTE VALUE 30 SmartPoints
Know this about Absolute Value on the SAT
The absolute value of a number is its from zero on the number line.
Because distance cannot be negative, absolute value is always either or .
Number Absolute Value
7
-7
8
n
3. If x 0 and

(x
2
4)

14, what is the value of x ?


(A) 24
(B) 16
(C) 6
(D) 0
(E) 32
Step 1 What is the question?
Step 2 What information am I given?
Step 3 What can I do with the information?
Step 4 Am I finished?
TOPIC 7:
EXPONENTS, INEQUALITIES, ABSOLUTE VALUE, AND NUMBER LINES
203
IV. NUMBER LINES 10 SmartPoints
Know this about Number Lines on the SAT
0 1 z x y 1 w
What happens when these are raised to powers greater than 1?
w becomes 0 becomes y becomes
-1 becomes 1 becomes
x becomes z becomes
V
p
W
0 q
X Y Z
4. On the number line above, each of the letters V, W, X,
Y, and Z corresponds to a different number. Which of
those letters could correspond to the value of q - p?
(A) V
(B) W
(C) X
(D) Y
(E) Z
Step 1 What is the question?
Step 2 What information am I given?
Step 3 What can I do with the information?
Step 4 Am I finished?
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70
KAPLAN SAT COURSE BOOK
2010 Kaplan, Inc.
Instruction
16 min.
Direct Instruction Introduce and explain Percents as the first of several
threepart formulas on the SAT Math section. Emphasize the importance
of attacking Percents questions by writing down the threepart formula
and filling in the appropriate information to solve; this will help alleviate
concerns about oddly worded or complex situations involving Percents.
Percents questions frequently include a subtle complication of the given
task in the final few words of the question stem, so it is essential to reinforce
Step 4 of the Kaplan Method for SAT Math. Note that some students may get
caught up multiplying by 100 in their use of the Percents formula; explain
that students can omit this part of the process if they are more comfortable
simply converting their resulting decimal from the fractional part of the
formula to a percent.
Know This about Percents
75% =
100
75
5
1
# 100% = 20%
10% of 80 = 8
25% =
1
4
= .25
40% =
5
2
= .4
The best number to pick is 100. Its the easiest number to switch from
percentages to decimals. Elicit examples and emphasize how much easier this
will make many abstract percents questions, both initially when finding the
percentage and at the end of the process, when you have to determine the
percentage of the original value. Explain that students need to cultivate an
instinctive reaction: Are they asked for a percentage of an unknown value?
Pick Numbers!
Question 1
Step 1: Ask students, What is the question asking for? to elicit, The
discounted price of the skirt.
Step 2: Elicit from students that you know the original price and
discounted price of the skirt.
Step 3: Set up an equation using the formula above:
25
5 2 20 -
# 100% =
5 2
5
# 100% = 20%, which is answer choice (D).
Step 4: Emphasize the importance of checking work.
Transition: Next, lets review Ratios.
SAT COURSE BOOK
MATH
70
I. PERCENTS 15 SmartPoints
Know this about Percents on the SAT
x% =
x
100
75% =
100
percent =
part
whole
# 100%

1
5
# 100% =
x% of y =
x
100
# y
10% of 80 =
% change =
original
actual change
amount
# 100%
The SAT rewards test takers who can move nimbly among
Percents Fractions Decimals
25%

2
5

Percents questions with unknown original values are perfect for Picking Numbers.
The best number to pick is: . Why?
1. A $25 skirt on sale for $20 is discounted by what
percent?
(A) 10
(B) 15
(C) 18
(D) 20
(E) 25
Step 1 What is the question?
Step 2 What information am I given?
Step 3 What can I do with the information?
Step 4 Am I finished?
TOPIC 3: PERCENTS, RATIOS, AND AVERAGES
71
II. RATIOS 45 SmartPoints
Know this about Ratios on the SAT
The ratio of x to y can be rewritten as or .
If you are given the number of each item, you can
determine the ratio.
If there are 4 lilies and 6 roses in a bouquet, what is
the ratio of lilies to roses?
If you are given a ratio and the actual number of
items that corresponds to one part of the ratio, you
can determine the number of items represented by
the other part, as well as the total items.
The ratio of dogs to cats in a pet store is 2:5 and
there are 10 dogs.
How many cats are in the pet store?
How many total pets are in the pet store?
If you only have a ratio, you cannot find the total
number, but you can find what the total number
must be a multiple of.
At a certain party, the ratio of males to females
is 3:2.
How many people are at the party?
To combine ratios, give them a common term. The ratio of a to b is 3 to 4 and the ratio of b to c is
3 to 5. What is the ratio of a to c ?
a : b : c
3 : 4
3 : 5
:
:
:
A proportion is just two ratios set equal to each
other.
If
a
b
=
d
c
, is
ad = cb ?
c
a
=
d
b
?
b
d
=
a
c
?
a
d
=
b
c
?
2. In a certain string ensemble, the ratio of men to women
is 5:3. If there is a total of 24 people, how many
women are there?
(A) 12
(B) 11
(C) 10
(D) 9
(E) 8
Step 1 What is the question?
Step 2 What information am I given?
Step 3 What can I do with the information?
Step 4 Am I finished?
03_SAT_MATH_TEL_C1_T3.indd 70 6/2/10 5:04 PM
98
KAPLAN SAT COURSE BOOK
2010 Kaplan, Inc.
Instruction
610 min.
Direct Instruction
Introduce Critical Reading and the Kaplan Method for Reading
Comprehension.
Critical Reading Section
Four genres: natural science, literary fiction, social studies, & humanities.
SAT passages are difficult they cover college-level topics, contain
multiple opinions, and are boring.
Unlike fun reading, the purpose for SAT reading is to answer the
questions. To do this well, students must engage with the passage.
Kaplan Method for Reading Comprehension
Step 1: Think about what youre reading and take brief notes on each
paragraph. Focus on the authors purpose rather than details.
Step 2: Clues include line references and phrasing that indicates a
specific question type. Youll introduce question types later.
Step 3: DO NOT look at answer choices first! This leads to choosing
tempting trap answers. Instead, guide students to use the passage and
their Passage Maps to predict answers before looking at answer choices.
Later youll introduce a fourth stepadjusting students approach
based on passage length.
Active Reading/Passage Mapping
Reading actively allows students to stay focused and find answers to
questions quickly.
Active Reading means asking questions as you read. Compare it to
passive reading, e.g., reading Sports Illustrated. Students must ask
questions about why the author is writing.
Point out the capitalized word WHY in the questions.
Keywords relationship words that allow students to follow the
authors logic.
Tone authors general attitude.
Purpose authors reason for writing.
Passage Map brief notes on each paragraph (part of reading, not
another step). It includes the main idea of each paragraph, the authors
opinions, and locations of key details and Keywords. Keep notes concise
and use abbreviations.
Transition: Now that you know the Method, lets apply it to a passage.
SAT COURSE BOOK
CRITICAL READING
98
I. THE KAPLAN METHOD FOR READING COMPREHENSION
A Critical ReadingFinding what matters...
There are 3 Critical Reading sectionstwo 25-minute sections and one 20-minute section. There
will be a total of 48 reading comprehension questions.
The passages span four genres including:

Passages on the SAT can be dense, and evenlets face itboring. What makes reading these
passages different from reading a magazine or your favorite book?

B The Kaplan Method for Reading Comprehension
1. Actively read the passage, taking notes as you go.
Why is more important than what.
Keep straight who said what.
2. Examine the question stem, looking for clues.
3. Predict the answer and select the choice that matches your prediction.
Predict before you peek.
4. Long passages: the passage first.
Short passages: question stem(s) first.
C What is Active Reading and how is it different from passive reading?

As you read, ask questions like these:
WHY did the author write this?
WHY did the author include this word/detail/sentence?
WHAT side is the author taking?
Whats important in a passage?
1. The why or main idea
2. Topic sentence or main idea of each paragraph
3. Keywords relationship words like but, however, like, for example, similarly
4. Opinions try to keep straight who said what
5. Authors tone and purpose
Passage Map collection of brief notes and markings created as you read actively
TIP: Dont just read with your eyes read with your pencil! Take notes as you go and ask questions!
TOPIC 4: READING COMP THE BASICS
99
Directions: Actively read the passage, taking notes as you
go. Read any introductory text in italics, and then begin
tackling the passage, paragraph by paragraph, pencil at the
ready.
For four months in the fall of 1940, citizens of
the Puget Sound area of Washington used one of the
most illustrious, and most dangerous, suspension
bridges ever built. The Tacoma Narrows Bridge, or
Galloping Gertie, enjoyed a relatively short life
compared to similar structures in the United States.
But in its short career, Gertie taught important
lessons on what to doand what not to dowhen
building a suspension bridge.
State officials in Washington saw a need for
a bridge across Puget Sound to connect the city
of Tacoma, on the mainland, with the Olympic
Peninsula on the other side. The closest point was the
Tacoma Narrows, a windy 2,800-foot gap that, at the
time, appeared to be the ideal place for a suspension
bridge. Construction began in November of 1938,
and the bridge was officially opened on July 1, 1940.
Spanning the length of the Narrows, the Tacoma
Narrows Bridge was the third largest span in the
world at the time and was hailed by the public as a
triumph of engineering.
In accordance with the architectural trends of the
period, the Tacoma Narrows Bridge emphasized slim,
streamlined forms and slender structures. The towers
were sleek and tall, and its pencil-thin roadway
appeared to float delicately above the water, hanging
gracefully from the light, airy cables. The engineers
saw a bridge that was light, beautiful, and sturdy, one
that would stand the test of time.
Even during construction, though, the bridge
acquired its ominous nickname. Although they knew
about form and structure, the bridges engineers
failed to take its aerodynamics into account,
particularly the wind gusts of the Narrows and their
effect on the roadway. Because the road bed was
made of solid, stiffening plate girders, it could not
absorb the winds of the Sound. Instead, the road
acted like a giant sail, collecting the force of the
wind gusts. The narrowness of the bridgeit was
only two lanes widemade it extremely flexible.
Therefore, on any windy day, the roadway buckled
and contorted, or gallopedhence, its nickname.
The undulation became so severe that the bridge was
eventually closed to traffic.
Whats important in the first paragraph? Why did the
author write this?
Whats important here? Whats going on?
Whats the main idea?
Line
(5)
(10)
(15)
(20)
(25)
(30)
(35)
(40)
04_SAT_READ_TEL_C2_T4.indd 98 6/2/10 5:10 PM
349
TOPIC 11:
TWO MORE QUESTION TYPES 2010 Kaplan, Inc.
T
O
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I
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1
1
Instruction
15-20 min.
Ask: Since this is a Short passage, what should you do first? Read the question
stem.
After reading the question stem, model Active Reading by reading the
passage aloud. Stop and ask questions such as: What does the authors mother
initially think of America? What does real life mean? How did the authors
mothers opinion change?
Question 4
Step 1: the author would most likely describeStep 2: To infer the authors
attitude, pay attention to Keywords that denote tone. In discussing his
mothers stay in America, which was originally planned as temporary,
the author writes that her two selves have forged an uneasy alliance.
This attitude seems to be unsure or ambivalent, both of which are good
predictions. (D) is correct.
If asked:
(A) Out of Scope; enthusiastic is too positive a word here.
(B) Distortion; his mother had originally intended to return home but
has now become a citizen.
(C) Extreme; disapproving is too negative, and does not capture the
mothers mixed feelings.
(E) Out of Scope; there is nothing that indicates that his mother is
uninformed.
Transition: Now that you know how to effectively answer Inference and
Function questions, spend some time practicing in Guided Group Work.
SAT COURSE BOOK
CRITICAL READING
348
II. INFERENCE QUESTIONS 135 POINTS
Inference Questions
Ask you to... Use phrasing like... Answer them by...
An Inference is NOT .
Tempting wrong answer choices include: .
Directions: Since this is a short passage, read the question
stems first and then read the passage.
The naked mole rat, while not as visually
impressive as the lions, giraffes, and zebras that
also inhabit the East African savannah, has recently
captured the attention of naturalists around the world.
In particular, the tendency of these wrinkled,
mostly hairless rodents to form insect-like colonies
in their extensive underground burrows is unique
among mammals. Much like ants, naked mole
rats establish a division of labor. For example, the
entire reproductive responsibilities of the colony
are relegated to one femalewho is designated the
groups dominant memberand only three or four
male mates; the rest of the colony is assigned specific
chores, such as digging new tunnels or guarding the
burrows entrances.
Line
(5)
(10)
(15)
3. It can be inferred from the paragraph that the author
considers the naked mole rat
(A) more interesting than such animals as giraffes and
zebras
(B) closely related to insects like ants that also form
colonies
(C) a rather unattractive creature
(D) to have an unexpected scientific appeal
(E) one of the most interesting mammals in the world
Step 1 What indicates that this is an Inference
question?
Step 2 Predict before you peek.
Step 3 Select the choice that best matches your
prediction.
TOPIC 11: THREE QUESTION TYPES
349
Directions: Since this is a short passage, read the question
stems first and then read the passage.
When my mother accepted American citizenship last
year, no one was more surprised than she. Like many
Indian women of her generation, she never planned
to stay any great length of time in the United States,
hoping instead to work hard, save, and move back to
start her real life. Even when she met a nice Indian
man at work, from a town no more than 100 kilometers
from her own birthplace, she and my father likely still
saw their American residency as temporary. Now,
though shelike her own motherenjoys a breakfast
cup of chai, my mother pairs it with a frozen bagel
rather than the traditional fried chapati. It would seem
her Indian and American selves have forged an uneasy
alliance.
4. Based on the passage, the author would most likely
describe his mothers attitude toward American
culture as
(A) enthusiastic
(B) unwavering
(C) disapproving
(D) ambivalent
(E) uninformed
Step 1 What indicates that this is an Inference
question?
Step 2 Predict before you peek.
Step 3 Select the choice that best matches your
prediction.
Line
(5)
(10)
11_SAT_READ_TEL_C4_T11.indd 349 6/2/10 5:21 PM
552
KAPLAN SAT COURSE BOOK
2010 Kaplan, Inc.
Instruction
1418 min.
II. Dealing with Difficult Vocabulary
Direct Instruction
There will be tough vocabulary on Test Day! Students shouldnt panic,
but rather try to figure out the meanings of difficult words from prefixes,
suffixes, familiar words, and familiar contexts.
Goal Even with the Kaplan Method, students may find harder SC difficult
due to challenging vocabulary. Reassure them that there are strategies
for dealing with these issues. Emphasize the importance of recognizing
Keywords and Eliminating incorrect answer choices.
Deciphering Tough Words
Roots, Prefixes, Suffixes Context Foreign Language
Ambi (both);
ambidextrous
Ambiguous,
ambivalent
Neo (new)
Dis (not)
Church/prayer, e.g.,
TV-
Beneful dog food
Must be good
extol (praise); sermon
Dormir French
to sleep; dormant
Lagrima Spanish
a tear; lachrymose
Word Charge
Elicit additional responses from students.
Question 8
Step 1: Keywords: Sadly,unscrupulous
Step 2: Predict: Look for words with a negative charge Fool the
audience with his bad evidence.
Step 3: (A) matches: dupe means to deceive and spurious means false.
Transition: Lets look at SC category that will earn you the most points:
Definition on Test Day.
SAT COURSE BOOK
CRITICAL READING
552
II. DEALING WITH DIFFICULT VOCABULARY
Deciphering Tough Words
Roots, Prefixes, and Suffixes Context Foreign Languages
Do any other words have similar
parts?
Where have you heard this word? Have you heard this word in Latin,
German, Spanish, French, Italian,
or Greek class?
Word Chargethe general connotation of a word
Positive Negative Neutral
Resplendent Intransigent Habitual
8. Sadly, the unscrupulous politician tried to ------- the
audience with ------- evidence for his position.
(A) dupe . . spurious
(B) persuade . . incontrovertible
(C) confuse . . cogent
(D) educate . . devious
(E) enthrall . . substantiated
REMEMBER: Word Charge is a great way to narrow
down your choices when confronted with
tough vocab.
Step 1 Read the sentence, looking for clues.
What in this sentence helps define the blank?
Step 2 Predict before you peek.
Step 3 Select the answer choice that most closely
matches your prediction.
TOPIC 16: SENTENCE COMPLETIONS
553
III. DEFINITION 95 Points
Definition comprise roughly half of all sentence completions
In a Definition sentence completion, the blank(s) will
be defined by
.
Keywords and clues that indicate Definition:
9. As a psychologist, James is gifted in the art of -------;
he is able to identify closely with the feelings of the
patients he helps.
(A) reconciliation
(B) candor
(C) timidity
(D) empathy
(E) callousness
10. A rudimentary knowledge of ------- guided the ancient
farmer; by observing the changing positions of the sun
and stars, he was able to anticipate the changing of the
seasons.
(A) botany (B) horticulture (C) agriculture
(D) astronomy (E) astrology
Step 1 Read the sentence, looking for clues.
What, in this sentence, helps define the blank?
Step 2 Predict before you peek.
Step 3 Select the answer choice that most closely
matches your prediction.
16_SAT_READ_TEL_C6_T16.indd 552 6/2/10 5:28 PM
598
KAPLAN SAT COURSE BOOK
2010 Kaplan, Inc.
Instruction
813 min.
Direct Instruction
Work with students to recognize wrong answers, as well as to reinforce the
importance of predicting answers before looking at the answer choices.
First predict the correct answer, and then write incorrect answers for
each question. The purpose is NOT to teach students how to predict
wrong answers, but to teach them to think like the test maker. Students
should include one Correct answer, and one that is Out of Scope, Extreme,
Distortion/Misused Detail, and Opposite.
Question 1
Step 1: The author contrasts Alcotts reputation as a childrens novelist with
her lesser-known works. At the end of the paragraph the reference to the
immense fame of her tamer works. So, celebrated here must mean famous or
renowned.
Question 2
Step 1: The correct answer should focus on the last sentence: it is more
likely that the immense fame of her tamer works [childrens novels] has simply
overshadowed her more lurid works. Step 2: Predict: the author views the
misleading categorization as result of her tremendous popularity of her works
of childrens literature
Question 3
Step 1: Notice lines 1-2 first African-American justice, lines 45 career long
devoted to fighting racial injustice, and lines 89 denied admission toLaw
School. Step 2: Predict: Marshalls appointment was especially fitting because
after a career spent fighting racial barriers, he burst through one of the biggest
of all.
Question 4
Step 1: Point out lines 6-10: Marshalls profound sensitivity to racismhis own
grandfather had been enslavedwas broughtThe setting off of this phrase
within dashes indicates that it exemplifies his sensitivity to racism.
Step 2: Predict: to underscore, or contextualize Marshalls deep concern over
racism
Transition: Great job! Now, lets apply this knowledge to divide and conquer
Paired Passages.
SAT COURSE BOOK
CRITICAL READING
598
Questions 12 are based on the following passage.
While nineteenth-century author Louisa May
Alcott has long been celebrated as a childrens
novelist, a few critics are increasingly focusing on a
number of her lesser-known works that complicate
such a categorization. During a period from the
1840s to the 1860s, Alcott first gained success with
a series of lucrative short stories that were actually
quite lurid. Often featuring hard women driven by
revenge, these melodramatic works are filled with
mercenaries, ghosts, and debauched circumstances.
While the disconnect between these works and
Alcotts reputation can be partially attributed to
her use of a pseudonym, it is more likely that the
immense fame of her tamer works has simply
overshadowed this period.
Questions 34 are based on the following passage.
Thurgood Marshalls appointment as the first
African-American justice on the United States
Supreme Court was not only historic, but also an
especially fitting recognition of a career long
devoted to fighting racial injustice. In particular,
Marshalls profound sensitivity to racismhis own
grandfather had been enslavedwas brought to the
fore in 1930, when he was denied admission to the
University of Maryland Law School specifically
because of his skin color. Although haunted by this
event for years, Marshall did not have to wait long
for a chance at retribution. Three years later, just out
of school, Marshall successfully represented another
black applicant who had been similarly turned away.
1. As used in the passage, celebrated (line 2) most
nearly means
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
(E)
2. The author views the misleading categorization of
Alcott as a childrens novelist to be most likely the
result of
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
(E)
3. According to the passage, Marshalls appointment to
the Supreme Court was especially fitting (line 4)
because
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
(E)
4. The author most likely notes that Marshalls
grandfather had been enslaved in order to
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
(E)
Line
(5)
(10)
(15)
Line
(5)
(10)
TOPIC 17: CRITICAL READING REKAP
599
IV. THE KAPLAN METHOD FOR PAIRED PASSAGES
1.
2.
3.
Questions 58 are based on the following passages.
Passage 1
If the most dire of the widespread global warming
theories is accurate, the polar ice caps should be
receding significantly. Recent studies, however, have
demonstrated that the Arctic ice shelf is not just
maintaining its mass, it is increasing. In addition,
satellite temperature readings, considered by many to
be more reliable than surface temperatures taken by
humans under varying conditions, indicate no global
warming of the lower atmosphere. Nonetheless,
environmental organizations have reported that Arctic
sea ice declined by 14 percent from 1978 to 1998.
A careful review of this research reveals that almost
all of this drop occurred during a period of only one
year, suggesting this temperature change was the
result of an anomaly rather than a growing trend.
Passage 2
Following on the heels of convincing new
evidence that the Arctic ice cap is rapidly melting
some studies, using satellite temperature readings,
mark the decline at 20 percent over the past 20
yearsefforts have begun to pass legislation that
would reduce pollution and curb climate changes
like global warming. Some of the proposed bills
would require the manufacturing sector to restrict
carbon dioxide emissions that, over the years, have
contributed to a layer of pollution scientists believe
traps a substantial portion of the Suns heat. It is
significant that such discussions are taking place in
the United States, which produces an estimated 25
percent of the worlds carbon dioxide pollution.
5. The first sentence of Passage 1 functions primarily to
(A) explain why the ice caps could be affected by
global warming
(B) introduce a theory the author later undermines
(C) state the authors central argument
(D) refute the seriousness of global warming concerns
(E) argue that global warming theories are inaccurate
6. In line 21, curb most nearly means
(A) enclose
(B) raise
(C) control
(D) line with stones
(E) eliminate
7. The authors of both passages agree that
(A) global warming needs to be better controlled
(B) the evidence supporting global warming theories
is questionable
(C) it is important to study a phenomenon over a
period of at least 20 years
(D) the polar ice caps are affected by global
temperature changes
(E) satellite temperature readings are more accurate
than surface readings are
8. The author of Passage 1 argues that the research
indicating the polar ice caps have declined by 20
percent over the past 20 years, cited in Paragraph 2, is
(A) inaccurate
(B) tainted
(C) debatable
(D) misleading
(E) unfortunate
Line
(5)
(10)
(15)
(20)
(25)
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