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2Inside the atom

1. Copy and complete these sentences. Use the word below to fill the gaps.
Electrons nucleus protons subatomic
Atoms are made from even smaller .................. particles. In the centre is the.................... ,
hich contains the.......................... and neutrons. !he shape of the atom is given by tiny
"articles called ................................, which whi# around the nucleus.
2. $a% Copy and complete this sentence using the correct word from each pair. &ou should
be able to ma'e two correct sentences.
"rotons( electrons have a relatively large( small mass and a negative( positive chare.
$b% hat is the charge on a neutron) $!hin'*%
$c% hich two 'inds of particle are found in the nucleus)
$d% +raw a simple diagram of a section through an atom, showing the nucleus, protons,
neutrons and electrons.
,. !he mass of a proton is too small to measure in grams. Instead the mass is compared to a hydrogen
atom,which is given the value I. Copy and complete the table, showing the relative mass and
charge of the subatomic particles.
-ass Charge
"roton a "ositive
.eutron 1 /
electron 0 c
1. Copy and complete these sentences choosing the correct word from each pair. Atoms of the same
element have the same number of protons( neutrons. !he number of protons( neutrons in an atom is
called its atomic( mass number. !he number of protons plus the numbers of electrons(neutrons
gives the atomic( mass number. As an atom is neutral, the number of negative electrons( neutrons is
always the same as the number of positive protons.
2. 3or each of the following elements, give the atomic number $proton number% and the mass number.
a. 4elium $4e% has 2 protons, 2neutrons and 2 electrons
b. 3luorine $3% has 5 protons, 10 neutrons and 5 electrons
c. Iron $3e% has 26 protons, ,0 neutrons and 26 electrons
d. Uranium $U% has 52 protons, 110 neutrons and 52 electrons
6. Copy and complete the table to show the subatomic particles in these elements.
Element "rotons .eutrons Electrons -ass number
7i a 1 b 8
.a C + 11 2,
9r ,6 E 3 :1
"b g h :2 208
8. Chlorine comes in two forms
18
,2
CI and
18
,8
CI.
a. 4ow do you 'now that they are both the same element)
b. hat is the difference between the two versions, or isotopes, of chlorine)
c. hich element is ; an isotope of) E<plain your answer.
6
12
C
6
11
;
8
11
.
:. a. rite down the atomic number and mass number for the first 10 elements. $Use the periodic
table on page 25.% Calculate the number of neutrons for each of the first 10 elements.
b. "lot a graph of the number of neutrons $on the y= a<is%. +raw a line of best fit.
c. hat is the appro<imate relationship between the number of protons and the number of neutrons
for the first 10 elements)
d. +oes this simple relationship hold for larger atoms such as uranium $
52
2,:
U% and lead $
:2
208
"b%) E<plain your answer.
, Atomic structure
1. Copy and complete these sentences. Use the words below to fill the gaps.
Eight electrons energy shell
!he................................ in an atom are not free to move where they li'e. !hey can only occur in
fi<ed electron .................................................... positions $........................... levels%. !he first shell
can only ta'e two electrons, while the second shell can ta'e up to.............................electrons.
2. -atch these elements to their electron shell diagrams. rite each elements name, number and
electron shell pattern in the following form.
Calcium $
20
10
Ca% 2,:,:,2
A /

C +
neon $
10
20
.e% sodium $
11
2,
.a%
carbon $
6
12
C% lithium $
,
8
7i%
,. Using diagrams li'e the ones in >2, draw the electron positions for boron $2%, o<ygen $:%,
magnesium $12%, argon $1:% and potassium $15%.
1. 7oo' at the electron shell diagrams for atoms of the three unreactive gases helium $2 4e%, neon $10
.e% and argon $1:Ar%.
,
?
10?
,
?
10?
6
?
11?
A / C
a. Copy out the three diagrams and name them.
(
b. hat have the three atoms got in common)
c. A full outer shell gives great stability. hat chemical property does this give to these three
gases)
d. +raw an electron shell diagram for a sodium $atomic number @ 11% ion, .a
?
.
e. +raw an electron shell diagram for a fluorine $atomic number@ 5% ion, 3
=
.
f. hat do you notice about your diagrams for parts d and e) hich unreactive gas are they li'e)
g. Auggest a reason why sodium and fluorine atoms form ions li'e this.
h. hat is the difference between the sodium and fluorine ions)
2. hen chlorine is bubbled through sodium hydro<ide it produces bleach, sodium chloride and
water. !he eBuation for the reaction is as followsC
2.aD4 ? CI2 E .aCID ? .aCI ? 42D
Ateve claims that the mass of the products of this reaction will be greater than the mass of the
reactants. 4e says that there are three products and only two reactants, so they must weigh more.
AFmi disagrees and thin's the mass of the reactants and products will be the same. ho is right,
and why)
1 Aolids, liBuids and gases
1. Copy and complete these sentences. Use the words below to fill the gaps.
Closer gases particles solids sBuashed
Everything is made up of tiny ........................................ in .......................................... and liBuids,
these particles are close together, so solids and liBuids cannot be..................................
In..................................., these particles are far apart. hen you sBuash a gas, you push the
particles......................................together.
2. Copy and complete the table, writing fi<ed or not fi<ed in the missing slots.
Ahape Golume
Aolid A 3i<ed
7iBuid / 3i<ed
gas .ot fi<ed C
,. a. Copy the diagrams, showing how the particles are arranged in solids, liBuids and gases. 7abel
them correctly as solid, liBuid or gas.
A /
C
b. hich is the most ordered arrangement)
c. hich has the biggest gap between the particles)
d. In which are the particles held firmly in place)
e. In which two are the particles free to move)
f. In which are the particles the most free to move)
1. In every substance, it is as if there is a battle going in between forces that hold the particles
together and movement which tries to tear them apart. Copy and complete the following sentences,
choosing the correct ending from below.

a. In a solid .....................................
b. In a liBuid ......................................
c. In a gas ..........................................
Choose endings from
H it is evenly balanced. !he forces still 'eep the particles together, but they can slip and slide over
one another.
H motion has won* !he particles have bro'en free and are whi##ing about at high speed.
H the forces are winning. !he particles can only vibrate in their fi<ed places.
2. Atudents set up the apparatus shown below. !hrough the microscope the pollen grains appear to be
moving about. !his movement was seen for the first time in 1:28 by thr botanist robert brown.
light
pollen grains
in water
a. hat is this movement called)
b. 4ow can it be used to e<plain the movement of particles of matter)
2 'eep them moving
1. a. Iearrange these sentences to e<plain how ice turns to water as it is heated. Copy the sentences
out in the correct order.
H As ice is heated, the particles vibrate faster and faster.
H !he ice melts.
H At D
0
C, the particles are vibrating fast enough to start snapping the force bonds that hold them
together.
H In solid ice, the particles are vibrating about fi<ed positions.
b. hat is the melting point of ice)
c. Aulphur melts at 11,
0
c. +o you thin' the forces between sulphur particles are stronger or
wea'er than those between water particles in ice) E<plain your answer.
2. a. Iearrange these sentences to e<plain how steam turns to water as it cools. Copy the sentences
out in the correct order.
H At or below 100
0
C, the particles stic' together if they collide.
H !he water particles in steam are far apart and moving very fast.
H !he steam condenses.
H If the particles collide they simply bounce apart again.
H Clumps of particles stic' together and collect, forming liBuid water droplets.
H As the steam cools, the particles slow down.
b. Alcohol vapour only condenses if the temperature drops below 88
0
C. +o you thin' the forces
between alcohol particles are stronger or wea'er than those between water particles in steam)
E<plain your answer.
c. E<plain what happens to the particles in water if they are heated to 100
0
C.
,. +r -artin played a nasty tric' on his class. 4e let off a stin' bomb at the front without telling
them. 4e timed how long it too' for different pupils to notice.
Calli "eter /ob
John -ery A#i#
Jill Aha'il
+e#
2m 1m 6m
4ere are his resultsC
Atin'
bomb
John $10 seconds% Aha'il $2, seconds% Calli $16 seconds% A#i# $25 seconds% -eryl $20 seconds %
/ob $,, seconds%
a. 4ow did the K smell particlesK reach the pupils)
b. E<plain briefly how this happens.
c. hy did Lohn notice first)
d. "lot a graph of distance in metres against time in seconds for the smell of travel $estimate
distance from the circles%. +raw a line of best fit.
e. Use this to estimate the K time of arrivalK of the smell to Lill, peter and +e#.
f. 4ow fast did the smell diffuse through the class $in metres per second%) $Apeed M distance(time%
1. a. Copy the diagram that shows how salt dissolves in water. Use the sentences below to label your
diagram.
ater
salt dissolving diffusing
H !he salt and water particles diffuse away, allowing more salt particles to be freed, and so on.
H Aome of the outer salt particles are Lostled free.
Hater particles surround the salt crystal.
b. Is this diffusion faster or slower than in a gas) E<plain your answer.
6 Covalent bonding
1. a. hat is a covalent bond)
b. Using the data sheets on page 60, wor' out the electronic structure of the following non = metals.
3or each one, state how many electrons it would need to hare in a covalent bond.
N D<ygen $D% NN Aulphur $A% NNN fluorine $3% iv Carbon $C%
2. Iepresent the covalent bond in each of the following molecules in three different was.
a. hydrogen chloride
b. o<ygen
c. chlorine
d. methane
,. a. E<plain the characteristic melting and boiling points of covalent substances.
b. -ost covalent substances do not conduct electricity. E<plain why.
1. +raw dot and cross diagrams to show the following.
a. carbon ? o<ygen E carbon dio<ide
b. nitrogen ? hydrogen E ammonia
c. the structure of ethane $C246%.
2. a. Copy the diagram and use the idea of sharing to e<plain how chlorine atoms can Loin together to
form a CI2 molecule.
b. hat is this 'ind of bond called) !he diagram above part b shows Lust the outer electron shells.
!he diagram below is a Kdot and crossK diagram that shows the outer shell electrons from one
atom as KdotsK and from the other as KcrossesK.
OO
Cl O Cl

c. +raw a Kdot and crossK diagram to show how an 32 fluorine molecule could form $atomic
number M 5%.
d. D<ygen is D 2, 6. 4ow many electron pairs will o<ygen need to share to form a covalent D2
molecule)
e. +raw a Kdot and crossK diagram for an D2 molecule.
f. +raw K dot and crossK diagrams for
N ater, 42D $4 M 1, D M :%
NN Ammonia, C4, $. M 8%
NNN -ethane, C41 $C M 6%
Nv Carbon dio<ide, CD2 $!here are only two electrons in the first shell.%
8 ionic bonding
1. Copy and complete these sentences. Use the words below to fill the gaps.
Carbon ions metals molecules
Compounds made from non P metallic elements, such as .................................., hydrogen and
o<ygen, form uncharged particles called......................................... hen............................. 3orm
compounds with non P metals, they form ionic compounds which involve charged particles
called................................ .
2. Copy and complete the sentence choosing the correct word from each pair. &ou should be able to
ma'e two correct sentences.
!he charge on a metallic( non P metallic ion is negative( positive.
,. +ifferent atoms can ma'e different numbers of bonds. !he diagrams show some simple
compounds between meals and non P metals. !he dots and crosses represent the number of
electrons needed or available to transfer to produce stable structures.
a. "otassium $9% has one KspareK electron, while calcium $Ca% has two. Use this idea to wor' out the
formulae of
N"otassium chloride
NN "otassium o<ide
.
a
C
ll
-g
gg
g
C
l
C
l
.
a
.
a
-g
iii Calcium chloride
iv Calcium o<ide.
b. 7ithium chloride has the formula 7iCl. 4ow many spare electrons does lithium have in the outer
shell)
c. 7ead chloride has the formula pbCI2. 4ow many electrons does lead lose here)
d. Aodium bromide is .a/r. 4ow many electrons have been transferred to bromine $/r% here)
Aome metals can vary the number of bonds they ma'e. 3or e<ample, iron can have two, written
as iron $II%.
e. hat are the formulae of
i% iron $II% chloride
ii% iron$III% chloride
iii% copper $I% o<ide
iv% copper $II% o<ide)
1. a. 4ow do the melting and boiling points of covalent and ionic substances differ)
b. E<plain the characteristic melting and boiling points of ionic substances.
2. a. !he electron configuration of sodium can be written as .a 2,:,I. hat part of this tells you that
sodium is a metal)
b. hat must sodium do to form an ion)
c. Chlorine can be written as CI 2,:,8. hat patr of this tells you that chlorine is a non P metal)
d. Iearrange these sentences to e<plain how sodium and chlorine atoms combine to form sodium
chloride. Copy them out in the correct order.
H An ionic bond is formed, ma'ing sodium chloride.
H!he oppositely charged ions are attracted to each other.
H!he chlorine atom accepts the electron.
HIt becomes a negative ion.
H!he sodium atom donates its KlooseK electron becoming a positive ion.
6. !he electron configuration of calcium can be written as Ca 2,:,:,2.
a. 4ow do you 'now that calcium is a metal)
b. hat must it do to form an ion)
c. hat will the charge on the ion be)
d. 4ow many chloride ions could be made using the outer electrons from one calcium atom)
e. 3rom your answer to part d, what must the formula of calcium chloride be)
f. +raw electron shell diagrams to show how calcium chloride could be formed.
:. -etallic bonding and intermolecular forces
1. Copy and complete these sentences. Use the words below to fill the gaps.
Covalent giant high low molecules strong wea'
Although ............................................. bonds are very strong, the forces between covalent
molecules are............................................... /ecause of this, substances with
small ..............................., such as methane or ammonia, have very ..........................................
melting and boiling points. Aome covalent materials, such as diamond or silicon dio<ide,
form ..................................... structures. /ecause every bond in these materials is
a ................................covalent bond, thy are hard solids with ...................................melting and
boiling points.
2. !he diagram shows how the particles are arranged in solid iron and solid lead. !he forces holding
the iron particle together are stronger than the forces holding the lead particles together.
Copy and complete the following sentences, choosing the correct ending from on the right.
a. Aolids li'e iron and lead 'eep their shape because.......................................
b. Iron is harder and stronger than lead because.................................................
c. 7ead is heavier for its si#e than iron because.................................................
Choose endings from
H the forces between the particles in iron are stronger than lead.
H 7ead particles weigh more than iron particles.
H!he particles are held in place by forces.
,. a. 7onic substances are often crystalline. Covalent substances sometimes form crystals as well.
Qive three e<amples of covalent substances which form simple molecular crystals.
b. 4ow do they from these crystal structures)
1. !he diagram shows the arrangement of water molecules in three different states.
a. E<plain why ice $solid water% floats on top of water $liBuid water% in terms of the distance
between water molecules.
b. E<plain what happens to the intermolecular forces between the molecules when water boils, and
when the water vapour cools down below 1000
0
C.
5 Atructures
1. a. hich properties would you e<pect in simple covalent molecular structures)
b. E<plain how the structure of simple molecular compounds e<plains these properties.
2. a. hat are allotropes)
b. +iamond and graphite are allotropes of which element)
c. Qive the two main allotropes of phosphorus.
,. a. +raw and describe the shapes of the following molecules.
i Carbon ii ater iii Ammonia iv -ethane
b. hat affects the shape of covalent molecules li'e these)
1. a. hich type of structure is formed when carbon dio<ide, water, ammonia and methane afre
cooled down)
b. hat is unusual about the element iodine)
c. +escribe he difference between what happens when you heat solid water $ice% and when iodine is
heated.
2. a. E<plain the main differences in the properties of diamond and graphite and e<plain why they are
so different.
b. 4ow do the structures of diamond and graphite affect how they are used)
10 Atructures and bonding
1. E<plain why substances consisting of giant structures usually have high melting and boiling points.
2. 7oo' at the diagram of diamond and graphite.
a. Copy and completeC A is ............................................., / is...................................................
b. hat is the same about these two giant structures, and what is different)
c. E<plain why both diamond and graphite have very high melting points.
d. E<plain why diamond is very hard, but graphite is very soft.
,. Ionic compounds, such as sodium chloride, form giant structures.
a. hich force holds the ions together in sodium chloride)
b. hat properties do these bonds give ionic solids)
c. Ionic substances are made of charged particles. hy do they not conduct electricity when they
are solid)
d. hat are the two ways that the ions can be freed up, so that the ionic material can conduct)
e. e write the formula of the compound sodium chloride as .aCI. +oes such a unit actually
e<ist) E<plain your answer.
1. Copy the diagram of a metallic giant structure.
a. 4ow does this e<plain the hardness and high melting point of most metals)
b. 4ow does it e<plain the fact that solid metals conduct electricity)
c. 4ow does it e<plain the fact that meals can be easily shaped without brea'ing)
2. !he table headings are four different types of structures which you might find in common
materials. Copy the table and complete it to answer these Buestions
Atructure Ionic -olecular -etallic Qiant molecular
-elting and
boiling points
Conduction
when solid
Conduction
when liBuid
E<ample
a. Under each heading, write whether you would e<pect to see high or low melting and boiling
points.
b. rite whether you would e<pect a solid to conduct electricity.
c. rite whether you would e<pect a liBuid to conduct electricity.
d. Qive one e<ample of a substance with each type of structure.
6. a. Copy and complete this table.
Aubstance
-elting point
$
0
C%
/oiling point
$
0
C%
Electrical
conductivity
at room
temperature
Electrical
conductivity
when liBuid
Atructure
>uart#
$silicon
dio<ide%
1610 22,0
Iubidium
fluoride
852 1110
-anganese 1211 1562
b. E<plain the difference in electrical conductivity between the three substances shown in the table.
11 Aeparating mi<tures
1. Copy and complete these sentences. Use the words below to fill the gaps.
Atoms compound different element
All substances are made from
.................................... !here are over 50........................................ 9inds of atom. A substance
made from one 'ind of atom only is called an...................................... A substance made from two
or more different types of atoms Loined together is called a......................................... .
2. !his apparatus can be uses to separate a mi<ture of sand and salt.
a. hat is this process called)
b. rite a set of instructions to show e<actly how this should be done, including a labelled
diagram.
c. !o complete the process, you swill need to remove the salt from the water. E<plain carefully,
using a diagram, e<actly how this would be done and what the process is called.
,. a. hich techniBue would you use to separate two substances in a mi<ture when they both dissolve
in water)
b. E<plain carefully how this techniBue wor's.
1. !his apparatus is used to separate a mi<ture of two substances, such as water and in' dye.
a. hat is the name of this process)
b. hat is the purpose of the thermometer)
c. hat is the purpose of the condenser and why does it have cold water running through it)
2. ChildrenRs sweets are often very brightly coloured. &ou want to show that the blue colouring in a
particular brand of sweets is actually made up of several different dyes.
a. +escribe how you might do this.
b. E<plain how this wor's.
12 3ormulae and eBuations
1. A compoundRs name can tell you which elements have combined. Ao
sulphur dio<ide is a compound made from sulphur and o<ygen atoms. !he
mane dio<ide also tells you that there are two o<ygen atoms present. !his
can be shown in a diagram, or by the chemical formula, AD
2
.
Copy and complete the table of some simple compounds. -atch the name
to its diagram and formula below. $Alternative names have been given
where the common names do not follow the simple rules.%
Compound +iagram 3ormula
4ydrogen chloride a b
Carbon dio<ide c d
Carbon mono<ide e f
Ammonia $nitrogen
trihydride%
g h
ater $dihydrogen
o<ide%
i J
Choose from the following diagrams and formulae.

C D
D
4 4
D C D
. 4
4
4
4
Cl
CD
2
4CI 4
2
D .4
,
CD
2. 3or each of these compounds, write down which elements ma'e up the
compound and how many of each type there are.
a. -ethane, C4
1
$natural gas%
b. Dctane, C
:
4
1:
$in petrol%
c. Qlucose, C
6
4
12
D
6
d. Aulphuric acid, 4
2
AD
1
e. .itric acid, 4.D
,
,. -atch the correct formula to each compound and then copy them out.
a. Calcium carbonate "b/r
2
...............................................................................................................
b. Aodium chloride AI
2
D
,
...........................................................................................................
c. Aluminium o<ide .aCI
............................................................................................................
d. 7ead bromide CaCD
,
.................................................................................................................
1. Carbon and o<ygen $the reactants% combine to give carbon dio<ide $the
product%.
...................................................................................................................
a. +raw a table with two columns labelled KIeactantsK and KproductsK. 3or
each of the following reactions, put the substances in the correct
columns.
A If you burn hydrogen un o<ygen you get water.
/ hen magnesium reacts with sulphuric acid you get magnesium
sulphate and hydrogen.
.........................................................................................................
C Iust is a form of iron o<ide which you get when iron reacts with
o<ygen in the air.
..............................................................................................................
+ If you heat copper carbonate you get copper o<ide and carbon dio<ide.
..............................................................................................................
b. rite out each reaction as a word eBuation, in the form
carbon ? o<ygen E carbon dio<ide.
2. a. !he symbol $aB% means in solution in water $from the latin for water,
which is aBua%. Auggest what $s%, $I% and $g% mean.
................................................................................................................
b. 7oo' at the following balanced chemical eBuations. 3or each, write out
the reaction as a word eBuation.
$i% 2-g$s% ? D
2
$g% E 2-gD$s%
$ii% .a
2
D$s% ?24ClE 2.aCl $aB% ? 4
2
D$l%
$iii% CuD$s% ? 4
2
AD
1
$aB% E CuAD
1
$aB% ? 4
2
D$l%
$iv% 2Al$s% ? 3e
2
D
,
$s% E 23e$l% ? Al
2
D
,
$s%
$v% -g$s% ? 24Cl$aB%E -gCl
2
? 4
2
$g%
$vi% 2.a$s% ? 24
2
D$l% E 2.aD4$aB% ? 4
2
$g%

1, Chemistry by numbers
1. 7oo' at the diagram.
a. rite this out as a balanced chemical eBuation.
b. Copy and complete this sentence, choosing the correct bold word in each case. !he correct
sentence states a fundamental rule of chemistry.
!he colour/ mass/ volume of the reactants is eBual to the colour/ mass/ volume of the products.
c. +raw a diagram similar to the one above for the reaction when copper carbonate brea's down on
heating.
CuCD,$s% E CuD$s% ? CD2$g%
d. rite this reaction out as a word eBuation.
e. 12.1 g of copper carbonate was heated. hen it was reweighed, its mass was only : g. 4ow does
this fit the rule in part b)
f. hat mass of carbon dio<ide must have been formed)
2. Copy and complete these eBuations, adding the missing mass values $in g%.
a. -agnesium ? o<ygen E magnesium o<ide

$2.1 g% $1.6 g% $......... g%
b. Ailver bromide E silver ? bromine
$1.:: g% $1.0: g% $........... g%
c. Aodium ? chlorine E sodium chloride
$.......... g% $8.1 g% $11.8 g%
,. 3or each pair below, write out eBuation i as a word eBuation and write a balanced eBuation for
reaction ii
a. $i% 2.a ? /r2 E 2.a/r

$ii% Aodium reacts with chlorine $Cl% to give sodium chloride
b. $i% 2-g ? D2 E 2-gD
$ii% Calcium $Ca% burns in o<ygen to give calcium o<ide
c. $i% 1.a ? D2 E 2.a2D
$ii% "otassium $9% burns in o<ygen to give potassium o<ide
1. 4ere are some unbalanced eBuations.
$i% rite out each reaction as a word eBuation.
$ii% /alance each chemical eBuation.
a. CaD ? 4Cl E CaCl2 ? 42D
b. 9 ? 42D E 9D4 ? 42
c. CaCD, ? 4Cl E CaCl2 ? 42D ? CD2
d. -g ? 4Cl E -gCl2 ? 42
2. Atoms gain or lose electrons when they form ions. 3or e<ample, an aluminium atom loses three
electrons to form an Al
,?
ion. !his can be written as Al E Al
,?
,e
=
$electrons%. rite similar ionic
eBuations for the following changes.
a. A sodium $.a% atom becoming an .a
?
ion
b. A copper $Cu% atom becoming a Cu
2?
ion
c. A chlorine atom becoming a Cl
=
ion
d. A chlorine molecule $Cl2% becoming two Cl
=
ions
11 Calculating chemicals
Use the data tables on page 60 to help you answer some of these Buestions.
1. Copy and complete these sentences. Use the words below to fill in the gaps.
Compound elements react relative atomic mass
!he atoms of different........................................ all have different masses. Ao that we 'now how
the masses of different atoms compare with each other, we use their.................................... $Ar%.
!hen we can wor' out the relative formula mass $-r% of a ............................., which is very useful
when we are measuring out substances to ..................................... together.
2. a. hat is meant by the relative atomic mass of an element)
b. hat is meant by the term weighted average)
,. !he relative formula mass is found by adding together the relative atomic masses of all the atoms
in a molecule. Calculate the relative formula mass of each of the following substances. 3or
e<ample water, 42D
2 O Ar of hydrogen M 2 O 1 M 2
1 O Ar of o<ygen M 1 O 16 M 16
Ao the -r of water is 2 ? 16 M1:
a. Ammonia, .4,
b. -agnesium chloride, -gCl2
c. Copper sulphate, CuAD1
d. Ethanol, C242D4
1. a. or' out the relative formula mass of these substances.
CD 3e Ca42 "4,
.241 42D2 C4,D4 .2
42CD, .a3 CaD -g32
b. "ut the substances in pairs, where each member of the pair has the same relative formula mass.
12 -ore chemical calculations
Use the data tables on page 60 to help you answer these Buestions.
1. a. Ammonium nitrate, .41.D,? and ammonium phosphate, $.41%2 4"D1 and are both artificial
fertilisers. Calculate the percentage of nitrogen in each fertiliser.
b. 3armer smith found the yield of his cereal crop was lower than usual last year. !he plants
showed symptoms of lac'ing nitrogen. If he used the same amount of each of these two
frtilisers, which would be most effective for improving the crop yield. E<plain your answer.
2. "ure silicon is e<tracted from silicon dio<ide.
a. If the silicon is e<tracted from 210 g of silicon dio<ide, what mass of silicon would you e<pect)
$Ahow all your wor'ing.%
b. In a commercial setting, if ,60 tonnes of silicon dio<ide is processed, what mass of silicon
would you e<pect)
,. a. hat is a mole of any substance)
b. rite down the simple formula you can use to help you calculate the number of moles of a
substance.
c. &ou are as'ed to measure out , moles of .aCl. hat mass of .aCl do you need)
d. &ou are given ,20 g of copper sulphate $CuAD1%. 4ow many moles of copper sulphate are there)
1. Dne mole of an element contains 6.20 O 10
2,
atoms and has the same mass as its relative atomic
weight in grams. 3or e<ample, one mole of o<ygen contains 6.02 O 10
2,
atoms and has a mass of
16 g, whilst one mole of hydrogen contains 6.02 O 10
2,
atoms and has a mass of 1 g. Calculate the
number of atoms in the followingC
a. 2, g of sodium
b. ,22 g of chlorine
c. 6.1 g of sulphur
d. 60 g of magnesium
e. 0.06 g of carbon
2. a. hat is the empirical formula of a compound)
b. hat is the molecular formula of a compound)
c. In a reaction 2.1 g of magnesium were reacted with o<ygen in the air, 1.0 g of magnesium o<ide
was produced. hat is the empirical formula of the product)
16. Calculations using moles
Use the data tables on page 60 to help you answer these Buestions.
1. "atronite is an ore which contains vanadium combined with sulphur as vanadium sulphide. If ,.2:
g of patronite contain 1.02 g of vanadium, what is the empirical formula of patronite)
2. -agnetite is an ore of iron which contains 82.1S by mass of iron, the rest being o<ygen. hat is
the empirical formula of magnetite)
,. e 'now that the mass of a chemical M number of moles present O mass of l mole. "ut another way
number of moles of a chemical M
chemical the of mole l of mass
chemical of mass

Use this eBuation to calculate the number of moles in the following compounds.
a. 62 g of .a2D
b. 22 g of CD2
c. 2.: g of 93
d. ,0 g of -gAD1
e. 6.82 g of CuCl2
1. "owdered aluminium and iron $lll% o<ide react vigorously according to the following eBuationC
Al ? 3e2D, E Al2D, ? 3e
a. /alance this eBuation.
b. In one reaction, 2 moles of aluminium were mi<ed with 2 moles of iron $lll% o<ide. 4ow many
grams of iron metal could be produced using these Buantities of reactants)
2. "hosphoric acid, 4,"D1, is used to ma'e phosphate fertilisers. "hosphoric acid can be made by
boiling phosphorus o<ide, "1D10, with water.
"1D10 ? 42D E 124,"D1
a. balance this eBuation.
b. If 11.2 g of "1D10 were reacted with water how much phosphoric acid was formed $i% in moles
$ii% in grams)
6. Aodium carbonate, .a2CD,, is an important chemical used in many industrial processes. It is made
from salt, using a method called the solvay process. !his has two stepsC
$1% 42D ? .aCl ? .4, ? CD2 E .41Cl ? .a4CD,
$2% 2.a4CD, E .a2CD, ? CD2 ? 42D
a. Iewrite the first eBuation to show the Buantities of all the chemicals which would have to react
to give 2.a4CD, as one of the products.
b. 4ow many moles of sodium carbonate could be made from 100 moles of salt)
c. 4ow many moles of carbon dio<ide are reBuired when 1 moles of salt react to form sodium
carbonate)
d. 4ow many grams of salt would be needed to ma'e ,1.: g of sodium carbonate using the solvay
process)
8. a. hat is meant by the term molar volume)
b. hat is the difference between the molar volume of a gas at room temperature and pressure and
a gas at standard temperature and pressure)
c. At what temperature and pressure are standard conditions measured)
d. Aulphur dio<ide $AD2% is a gas. &ou are given 0.2 moles of the gas at room temperature and
pressure. hat volume will it ta'e up and what mass of gas have you got)
e. Use your answer from part d to calculate the density of sulphur dio<ide.
:. Calculate the volume of hydrogen evolved at stp when e<cess hydrochloric acid is added to 1 g of
#inc.
Tn$s% ? 24Cl$aB% E TnCl2$aB% ? 42$g%

18. -etals, air and water
1. Copy and complete each sentence using the correct ending from below.
a. Copper metal...........................................
b. Qold metal................................................
c. Aodium metal............................................
d. hen a metal reacts with air it....................
e. If a metal reacts with water it.......................
Choose endings from
H reacts very Buic'ly with air.
H tarnishes slowly in air.
H KstealsK the o<ygen from water, leaving hydrogen.
H does not tarnish in air.
H combines with the o<ygen in the air to form an o<ide.
2. 7ead and copper have both been used for water pipes $although lead is on longer used as it is
poisonous%. hy are lead and copper suitable for carrying water, but iron and magnesium are not)
,. Copper is usually used to conduct electricity in wiLres and cables. 4owever, the contacts in certain
switches and in computer eBuipment use gold. E<plain this.
1. "otassium, calcium and #inc all react with o<ygen and with water. !he products of these reactions
are sodium o<ide, calcium o<ide and #inc o<ide for the reactions with o<ygen, and sodium
hydro<ide, calcium hydro<ide and #inc o<ide for the reactions with water. rite word eBuations
for all these reactions.
2. a. E<plain what is meant by the reactivity series.
b. E<plain how a reactivity series is drawn up by observing how different elements react with air,
water and acids.
1:. +isplacement reactions
1. Copy and complete these sentences. Use the words below to fill the gaps. Each word may be used
more than once.
Copper displacement reactivity zinc
hen a more reactive metal is dipped in a solution containing a less reactive metal, a.............
reaction ta'es place. An e<ample of this type of reaction is when a piece of............................ is
dipped in....................................... sulphate solution, where the.................................. from solution.
Atudying these reactions enables us to draw up a......................................... Aeries.
2. Aluminium reacts with iron o<ide in a reaction called the thermite reaction. In this reaction, the
aluminium displaces the iron. !he reaction releases a great deal of energy, leaving the iron liBuid.
a. rite a word eBuation for this reaction.
b. !he reaction is used to weld the ends of rails together when a railway trac' is laid. hat ma'es it
suitable for this purpose)
,. Tinc will displace copper from a solution of copper sulphate, and magnesium will displace #inc
from a solution of #inc sulphate.
a. rite word eBuations for these reactions.
b. rite down a reactivity series for these three metals, putting the most reactive metal first.
1. Aome martian school pupils carried out displacement reactions for the metals scrittiby, splerbity,
snibitty, stobbity, slibbity and blib and their snerbide solutions. !hey collected the results shown in
the table, although they did not finish their investigation, If displacement too' place they showed it
by a U, if it did not, they put a .
a. Copy and complete the table as far as you can.
-etal Aolution
Acrittiby
snerbide
Aplerbity
snerbide
Anibitty
snerbide
Atobbity
snerbide
Alibitty
snerbide
/lib
snerbide
Acrittiby V W U
Aplerbity V U
Anibitty V U
Atobbity U U U V U U
Alibbity W W V
blib W W U V
b. As far as you can, draw up a reactivity series for the metals.
c. hat further investigation$s% would you need to do to produce a complete reactivity series)
2. a. !he chemical formulae for magnesium sulphate, copper sulphate and #inc sulphate are -gAD1,
CuAD1 and TnAD1 respectively. rite balanced chemical eBuations for the displacement
reactions between magnesium, #inc and copper and their solutions. Use the state symbols $aB% to
indicate a solution $-gAD1$aB% for e<ample% and $s% to indicate a solid $Tn$s% for e<ample%.
b. hy are displacement reactions so important in the development of a reactivity series)
6. a. hat does the term o<idation mean)
b. hat does the term reduction mean)
c. hat is meant by a redo< reaction)
8. a. 7oo' at the reactivity series on the data tables on page 60. hich metals do you thin' can be
e<tracted from their ores using carbon)
b. hich type of reactions are these and why)
c. hy isnRt carbon used to e<tract silver, gold and platinum)
:. a. hich of the following reactions are reduction reactions)
$i% CuD ? 42 E Cu ? 42D
$ii% 3e2D, ? ,CD E 23e ? ,CD2
$iii% .aD4 ? 4Cl E .aCl ? 42D
$iv% AnD2 ? 2-g E An ? 2-gD
b. rite down the ionic eBuations for eBuations i and iv.
15 Acids and al'alis
1. Copy and complete each sentence using the correct ending from below.
a. Aubstances which change colour according to whether they are in acid, neutral or al'aline
solutions are...........................................
b. hen a substance dissolves in water it forms a solution which may be....................................
c. !he p4 scale is...............................................................
d. hen non P metal o<ides dissolve in water their solutions are...............................................
e. hen metal o<ides dissolve in water their solutions are...........................................................
Choose endings from
H Acidic, neutral or al'aline.
H Acidic, with a p4 less than 8.
H Called indicators.
H Al'aline, with a p4 greater than 8.
H Used to show how acidic or al'aline a solution is.
2. Choose the correct symbol which is used to indicate a substance that is corrosive to living tissues.
Copy the symbol and label your drawing Kthe symbols used to show that a substance attac's and
destroys living tissues, including eyes and s'in. A substance li'e this is called corrosive. K
,. Copy the scale representing the p4 scale.
-ar' on your scale the appro<imate p4 of
a. Ginegar $a wea' acid%
b. "ure water
c. Caustic soda $a strong al'ali%
d. 4ydrochloric acid $a strong acid%
e. !oothpaste $a wea' al'ali%
f. hat is the difference between a strong acid and a wea' acid) Qive e<amples of both types
which are used in the science laboratory.
1. .ot all indicators change colour at the same p4. !he table shows some indicators, the colour
change which occurs as the p4 increases $the solution becomes more al'aline% and the
appro<imate p4 at which this happens.
Indicator Colour change as p4 increases
Appro<imate p4 at which
change occurs
-ethyl orange Ied E orange 1
7itmus Ied E blue 2
/romothymol blue &ellow E blue 8
"henolphthalein Clear E pin' 5
a. Using your scale from B,, add coloured arrows to show where each indicator changes colour.
b. hich indicator could be used to distinguish a solution which is wea'ly acidic from a solution
which is strongly acidic)
c. hich indicator could be used to distinguish a solution which is wea'ly al'aline from a solution
which is strongly al'aline)
d. hich indicator could be used to distinguish a solution which is wea'ly al'aline from a solution
which is wea'ly acidic)
20 metals and acids
1. Copy and complete these sentences. Use the words below to fill in the gaps.

/ubbles of gas dissolves hydrogen reactive smaller
hen a metal reacts with an acid........................................ are seen. !hese are............................. As
a piece of metal reacts, it gets................................. as it....................................... in the acid. !he
more.............................. the metal, the faster it reacts.
2. Copy and complete each sentence using the correct ending from below.
a. All acids are..............................................
b. hen an acid is dissolved in water it forms...............................................
c. hen an al'ali dissolves in water it forms.................................................
d. hen an acidic solution reacts with an al'aline solution............................
e. An acid reacting with an al'ali is called......................................................
Choose endings from
H 4ydrogen ions, 4
?
H 4ydrogen ions, D4
=
H Aubstances which contain hydrogen.
H.eutralisation.
H 4
?
and D
=
ions combine to form water.
,. hen metals react with an acid, a gas is given off. +escribe carefully the test you would do on a
test tube of this gas to show what is.
1. Qive a definition for
a. an acid
b. a base
c. an al'ali
d. a salt
2. !hree metals A, / and C were each put into some strong acid. !he amount of gas produced in each
tube was measured, and the graphs plotted.
a. hich metal produced hydrogen Buic'est)
b. hich metal produced hydrogen slowest)
c. "ut the three metals in order of reactivity, most reactive first.
d. 4ow would you ma'e sure that this investigation was a fair test)
6. a. Using words and diagrams describe how you would investigate the reaction of the metals
copper, magnesium and #inc with hydrochloric acid $a strong acid% with this eBuipment.
b. Qive word and balanced chemical eBuations for each of these reactions.
21 .eutralisation
1. Copy and complete the following sentences. Use the words below to fill in the gaps.
Indigestion metal neutralisation salt
hen acids and bases react, the reaction is called.......................................... !his can be
summarised as acid ? base E ....................................... ? water. /ases are often............................
compounds such as o<ides, hydro<ides, hydrogen carbonates and carbonates. /ases such as
magnesium hydro<ide are used in medicines to cure...........................................
2. K/icarbonate for bees, vinegar for vaspsK $wasps*% is one way to remember how to treat bee and
wasp stings. hat does this tell you about the p4 of bee and wasp stings)
,. Chal' $calcium carbonate% is sometimes dumped into la'es affected by acid rain.
a. burning fossil fuels produces sulphur dio<ide. hy can this produce acid rain)
b. hy can it e helpful to add chal' to la'es affected by acid rain)
c. hy not use sodium hydro<ide instead of chal')
1. rite word eBuations to describe the products of the following reactions.
a. #inc o<ide ? hydrochloric acid
b. -agnesium ? o<ide ? sulphuric acid
c. Copper carbonate ? nitric acid
d. Aodium carbonate ? ethanoic acid
2. Qive a general eBuation for each of the following reactions. 3or each reaction give an e<ample.
a. A metal o<ide and an acid
b. A metal hydro<ide and an acid
6. Qive word and balanced eBuations for the reactions between an acid and the hydro<ide of an al'ali
metal that would result in the following salts.
a. "otassium sulphate
b. 7ithium chloride
c. Aodium nitrate.
22 Aalt formations
1. +escribe carefully how you would produce a pure sample pf copper sulphate crystals using this
eBuipment
2. Acid salts are salts that contain some hydrogen ions. Dne e<ample of an acid salt is sodium
hydrogen sulphate, .a4AD1 a white powder found in some lavatory cleaners. Aodium hydrogen
sulphate is especially gooLd for cleaning lavatories and basins in hard water areas, where limescale
$calcium and magnesium carbonates% builds up.
a. E<plain why sodium hydrogen sulphate is useful in hard water areas.
b. rite an eBuation to e<plain what happens when sodium hydrogen sulphate is poured onto
limescale. $4intX treat sodium hydrogen sulphate as a mi<ture of sodium sulphate $whLich is not
involved in the reaction% and sulphuric acid.%
c. hy is water needed before sodium hydrogen sulphate can act as a cleaner in this situation)
,. !he diagram shows three pairs of bea'ers. Copy each pair of bea'ers, and draw a third bea'er in
which the contents of the first two bea'ers are mi<ed. +raw lines between the ions that react.
1. a. +escribe an e<perimental procedure for ma'ing the transition metal salt of your choice, using a
metal o<ide or hydro<ide and an acid.
b. Qive one advantage of using insoluble compounds in a reaction li'e this.
c. Qive one disadvantage of using insoluble compounds.
2. a. hich salts are all soluble)
b. hich salts are least soluble)
c. Qive balanced chemical eBuation showing the state of the reacting substances for these
reactions.
$i% Iron $lll% o<ide ? hydrochloric acid
$ii% Copper hydro<ide ? nitric acid
6. Aalts are made using one of four main methods.
a. hat are these methods)
b. 3or each of these methods. Choose a suitable salt and describe in detail how it would be made.
8. rite ionic eBuations for the reactions in >,.
:. hen you ma'e copper sulphate you get copper sulphate solution. If you heat this solution to
dryness, you get a white powder. If you leave the water to evaporate away slowly, you get blur
crystals. !hese two substances are both copper sulphate. E<plain the difference.
2, !itration calculations
Use the data tables on page 60 to help you answer some of these Buestions.
1. E<plain carefully how you would carry out a titration.
2. a. hat is the concentration of a solution when 10 g of sodium hydro<ide are dissolved in water to
ma'e l dm
,
of sodium hydro<ide solution)
b. hat is the concentration of the sodium hydro<ide solution if the 10 g of .aD4 was added to
water to ma'e 200 cm
,
of solution)
,. A student carried out a titration using 22.0 cm
,
sodium hydro<ide solution of un'nown
concentration, which was placed in a conical flas'. !he sodium hydro<ide was e<actly neutralised
by 20.0 cm
,
of 0.20 mol dm
=,
hydrochloric acid added from a burette. hat was the concentration
of the sodium hydro<ide solution)
1. In a titration, 12.0 cm
,
of hydrochloric acid reacted e<actly with 10.0 cm
,
of sodium hydro<ide
solution. !he concentration of the acid was 0.10 mol dm
=,
.
a. rite an eBuation for this reaction.
b. Calculate the number of moles of hydrochloric acid in the acid solution added to the sodium
hydro<ide solution.
c. rite down the number of moles of sodium hydro<ide in the sodium hydro<ide solution.
d. Calculate the concentration of the sodium hydro<ide solution.
2. Ginegar contains ethanoic acid. A 20.0 cm
,
sample of vinegar was titrated against 0.20 - sodium
hydro<ide solution. E<actly 22.0 cm
,
of the sodium hydro<ide solution was needed to neutralise
the ethanoic acid in the vinegar.
a. rite an eBuation for this reaction.
b. Calculate the number of moles of .aD4 in the sodium hydro<ide solution added to the vinegar.
c. rite down the number of moles of ethanoic acid in the vinegar.
d. Calculate the concentration of the ethanoic acid in the vinegar.
6. A sample of water ta'en from a la'e was found to contain sulphuric acid. A student carried out a
titration to find the concentration of the sulphuric acid in the sample. 22.0 cm
,
of the sulphuric acid
was neutralised e<actly by ,1.0 cm
,
of a potassium hydro<ide solution of concentration 0.2 mol
dm
=,
. !he eBuation for the reaction is
29D4$aB% ? 42AD1$aB% E 92AD1$aB% ? 242D$l%
a. +escribe the e<perimental procedure which would be used for this titration.
b. Calculate the number of moles of potassium hydro<ide used.
c. Calculate the concentration of the sulphuric acid in mol dm
=,
.
8. 2.2 g of washing soda $sodium carbonate% was dissolved in water in a conical flas'. !hrough
titration it was found that e<actly 18.2 cm
,
of hydrochloric acid with a concentration of 1.0 mol dm
=
,
.
a. Auggest an indicator which could have been used in the titration.
b. rite a balanced eBuation for the reaction between hydrochloric acid and sodium carbonate.
c. Calculate the number of moles of hydrochloric acid which reacted with the sodium carbonate in
the flas'.
d. 4ow many moles of sodium carbonate was this eBuivalent to)
e. hat mass of sodium carbonate was this)
f. hat mass of the water softener in the conical flas' was water)
g. 4ow many moles of water was this)
h. !he formula of sodium carbonate can be written as .a2CD,<42D.
Use your answers to parts d and g to calculate a value for <.
21 Iates of reaction
1. Copy the table and complete it to show which of the chemical reactions are fast and some which
are slow.
Rusting of metal oil forming fireworks going off an explosion silver tarnishing coal burning
Alow reactions 3ast reactions
2. !he diagram shows a comical flas' containing hydrochloric acid on a top pan balance. !homas
drops a strip of magnesium ribbon into the acid. It fi##es, and eventually dissolves. !homas notices
that the reading on the balance has decreased.
a. hy did the reading on the balance decrease)
b. As well as the reading on the balance, what else would !homas need to record in order to
measure the rate of this chemical reaction)
c. hen magnesium reacts with hydrochloric acid it is a vigorous, fi##ing, spitting reaction. !he
decrease in the reading on the balance was very small. hy is it a good idea to include a cotton
wool bung in the nec' of the flas' when carrying out this e<periment)
,. !he graph shows the rate at which the mass of a flas' containing calcium carbonate and
hydrochloric acid decreases as the reaction progresses.
a. Auggest why the reaction mi<ture loses mass as the reaction goes on.
b. E<plain the shape of the graph in the areas mar'ed A, /, and C
1. inston, -ona and Aherena carried out an e<periment in which they added a piece of magnesium
ribbon to hydrochloric acid in a flas' on a top pan balance. !hey timed the loss of mass as the
reaction too' place and recorded their results in the table above.
!ime$s% -ass of flas' ? contents $g% !otal loss of mass $g%
0 180.00 0.00
10 165.56 0.01
20 165.52 0.0:
,0 165.:: 0.12
10 165.:2 0.12
20 165.:, 0.18
60 165.:2 0.1:
80 165.:1 0.15
:0 165.:0 0.20
100 165.:0 0.20
a. "lot a line graph of these results.
b. hat was the total mass of hydrogen produced in this reaction)
c. 4ow long did it ta'e for this hydrogen to be formed)
d. Use your answers to parts s and c to help you wor' out the average rate of the reaction in g( min.
22 hat affects chemical reactions)
1. Copy and complete these sentences. Use the words below to fill the gaps
area concentration double pressure smaller
!he rate of a chemical reaction involving a solid can be increased by ma'ing the
surface.................................... of the solid bigger. !his can be done by using...............................
lumps of the solid. If a reaction involves a solution, increasing the.................................. of the
solution will increase the rate of reaction. hen gases react together, the rate of reaction can be
increased by increasing the..................................... !emperature also affects the rate of a chemical
reaction P a 10
0
C increase in temperature will roughly...................................... the rate of a
reaction.
2. E<plain the following.
a. Amall stic's catch fire much more Buic'ly than a big log.
b. 3ood 'eeps longer in a free#er than in a refrigerator.
c. A splint burns steadily in air, but flares up when put into a gas Lar of o<ygen.
d. Advertisers claim that a soluble pain'iller acts more Buic'ly than one ta'en as a tablet.
,. Qreat care must be ta'en in sawmills where wood is sawn into plan's, since e<plosions happen
easily if there is a spar' or a flame. Use the following statements to help you e<plain this. rite
your answer as complete sentences.
H !iny particles of sawdust spread out through the air.
H An e<plosion is really Lust a very rapid burning reaction.
H Aawing wood produces tiny particles of sawdust.
H ood needs to be heated before it will start to burn.
H !he smaller the pieces of solid in a reaction, the faster the reaction.
H ood burns in air.
1. Aodium thiosulphate reacts with hydrochloric acid, producing a precipitate of sulphur which ma'es
the reacting mi<ture go cloudy. !he following table shows how long it ta'es for a cross mar'ed on
a piece of paper under the flas' to become invisible. !he same concentration of reactants was used
in each case.
!emperature $
0
C% !ime for cross to become invisible $s%
12 200
22 100
,2 20
12 22
22 12.2
a. "lot a graph of these results.
b. hat does your graph show about the effect of temperature on the time it ta'es for the cross to
disappear)
c. hat does this tell us about the effect of temperature on the rate of the reaction)
d. hy does temperature have this effect on the rate of a reaction)
2. E<plain carefully how the following factors affect the rate of reactions. Use a 'inetic model of
chemical reactions in your e<planations.
a. particle si#e
b. concentration
c. temperature
26 Catalysts and en#ymes
1. Copy and complete each sentence using the correct ending from below.
a. An en#yme is.......................................
b. !he activation energy is..............................................
c. A catalyst is............................................................
d. Chemical reactions can only happen when......................................
e. Concentration, surface area and temperature can all affect..................................
Choose endings from
H !he minimum amount of energy particles must have to react.
H !he rate of a chemical reaction.
H Ieacting particle collide with one another.
H A substance that can speed up the rate of a chemical reaction.
H A biological catalyst.
2. Copy and complete these sentences, using the words below to fill in the gaps.
Affected enzymes faster lower metals rate
Catalysts increase the...................................... of a chemical reaction without altering anything
else. !hey can be used to ma'e a reaction go................................................... or they can be used to
ma'e a reaction happen at a ............................................. temperature. !hey are
not....................................... themselves and can be used time after time. Catalysts are
often................................... . In living cells special biological catalysts called................................
Control all the chemical reactions which go on.
,. 7oo' at the diagram that shows some metal catalysts used in a chemical reaction. E<plain why the
pieces of catalyst have holes in them, using your 'nowledge about things that affect the rate of
chemical reactions.
1. !he graph shows the rate of a chemical reaction which can be catalysed by three different
en#ymes. !he en#ymes come from three different living things P one is a bacterium which lives in
hot springs, another is a mammal, and the third is a fish which lives in arctic waters.
a. Copy the graph and label it clearly to show which en#yme comes from which living thing.
b. Each line showing en#yme activity has a very similar shape. E<plain what the shape tells us
about how en#ymes wor'.
28 Activation energy
1. E<plain why
a. a lower activation energy means a chemical reaction goes faster.
b. a higher activation energy means a chemical reaction goes slower.
2. a. copy and complete the energy diagrams, using these labels. &ou may use each label more than
once.
Ieactants energy products activation energy $without catalyst% activation energy $without
catalyst% course of reaction
b. Use your labelled diagrams to e<plain how a catalyst speeds up a chemical reaction.
,. Catalysts speed up the rate of chemical reactions without being changed themselves. !hey are
often found as very small beads or pellets with holes in them. Use your 'nowledge of chemical
reactions and what affects the rate of those reactions to answer these Buestions.
a. 4ow do catalysts increase the rate of chemical reactions)
b. hy are catalysts usually found as tiny beads or pellets with holes in them)
2: Energy changes in reactions
1. Copy and complete each sentence using the correct ending from below.
a. Chemists describe chemical reactions..................................................
b. Chemical reactions need energy to be supplied..........................................
c. Energy can be supplied in the form of heat or electricity...................................................
Choose endings from
H !o ma'e chemical reactions happen.
H Using eBuations.
H /efore they will happen.
2. In an e<othermic reaction energy is Kgiven outK or transferred, to the surroundings. In an
endothermic reaction energy is K ta'en inK from the surroundings.
a. +oes graph A show an endothermic or an e<othermic reaction) 4ow do you 'now)
b. +oes graph / show an endothermic or an e<othermic reaction) 4ow do you 'now)
c. hich of the following chemical changes are e<othermic and which are endothermic)
$i% a candle burning
$ii% Ammonium chloride dissolving, producing a decrease in temperature
$iii% +ynamite e<ploding
$iv% Iespiration
$v% "hotosynthesis
,. Aherbet is a mi<ture of sugar and a chemical called sodium hydrogen carbonate. A pupil has an
idea that the feeling of K fi##inessK when you put sherbet in your mouth is caused by an e<othermic
reaction. +esign an e<periment that the pupil could do to test this idea.
1. +ynamite is an e<plosive which contains atoms of the elements carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen and
o<ygen. hen it e<plodes, it produces nitrogen gas, carbon dio<ide gas, water $as steam% and
o<ygen.
a. rite a word eBuation for the e<plosion of dynamite.
!he person in the diagram is pushing down the plunger of a detonator. !his sends an electric
current a along two wires, which sets off a small e<plosive charge. !his detonates the dynamite
that blows up the building.
b. hy must the dynamite be detonated before it will e<plode)
c. Auggest another way of detonating dynamite.
d. hy is e<ploding dynamite so destructive)
2. hen an acidic solution and an al'aline solution neutralise each other, a good deal of energy is
released.
a. hat effect does this energy have on the two solutions being mi<ed)
b. +esign a simple e<periment to demonstrate to some younger pupils that neutralisation reactions
are e<othermic $release energy%. Use words and diagrams to e<plain your ideas.
25 Calculating energy changes
Use the data table of bond energies on page 60 to help you answer some of these Buestions.
1. a. In any chemical reaction energy must be supplied in order to ma'e a chemiLcal reaction happen.
hat is this energy needed for)
b. +uring a chemical reaction energy is released. hat is happening as this energy is released)
c. hat is happening to the balance of these energy changes in
$i% An e<othermic reaction
$ii% An endothermic reaction)
2. hen william and tanya heat chemical A it decomposes to form chemical /. !hey then react
chemical / with chemical C to form chemical +. !he table below gives some information about
the energy changes in these chemical reactions.
Chemical reaction
Energy reBuired for
bond brea'ing
$'L(mol%
Energy released in
bond ma'ing $'L(mol%
.et energy transfer
for reaction
A E / ,20 200
/ ? C E + 120 82
a. Copy and complete the table.
b. hat is the overall net energy transfer when chemical A produces chemical + in these two
reactions)
,. a. Copy and complete the table to show whether the chemical reactions are e<othermic or
endothermic.
Chemical reaction Y 4 $'L(mol% E<othermic or endothermic
Ethanol ? o<ygen Ecarbon
dio<ide ? water
= 1,68
D<ygen E o#one ?1,
.itrogen ? hydrogen E
hydra#ine $roc'et fuel%
?21
-agnesium ? chlorine E
magnesium chloride
= 611
b. !he reaction of o<ygen to o#one happens in the upper atmosphere and needs sunlight. hy)
c. 4ere is an energy level diagram for the reaction between ethanol and o<ygen. +raw an energy
diagram for each of the three remaining reactions.
1. A'etch energy level diagrams for the following reactions.
a. 6CD2 ? 642D E C6 412D6 ? 6D2 Y4 M ? 2::0'L mol
=1
b. C ? D2 E CD2 Y4 M =,51'L mol
=1
c. 42 ? l2 E 24l Y4 M ?2,'L mol
=1
d. C2412 ?:D2 E 2CD2 ? 642D Y4 M ,200'L mol
=1
2. hen hydrogen and chlorine react together they form hydrogen chloride.
a. hat are the energy changes for this reaction)
b. Atate whether the reaction is endothermic or e<othermic.

6. a. hat is meant by the term Kbond energyK)
b. hat is the difference between the bond energy for ma'ing and brea'ing bonds, and how do we
indicate this difference)
8. rite balanced eBuations and then wor' out the net energy transfer for the following reactions. 3or
each one state whether it is endothermic or e<othermic.
a. 4ydrogen ? bromine E hydrogen bromide
b. Carbon ? hydrogen E methane
c. Carbon mono<ide ? o<ygen E carbon dio<ide
d. .itrogen ? hydrogen E ammonia
,0 Industrial chemistry
1. Copy and complete each sentence using the correct ending from below. !hen arrange the sentences
in the correct order to describe the production of ammonia.
a. !he main ingredient of any nitrate fertiliser is........................................................
b. Ammonia..................................................................
c. !he raw ingredients of the haber process needs...................................................
d. !he nitrogen comes from the air.........................................................................
e. .itrogen is unreactive so the haber process needs..............................................
f. !he process also uses a moderately high............................................................
Choose endings from
H An iron catalyst.
H !emperature and pressure.
H And the hydrogen comes from methane.
H Is made by the haber process.
H Ammonia.
H .itrogen and hydrogen.
2. Copy the diagram of the haber process. Use the labels below in place of A P 3 on your diagram.
200 120 condenser hydrogen and nitrogen iron liBuid ammonia
,. a. hat is the formula of sulphuric acid)
b. hy is sulphuric acid such an important industrial product) "roduce a flow chart summarising
the different stages in the production of sulphuric acid.
1. At about 28
0
C and a high pressure the yield of sulphuric acid in the contact process would be
almost 100S. E<plain why these are not the operating canditions usually chosen when ma'ing
sulphuric acid on an industrial scale.
2. !he graph shows how temperature and pressure in the haber process affects the yield of ammonia.
a. hat is the yield of ammonia at ,00
0
C and at
$i% 10 atm pressure
$ii% 100 atm pressure
$iii% 1000 atm pressure)
b. hich conditions seem to give the best yield of ammonia)
c. hy are these not the normal operating conditions for the haber process in industry)
d. hat is the S yield of ammonia li'ely to be at the normal operating conditions of 120 0C and
200 atm and why are these conditions used)
,1!he best conditions
1. Chemical plants have to ma'e a profit, so the reactions need to run as Buic'ly and efficiently as
possible. Complete this table to give four factors which affect the rates of reactions along with an
e<planation of how the effect wor's.
3actor affecting rate of reaction 4ow it wor's
2. a. rite a balanced chemical eBuation to describe the eBuilibrium that occurs when nitrogen and
hydrogen react to produce ammonia.
b. 4ow many moles of gas are there on the left P hand side of the eBuilibrium)
c. 4ow many moles of gas are there on the right P hand side of the eBuilibrium)
d. +oes an increase in pressure increase or decrease the yield of products on the right P hand side
of the eBuation)
e. !he usual operating pressure for the commercial production of ammonia is about 200 atm. hy
this has been chosen rather than a higher or lower pressure)
,. /loggs and son are setting up a business to ma'e chemical T. Chemical T is made when chemical
; decomposes in the following reaction ; & ? T
a. hat does the sign tell you about the reaction)
b. If the reaction is allowed to ta'e place in a closed vessel, eBuilibrium is reached. hat does this
mean)
c. -r bloggs wants to ma'e sure that he gets lots of chemical T, and does not want the reaction to
go into reverse and ma'e chemical ; again. hat can he do to ma'e sure that he gets as much T
as possible)
1. !he diagram top right shows some apparatus that can be used to decompose ammonia into
unreactive nitrogen and inflammable hydrogen.
a. hat is the purpose of the iron wool)
b. -ost of the ammonia decomposes.
c. Auggest one simple chemical test to detect undecomposed ammonia in the stream of gases at A.
d. 4ow could hdrogen be removed from the mi<ture of gases leaving A)
2. hat is the main difference between a reversible reaction and an ordinary reaction) Compare the
reaction between iodine monochloride and chlorine with the reaction between hydrogen and
chlorine to help with your e<planation.
6. In a reversible reaction, if the reaction in one direction is e<othermic, the reaction in the opposite
direction will be endothermic. Using ideas of energy and chemical bonds, e<plain why the amount
of energy transferred is always e<actly the same in each direction.
8. a. hat is meant by a closed system)
b. In a closed system reversible reactions reach a dynamic eBuilibrium. hat does this mean)
:. 4enri le chatelier said KIf the conditions of a reversible reaction are changed, the position of the
eBuilibrium will shift to oppose that changeX e<plain the effect of the following in terms of this
statement.
a. !emperature on the products of an e<othermic reaction.
b. Increased pressure on the products of the haber process.
c. !emperature on the products of an endothermic reaction.
,2 Electrolysis
1. Copy and complete these sentences Use the words below to fill in the gaps.
ConductorsR current electrolysis electrolytes
Electrical energy is carried by an electric..................................................... . -etals are
good ............................................................... of electricity. Electricity can also flow through
solutions called............................................ . Unli'e metals, these are chemically changed when
they conduct electricity. !his process is called...............................................
2. a. Copy and complete the diagram to show a solution being electrolysed. Use the labels below on
your diagram.
? = battery anode $positive% cathode $negative% solution
b. If this solution was water $42D%, what would be produced
$i% at the anode
$ii% at the cathode)
,. -atch the name of the atom with the symbol for its ion.
/romine D
2=
calcium "b
2?
Ca
2?
o<ygen hydrogen Cu
2?
Cl
=
copper /r
=
chlorine
Tn
2?
lead #inc 4
?
1. Copy and complete the table to show what is formed when the solutions are electrolysed.
Aolution Cathode Anode
Copper chloride
Tinc bromide
4ydrochloric acid
2. +raw up a table to show which of these ions would move towards the anode and which towards the
cathode during electrolysis. $Use the data table on page 60 to help you.%
Aodium iodide #inc iron o<ide aluminium chloride fluoride silver.
6. Copper can be purified by electrolytic refining, in which copper is removed from an impure anode,
and is deposited on a pure copper cathode. !he half P eBuation for the reaction at the anode is
Cu$s% E Cu
2?
$aB% ? 2e
=
a. rite down the half P eBuation for the reaction at the cathode.
b. 4ow do the electrons get from the anode to the cathode)
c. Dne mole of electrons travels from the anode to the cathode. hat mass of copper is deposited
on the cathode) $!he relative atomic mass of copper is 61.%
,, -ore electrolysis
1. !hree important industrial chemicals can be made by electrolysing brine $sodium chloride
solution%. Copy the diagram of the electrolysis of brine.
a. Use these labels in place of A P + on your diagram.
H "ositive sodium and hydrogen ions are attracted to the negative electrode P hydrogen gas
forms.
H .egative chlorine ions are attracted to the positive electrode P chlorine gas is formed.
H Aodium chloride ionises when it dissolves in water.
H Aodium hydro<ide is left in solution.
b. Qive the half eBuations to show what happens at the two electrodes during the electrolysis of
brine.
c. hat provides the energy needed to tear sodium chloride apart in this way)
d. +raw up a table to show the main uses of hydrogen, chlorine and sodium hydro<ide.
2. a. E<plain how the apparatus shown top right can be used to demonstrate that ions move during
electrolysis.
b. Auggest another way in which you can demonstrate the movement of ions to the electrodes in
electrolysis. +raw a diagram to help your e<planation.
,. Dnce tin has been e<tracted from its ore it is still contaminated by trace elements and needs to be
purified further before it can be used to plate steel cans to ma'e KtinK cans. Using your 'nowledge
of the purification of copper, e<plain with a diagram how the tin might be purified.
1. a. +raw a simple diagram of the electrolysis of molten lead bromide, showing what happens at the
anode and the cathode.
b. Qive the half eBuations for the reactions at the anode and the cathode.
c. hy are the reactions at the anode and the cathode 'nown as o<idation and reduction reactions
respectively)
2. !he diagram shows the electrolysis of copper chloride.
a. .ame the parts labelled A, /, C, + and E.
b. E<plain in words what is happening at the two electrodes.
c. Qive one industrial use of this type of electrolysis.
,1 Electrolysis calculations
Use the data tables on page 60 to help you answer these Buestions.
1. hen liBuid sodium chloride is electrolysed, the half P eBuations areC
.a
?
$l% ? e
=
E .a$l%
Cl
=
$l% E Cl2 $g% ? e
=
a. Copy these half eBuations and balance them so they involve the same number of electrons.$2%
b. If an electrolysis cell produces 12.2 g of sodium metal, how many grams of chlorine gas will be
produced) $,%
2. A solution of copper bromide is electrolysed. After passing electricity through the solution, it is
found that 2.0: g of copper and 12.: g of bromine have been produced.
a. Calculate the empirical formula of capper bromide. $1%
b. rite the symbols for a copper ion and a bromide ion. $2%
c. rite half eBuations for the reactions going on at the cathode and anode. $2%
,. a. hat is a faraday) $2%
b. hat is a coulomb) $2%
c. 4ow many coulombs in a faraday) $1%
1. Complete and balance the following half eBuations for reactions at electrodes during electrolysis.
a. Cl
=
= e
=
E Cl2 $,%
b. Cu
2?
? .... E Cu
c. D
2=
= e
=
E D2
2. a. rite the half eBuations for the electrolysis of aluminium o<ide. $,%
b. In the electrolysis of aluminium o<ide, 21 g of molten aluminium is collected at the cathode.
hat volume of o<ygen would you e<pect to be given off at the anode) $1%
6. Electrolysis can be used to coat one metal with another. 3or e<ample, if a for' is used as the
cathode with a pure silver anode and the electrolyte contains silver ions $e. g. silver nitrate
solution% silver is plated onto the for'.
a. "roduce a diagram to show what is happening during the silver plating of a for'. $2%
b. Qive half eBuations for the events at the electrodes when an obLect is silver plated. $,%
8. 4alf eBuations for the electrolysis of copper bromide solutions areC
CathodeC Cu
2?
$aB% ? 2e
=
E Cu $s%
AnodeC 2/r
=
$aB% P 2e
=
E /r2 $aB%
Use the two half eBuations to help you calculate the following. 16 g of bromine are produced at the
anode when a solution of copper bromide is being electrolysed. 4ow much copper is produced at
the cathode)
:. +uring the production of aluminium, the two half eBuations involved areC
CathodeC 1Al
,?
$l% ? 12e
=
E 1Al$l%
AnodeC 6D
2=
$l% P 12e
=
E ,D2 $g%
2.1 'g of aluminium is formed. hat mass of o<ygen would you e<pect to collect)
5. 0.0, faraday of electricity are passed through sodium hydro<ide solution using platinum electrodes
a. rite down the reactions ta'ing place at the electrodes.
b. Calculate the number of moles of each gas produced and the volume each gas would ta'e up at
stp.
c. Calculate how long it would ta'e to complete the passage of 0.0, faraday if a current of 2.2 amps
was passed through the solution.
,2 -etal e<traction
1. Copy and complete these sentences. Use the words below to fill in the gaps.
Carbon concentrating earth hydrogen ore reducing
-etals or metal compounds are usually found in the crust of the...................................................
mi<ed with other substances. If there is enough metal or metal compounds in a roc' to be worth
e<tracting, then the roc' is called an........................... . E<tracting a metal from its ore usually
involves two steps................................................ and them smelting $.......................................%.
!wo substances that can be used in the last stage are.............................................
and........................... .
2. Dld P time gold prospectors used panning to separate gold from surrounding material. Use words
and diagrams to e<plain how panning wor's.
,. Tinc can be found in the earthRs crust combined with sulphur as #inc sulphide. !o produce the pure
metal, the sulphide must undergo a heating stage followed by a reduction stage.
a. rite a word eBuation to describe what happens when #inc sulphide is heated.
b. In the second stage of the process we could use either hydrogen and carbon.
$i% 7oo' at the reactivity series on page 60 and decide which of these could be used to produce
#inc.
$ii% E<plain your answer using a word eBuation.
1. Iearrange these sentences to describe the production of aluminium from bau<ite. Copy them out in
the correct order.
H Aluminium metal is formed at the cathode.
H Aluminium is e<tracted by electrolysis, since it is above carbon in the reactivity series.
H A current passes through carbon electrodes into the molten mi<ture.
H Aluminium is found in the ore bau<ite.
H D<ygen forms at the other electrode, reacting with it to form carbon dio<ide.
H !he bau<ite is dissolved in cryolite, and heated to almost 1000
0
C.
2. a. In the production of aluminium from its ore, why is it not possible to use copper electrodes)
b. hich metals could be used to ma'e the electrodes) $Use the data table on page 60 to help you.%
6. Use the reactivity series of metals $page 60% to answer these Buestions. E<plain the reasons for
your answers carefully.
a. hich metals must be e<tracted from their ores using electrolysis)
b. hich metals are found naturally in the earthRs crust, uncombined with other elements)
8. !here is more aluminium in the earthRs crust than any other metal. Ao what are the arguments for
recycling aluminium)
:. !he diagram shows the electrolysis of bau<ite $aluminium o<ide%.
a. rite down half P eBuations for the processes occurring at
$i% the anode $ii% the cathode.
b. Copy the diagram and add suitable details to show the orocesses occurring at each electrode.
c. Copy and complete the two statements.
$i% D<idation $.................................. of electrons% occurs at the............................................
ii% Ieduction $................................. of electrons% occurs at the............................................
,6 !he blast furnace
1. Iearrange these sentences to describe the production of iron from iron ore.
Copy them out in the correct order.
H -olten iron runs to the bottom of the blast furnace, where it can be tapped off.
H Iron ore is a type of iron o<ide.
H Carbon mono<ide reduces the iron o<ide to iron.
H !he slag runs to the bottom of the furnace, where it floats on top of the molten iron.
H In the blast furnace co'e burns in a stream of hot air, and produces a gas called carbon dio<ide.
H Carbon dio<ide reacts with more carbon to form another gas called carbon mono<ide.
H !he limestone reacts with acidic impurities to form a molten slag.
H Co'e and iron ore are mi<ed together and fed into a blast furnace together with limestone.
H !he reducing agent which is used to remove o<ygen from iron o<ide is carbon in the form of
co'e.
2. Copy the diagram of the blast furnace. Use the labels at the top of the ne<t calumn to replace A P 3
on your diagram.
-olten iron out 1200 0C hot gases out blast of hot air in mi<ture of iron ore, co'e and limestone in
molten slag out
,. Use the following information to write balanced chemical eBuations for these reactions which
occur in the blast furnace.
a. Carbon and o<ygen react to form carbon dio<ide.
b. Carbon dio<ide reacts with carbon to form carbon mono<ide.
c. Iron ore $iron o<ide% reacts with carbon mono<ide to form iron and carbon dio<ide.
d. 7imestone $calcium carbonate% decomposes to form calcium o<ide and carbon dio<ide.
e. Calcium o<ide reacts with impurities such as silica to form slag $calcium silicate%.
Chemical formulae you may needC
H Carbon dio<ide, CD2
H Carbon mono<ide, CD
H Calcium carbonate, CaCD,
H Calcium o<ide, CaD
H Calcium silicate, CaAiD,
H Iron o<ide, 3e2D,
H Carbon, C
H Ailica, AiD2
H D<ygen, D2
,8 -ore metals
1. Car body parts are made from iron and steel. Use this to help you e<plain
a. hy cars go rusty
b. hy cars rust more rapidly if the paintwor' is scratched.
2. !in is an unreactive metal that is used to cover iron and steel.
a. E<plain how this will prevent the iron from rusting.
b. E<plain why tin will not be as effective as #inc at protecting the iron, particularly if it gets
scratched.
,. !he table shows the composition of two different steels. Use the data to help you answer these
Buestions.
"roperty Ateel l Ateel 2
-a< S carbon 0.20 0.22
-a< S silicon = 0.22
-a< S manganese 1.20 1.60
-a< S sulphur 0.0,2 0.0,2
-a< Zphosphorus 0.0,2 0.0,2
!ensile strength $.( mm
2
% 110 P 260 150 P 6,0
&ield strength $.( mm
2
% 282 ,22
Impact value $10 O 10C 28 28
specimen at P 20
0
C%
a. "roduce a bar chart to compare the composition of the two steels e<cluding iron.
b. If the ma<imum percentage of the other ingredients is present, what is the percentage of iron
present in each type of steel)
1. a. +isplay the data from the table in >, to compare the properties of the two different steels.
b. hich components of the steel do you thin' are affecting the tensile strength and the yield
strength of the alloy) E<plain your answer.
2. E<plain how a steel 'ettle might be electroplated with copper to ma'e it more decorative. Use
a diagram to help your e<planation.
6. a. hat percentage of #inc is e<tracted by electrolysis)
b. +escribe the e<traction of #inc by electrolysis, giving the half reaction for the cathode.
c. hat is the alternative method by which #inc can be e<tracted in this way.
d. hat are the main uses of #inc)
8. a. hat is the thermite process)
b. Qive a word eBuation for the thermite reaction.
c. 4ow is pure chromium used and why)
,: Drdering elements
1. Copy and complete these sentences. Use the words below to fill the gaps.
+ifferent elements repeating similar
hen the first 20....................................... are listed in order of atomic number, they show
a.............................................. pattern of properties. Elements ne<t to one another are often
very....................................... but elements with.......................................... properties appear after a
count of :.
2. Copy the table of elements.
Atomic
no
-ass no Element "roperties
1 1 4ydrogen A very reactive gas
2 1 4elium An inert $unreactive gas%
, 8 lithium A soft, very reactive metal
1 5 /eryllium A reactive metal
2 11 /oron A solid non P metal
6 12 Carbon A solid non P metal
8 11 .itrogen A non P metal
: 16 D<ygen A reactive non P metal
5 15 3luorine A very reactive non P metal $gas%
10 20 .eon )
11 2, Aodium )
12 21 -agnesium A reactive metal
1, 28 Aluminium A reactive metal
11 2: Ailicon )
12 ,1 "hosphorus A non P metal
16 ,2 Aulphur )
18 ,2.2 Chlorine )
1: 10 Argon An inert gas
15 ,5 "otassium A soft, very reactive metal
20 10 calcium )
a. Use the Kcount to :K rule to fill in the missing properties.
b. !his pattern is good, but not perfect. hat is odd about elements number 2 and 1,)
c. Driginally, the elements were ordered by increasing atomic mass. hich elements would be K out
of positionK if you did this)
d. hen new lands first noticed this pattern in 1:61, this anomaly didnRt bother him. hy not)
$ClueC the family of unreactive gases was discovered in 1:52.%
,. a. Copy out this simple version of the periodic table. "ut the missing element symbols in their
correct places. Choose from Ca, 4e, A, (s, f and -g. Use >2 to help you.
Qroups 4ydrogen is uniBue* "eriod
7i /e / . D ne
.a Al Ai " Cl Ar
9
b. hat do all the elements in
$i% Qroup l have in common
$ii% Qroup 8 have in common)
c. hat is the name of the element with the symbol
$i% .a $ii% ')
1. Iedraw your simple version of the periodic below table from >,. Use the sentences below to
annotate it, to e<plain the lin' between the structures of the periodic table electron shells.
a. !he group number tells you how many electrons there are in the outer shell.
b. 4elium is usually put in group 0 with the noble gases as its two electrons still give it a full outer
shell.
c. !he period number of an element tells you how many electron shells it has
d. !he first period only has 2 elements because the first shell can only ta'e 2 electrons.
e. !he higher periods have : elements, because these shells can ta'e : electrons.

,5 !he periodic table
1. !he table below gives the melting points $in
0
C% of the first 20 elements.
Atomic number Element -elting point $
0
C%
1 4 = 225
2 4e = 282
, 7i 1:1
1 /e 128:
2 / 2,00
6 C ,622
8 . = 210
: D = 21:
5 3 = 220
10 .e = 21:
11 .a 5:
12 -g 615
1, Al 660
11 Ai 1110
12 " 11
16 A 115
18 Cl = 101
1: Ar = 1:5
15 9 6,
20 Ca :,5
a. "lot a graph of melting point against atomic number.
b. 4ow many of these elements are solid at room temperature $22 0C%)
&ou will need to use the table in >1 and the periodic table $page 25% to answer >2 and >,
2. a. !o what group do elements number 2, 10 and 1: belong)
b. Are these elements metals or non P metals)
c. hat do you notice about the melting points of elements 2, 10 and 1:)
d. !o what group do elements number 6 and 11 belong)
e. Are these elements metals or non P metals)
f. hat do you notice about their melting points)
,. a. !o what group do elements number ,, 11 and 15 belong)
b. AIE these elements metals or non P metals)
c. "lot a graph of the melting points of these elements. hat happens as the proton number goes
up)
d. !hese three elements get more reactive as the proton number increases. !he ne<t element in this
group is rubidium $Eb, atomic number M ,5.% "redict its melting point and suggest how reactive
it will be.
1. Copy and complete these sentences. Use the words below to fill the gaps.
Atoms gases unreactive
Qroup 0 contains the................................................ noble gases. !hese
colourless.................................. are made from single............................................ only.
2. Element > is a colourless gas that boils at P 10: 0C. It is very unreactive.
a. !o which group does > belong)
b. 4ow many electrons must B have in its outer shell)
c. Is the gas made of individual atoms or molecules)
10 -etals
1. Copy and complete these sentences. Use the words below to fill in the gaps.
Air bases ores properties reactive salt water
-etals have many........................................... that ma'e them useful. -any metals react with other
substances such as.................................. and................................................ /ecause of this, most
metals are found combined with other element as...................................... !he method used to
e<tract the metal depends on how........................................... it is. Aome metal compounds react
with acids P they are called................................ hen an acid reacts with a base,
a.............................. is formed.
2. Copy and complete the table to ma'e a list of places that metals are used around the home.
-etal hy and where used
,. Copy and complete each sentence using the correct ending from below.
a. Iron can be separated from other metals................................
b. Choosing the right metal for a Lob involves....................................
c. -etals can be mi<ed together............................................................
d. Chromium can be added to iron..........................................................
e. !he thermal conductivity of a metal measures how good it is at...................................
Choose endings from
H !o form alloys.
H 3orming stainless steel.
H Using a magnet.
H Conducting heat.
H 3inding out its properties and its cost.
1. !he table shows the properties of some metals. $!he tensile strength of a material is a measure of
how strong it is under tension, when two ends of a piece of it are pulled.%
-etal +ensity $g( cm
=,
% -elting point $
0
C% !ensile strength
Aluminium 2.8 660 80
Copper :.5 10:1 1,0
Qold 1:.5 1061 8:
Iron 8.5 1210 211
7esd 11., ,28 16
-ercury 1,.6 =,5 =
Aodium 0.58 5: 7ow
trngsten 15.1 ,110 111

a. hich metal is
$i% !he most dense
$ii% !he least dense
$iii% !he strongest)
b. hich metal is a liBuid at room temperature)
c. hy is tungsten used as the filament in electric light bulbs)
d. -iniature figures $such as toy soldiers% used to be made from lead.
$i% why)
$ii% E<plain why this is no longer done.
e. A lump of gold is dropped into some mercury. ill it float or sin') E<plain your answer.
11 Qroup l and 2 metals
1. Copy and complete these sentences. Use the words below to fill the gaps.
Electricity shiny soft al'ali low reactive
!he metals of group l in the periodic table are called the........................................ metals. !hey are
a family of very................................ -etals. !hey tarnish rapidly in air, but are ..............................
when fresh. !hey conduct heat and................................................. well but
are..................................., have low densities and .......................................... melting and boiling
points.
2. 7ithium $7i%, sodium $.a% and potassium $9% are the first three al'ali metals, in order down group
l.
a. !he balanced symbol eBuation for burning lithium in air isC
1 7i $s% ? D2 $g% E 27i2D $s%
rite this as a word eBuation.
b. !he al'ali metals get more reactive down the group. Copy and complete the table using the
phrases below.
-etal Ieaction with water
7ithium i
sodium ii
potassium ii
H melts, whi##es around and gas catches fire
H fi##es steadily
H melts and whi##es around
,. Aodium reacts with water sodium ? water E sodium hydro<ide ? hydrogen
a. hat would happen if you put p4 paper in the water after this reaction) E<plain why.
b. hat is the name give to group l) hy do you thin' it is called this)
c. 7ithium fi##es steadily in water. hich gas is given off)
d. hat is the name of the al'ali that forms during the reaction in part c)
1. a. hat is the common name of the group 2 elements)
b. hat does magnesium loo' li'e)
2. /oth Buic'lime $CaD% and sla'ed lime Ca$D4%2 are used to control soil p4.
a. rite down the eBuation for the reaction between Buic'lime and hydrochloric acid, and for
sla'ed lime and hydrochloric acid
b. If 26 g of Buic'lime are need to neutralise some soil, how much sla'ed lime would be needed to
do the same Lob)
6. Iearrange the sentences to e<plain why the group 1 and 2 metals are more reactive down each
group. Copy them out in the correct order.
H !he further from the nucleus, the wea'er the force holding the electron in place.
H Qroup 1 and 2 metals lose their outer electron to form positive ions when they react.
H !he bigger the atom, the further the outer electron is from the positive nucleus.
H !he wea'er the force, the KlooserK the outer electron.
H Atoms with KlooserK outer electrons are more reactive.
H !he atoms get bigger down the group.
12 4alogens
1. Copy and complete these sentences. Use the words below to fill the gaps.
4alogens reactive molecules ionic
Qroup 8 of the periodic table contains a family of very......................................... non P metals
called the...................................... !hey form diatomic......................................... and have coloured
vapours. !hey form................................... compounds with metals.
2. Copy and complete the table to show the properties of the halogens, using the words and symbols
below. Dne line in the table has been completed for you.
Element symbol Atate at room
temperature
Colour
3luorine 3 Qas &ellow( green
Chlorine
/romine
Iodine
/r Cl l liBuid gas solid green purple brown
,. Copy and complete these sentences. Use the names of the halogens below to fill the gaps.
3luorine $3% chlorine $Cl% bromine$/r% iodine $l%
a. !he dar', almost blac', crystals of............................................ give off a purple vapour which is
used to ma'e fingerprints show up on paper.
b. ....................................... was used as a poison gas in world war l, bur is now used to 'ill
microorganisms in swimming pools.
c. !he only two elements which are liBuid at room temperature are mercury and............................
d. Compounds of............................................ such as sodium fluoride are sometimes added to
drin'ing water as they help strengthen teeth.
e. A brown solution of....................................... in alcohol was used as an antiseptic for cuts and
bruises.
1. !he diagrams show how chlorine combines by covalent bonding with carbon, and by ionic bonding
with sodium. +raw similar diagrams and write similar eBuations for the reaction between bromine
and carbon, and between bromine and sodium.
2. Iearrange the sentences to e<plain why the halogens become more reactive up the group. Copy
them out in the correct order.
H !he closer to the nucleus, the stronger the force that might be able to capture a KspareK electron.
H !he smaller the atom, the closer any KspareK electrons can get to the positive nucleus.
H Amaller atoms toward the top of the group will find it easier to capture an electron, and so are
more reactive.
H 4alogens have to gain an outer electron to form negative ions when they react.
H !he atoms get smaller as you go up the group.
1, -ore on halogens
1. Chlorine reacts e<plosively with hydrogen in sunlight to form hydrogen chloride. !his gas is very
soluble in water.
a. hat would happen if you put p4 paper in a solution of hydrogen chloride in water)
b. hat name is given to this solution)
c. hat compound would form from bromine and hydrogen)
d. ould you e<pect this reaction to be faster or slower than with chlorine) E<plain your answer.
2. 3or many years, compounds of silver and halogens, silver halides, were used in blac' P and P
white photography. 3or e<ample, silver bromide brea's downs when e<posed to light.
7ight
2Ag/r E 2Ag ? /r2
a. rite this reaction out as a word eBuation.
b. Iearrange these sentences to e<plain how the process wor's. Copy the sentences out in the
correct order.
H here light falls, the compound brea's up and blac' grains of silver are formed.
H In a camera, light falls on to the film for a short time.
H !his produces a negative image $blac' for white%.
H here on light falls, the film stays clear.
H "hotographic film contains colourless silver bromide.
,. 4ydrogen chloride forms when hydrogen gas burns in chlorine.

42 ? Cl2 E 24Cl
a. rite this out as a word eBuation.
b. hen hydrogen chloride dissolves in water the solution turns p4 paper red. hat does this tell
you)
1. a. +raw a table to compare the properties of the halogens fluorine to iodine. Include in your table
the state at room temperature, the melting and boiling points and the appearance of the elements.
b. +raw a graph to display the melting and boiling point data in your table.
c. E<plain clearly the way in which the reactions of the halogens with metals differ from the
reactions of the halogens with non P metals.
2. Qive a word eBuation and a balanced chemical eBuation for these reactions.
a. 3luorine and hydrogen
b. Iodine and hydrogen
c. +escribe the conditions under which each of the reactions will ta'e place.
6. a. E<plain why chlorine will displace bromine and iodine from solutions of their salts.
b. Qive word and balanced chemical eBuations for the reactions between
$i% /romine and potassium iodide
$ii% Chlorine and magnesium bromide.
8. a. Qive balanced eBuations for the reactions between
$i% Ailver nitrate solution and potassium bromide
$ii% Ailver nitrate solution and sodium iodide.
b. E<plain how these reactions can be used to identify an un'nown solution.
:. a. E<plain the main trends in the reactivity of the halogens down the group. +iagrams will ma'e
the e<planation clearer.
b. "redict the reactions of astatine $At% with
$i%4ydrogen
$ii% "otassium iodide.
11 !ransition metals
1. Copy and complete the following sentences. Use the words below to fill the gaps.
-elting transition harder less higher heat
!he.......................................... metals are the family of KeverydayK metals. !hey are shiny and they
conduct............................................. and electricity. !hey are........................................ reactive than
the al'ali metals, but are............................................... and have higher................................... and
boiling points and.................................. densities.
2. Copy and complete the following sentences. Use the names below to fill the gaps.
Iron $3e% nic'el $.i% #inc $Tn%
a. Ateel is a form of........................................ that is very strong and is used for building bridges,
cars and machinery.
b. Copper is alloyed with................................... to ma'e brass and with.................................... to
ma'e coins.
c. !ransition metals are often used as catalyst to speed up reactions. .......................................... is
used to ma'e ammonia for fertilisers.
,. a. hich name is given to the bloc' of metals that wedge in between calcium $20% and gallium
$,1%) $ClueC unscramble nottiransi%.
b. !he properties of the elements usually change dramatically as you move along the same period.
hat is unusual about this bloc' of metals)
c. Iron is a hard, magnetic metal with a high melting point, which forms coloured compounds.
"redict the properties of cobalt $Co%.
1. Copy and complete the table at the top right, using the phrases below it.
"roperty Al'ali metals !ransition metals
reactivity a b
density c d
melting and boiling point e f
colour of salts g h
H very reactive H less reactive H high
H sin' in water H can float on water
H colourless H often coloured H low
2. a. Compare the way in which iron forms iron o<ide to the formation of blac' copper o<ide.
b. E<plain the impact this has on the way they are used.
c. hat else affects their usefulness)
6. Copper is sometimes used to cover the roofs of buildings and for the outer s'in of statues $for
e<ample, the statue of liberty in new yor' harbour%. ith time the copper turns a green colour. In
industrial areas, this green colour is usually due to a mi<ture of copper sulphate and copper
hydro<ide. In other areas, it is usually a mi<ture of copper carbonate and copper hydro<ide.
a. E<plain why copper sulphate is formed in industrial areas but not elsewhere.
b. here does the carbon come from to form copper carbonate)
c. Auggest word eBuations to describe the formation of the green colour on the roofs of buildings
covered with copper.
8. Qive word and chemical eBuations for the reaction between
a. Copper o<ide and sulphuric acid
b. Copper sulphate and ammonia solution.
c. hat colour is the comple< copper ion formed in this reaction)

12 Combustion
1. Copy and complete these sentences. Use the words below to fill the gaps.
D<ides o<ygen reacting combustion nitrogen
!he air is roughly four P fifths................................. and one P fifth.................................. hen
things burn in air, they are............................................... with the o<ygen. .ew compounds
called......................................... are formed, and energy is given out. !he scientific word for
burning is...............................
2. hen carbon burns in air it forms the colourless gas, carbon dio<ide.
a. Copy and complete the word eBuation for this reaction. Carbon ? ...........................
E.......................
b. hen carbon burns, it seems to disappear. here does it go)
,. hen hydrogen burns, it forms hydrogen o<ide vapour.
a. hat is the common name we give to this new chemical) $4intC itRs usually a liBuid when you
see it%.
b. Copy and complete the word eBuation for this reaction. 4ydrogen ? ..........................................
E..........................................................
1. 3uels are chemicals which we burn to get energy.
a. Copy and complete the generalised word eBuation for this reaction. 3uel ? ............................... E
waste gases ? energy
b. hat type of chemicals will these waste gases be) $Chec' bac' to B1.%
2. -any fuels, such as oil, are chemicals that contain both carbon and hydrogen.
a. hich two o<ides would you e<pect to find in the waste gases when this type of fuel burns)
b. -ethane $C41% is a gas which is often used as a fuel. rite the word and chemical eBuation for
the reaction of o<ygen with methane.
6. !his apparatus is used to identify the waste gases produced when a candle burns.
a. Copy the diagram. Use the labels below in place of A P 3 on your diagram.
H !he crushed ice cools the gases.
H !he limewater turns mil'y.
H Candle wa< contains carbon and hydrogen.
H !he gas bubbles through lime water.
H !he waste gases rise into the funnel.
H A colourless liBuid condenses and collects
b. !he colourless liBuid turns white anhydrous copper sulphate powder blue. hat is this liBuid)
7abel this on your diagram.
8. Apecial blowtorches can weld or cut metal under water. !hey mi< gases from two separate
cylinders. !he two gases then burn together, even under water. Dne of the gases is a fuel. hat
must the other gas be) E<plain your answer.
:. a. If you heat potassium nitrate it melts and then bubbles as a gas is given off. !he gas relights a
glowing splint. hat do you thin' the gas might be)
b. Qunpowder contains carbon and sulphur, mi<ed with potassium nitrate. Qunpowder will burn,
even if there is no air. E<plain why this is possible.
c. hich two waste gases do you thin' will be formed when gunpowder burns) E<plain your
answer.
16 Qases from the air
1. Copy and complete these sentences. Use the words below to fill the gaps.
Acidic dio<ide rain fish sulphuric sulphur
-any fuels contain............................................ as an impurity. hen this burns it produces
sulphur................................... gas. !his gas dissolves in the................................ and reacts with the
air to form wea'........................................... acid. !his ma'es the rain..................................... Acid
rain can damage buildings and 'ill .................................. and plants.
2. !hese pie charts show the sources of three pollutant gases in the atmosphere $of canada%.
a. hat is the largest source of sulphur dio<ide)
b. hat are the maLor pollutants produced by the transport industry)
c. .itrogen o<ides and carbon mono<ide combine to produce photochemical smog. hy do you
thin' this type of smog is most common in the cities)
,. Aummarise the industrial process by which o<ygen and nitrogen gases are e<tracted from the air.
1. a. hat are the main properties of carbon dio<ide)
b. hat are the main uses of carbon dio<ide)
c. 4ow is the reaction of carbon dio<ide with calcium hydro<ide solution used as a test for the
presence of the gas)
2. a. +raw and annotate a diagram to show how ammonia can be made in the laboratory.
b. hy is the test tube used to collect the ammonia upside down)
c. hy is damp red litmus held at the e<it of the test tube)
18 Analysis
1. a. hat is a flame test)
b. +escribe how you would carry out a flame test.
c. Copy and complete this table.
Element flame colour
lithium a
b golden yellow
c lilac
calcium d
2. Copy and complete this table.
Add sodium hydro<ide
solution
3lame test -etal ion
nothing observed lilac a
white precipitate bric' red b
c d 3e
,?
white precipitate which
dissolves as more sodium
hydro<ide solution added
nothing observed e
light green precipitate
which slowly turns reddish
brown
nothing observed f
g h .a
?


,. 3our samples of chemicals have been found by detectives hunting a gang of international chemical
thieves. hich of the four powders can be positively identified) Qive your reasons.
"owder Appearance Add dilute acid Effect of heat
A green fi##es Qreen powder turns blac' and a
gas is evolved which turns
limewater mil'y
/ white nothing .othing
C white fi##es hite powder turns yellow while
hot cooling to white again, and a
gas is evolved which turns
limewater mil'y
+ green fi##es nothing
1. Compound A is a white solid which dissolves in water to produce a colourless solution. hen this
solution is acidified with nitric acid and silver nitrate is added, a white precipitate is produced.
Aflame test of A produces a bright red flame. +educe the name of compound A and give your
reasoning.
2. Compound / is a white solid which dissolves in water to give a blur solution. hen this solution
hydrochloric acid and barium chloride is added, a white precipitate is produced. +educe the name
of compound / and give your reasoning.
6. Copy and complete this table.
Add dilute
acid
Add sodium
hydro<ide
solution and
warm
Add sodium
hydro<ide
solution and
warm P then add
aluminium
3lame test Aubstance
.othing
observed
nothing observed gas evolved,
turns damp red
litmus blue after
aluminium added
golden yellow a
3i##ing, gas
turns
limewater
mil'y
gas evolved turns
damp red litmus
blue
nothing observed nothing observed b
c d e f calcium
carbonate
8. Copy and complete this table.
Add nitric acid and then silver nitrate
solution
3lame test Aubstance
Creamy precipitate golden yellow a
hite precipitate green b
&ellow precipitate lilac c
:. a. hat is ammonia)
b. 4ow would you test for ammonia and the ammonium ion)
5. 4ow would you test for nitrate ions in an un'nown solution)
1: Crude oil
1. Copy and complete these sentences. Use the words below to fill the gaps.
Atoms hydrocarbons molecules
Crude oil is a mi<ture of compounds called............................................. !hese contain particles
called............................................... made from carbon and hydrogen.........................................
Loined together in chains.
2. Copy the diagram that shows the apparatus used to separate crude oil into its fractions in the
laboratory. Use the labels below in place if the letters A P E on your diagram.
H !he lighter, smaller particles boil off first, at a low temperature.
H Cold water cools the gas particles and ma'es them condense.
H Crude oil is heated in the flas'.
H !he bea'er is changed as the temperature rises, to collect different fractions.
H !he liBuid collects in the bea'er.
,. a. Copy the diagram of a fractionating column. Use the labels below the diagram in place of A P E
on your diagram.
H 12 P ,0S gasoline $petrol% is used as fuel for cars $b. p. 10 P 100
0
C%
H 10 P 20S bitumen is used to ma'e roads $b. p. over 100
0
C%
H 12 P 20S diesel is used as lorry fuel $b. p. 200 P ,00
0
C%
H 10 P 12S paraffin $'erosene% is used for Ler fuel $b. p. 120 P 210
0
C%
H 1 P 2S petroleum gases used for fuel $b. p. 10
0
C%
b. hich other substances would you e<pect as products of the fractional distillation of crude oil)
1. !he table shows information about some hydrocarbons.
.umber of carbon atoms /oiling point $
0
C%
2 ,6
6 65
8 55
5 121
10 181
a. "lot a graph of boiling point against number of carbon atoms.
b. hat happens to the boiling point as the number of carbon atoms goes up)
c. Use your graph to predict the boiling point of octane P a hydrocarbon with eight carbon atoms in
its chain.
d. In a laboratory e<periment, sasha collected three fractions from a sample of crude oil. !hey
boiled at
A. 20 P 50
0
C
/. 100 P 110
0
C
C. 120 P 200
0
C
hich of these could be used as petrol) E<plain your answer.
15 Drganic chemistry
1. hat is the difference between organic and inorganic compounds)
2. a. hat is an al'ane)
b. +raw the structure of a molecule of pentane.
c. 4ow do al'anes react in a plentiful supply of o<ygen)
d. Qive two uses of members of the al'ane family.
e. rite a balanced eBuation showing how butane burns in air.
,. a. hat is an al'ene)
b. +raw the structure of a molecule of pentene.
c. 4ow are the al'enes formed from the al'anes)
d. Qive two reasons why the al'enes are not used as fuels.
e. rite a balanced eBuation showing how butane burns in air.
1. Qive the structural and molecular formula for an al'ane containing
a. !hree carbon atoms
b. 3ive carbon atoms
c. Eight carbon atoms.
2. Qive the structural and molecular formula for an al'ene containing
a. !hree carbon atoms
b. 3ive carbon atoms
c. Eight carbon atoms.
6. Use the general formula of the al'anes to wor' out how many hydrogen atoms there are in an
al'ane with these numbers of carbon atoms.
a. 6
b. 10
c. 8
d. 12
8. Use the general formula of the al'enes to wor' out how many hydrogen atoms there are in an
al'ene with these numbers of carbon atoms
a. 6
b. 12
c. 20
d. 18
:. E<plain in terms of the structure of the molecule why butane is used as a fuel and butene is not.
5. Use the data from this table to answer the Buestions below.
Isomer pentane 2 P metylbutane 2,2 =
dimethylpropane
/oiling point ,6.,
0
C 2:
0
C 10
0
C

a. +raw a bar chart showing the boiling points of each of the three isomers of pentane.
b. hat causes the differences in the boiling points of these three compounds which all have the
same molecular formula, C2412)
10. a. hy is an unsaturated hydrocarbon more reactive than a saturated one)
b. E<plain why an al'ene but not an al'ane turns bromine water colourless.
11. a. hat is an isomer)
b. +raw at least three isomers for he<ane C6411.
c. 4ow many isomers can you draw for octane, C:41:)
d. !a'e the isomers you have wor'ed out in part c and name each one systematically.
20 .ew products from crude oil
1. Copy and complete these sentences. Use the words to fill the gaps.
Crac'ing plastics temperatures hydrocarbon
!he fractional distillation of crude oil produces more large.......................................... molecules
than are needed. 3ortunately, these can be Kchopped upK into smaller molecules by a process
called............................................ !his happens when the hydrocarbons are heated to very
high................................................. Crac'ing ma'es more petrol, but it also ma'es special
molecules that are used to ma'e............................................
2. +raw a pie chart to show the relative proportions of different products that may be obtained from
crude oil if 1000 000 tonnes ma'es
H ,0 000 tonnes petrol
H 8 000 tonnes naphtha
H 10 000 tonnes 'erosene
H ,0 000 tonnes diesel
H 20 000 tonnes fuel oil
H , 000 tonnes other
,. Copy and complete these sentences. Choose the correct word from each pair. Crude oil
hydrocarbons are called al'anes( al'enes. !heir carbon atoms are Loined by single(double bonds.
!hey cannot form any e<tra bonds so they are said to be saturated(unsaturated. hen hydrocarbons
are crac'ed, al'anes(al'enes such as ethene are formed. Ethene has a single(double bond. !his can
open up to add more atoms, so ethene is said to be saturated(unsaturated.
1. a. +raw a diagram of the simple al'ane, he<ane, which has si< carbon atoms $C6411%
b. 4e<ane can be crac'ed to give the al'ene ethene $C241% as well as an al'ane A. +raw a diagram
of ethene.
c. In al'ane A, how many atoms must there be of
$i% Carbon atoms
$ii% 4ydrogen atoms)
d. +raw a diagram of al'ane A
2. a. hy do the fractions of crude oil from fractional distillation need more refining)
b. hat happens in a catalytic crac'er)
c. hy are small molecules sometimes put into a catalytic crac'er)
21 "olymers
1. a. 7ist as many uses for oil P based fuels as you can.
b. hy are alternatives to oil P based fuels being investigated)
2. a. hat is a plastic)
b. hy are plastics so useful)
c. hat is the effect of using different monomer units in a polymer)
,. "roduce a leaflet which e<plains to the public why plastics can be a threat to the environment and
encourages them to recycle plastics and buy biodegradable products when they can.
1. a. hy are some large molecules simply very big molecules when others are described as
polymers)
b. hy are al'enes often involved in the formation of polymers)
2. a. hat is meant by the term addition polymerisation)
b. 4ow does addition polymerisation differ from other types of polymerisation)
c. 4ow does ethene react to form the polymer polythene)
6. a. Use the diagrams top right to help you e<plain how ethene polymerises to ma'e polythene.
b. "ropene is an al'ene with three carbon atoms. It is li'e ethene, with an e<tra C4, in place of
one of the hydrogen atoms. It can be drawn li'e this.
+raw diagrams li'e those for ethene, to show how propene could undergo addition
polymerisation to form polypropene.
8. "olybutene is formed from monomer butene units. +raw a diagram and for this reaction.
22 Ethanol
1. Qive three common uses for ethanol, $C242D4% giving a specific e<ample in each case.
2. hy is it so important that the fermentation of sugar ta'es place without o<ygen)
. +raw a flow chart to summaries the stages in the production of pure ethanol from sugar.
1. a. Qive the molecular and structural formula for butanol and pentanol.
b. !he higher alcohols have isomers. Qive the possible isomers of butanol and propanol.
2. Using the information on these pages and other resources, ma'e a presentation on the use of
ethanol as a fuel for the future, e<plaining the advantages and the difficulties involved.
6. a. hy is it so important that the cor' in a bottle of wine should be completely airtight)
b. 4ow would you e<pect wine vinegar to be made)
8. a. hat would you e<pect to happen if propanol $C,48D4% was left e<posed to the air)
b. Qive a word eBuation to show the reaction.
:. Qive the molecular and structural formula of propanoic acid and pentanoic acid.
5. a. Qive an e<ample of a reaction between a carbo<ylic acid and an alcohol.
b. hich catalyst is usually needed for this reaction to ta'e place)
c. hat are the products of this type of reaction usually used for)
10. a. +raw up a table to evaluate the two different methods of producing ethanol to showC
H Iate of reaction
H >uality of the product
H Use of finite resources
H /atch process or continuous process
H Ieaction conditions.
b. E<plain which process you would support for future development and why.
11. Qive molecular and structural eBuations for the reaction between propanol and propionic acid.
12. a. Qive the molecular and structural eBuations for the reactions of methanol with sodium.
b. hich of these alcohols would you e<pect to react most vigorously with sodiumC methanol,
ethanol or propanol) E<plain your answer.