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All substances that you can think of are either

elements or compounds (a combination of 2 or more


elements).
Make a list of 30 different things in the classroom
and then classify them into either elements or
compounds.
Are there more elements or compounds?
How many elements are known to man at this time?
How many are metal elements?
How many are non-metal elements?
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When atoms or molecules interact chemically,
new substances are formed with new physical
and chemical properties.

These interactions are called chemical bonds.

Mg + O MgO
Elements compound

The new chemical bond is between the Mg & O in
the compound.
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There are 3 main types of chemical bonds:

Covalent bonds
Ionic bonds
Metallic bonds

These are collectively called intra-
molecular bonds (within molecules)
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Covalent Bonding
Mostly between non-metals. Often diatomic
molecules are formed. eg CO
2
, Cl
2
Ionic Bonding
Between metals and non-metals. Positive
and negative ions are formed. eg NaCl
Metallic Bonding
Within metals. eg Na, Cu etc
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The Lewis structures only indicate the valence (outer
energy level) electrons for each atom in the molecule.
It is also called the electron dot system.
Lewis structures do not indicate the valency the
unpaired in the outer energy level.
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In Lewis structures, we show the symbol of the
element, surrounded by the valence electrons for that
particular element represented as dots/and or
crosses.

Two electrons are required to form a bond and atoms
react in order to achieve the stable octet (8) structure
in which the outer energy level of atoms is now full.

Orbitals are full when they contain 2 electrons each.

A lone pair of (both belonging to 1 atom) does not
take part in a chemical reaction, since that orbital is
now full.
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Sometimes it is difficult to see which electrons belong
to which atom. The Lewis structure indicates electrons
in the outer energy levels as dots & crosses.
Here is the Lewis structure for water:
O
X
H
H
Now draw Lewis structures for: Cl
2
, HCl, CO
2
& NH
3
Bonding pair
Lone pair
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Argon has the following electron structure;
Whenever elements
combine they either
gain, share or lose
electrons so that they
achieve the stable octet
structure.
Argon already has this stable octet structure and
this is what makes it so un-reactive. Its outer
energy level is thus full with 8 .
8
-
+
0
E
p

Forces of attraction.
Forces of repulsion.
complete change
E
D
Forming the H2 molecule
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Sometimes, neither of the combining atoms easily
gives up electrons.
This usually happens when there are many
electrons (4 7) in the outer energy levels.
This means that there will need to be a sharing of
1 or more pairs of electrons between the
combining atoms in the molecule.
This sharing of electron pairs enables each atom to
achieve the stable octet structure.
It is called the shared electron pair and, if shared
equally, it is known as the covalent bond.
Covalent bond
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Consider 2 combining fluorine atoms. Each has 7
in the outer energy level. The only way that each
can achieve the octet structure, is for a pair of s
to be shared equally between them:
+
F
Atom
F
Atom
F
2
Molecule
Covalent
bond
Each F atom now shares 1 with the other thus each
has the octet structure. This is a covalent bond holding
the atoms together in the molecule.
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Now discuss & explain the covalent bonding that
occurs in the following molecules:
H
2
Cl
2
O
2
N
2
What is the name given to each of these covalent
bonds?
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Atoms of elements have chemical energy and when
they react with other elements to form a compound,
the compound has less chemical energy than the
reacting elements before reaction i.e. there is generally
a net energy loss.
Sodium reacts with chlorine in a gas jar to form the
compound sodium chloride, according to the following:
2Na + Cl
2
2NaCl
Very reactive Un-reactive
elements with compound with
high energy less energy
Safe to eat
NaCl , but
Na & Cl are
very
poisonous on
their own!
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11
Na
35
17
Cl
+
_
Na has 1 & Cl has 7 in their outer energy levels. In
order to achieve the stable octet (8) structure in
their outer levels, the Na will lose its to the Cl, thus
producing a + and ion respectively.
11 17
10
18
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When the Na
+
& Cl
-
ions are formed, there is a
mutual force of attraction between the oppositely
charged ions. This force of attraction is called an
ionic bond. The ions then form a crystal lattice in
which the Na
+
& Cl
-
alternate, thus forming a
strong crystal.
Each Na
+
& Cl
-
is bonded to 6 other oppositely
charged ions in a 3-dimensional structure as seen
on the next slide.

Forming NaCl
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+ + +
+ +
+ + +
- -
- - -
- -
Coulomb forces (ionic bonds)
between ions.
Na
+

ions
Cl
-
ions
N.B. Cl
-
ions (having gained an ) are larger than the
Na
+
ions (having lost the only in outer energy level).
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Here the Na
+
ions are
represented by the small
purple spheres & the Cl
-
ions
by the larger green spheres.
A different way of
representing the same NaCl
crystal structure. Which are
the Na & Cl ions?
NaCl crystal lattice
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When Mg reacts with O
2
and Al reacts with O
2
,
ionic bonds are formed.
Using what you have just learned about electron
transfer, octet structure and ionic bonding, explain
what happens in these 2 reactions.

(Hint: they do not combine in a ratio of 1 to 1 - as
is the case with NaCl).

Ionic bonds
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Metals lose to form + ions called cations.

Non-metals gain to form negative ions
called anions.

The ions then hold together in the crystal
lattice as a result of electrostatic (also
called Coulomb forces) of attraction.
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Metals have a low electronegativity, while non-
metals have a high electronegativity.

Electronegativity difference enables us to
predict what kind of bond will be formed
between 2 atoms.

Low difference means a covalent bond will be
formed.

A high difference means an ionic bond will be
formed.
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Ionically bonded substances can conduct
electricity when in solution, but covalently
bonded substances do not.
See if solutions of alcohol, table salt, pure water,
tap water, acetone, copper sulphate, sugar and
other solutions will conduct electricity, by
connecting graphite electrodes (in beaker) to a
small light bulb and a 4,5V battery.
Those substances that contain ions will conduct
electricity and means that there are ionic bonds
in the substance. Covalently bonded substances
dont conduct electricity.
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Metals are used to make many substances as a
result of their special properties.
Metals have few in their outer energy levels and
these are only weakly attracted to the nucleus.
They () become dislodged from the nucleus and
form a negative region in which the remaining +
ions are positioned.
This is called metallic bonding and gives rise to the
properties of metals.
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Consider copper wire:
= dislodged
= + Cu ions
+
+
+
+
+
+
+ +
+
+
+ +
+
+
Metallic bonding is set up between the + Cu
ions and the dislodged in the wire.
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Metallic bonding
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The metal ions
are arranged in
an orderly
manner
interspersed
amongst the sea
of delocalised .
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Metallic bonding gives rise to the following
properties of metals:
Metals usually have:
High M.P. & B.P.
Flexibility
Ability to conduct electricity & heat
Strength that enables them to be used to make
large & small machines.
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