Sie sind auf Seite 1von 56

A-PDF Merger DEMO : Purchase from www.A-PDF.

com to remove the watermark

Code No: R05 410103 SET No. 1


IV B. Tech I Semester Supplementary Examinations, March 2009
REMOTE SENSING AND GIS APPLICATIONS
(CIVIL ENGINEERING)
Time: 3 hours Max. Marks: 80
Answer any FIVE questions
All Questions carry equal marks
********
1. (a). Explain Principles of analytical and digital photogrammetry
(b) Explain the necessity of ground control points for aerial photography [8+8]

2. (a) Write Some of the important applications of remote sensing technology.


(b) Briefly explain how information is extracted from remote sensing images [8+8]

3. (a) Distinguish between a camera and sensor.


(b) Explain in detail various elements of visual image interpretation. [8+8]

4. (a) Explain the basic concept of GIS


(b) Explain various advantages of GIS [8+8]

5. (a) Explain various components of GIS


(b) Explain spatial data and non spatial data with suitable example [8+8]

6. (a) Explain workflow process of GIS along with flow chart.


(b) Explain various GIS categories. [8+8]

7. Explain in detail any one model for estimating soil erosion in GIS environment.[16]

8. Explain how GIS and remote sensing techniques are used in identification of sites for
artificial recharge structure [16]

*******
Code No: R05 410103 SET No. 2
IV B. Tech I Semester Supplementary Examinations, March 2009
REMOTE SENSING AND GIS APPLICATIONS
(CIVIL ENGINEERING)
Time: 3 hours Max. Marks: 80
Answer any FIVE questions
All Questions carry equal marks
********
1. (a) Explain image parallax in photogrammetry [8+8]
(b) Briefly explain windows in the electromagnetic spectrum.
2. (a) Write various spectral regions used for earth remote sensing. [8+8]
(b) Briefly explain about passive remote sensing and active remote sensing
techniques.
3. (a) Explain in detail different types of platforms and digital image data [8+8]
formats.
(b) Briefly explain Visual Analysis Methods

4. With an example each explain the following: [4X4]


(i)Buffering.
(ii)Overlaying a polygon theme with a point theme
(iii)Overlying a line theme with a polygon theme.
(iv)Reclassification

5. (a) What are the various elements in GIS application software


(b) List out some of the major international GIS vendors [8+8]

6. Explain various types of raster GIS models. [16]

7. Explain different types interpolation techniques used in preparing thematic layer of


water quality data. [16]

8. Explain how GIS techniques applied to rainfall-runoff modeling. [16]

********
SET No. 3
Code No: R05 410103
IV B. Tech I Semester Supplementary Examinations, March 2009
REMOTE SENSING AND GIS APPLICATIONS
(CIVIL ENGINEERING)
Time: 3 hours Max. Marks: 80
Answer any FIVE questions
All Questions carry equal marks
********
1.(a) Explain basic geometric characteristics of aerial photographs
(b) Briefly explain the establishment of ground control points [8+8]

2.(a)Explain with a neat sketch principles of remote sensing.


(b)Explain atmospheric interactions with electromagnetic radiation. [8+8]
3.(a)Explain general procedure for photo interpretation [8+8]
(b)Briefly explain application of aerial photo interpretation to terrain
evaluation.
4.Explain the following . [8+8]
(i)Vector GIS
(ii)Raster GIS
5.Explain data collection, data input, data manipulation and data output
modules in GIS [16]
6.Describe the following:
(i)Layer based GIS mapping
(ii)featured based GIS mapping [8+8]
7.Develop a simple data models for use in the following applications
i.Wasteland management
ii.Forestry studies [8+8]
8.Explain how GIS and remote sensing techniques are used in reservoir sedimentation
studies [8+8]
******
Code No: R05 410103 SET No. 4
IV B. Tech I Semester Supplementary Examinations, March 2009
REMOTE SENSING AND GIS APPLICATIONS
(CIVIL ENGINEERING)
Time: 3 hours Max. Marks: 80
Answer any FIVE questions
All Questions carry equal marks
********
1.(a) With a neat sketch deduce basic parallax equation
(b).The calibrated x and y fiducial distances for camera are 233.48 and 233.78
mm. The corresponding x and y measured distance on a photographic print from
this camera are 232.37 and 232.36 mm. The uncorrected x and y photo coordinates
of a point measure 101.63 and 94.32 mm. Find the corrected photocoordinates of
the point. [8+8]

2.(a)Explain with a neat sketch spectral reflectance curves of typical features


of earth surface.
(b)List out various advantages and disadvantages of remote sensing [8+8]

3.. Explain the following.


(i) Geometric correction methods
(ii) Radiometric correction methods [8+8]

4. Explain the following


(i)Manual digitization and its advantages and disadvantages over automatic
digitization.
(ii)Rubber sheeting [8+8]

5.Explain various procedures / models for storage of vector and rater data in GIS [16]

6.Explain the following advanced tools of GIS analysis along with suitable
examples
(i) Proximity analysis
(ii) Spatial operation
(iii) Terrain analysis
(iv) Network analysis [4X4]

7. Explain how GIS and remote sensing techniques are used in flood control studies[16]

8. Explain how GIS and remote sensing techniques are used in ground water
modeling [16]

*******
Code No: R05410203 Set No. 1
IV B.Tech I Semester Supplimentary Examinations, March 2009
POWER SYSTEM ANALYSIS
(Electrical & Electronic Engineering)
Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80
Answer any FIVE Questions
All Questions carry equal marks
⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

1. For the given network shown in figure 1d connections form:

(a) Graph
(b) Tree
(c) Co-tree
(d) Cut-set. [16]

Figure 1d
2. Build Zbus for the 3-bus system connection given as: [16]
element bus code impedance
1 1-2 j0.1
2 1-2 j0.25
3 1-3 j0.1
4 2-3 j0.1
3. Explain the Algorithm of GS method for load flow solution. Also discuss the effect
of acceleration factor on the same method. [16]

4. Derive N-R (Polar form) equations and N-R (Rectangular form) equations and
explain difference between these methods. [16]

5. For the network shown in figure 5 draw pu impedance diagram. [16]

1 of 2
Code No: R05410203 Set No. 1

Figure 5
6. (a) Symmetrical components of a set of unbalanced 3 phase voltage are V0 = j0.6;
V1 = 0.866 + j0.5; V2 = 0.693-j0.4 A. Determine original unbalanced phasors.
(b) Explain the significance of positive, negative and zero sequance components.
[10+6]

7. (a) A 50 Hz transmission line 500 km long with constants given below ties up two
large areas
R = 0.11 ohm / Km, L = 1.45 mH / Km, C = 0.009 micro farads / Km.
Find steady state stability limit if |VS | = |VR | = 200KV .
(b) A generator supplies power to an infinite bus via line as shown in figure 7b. The
machine delivers 1.0 pu power and both terminal voltage of the generator and
infinite bus are 1.0 pu. All the reactances are on a common base. Determine
power angle equation. [8+8]

Figure 7b
8. A generator supplies power to an infinite bus over a double circuit line. Its P-δ
curve is denoted by P = 100 sinθ. On occurence of fault P-δ curve is denoted by
P = 30 sinθ. After fault is cleared P-δ curve is given by P = 70 sinθ. Determine
critical clearing angle if generator supplies 50 MW initially. [16]

⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

2 of 2
Code No: R05410203 Set No. 2
IV B.Tech I Semester Supplimentary Examinations, March 2009
POWER SYSTEM ANALYSIS
(Electrical & Electronic Engineering)
Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80
Answer any FIVE Questions
All Questions carry equal marks
⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

1. Form the network matrices Ybr and Zloop using singular transformation for the
network connections given below: [16]
element p-r
1 1-2 (1)
2 1-2(2)
3 1-3
4 2-4
5 3-5
Self
Bus code Impedence
Mutual
1-2 0.6
Bus code Impedence
1-3 0.5
1-2(1) 0.1
3-4 0.5
1-2(1) 0.2
1-2(2) 0.4
2-4 0.2
2. Form the primitive impedence matrix for the given system and hence primitive
admittance matrix. [16]
Self Mutual
Bus code (element) Impedence Bus code Impedence
1-2 (1) 0.6
1-3 0.5 1-2 (1) 0.1
3-4 0.5
1-2 (2) 0.4 1-2 (1) 0.2
2-4 0.2
3. Explain the treatment of PV buses in Gauss-Seidel load flow method. What is the
effect of Q-limit enforcement on rate of convergence of the method? [16]

4. (a) Explain FDLF method with importance of [B ′ ] and [B ′′ ] matrices.


(b) For the power system shown in figure 4b compute [B ′ ] and [B ′′ ] matrices.
[6+10]
Bus code Impedances (P.u) Half line charging admittance (P.u)
1-2 (0.06+j0.18) j0.005
1-3 (0.02+j0.06) j0.006
2-3 (0.04+j0.12) j0.005

1 of 3
Code No: R05410203 Set No. 2

Figure 4b
5. (a) Show that p.u impedance of a transformer referred to either HV or LV side is
same.
(b) Draw p.u impedance diagram of the network shown in figure 5. Choose base
quantities in transmission circuit. [6+10]

Figure 5
6. Draw zero sequence network for the system shown in figure 6. [16]

Figure 6
7. (a) A transmission line has generalized circuit constants
A = 0.93 + j0.016; B = 20 + j140.
Find steady state stability limit if |VS | = |VR | = 220KV

2 of 3
Code No: R05410203 Set No. 2
(b) Define “synchronizing coefficient”. [16]

8. A 50 Hz generator supplies 0.8 pu power to infinite bus via a network as shown


in figure 8. A 3 phase fault occurs at point P. If fault is cleared by simultaneous
opening of breakers at both ends of the faulted line at 4.5 cycles after fault occurs.
Plot swing curve through t = 0.2 secs. Take H = 4 MJ/MVA. [16]

Figure 8

⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

3 of 3
Code No: R05410203 Set No. 3
IV B.Tech I Semester Supplimentary Examinations, March 2009
POWER SYSTEM ANALYSIS
(Electrical & Electronic Engineering)
Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80
Answer any FIVE Questions
All Questions carry equal marks
⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

1. Form the network matrices Zloop using non-singular transformation for the network
connections: [16]
element p-r
1 1-2 (1)
2 1-2(2)
3 1-3
4 2-4
5 3-5
Self
Bus code Impedence
Mutual
1-2 0.6
Bus code Impedence
1-3 0.5
1-2(1) 0.1
3-4 0.5
1-2(1) 0.2
1-2(2) 0.4
2-4 0.2
2. Form the primitive impedence matrix for the given system and hence primitive
admittance matrix. [16]
Self Mutual
Bus code (element) Impedence Bus code Impedence
1-2 (1) 0.6
1-3 0.5 1-2 (1) 0.1
3-4 0.5
1-2 (2) 0.4 1-2 (1) 0.2
2-4 0.2

3. (a) Give classification of buses in load flow studies.


(b) What is slack bus? How do you select a slack bus in a given system? [8+8]

4. Perform one iteration of FDLF method for the system shower in figure 4:

1 of 3
Code No: R05410203 Set No. 3

Figure 4
Slack Bus-1: V = 1.05 +j 0.0
P - V Bus -2: |V2 | = 1.03 p.u. : P2 = 0.5 p.u.; 0.1 < Q2 > 0.3
Load Bus -3: P3 = 0.6 p.u., Q3 = 0.25 p.u. [16]

5. A 3 phase fault occurs at bus 3 through fault impedance Zf = 0.19 pu on the


network shown in figure 5. Find bus voltages and line currents during fault. [16]

Figure 5
6. A generator having solidly grounded neutral and rated 50 MVA, 30 KV has positive,
negative and zero sequence reactances of 0.25, 0.15 and 0.05 pu. What reactance
must be placed in the neutral to limit LLG fault current that for a 3 phase fault.
[16]

7. (a) Define steady state stability.


(b) Two turbo alternators with ratings given below are connected via a short line.
Machine 1: 4 pole, 50 Hz, 60 MW, 0.8 pf lag.
moment of inertia 30, 000 kg-m2
Machine 2: 2 pole, 50 Hz, 80 MW, 0.85 pf lag.
moment of inertia 10,000 kg-m2 .
Calculate the inertia constant of single equivalent machine on a base of 200
MVA. [16]

2 of 3
Code No: R05410203 Set No. 3
8. (a) Derive swing equation of a single machine connected to infinite bus.
(b) A synchronous generator is feeding 250 MW to a 50 Hz large network over a
double circuit line. The maximum steady state power that can be transmitted
over line with both circuits in operation is 500 MW and is 350 MW with any
one of the circuit. A solid 3 phase fault at network-end of one the line causes
it to trip. Find critical clearing angle before which circuit breakers have to
trip. [8+8]

⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

3 of 3
Code No: R05410203 Set No. 4
IV B.Tech I Semester Supplimentary Examinations, March 2009
POWER SYSTEM ANALYSIS
(Electrical & Electronic Engineering)
Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80
Answer any FIVE Questions
All Questions carry equal marks
⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

1. Form the network matrices Ybr and Zloop using singular transformation for the
network connections given below: [16]
element p-r
1 1-2 (1)
2 1-2(2)
3 1-3
4 2-4
5 3-5
Self
Bus code Impedence
Mutual
1-2 0.6
Bus code Impedence
1-3 0.5
1-2(1) 0.1
3-4 0.5
1-2(1) 0.2
1-2(2) 0.4
2-4 0.2

2. Explain modification of the bus impedance matrix for changes in the network.[16]

3. The YBus of a 5-bus system is (5×5)matrix. The system has an off nominal tap
ratio transformer between buses 3 and 5 as shown in figure 3 if the transformer
outage takes place, how are the YBU S elements are modified. [16]

Figure 3
4. Derive necessary expressions for the off-diagonal and diagonal elements of the sub-
matrices J1 , J2 , J3 and J4 for carrying out a load flow study on power system by
using N-R method in Polar form. [16]

5. (a) Show that p.u impedance of a transformer referred to either HV or LV side is


same.
(b) Draw p.u impedance diagram of the network shown in figure 5. Choose base
quantities in transmission circuit. [6+10]

1 of 2
Code No: R05410203 Set No. 4

Figure 5
6. A balanced 200 V, 3 phase supply feeds balanced resistive load as shown in figure
6. If the resistance Rbc is disconnected. Determine Ia , Ib and Ic and symmetrical
components of Ia , Ib and Ic . [16]

Figure 6
7. A generator supplies 1.0 pu power to an infinite bus as shown in figure 7. The
terminal voltage and infinite bus voltage are 1.0 pu. All the reactances are on a
common base. Determine steady state stability limit: [16]

(a) when both lines are in


(b) when one line is switched off.

Figure 7
8. (a) What are the assumptions made in deriving swing equation.
(b) Explain point by point method of determine swing curve. [6+10]

⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

2 of 2
Set No.1
Code No: R05 410302
IV B. Tech I Semester Supplementary Examinations, March 2009
CAD/CAM
(Mechanical Engineering)
Time: 3 hours Max. Marks: 80
Answer any FIVE questions
All Questions carry equal marks
********
1.a) Discuss the advantages of computer aided design.
(b) Explain with the help of a block diagram the hardware structure of a CAD
work station
2.(a) Explain the methods of defining lines, arcs and Circles in wire frame
modeling?
(b) What is the importance of studying geometric modeling in CAD? Explain
briefly.
3. What is blending function? Explain reparametrisation of a surface.

4. What do you mean by primitive instancing? Explain CSG scheme for complex
solid modeling objects representation. Sketch with appropriate dimensions
and explain the limitation.

5. (a) Discuss the data required for Computer Assisted Part Programming.
(b) Distinguish the features of Turning Center with that of conventional lathe.

6. (a) What is Group Technology? Mention some of the benefits associated with
application of GT.
(b) Discuss in brief the retrieval type of compute aided process planning.

7. (a) Discuss various FMS layout configurations.


(b) Discuss briefly the steps needed to analyze a material handling problem.

8. Draw the CIM cycle and explain the various components of it.
*******
Set No.2
Code No: R05 410302
IV B. Tech I Semester Supplementary Examinations, March 2009
CAD/CAM
(Mechanical Engineering)
Time: 3 hours Max. Marks: 80
Answer any FIVE questions
All Questions carry equal marks
********
1. (a) Write a short note on (i) Stroke writing and (ii) Raster scan techniques.
(b) Discuss how Computer Aided Design is advantage in the product
development.

2. (a) With suitable figures explain the the method of displaying holes and curved
ends in wire frame modeling?
(b) What a wire frame model? Discuss its advantages and disadvantages.

3. Describe how surface composition is made with the help of


(a) Ruled surface
(b) Surface of revolution
(c) Composite surface
(d) Cylindrical surface

4. (a) Describe various commonly used primitives for solid modeling.


(b) Describe the properties that a solid model should capture mathematically.

5. (a) Describe the features of Machining Center.


(b) Enumerate the advantages of Computer Assisted Part Programming when
compared to Manual Part Programming.

6. (a) Explain the composite part concept in group technology with an example.
(b) Explain the generative type of computer assisted process planning.

7. (a) Explain the advantages of FMS.


(b) Discuss the various elements of ASRS.

8. List out the various elements of a CIM system and explain each one of them
briefly.
******
Set No.3
Code No: R05 410302
IV B. Tech I Semester Supplementary Examinations, March 2009
CAD/CAM
(Mechanical Engineering)
Time: 3 hours Max. Marks: 80
Answer any FIVE questions
All Questions carry equal marks
********
1. With the help of block diagram explain the hard ware configuration of a typical
stand-alone CAD system.

2. (a) Explain the model structure used in data base organization.


(b) What is meant by a concatenation matrix? Demonstrate how translation,
scaling and rotation operations can be performed simultaneously on a graphic
element using concatenation matrix.
3. Write the mathematical representation, application and limitations of the
following surfaces.
(a) Spherical surface
(b) Composite surface
4.(a) Differentiate between solid modeling and surface modeling methods and
representation schemes.
(b) Discuss the how to represent surface normal and neighborhoods for B -
representation.

5. (a) Discuss the various advantages of CNC system.


(b) Discuss the special features of Turning Center.

6. Explain the following:


(a) Composite component
(b) Design and manufacturing attributes
(c) Hybrid structures

7. (a) Explain the functions performed by FMS computer control system.


(b) Explain the basic components of Direct Numerical Control System.

8. (a) What is Lean Manufacturing? Explain.


(b) Explain briefly the scope of Computer Integrated Manufacturing.
******
Set No.4
Code No: R05 410302
IV B. Tech I Semester Supplementary Examinations, March 2009
CAD/CAM
(Mechanical Engineering)
Time: 3 hours Max. Marks: 80
Answer any FIVE questions
All Questions carry equal marks
********
1. (a) Discuss the reasons for implementing a computer aided design system.
(b) Explain the display devices used in the computer aided design.

2. What is meant by a geometric entity? Explain the common entities used in


geometric modeling.

3. Explain the following:


(a) Ruled and cylindrical surface
(b) Spherical and Cylindrical surface.

4.(a) Describe various commonly used primitives for solid modeling and explain the
Boolean operations.
(b) Differentiate between solid modeling and surface modeling methods and
representation schemes.

5. (a) Explain the advantages and disadvantages of Numerical Control and


Computer Numerical Control.
(b) Discuss the features of Machining Center with that of conventional.

6.(a) Explain the composite part concept in group technology with an example.
(b) Explain the benefits of a well designed classification and coding system for
group technology.

7. (a) Discuss briefly the steps needed to analyze a material handling problem.
(b) Discuss the various advantages and disadvantages of AGVs

8. (a) What is Just-in-time? Explain its importance in the manufacturing field.


(b) What are the advantages and limitations of CIM.
******
Code No: R05410403 Set No. 1
IV B.Tech I Semester Supplimentary Examinations, March 2009
OPTICAL COMMUNICATIONS
( Common to Electronics & Communication Engineering and Electronics &
Telematics)
Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80
Answer any FIVE Questions
All Questions carry equal marks
⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

1. (a) Bring out the advantages of adopting optical fiber communications over other
form of communication system.
(b) What are the various elements of an optical communication system? Explain
the function of each element. [8+8]

2. (a) What is absorption in optical fiber? Explain in detail the three types of
mechanisms of absorption in an optical fiber.
(b) Write notes on “Scattering losses in fiber”. [8+8]

3. (a) Calculate the insertion loss of the connector when the power in the fiber is
100 µw and the output power after the connector is 80 µw.
(b) A multimode graded index fiber exhibits the pulse broadening of 0.2 µs over
a distance of 15 Km. Estimate:
i. Optimum bandwidth of fiber
ii. Dispersion per unit length
iii. Bandwidth length product. [8+8]

4. (a) A step index fiber has a core refractive index of 1.5 and a core diameter of 50
µm. The fiber is jointed with a lateral misalignment between the core axes of
5 µm. Estimate the insertion loss at the joint due to the lateral misalignment
assuming uniform distribution of power between all guided modes when:
i. There is a small air gap at the joint
ii. The joint is considered index matched.
(b) Write short notes on V-groove splices. [8+8]

5. (a) Describe all the factors giving rise to losses while coupling optical power be-
tween any two devices of a fiber optic link.
(b) What is a pig-tailed device? List out the advantages and disadvantages of
pig-tailing either a fiber optic source or a fiber optic detector.
(c) Write expressions for power coupling from an LED into a step index fiber for
larger and smaller active area relative to the area of the fiber.
[5+5+6]

6. (a) Discuss if a quantity such as minimum incident photon energy is specified for
proper operation of a photodiode.

1 of 2
Code No: R05410403 Set No. 1
(b) A PIN diode generates one electron-hole pair for three incident photons at
850nm wavelength. Calculate:
i. The quantum efficiency of the device if the entire photo generated elec-
trons are collected at the detector terminals.
ii. The quantum efficiency of the device if the entire photo generated elec-
trons are collected at the detector terminals.
iii. Minimum possible band gap energy of the detector material. [6+10]

7. (a) Describe a procedure to determine the maximum allowed NRZ or RZ data


rate on a given fiber optic link.
(b) Estimate the maximum NRZ data rate allowed for transmission over an 8 Km
optical fiber link operating at 850nm wavelength specified below: [10+6]

Source rise time = 8ns


Inter-modal dispersion rise-time = 5ns/Km
Intra modal pulse broadening = 1ns/Km
Detector rise-time = 6ns.

8. (a) Enumerate the necessity of line coding of signals before transmission over
optical fibers?
(b) Differentiate between Source coding, channel coding and Line coding?
(c) Describe a method to measure chromatic dispersion in optical fibers?[4+6+6]

⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

2 of 2
Code No: R05410403 Set No. 2
IV B.Tech I Semester Supplimentary Examinations, March 2009
OPTICAL COMMUNICATIONS
( Common to Electronics & Communication Engineering and Electronics &
Telematics)
Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80
Answer any FIVE Questions
All Questions carry equal marks
⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

1. (a) Explain the field distribution for lower order modes in a symmetrical wave
guide.
(b) Explain mode theory for circular wave guide. [8+8]

2. (a) Explain the following:


i. Mode field diameter
ii. Modal bire fringence.
(b) Explain the effect of bending to losses? What is micro bending? How it can
be reduced.
[8+8]

3. (a) Compare the optical parameters of free space with dispersive and non disper-
sive mediums.
(b) A butt jointed fiber convector used on multimode step index fiber with a core
refractive index of 1.42 and a relative refractive index difference of 1% has an
angular misalignment of 90 . There is no longitudinal or lateral misalignment
but there is a small air gap between the fibers in the convectors. Estimate the
insertion loss of the convector. [8+8]

4. (a) Write short notes on “Fiber Splices”.


(b) A planar LED is fabricated from GAS which has a refractive index of 3.6.
i. Calculate the optical power emitted in to air as a percentage of internal
optical power for the device when the transmission factor at the crystal
air interface is 0.68.
ii. When the optical power generated internally is 50% of the electrical power
supplied, determine the external power efficiency. [8+8]

5. (a) Derive an expression for power coupled from a surface emitting LED into a
step index fiber of acceptance angle,150 . Assume the source emission to be
Lambertian and its active area to be larger than the cross section area of the
core of the optical fiber. The air gap between the devices can be assumed to
be negligibly small. Make assumptions as per the requirement and state all of
them.
(b) Discuss about the losses encountered while coupling optical power from an
optical fiber into a fiber optic receiver. [8+8]

1 of 2
Code No: R05410403 Set No. 2
6. (a) Define quantum limit of a fiber optic receiver. What is the effect of detector
dark current on quantum limit?
(b) Describe briefly various sources of noise in a general fiber optic receiver. Iden-
tify the PIN receiver noise component that is dominant in receiver SNR com-
putation. [8+8]

7. (a) Discuss all the criteria to select the set of components sufficing design of a
fiber optic link.
(b) Describe the types of dispersion predominant in single mode and multimode
fiber optic links.
(c) Estimate the effect of such dispersion on system rise-time for above types of
fibers. [6+5+5]

8. (a) Describe a method for measurement of Intermodal dispersion in optical fibers


with suitable setup.
(b) Describe how timing gitter , noise margin and best sampling time can be
estimated from eye patterns. [8+8]

⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

2 of 2
Code No: R05410403 Set No. 3
IV B.Tech I Semester Supplimentary Examinations, March 2009
OPTICAL COMMUNICATIONS
( Common to Electronics & Communication Engineering and Electronics &
Telematics)
Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80
Answer any FIVE Questions
All Questions carry equal marks
⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

1. (a) Explain the following:


i. Total internal reflection
ii. Axial Numerical aperture in a graded index fiber.
(b) What is V-number in connection with optical fiber? What is its significance?
(c) A single mode step index fiber has a core diameter of 7 µm and core refractive
index of 1.49. Estimate the shortest wavelength of light which allows single
mode operation when the refractive index difference for the fiber is 1%.
[4+4+8]

2. (a) Explain the following:


i. Mode field diameter
ii. Effective refractive index.
(b) A power of 3 dBm is available at the output of a fiber of length 14 km. If the
attenuation coefficient α is 0.5 dB/m, determine the amount of power which
was coupled in to the fiber input. [8+8]

3. (a) Calculate the insertion loss of the connector when the power in the fiber is
100 µw and the output power after the connector is 80 µw.
(b) A multimode graded index fiber exhibits the pulse broadening of 0.2 µs over
a distance of 15 Km. Estimate:
i. Optimum bandwidth of fiber
ii. Dispersion per unit length
iii. Bandwidth length product. [8+8]

4. (a) A step index fiber has a core refractive index of 1.5 and a core diameter of 50
µm. The fiber is jointed with a lateral misalignment between the core axes of
5 µm. Estimate the insertion loss at the joint due to the lateral misalignment
assuming uniform distribution of power between all guided modes when:
i. There is a small air gap at the joint
ii. The joint is considered index matched.
(b) Write short notes on V-groove splices. [8+8]

5. (a) With the help of neat diagrams describe lens coupling mechanisms to improve
coupling efficiency from a fiber optic source.

1 of 2
Code No: R05410403 Set No. 3
(b) Differentiate between Lambertian and monochromatic optical sources in terms
of power coupling into a single mode fiber.
(c) What is equilibrium numerical aperture? Explain the significance of equilib-
rium numerical aperture on source to fiber power coupling. [6+5+5]

6. (a) Define quantum limit of a fiber optic receiver. What is the effect of detector
dark current on quantum limit?
(b) Describe briefly various sources of noise in a general fiber optic receiver. Iden-
tify the PIN receiver noise component that is dominant in receiver SNR com-
putation. [8+8]

7. (a) Describe a procedure to determine the maximum allowed NRZ or RZ data


rate on a given fiber optic link.
(b) Estimate the maximum NRZ data rate allowed for transmission over an 8 Km
optical fiber link operating at 850nm wavelength specified below: [10+6]

Source rise time = 8ns


Inter-modal dispersion rise-time = 5ns/Km
Intra modal pulse broadening = 1ns/Km
Detector rise-time = 6ns.

8. (a) Describe phase shift method for measurement of chromatic dispersion in op-
tical fibers with the help of suitable schematics.
(b) Calculate Full width at Half Maximum(FWHM), 3-dB electrical and optical
bandwidths of an optical fiber whose output response is Gaussian in shape
with RMS pulse width given as:
i. 2ns
ii. 0.5ns. [8+8]

⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

2 of 2
Code No: R05410403 Set No. 4
IV B.Tech I Semester Supplimentary Examinations, March 2009
OPTICAL COMMUNICATIONS
( Common to Electronics & Communication Engineering and Electronics &
Telematics)
Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80
Answer any FIVE Questions
All Questions carry equal marks
⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

1. (a) Explain what is meant by a graded index fiber giving an expression for possible
refractive index profile. Discuss the transmission of light through graded index
fiber.
(b) Explain different types of optical fibers in terms of refractive index profile,
cross sections and dimensions. [8+8]
2. (a) Explain what is meant by:
i. Modal bire fringence
ii. The beat length in a single mode fiber
(b) A multi mode graded index fiber has a refractive index at the core axis of 1.46
with cladding refractive index of 1.45. The critical radius of curvature which
allows large bending losses to occur as 84 µm, when the fiber is transmitting
light of a particular wavelength. Determine the wavelength of the transmitted
light. [8+8]
3. (a) What is pulse broadening? Analyze pulse broadening in a graded index wave
guide.
(b) A certain optical fiber has attenuation of 3.5 dB/ Km at 850 nm. If 0.5 mw
of optical fiber is initially launched in to the fiber, what is the power level in
mw after 4Km? [8+8]
4. (a) A step index fiber has a core refractive index of 1.5 and a core diameter of 50
µm. The fiber is jointed with a lateral misalignment between the core axes of
5 µm. Estimate the insertion loss at the joint due to the lateral misalignment
assuming uniform distribution of power between all guided modes when:
i. There is a small air gap at the joint
ii. The joint is considered index matched.
(b) Write short notes on V-groove splices. [8+8]
5. Write short notes on the following:
(a) Radiation patterns of a Lambertian source with necessary equations.
(b) Radiation from a monochromatic source and power coupling into a fiber.[8+8]
6. (a) Define responsivity and quantum efficiency in relation to a fiber optic receiver.
Discuss if these parameters are dependent on the preamplifier and post am-
plifier circuitry of the receiver.

1 of 2
Code No: R05410403 Set No. 4
(b) Compute the wavelength at which the numerical values of quantum efficiency
and responsivity of a photodiode operating at 820 nm wavelength become
equal.
Use the necessary physical constants listed.
Speed of light in vacuum =3 × 108 m/s
Electron charge =1.602 × 10−19 C
Planck’s constant =6.6256 × 10−34 J-S
Boltzman’s constant =1.38 × 10−23 J/K
(c) Describe the factors on which the speed of response of a photo diode depends.
[6+5+5]

7. (a) Explain various factors contributing to overall optical system rise time.
(b) Calculate the system rise time for a 6 Km fiber optic link of following specifi-
cations. [10+6]
Rise time of the LED and its drive electronics = 14ns
Material dispersion related rise time degradation = 21ns
Bandwidth of the optical receiver = 25MHz
Bandwidth-distance product of the fiber =400 MHz-Km
Mode mixing factor, q = 0.7

8. (a) List the conditions under which cut-back method of measurement of fiber
attenuation yields more accurate values.
(b) Suggest a non-destructive method for measurement of fiber attenuation. Men-
tion the principle behind this method.
(c) Output of a PIN detector preamplifier of an optical receiver for 1.6Km fiber
is 2.26 Volts at 820nm wavelength. The output of PIN preamplifier increases
to 9.06 Volts when this fiber is cutback to 4m length at the same wavelength.
Compute the total attenuation and attenuation per unit length (dB/Km) of
the cut-off fiber. [5+5+6]

⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

2 of 2
SET No.1
Code No: R05 410506
IV B. Tech I Semester Supplementary Examinations, March 2009
MOBILE COMPUTING
(Common to Computer Science & Engineering and Information Technology)
Time: 3 hours Max. Marks: 80
Answer any FIVE questions
All Questions carry equal marks
********

1. Discuss about GSM in detail. [16]

2. a) Explain about motivation for a specialized MAC. [8]


b) Discuss about CDMA. [8]

3. a) Explain about Mobile IP in detail. [8]


b) Discuss about DHCP. [8]

4. Discuss about classical TCP improvements in detail. [16]

5. a) Discuss about power-aware and context-aware computing. [8]


b) What are hoarding techniques? Explain about them. [8]

6. a) Briefly discuss about pull-based and push-based mechanisms. [8]


b) What is data dissemination? Explain about indexing techniques. [8]

7. a) How security is provided in MANETs? Explain. [8]


b) What are properties of a MANET? Explain. [8]

8. a) Give an introduction and protocol architecture of WAP. [8]


b) Discuss about MAC layer of Bluetooth. [8]
***********
SET No.2
Code No: R05 410506
IV B. Tech I Semester Supplementary Examinations, March 2009
MOBILE COMPUTING
(Common to Computer Science & Engineering and Information Technology)
Time: 3 hours Max. Marks: 80
Answer any FIVE questions
All Questions carry equal marks
********

1. a) Briefly discuss about HiperLAN. [8]


b) What is mobile computing? What are its novel applications? [8]

2. Assume that there are N stations. Stations transmit without sensing the
channel.Under what conditions the performance f this scheme is good. When the
performance is poor, How carrier sensing helps to improve the situation. When carried
sensing helps little. What is the suggested solution then?
[16]
3. a) Discuss about optimizations in Mobile IP. [8]
b) Explain about DHCP. [8]

4. a) Discuss about traditional TCP. [8]


b) Explain about snooping TCP and mobile TCP. [8]

5. Explain the issues in ensuring QOS in mobile environment. [16]

6. a) What are selective tuning techniques? Explain. [8]


b) Discuss about new data delivery mechanisms. [8]

7. a) Explain about spectrum of MANET applications. [8]


b) Discuss about various routing algorithms of MANETs. [8]

8. Explain the following:


a) WAP
b) Bluetooth
c) J2ME [5+6+5]
*******
SET No.3
Code No: R05 410506
IV B. Tech I Semester Supplementary Examinations, March 2009
MOBILE COMPUTING
(Common to Computer Science & Engineering and Information Technology)
Time: 3 hours Max. Marks: 80
Answer any FIVE questions
All Questions carry equal marks
********

1. With the help of a neat diagram, explain the reference model of


wireless and mobile networks. [16]

2. Explain how priority based multiple access schemes can be implemented.[16]

3. (a) What are the entities that are part of mobile IP? Explain them with an
example network.
(b) What is tunneling in mobile IP? [8+8]

4. Compare the classical approaches to make the TCP suitable for mobile
environment. Give their relative advantages and disadvantages. [16]

5. a) Discuss about client server computing with adaptation. [8]


b) What are transactional models? Explain in detail.
[8]

6. (a) The push based broad cast are not suitable for large data size, justify.
(b) Explain about on demand data scheduling. [8+8]

7. What is mobile ad-hoc network? Explain in detail about MANETS. [16]

8. Write short notes on the following:


(a) WDP
(b) WTLS [8+8]
************
SET No.4
Code No: R05 410506
IV B. Tech I Semester Supplementary Examinations, March 2009
MOBILE COMPUTING
(Common to Computer Science & Engineering and Information Technology)
Time: 3 hours Max. Marks: 80
Answer any FIVE questions
All Questions carry equal marks
********
1. What is electromagnetic spectrum? Which part of the spectrum is used for wireless and
mobile communications? Consider all possibilities like building a network, cellular
communications, and satellite networks etc.
[16]

2. a) Explain about TDMA. [8]


b) Write the difference among S/T/F/CDMA. [8]

3. The goal of mobile IP is supporting end system mobility while maintaining


scalability, efficiency, and compatibility in all respects with existing applications and
internet protocols. Explain. 16]

4. Explain in detail about Snooping TCP. [16]

5. (a) Discuss the necessity of cache and briefly discuss about caching invalidation
mechanism.
(b) Explain the Query processing of database. [8+8]

6. (a) What are the steps involved in retrieving the indexed data frames.
(b) Explain on-demand data scheduling scheme for variable size of items. [8+8]

7. (a) What is MANET? How is it deferent from cellular system?


(b) What are the essential features of MANET?
(c) What are the applications of MANET? [6+5+5]
8. (a) With a neat diagram explain the WAP architecture.
(b) Discuss briefly the user scenarios of Bluetooth. [8+8]
***********
Code No: R05410803 Set No. 1
IV B.Tech I Semester Supplimentary Examinations, March 2009
CHEMICAL ENGINEERING PLANT DESIGN AND ECONOMICS
(Chemical Engineering)
Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80
Answer any FIVE Questions
All Questions carry equal marks
⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

1. Explain the different stages in the plant design? [16]

2. What is turn over ration? How this turn over ration method is applied to estimate
the capital investment? [16]

3. Explain the method of estimating the cost of piping and what are the items to be
included in the piping cost estimation. [16]

4. The capitalized cost for a piece of equipment has been found to be Rs. 55,000. This
cost is based on the original cost plus the present value of an indefinite number of
renewals. An annual rate of interest of 12% is used. The salvage is zero and service
life is estimated to be 10 years. Under these conditions, what would be the original
cost of the equipment? [16]

5. Self insurance is being considered for one portion of a chemical company. The
fixed-capital investment involved is Rs. 2,50,000, and insurance costs for complete
protection would amount to Rs. 2,000 per year. If self insurance is used, a reserve
fund will be set up under the companys jurisdiction, and annual insurance premiums
of Rs. 1,500 would be deposited in this fund under an ordinary annuity plan. All
money in the fund can be assumed to earn interest at a compound annual rate of
5%. Neglecting any charges connected with administration of the fund, how much
money would be deposited in the fund at the beginning of he program in order to
have enough money accumulated to replace a complete Rs. 2,50,000 loss after 10
years. [16]

6. (a) Define salvage value and scrap value.


(b) A piece of equipment originally costing Rs. 40,000 was put into use 12 years
ago. At the time the equipment was put into use, the service life was estimated
to be 20 years and the salvage and scrap value at the end of the service life were
assumed to be zero. On this basis, a straight line depreciation fund was set up.
The equipment can now be sold for Rs. 10,000, and a more advanced model
can be installed for Rs.55,000. Assuming the depreciation fund is available for
use, how much new capital must be supplied to make the purchase? [4+12]

7. Give an account of the following methods used for profitability evaluation

(a) Rate of return on investment


(b) Discounted cash flow
(c) Net present worth

1 of 2
Code No: R05410803 Set No. 1
(d) Capitalized cost. [4+4+4+4]

8. (a) How is optimum reflux ratio in distillation operation determined? Explain


with the help of a graph of annual cost versus reflux ratio.
(b) What is linear programming? Explain the basic methods involved, with an
example. [6+10]

⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

2 of 2
Code No: R05410803 Set No. 2
IV B.Tech I Semester Supplimentary Examinations, March 2009
CHEMICAL ENGINEERING PLANT DESIGN AND ECONOMICS
(Chemical Engineering)
Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80
Answer any FIVE Questions
All Questions carry equal marks
⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

1. What is a process layout. Explain with a neat diagram the layout of any chemical
industry that you have visited. [16]

2. (a) What are cost indeces?


(b) Explain Marshall and swift equipment cost indeces. [8+8]

3. The total capital investment for a chemical plant is Rs. 10,00,000/- and the working
capital is Rs. 1,00,000/- if the plant can produce an average of 8000 kgs of final
product per day and production during 365 days in a year, What selling price in
rupees per kg of product would be necessary to give a turnover ratio of 1.0? [16]

4. A new storage tank can be purchased and installed for Rs. 10,00,000. This tank
would last for 10 years. A worn-out storage tank of capacity equivalent to the new
tank is available, and it has been proposed to repair the old tank instead of buying
the new tank. If the tank were repaired, it would have a useful life of 3 years before
the same type of repairs would be needed again. Neither tank has any scrap value.
Money is worth 12 percent compounded annually. On the basis of equal capitalized
costs for the two tanks, how much can be spent for repairing the existing tank?[16]

5. (a) How are the major insurance requirements for manufacturing concerns classi-
fied?
(b) Write about
i. Tax exemptions for dividends received
ii. Contributions
iii. Investment credit
iv. Capital gains tax. [8+8]

6. (a) Describe the sum-of-the-years-digits method for determining depreciation, with


an example.
(b) The total value of a new plant is Rs. 2,000,000. A certificate of necessity has
been obtained permitting a write-off of 60% of the initial value in 5 years. The
balance of the plant requires a write-off period of 15 years. Using the straight
line method and assuming negligible salvage and crap value, determine the
total depreciation cost during the first year. [8+8]

7. (a) Discuss about capitalized costs method for determining profitability.

1 of 2
Code No: R05410803 Set No. 2
(b) A company has three alternative investments which are being considered. Be-
cause all three investments are of the same type of unit and yield the same
service, only one of the investments can be accepted. The risk factors are the
same for all three cases. Company policies, based on the current economic
situation dictate that a minimum annual return on the original investment
of 15% after taxes must be predicted for any unnecessary investment with
interest on investment not included as a cost. (This may be assumed to mean
that other equally sound investments yielding a 15% return after taxes are
available) Company policies also dictate that, where applicable, straight-line
depreciation is used and, for time value of money interpretations, end-of-year
cost and profit analysis is used. Land value and pre-startup costs can be ig-
nored.
Given the following data, determine which investment, if any, should be made
by alternative-analysis profitability-evaluation method of capitalized costs.
In-vest- Total initial Working Salvage value Service Annual cash Annual
ment fixed capital at end of life, flow to cash
num -capital . investment, service years project expenses
-ber - investment, Rs. life, after (constant
Rs. Rs. taxes, for
Rs. each
year),
Rs.
1 100,000 10,000 10,000 5 See yearly 44,000
tabulation*
2 170,000 10,000 15,000 7 52,000 28,000
(constant)
3 210,000 15,000 20,000 8 59,000 21,000
(constant)
*For investment number 1, variable annual cash flow to project is:
year 1 = Rs. 30,000, year 2 = Rs. 31,000, year 3 = Rs. 36,000, year 4 =
Rs.40,000, year 5 = Rs. 43,000. [4+12]

8. (a) Describe the general procedure for optimizing two independent variables both
analytically and graphically.
(b) Discuss about the intangible and practical considerations in optimum design.
[8+8]

⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

2 of 2
Code No: R05410803 Set No. 3
IV B.Tech I Semester Supplimentary Examinations, March 2009
CHEMICAL ENGINEERING PLANT DESIGN AND ECONOMICS
(Chemical Engineering)
Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80
Answer any FIVE Questions
All Questions carry equal marks
⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

1. (a) What are the types of designs for carrying out design project.
(b) Give the list of items that should be considered in making feasibility survey.
[8+8]

2. Explain the factors affecting Investment and production costs. [16]

3. A process plant making 200 tons per year of a product selling for Rs. 40 per lb
has annual direct production costs of 10 Crores at 100 percent capacity and other
fixed costs of Rs. 3.5 Crores. What is the fixed cost per pound at the break-even
point? If the selling price of the product is increased y 10 percent, what is the
Rupee increase in net profit at full capacity if the income tax rate is 38 percent of
gross earnings? [16]

4. (a) What is uniform periodic payment?


(b) A concern borrows Rs. 50,000 at an annual, effective, compound-interest rate
of 10 percent. The concern wishes to pay off the debt in 5 years by making
equal payments at the end of each year. How much will each payment have
to be? [6+10]

5. (a) Define:
i. Normal tax
ii. Surtax
iii. Capital gains tax
iv. Excess profits tax.
(b) Write about the major insurance requirements for manufacturing concerns.
[8+8]

6. (a) Define salvage value and scrap value.


(b) A piece of equipment originally costing Rs. 40,000 was put into use 12 years
ago. At the time the equipment was put into use, the service life was estimated
to be 20 years and the salvage and scrap value at the end of the service life were
assumed to be zero. On this basis, a straight line depreciation fund was set up.
The equipment can now be sold for Rs. 10,000, and a more advanced model
can be installed for Rs.55,000. Assuming the depreciation fund is available for
use, how much new capital must be supplied to make the purchase? [4+12]

7. (a) Discuss rate of return on initial investment.

1 of 2
Code No: R05410803 Set No. 3
(b) A company has three alternative investments which are being considered. Be-
cause all three investments are of the same type of unit and yield the same
service, only one of the investments can be accepted. The risk factors are the
same for all three cases. Company policies, based on the current economic
situation dictate that a minimum annual return on the original investment
of 15% after taxes must be predicted for any unnecessary investment with
interest on investment not included as a cost. (This may be assumed to mean
that other equally sound investments yielding a 15% return after taxes are
available) Company policies also dictate that, where applicable, straight-line
depreciation is used and, for time value of money interpretations, end-of-year
cost and profit analysis is used. Land value and pre-startup costs can be ig-
nored.
Given the following data, determine which investment, if any, should be made
by alternative-analysis profitability-evaluation method of minimum payout pe-
riod with no interest charge.

In-vest- Total initial Working Salvage value Service Annual cash Annual
ment fixed capital at end of life, flow to cash
num -capital . investment, service years project expenses
-ber - investment, Rs. life, after (constant
Rs. Rs. taxes, for
Rs. each
year),
Rs.
1 100,000 10,000 10,000 5 See yearly 44,000
tabulation*
2 170,000 10,000 15,000 7 52,000 28,000
(constant)
3 210,000 15,000 20,000 8 59,000 21,000
(constant)
For investment number 1, variable annual cash flow to project is: year 1 = Rs.
30,000, year 2 = Rs. 31,000, year 3 = Rs. 36,000, year 4 = Rs.40,000, year 5 = Rs.
43,000. [4+12]

8. A plant produces refrigerators at the rate of P units per day. The variable costs
per refrigerator have been found to be Rs.47.73 + 0.1P1.2 . The total daily fixed
charges are Rs.1750, and all other expenses are constant at Rs.7325 per day. If the
selling price per refrigerator is Rs.173, determine:

(a) The daily profit at a production schedule giving the minimum cost per refrig-
erator
(b) The daily profit at a production schedule giving the maximum daily profit
(c) The production schedule at the break-even point. [4+6+6]

⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

2 of 2
Code No: R05410803 Set No. 4
IV B.Tech I Semester Supplimentary Examinations, March 2009
CHEMICAL ENGINEERING PLANT DESIGN AND ECONOMICS
(Chemical Engineering)
Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80
Answer any FIVE Questions
All Questions carry equal marks
⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

1. Write short notes on:

(a) Types of designs


(b) Factors affecting profitability of investments
(c) Optimum economic design
(d) Optimum operation design. [4+4+4+4]

2. Explain the following cost items in fixed capital investment:

(a) Building
(b) Land
(c) Engineering and supervision
(d) Construction expenses. [4+4+4+4]

3. What costs will go into the estimation of a building cost? What is the criterion
adopted in building cost estimation? [16]

4. Compute the worth of 10 years of Rs. 10,000 bond just issued which pays 6% semi
annually, if the desired yield rate is 7% what is the value when it has 5 years to go
before maturity at 7% yield? [16]

5. (a) Write about the legal responsibilities of a concern with regard to accidents or
other emergencies.
(b) Write abut self insurance and discuss about the several ways of applying self
insurance. [10+6]

6. (a) Define salvage value and scrap value.


(b) A piece of equipment originally costing Rs. 40,000 was put into use 12 years
ago. At the time the equipment was put into use, the service life was estimated
to be 20 years and the salvage and scrap value at the end of the service life were
assumed to be zero. On this basis, a straight line depreciation fund was set up.
The equipment can now be sold for Rs. 10,000, and a more advanced model
can be installed for Rs.55,000. Assuming the depreciation fund is available for
use, how much new capital must be supplied to make the purchase? [4+12]

7. (a) Describe the minimum payout period with and without interest charge for
determining profitability.

1 of 2
Code No: R05410803 Set No. 4
(b) A company has three alternative investments which are being considered. Be-
cause all three investments are of the same type of unit and yield the same
service, only one of the investments can be accepted. The risk factors are the
same for all three cases. Company policies, based on the current economic
situation dictate that a minimum annual return on the original investment
of 15% after taxes must be predicted for any unnecessary investment with
interest on investment not included as a cost. (This may be assumed to mean
that other equally sound investments yielding a 15% return after taxes are
available) Company policies also dictate that, where applicable, straight-line
depreciation is used and, for time value of money interpretations, end-of-year
cost and profit analysis is used. Land value and pre-startup costs can be ig-
nored.
Given the following data, determine which investment, if any, should be made
by alternative-analysis profitability-evaluation method of minimum payout pe-
riod with no interest charge.

In-vest- Total initial Working Salvage value Service Annual cash Annual cash
ment fixed capital at end of life, flow to expenses
num -capital . investment, service years project (constant
-ber - investment, Rs. life, after taxes, for
Rs. Rs. Rs. each
year),
Rs.
1 100,000 10,000 10,000 5 See yearly 44,000
tabulation*
2 170,000 10,000 15,000 7 52,000 28,000
(constant)
3 210,000 15,000 20,000 8 59,000 21,000
(constant)
*For investment number 1, variable annual cash flow to project is:
year 1 = Rs. 30,000, year 2 = Rs. 31,000, year 3 = Rs. 36,000, year 4 = Rs.40,000,
year 5 = Rs. 43,000. [4+12]

8. (a) Discuss about optimizing semi-continuous cyclic operations with particular


reference to scale formation in evaporation and determining the cycle time for
maximum amount of heat transfer.
(b) In continuation of part (a) obtain the cycle time for minimum cost per unit
of heat transfer. [8+8]

⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

2 of 2
Set No.1
Code No: R05 411002
IV B. Tech I Semester Supplementary Examinations, March 2009
PC Based Instrumentation
(Electronics and Instrumentation Engineering)
Time: 3 hours Max. Marks: 80
Answer any FIVE questions
All Questions carry equal marks
********
1. (a) Define the term ‘operating system’ and explain ‘plug-in-slots’ relevant to personal
computers.
(b) With the aid of internal architecture explain PCI bus.

2. (a) What is meant by Data Acquisition and explain the various components of it.
(b) Explain the data Acquisition system control using add-on-card.

3. With command line interface, explain the PC considerations of programming for an


effective data transfer. Give a suitable example.

4. Starting from the basics, explain the overview of programmable logic controller system
with neat sketch.

5. Consider an example to explain the approach for programming of PLC for on-off inputs.
Also create the ladder diagrams.

6. (a) What are the various PLC intermediate functions? Explain about metric functions.
(b) Explain any one of the basic PLC function, in detail.

7. With neat diagram, explain the operation of analog programmable logic controller and its
networking concept.

8. Explain the method of operation of HART protocol with its structure. Also give the
applications of HART protocol.

******
Set No.2
Code No: R05 411002
IV B. Tech I Semester Supplementary Examinations, March 2009
PC Based Instrumentation
(Electronics and Instrumentation Engineering)
Time: 3 hours Max. Marks: 80
Answer any FIVE questions
All Questions carry equal marks
********

1. Explain how to interface a computer for data acquisition system and how to perform the
controlling process. Consider a simple and suitable example.

2. (a) Explain about PC expansion systems.


(b) Write notes on plug-in data acquisition boards.

3. Explain PC programming considerations using command line interface. Give the


necessary assembly language programming.

4. Starting from the basics of programmable logic controller, explain the various input and
output modules of PLC systems. Draw the necessary diagrams.

5. Consider a relevant example explain the approach for programming of PLC for on-off
outputs. Also create the ladder diagrams.

6. (a) Explain any one of the intermediate functions of PLC in detail.


(b) What are the various basic PLC functions? Explain about register basics.

7. Explain the various advanced functions of PLC particularly PLC- PID functions.
Consider a suitable example.

8. (a) Explain how to install PLC and made troubleshooting.


(b) Write notes on smart transmitters and actuators.

******
Set No.3
Code No: R05 411002
IV B. Tech I Semester Supplementary Examinations, March 2009
PC Based Instrumentation
(Electronics and Instrumentation Engineering)
Time: 3 hours Max. Marks: 80
Answer any FIVE questions
All Questions carry equal marks
********
1. (a) Explain the following with respect to personal computer.
(i) Operating system.
(ii) I / O ports.
(iii) Plug-in-slots.
(b) Write notes on PCI bus.
2. With suitable example, explain about Data acquisition and control using standard add-on
cards.

3. Explain the following relevant to PC programming considerations with suitable example.


(i) Data Transfer.
(ii) Scaling.
(iii) Linearization.

4. Staring from the basics of programmable logic controller, explain the various power
supplies and isolators required for implementing PLC system. Draw the necessary
diagrams.

5. Explain the programming approach of PLC for on-off inputs with suitable example.
Also create the ladder diagram.

6. (a) What are the various timers and counter functions of PLC. Explain in detail.
(b) What are the various arithmetic functions required for PLC and explain with simple
example.

7. (a) With suitable diagram explain the networking of programming logic controller.
(b) Write notes on analog PLC.

8. (a) Explain PLC installation, trouble shooting and maintenance.


(b) Explain the concepts of field bus.
*******
Set No.4
Code No: R05 411002
IV B. Tech I Semester Supplementary Examinations, March 2009
PC Based Instrumentation
(Electronics and Instrumentation Engineering)
Time: 3 hours Max. Marks: 80
Answer any FIVE questions
All Questions carry equal marks
********
1. (a) Explain how to interface an input signal to data Acquisition system and its control.
(b) What is meant by PCI bus? Explain its internal architecture.

2. (a) Explain the availability of various plug-in Data Acquisition Boards.


(b)Write notes on Backplane bus-VXI.

3. What are the various considerations of PC programming? Write down the necessary source
code using c++ for data transfer through PC by consider a suitable example.

4. Explain the following, in brief, relevant to programmable logic controller.


(i) Overview of PLC.
(ii) Input modules.
(iii) Output modules.
(iv) Power supplies.

5. Explain the programming methodology of PLC for on-off outputs with suitable example.
Also create the ladder diagrams.

6. (a) What are the basic PLC functions? Explain Timer functions.
(b) What are the PLC intermediate functions? Explain matrix functions.

7. Explain with suitable example, advanced functions such as networking of PLC and PLC-
PID functions.

8. (a) What are the various auxiliary commands and functions available for PLC
programming languages? Give suitable example.
(b) Explain the method of operation and structure of HART Protocol
*******
Code No: R05411301 Set No. 1
IV B.Tech I Semester Supplimentary Examinations, March 2009
ADAPTIVE CONTROL SYSTEMS
( Common to Electronics & Control Engineering and Instrumentation &
Control Engineering)
Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80
Answer any FIVE Questions
All Questions carry equal marks
⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

1. (a) Explain about different components of adaptive control system.


(b) Explain the concept of Autotuming. [8+8]

2. (a) Discuss in detail the least squares estimation method.


(b) Derive the solution for least squares estimation problem. [8+8]

3. Consider a process
1
G(s) = s(s+a)
where a is an unknown parameter. Assume that the desired closed loop system is
ω2
Gm (s)= s2 +2δωs+ω 2 . Construct Continuous and Discrete time STR algorithms for

the system. [16]

4. Consider a first order system


y(t+1) + ay(t) = bu(t) + e(t+1) + ce(t)
Where |c| < 1 and {e(t)} is a sequence of independent random variables with unit
variance. Design a suitable minimum variance controller. [16]

5. (a) If the derivative of the Lyapunov function is negative semidefinite, the solution
converges to the set { x / W(x) = 0 }, Justify.
(b) Explain the operational view of dynamic system with definitions and illustrate
the definitions with an example. [8+8]

6. (a) Draw the block diagram of an MRAS for adjustment of a feed forward gain
based on MIT rule.
(b) Explain the properties of adaptive systems involved in it. [8+8]

7. (a) Derive the equation for pulse transfer function obtained in sampling the system
having relay oscillations.
(b) Explain the method of describing function. [8+8]

8. (a) Gain scheduling adapts quickly to changing conditions’- Justify.


(b) Explain the compensation of non-linear actuator using gain scheduling. [8+8]

⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

1 of 1
Code No: R05411301 Set No. 2
IV B.Tech I Semester Supplimentary Examinations, March 2009
ADAPTIVE CONTROL SYSTEMS
( Common to Electronics & Control Engineering and Instrumentation &
Control Engineering)
Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80
Answer any FIVE Questions
All Questions carry equal marks
⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

1. Explain the following:

(a) Dual control


(b) Auto tuning. [8+8]

2. (a) Explain briefly the recursive least squares estimation.


(b) Differentiate between recursive least square estimation and extended least
square estimation. [8+8]

3. In sampling a continuous time process model with h = 1, the following pulse transfer
function is obtained :
Z+1.2
H(z) = Z 2 −Z+0.25
The design specifications states that the discrete time closed loop poles should
correspond to the continuous time characteristic polynomial s2 +2s+1.

(a) Design a minimal order discrete time indirect STR. The controller should have
integral action and give a closed loop system having unit gain in stationary.
Determine the Diophantine equation that solves the design problem.
(b) Suggest a design that includes direct estimation of the controller parameters.
[10+6]

4. (a) Describe the principle of minimum variance control which is used to minimize
the cost function J(u,t) = E{y2 (t)+ ρu2 (t)} where y(t) is the output of the
system, u(t) is the control signal and E {} is the expectation.
(b) Explain about indirect LQG-STR based on Ricatti equation. [8+8]

5. Explain the following:

(a) Lyapunov stability


(b) Positive definite and semi definite functions
(c) Finding Lyapunov functions
(d) Uniform Lyapunov stability. [4+4+4+4]

6. Explain the following:

(a) Controller structure


(b) Parameter adjustment law. [8+8]

1 of 2
Code No: R05411301 Set No. 2
k
7. Consider a process described the transfer function G(s)= 1+sτ e−sL . Obtain the
amplitude margin for the system and show that it is identical to the setting obtained
by applying Zieler-Nichols rule. [16]

8. Gain scheduling reduces parameter variations. Explain with suitable examples.


[16]

⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

2 of 2
Code No: R05411301 Set No. 3
IV B.Tech I Semester Supplimentary Examinations, March 2009
ADAPTIVE CONTROL SYSTEMS
( Common to Electronics & Control Engineering and Instrumentation &
Control Engineering)
Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80
Answer any FIVE Questions
All Questions carry equal marks
⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

1. (a) Explain the draw backs of adaptive control.


(b) Write about certainity equivalence principle.
(c) Write about different steps to construct an adaptive controller. [6+5+5]

2. (a) Explain the statistical interpretation of least square estimate.


(b) Write about recursive least squares with exponential forgetting. [8+8]

3. (a) Compare explicit and implicit self tuning regulators.


(b) Explain direct self tuning algorithm for non-minimum phase systems. [7+9]

4. (a) Explain the properties of minimum variance and moving average self tuners.
(b) Explain about linear quadratic STR. [8+8]

5. (a) State and explain Lyapunov stability.


(b) State and prove Lyapunov stability theorem for time varying systems. [6+10]

6. Explain the following:

(a) Controller structure


(b) Parameter adjustment law. [8+8]

7. Consider a process characterized by the transfer function


k
G(s)= 1+sT e−sL . Show that the parameters T and L are exactly satisfy the following
relations: T+L= AK0 , T = eAk 1 [16]

8. (a) Gain scheduling can be regarded as adaptive controllers Justify.


(b) Gain scheduling can be used to compensate non-linearities - Discuss. [8+8]

⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

1 of 1
Code No: R05411301 Set No. 4
IV B.Tech I Semester Supplimentary Examinations, March 2009
ADAPTIVE CONTROL SYSTEMS
( Common to Electronics & Control Engineering and Instrumentation &
Control Engineering)
Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80
Answer any FIVE Questions
All Questions carry equal marks
⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

1. (a) Explain the different configurations of adaptive control schemes.


(b) Explain in detail about dual control. [8+8]

2. Consider the data generated by least squares model


y(t+1) + ay(t) = bu(t) + e(t+1) + ce(t) ; t = 1,2
where u(t) and e(t) are sequences of independent random variables with zero mean
values and standard deviations 1 and σ. Assume that the parameters a and b of
the model
y(t+1)+ay(t)=bu(t)
are estimated by least squares. Determine the asymptotic values of the estimates.
[16]

3. Consider the system G(s) = G1 (s) G2 (s)


b c
where G1 (s)= (s+a) ;G2 (s)= (s+d) , a and b are unknown parameters and c and d
are known. Construct discrete time direct self tuning algorithm for the partially
known system. [16]

4. Considering basic direct self tuning controller algorithm, discuss different ways
to incorporate reference values in the controller. What are the properties of the
following ways for taking care of the reference value?

(a) Use the difference y-uc instead of y in the algorithm, and introduce an inte-
grator in the controller.
(b) Estimate the parameters using the model
y(t+d)=R*u+S*y-T*uc +E
and let the controller be R*u=S*y+T*uc . [16]

5. (a) State and prove Lyapunov stability theorem for time invariant systems.
(b) Explain methods for finding Lyapunov functions. [8+8]

6. Consider the system


b c
G(s) = G1 (s)G2 (s) where G1 (s) = s+a , G2 (s)= s+d
where a and b are unknown and c and d are known parameters. Discuss how to
make an MRAS based on the gradient approach. Let the desired model be described
ω2
by Gm (s) = s2 +2δωs+ω 2. [16]

7. (a) Explain Ziegler-Nicholas step response method and explain its characteristics.
(b) What are the methods based on relay feedback? Explain. [8+8]

1 of 2
Code No: R05411301 Set No. 4
8. Gain scheduling reduces parameter variations. Explain with suitable examples.
[16]

⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

2 of 2
Code No: R05412205 Set No. 1
IV B.Tech I Semester Supplimentary Examinations, March 2009
TELEMETRY AND TELECONTROL
(Instrumentation & Control Engineering)
Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80
Answer any FIVE Questions
All Questions carry equal marks
⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

1. (a) How is the voltage converted to current for use in telemetring system? Explain
with suitable diagram and analysis.
(b) Write a short note on two wire line zero loop?
(c) Write about the advantages and disadvantages of voltage telemetry system?
[4+4+8]

2. How can a sawtooth wave form be generated using a relaxation type circuit? Ex-
plain its operation and calculate its output voltage. [16]

3. Twenty one data channels, with subcarrier centre frequencies ranging from 400 Hz
to 165 kHz have been designed for telemetry use. All have a frequency deviation
of ± 7.5%. assuming a modulation index of 5, obtain intelligence bandwidth of
channel 1 for a frequency of 165 kHz. Also find the rise time. Assume that frequency
division has been used. [16]

4. (a) What is the advantage of a differential PCM(DPCM) system?


(b) Sketch the block diagram of such a system both on the transmitter and receiver
sides, and, for modulation and demodulation. Explain the operation? [8+8]

5. Compare CDMA and TDMA /FDMA. [16]

6. Describe the conditions for total internal reflection within a fibre. [16]

7. What is meant by digital Telecontrol method with coding method? Explain about
electro mechanical systems with low and high telegraph speeds in digital pulse code
method. [16]

8. Explain briefly the following:

(a) Information Theory


(b) Telecontrol apparates [8+8]

⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

1 of 1
Code No: R05412205 Set No. 2
IV B.Tech I Semester Supplimentary Examinations, March 2009
TELEMETRY AND TELECONTROL
(Instrumentation & Control Engineering)
Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80
Answer any FIVE Questions
All Questions carry equal marks
⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

1. (a) What is the role of coupling capacitors in PLCC?


(b) What are the characteristics of transmitters and receivers in data transmission
through PLCC?
(c) What is the use of line traps in PLCC data transmission? [4+8+4]

2. If a PCM system has a signal with a cut-off frequency of 5 kHz is digitized at


the Nyquist rate into 8 bit samples. What should be the bandwidth (baseband
transmission) and the quantization signal-to-noise ratio? [16]

3. What is the bandwidth requirement of the overall channel(FM) if there are 7 data
channels with cut-off frequencies 6,8,11,14,20,25 and 35 Hz? The IRIG standard
specifies the subcarrier centre frequency for the 14 Hz cut-off signal channel as 960
Hz. [16]

4. Describe synchronus(bisync) and X-modem protocols used in modem systems.[16]

5. Write above the frequency bands of satellite communication with its applications?
[16]

6. What is coherent fibre optical communication system and how is this technique
Usually applied? What advantage is derived from such a system? [16]

7. Explain briefly the any one example of a telecontrlol system. [16]

8. Write short notes on:

(a) Remote Regulation


(b) Tele Control using information Theory [8+8]

⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

1 of 1
Code No: R05412205 Set No. 3
IV B.Tech I Semester Supplimentary Examinations, March 2009
TELEMETRY AND TELECONTROL
(Instrumentation & Control Engineering)
Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80
Answer any FIVE Questions
All Questions carry equal marks
⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

1. Explain the following:


(a) Why is the scope of hydraulic and pneumatic methods of data transmission
limited?
(b) Why is it necessary to protect transmission channel from sources of interfer-
ences in voltage telemetring system?
(c) What is differences between dc and ac telemetring systems? [4+4+8]
2. Draw the block diagram of pulse telemetry system and explain about each block.
[16]
3. (a) What makes PPL discriminator so popular in communication applications?
(b) In a PLL discriminator the phase detector has a gain of 5 V/r, the VCO has
a gain of 10 KHz/volt and the controller gain is 15. If the phase locking fails
by ± 10%, by how much is the frequency output in error? Assume set phase
and frequency as 300 and 10 MHz respectively? [8+8]
4. Describe:
(a) PAM
(b) PDM
(c) PFM
(d) PCM. [16]
5. What are the different types of MA(Multiple Access) systems. Explain them by
comparision. [16]
6. (a) Explain the attenution in optical fibers with figures?
(b) Differentiate between stepindex and graded index fibers? [8+8]
7. Explain briefly the Telecontrol methods [16]
8. Explain briefly the following:
(a) Telecontrol apparaters
(b) Telecontrol using information Theory. [8+8]

⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

1 of 1
Code No: R05412205 Set No. 4
IV B.Tech I Semester Supplimentary Examinations, March 2009
TELEMETRY AND TELECONTROL
(Instrumentation & Control Engineering)
Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80
Answer any FIVE Questions
All Questions carry equal marks
⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

1. (a) Distinguish between a three line and two line electrical type of transmitter.
(b) What type of variable does it transmit?
(c) Which one more popular in industry and why? [8+4+4]

2. What are the different pulse codes used in telemetry systems? Explain these with
pulse diagrams. [16]

3. (a) What are the two basic discriminator techniques used in the FM demodulator
system? How do they differ in function?
(b) Draw the circuit scheme of a Foster-Seeley discriminator and explain its oper-
ation with appropriate vector/phasor diagrams for different conditions, such
as fin > fc , fin < fc and fin = fc . Obtain analytically and also sketch the
output voltage-input frequency relation. [6+10]

4. In a PCM system, a 7 bit encoder is used. Suppose each level represents a voltage
of 1 V, What is the range of the encoder? Find out the quantization error on
account of PCM if a voltage of 126.80 involved. [16]

5. Compare TDMA and FDMA. [16]

6. (a) Draw a block diagram of a fibre optic communications system and describe
the function of each component.
(b) What are the advantages of fibre optic communication? [10+6]

7. (a) With a neat sketch explain the telecontrol system used in short wave trans-
mission installation.
(b) Give an account of Telecontrol console. [8+8]

8. Explain the following:

(a) Remote regulation


(b) Remote guidance.hfill[8+8]

⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

1 of 1
Code No: R05412303 Set No. 1
IV B.Tech I Semester Supplimentary Examinations, March 2009
BIO SENSORS AND BIO ELECTRONICS
(Bio-Technology)
Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80
Answer any FIVE Questions
All Questions carry equal marks
⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

1. Mention the technical and functional characteristics required to assess the quality
of biosensors.
[16]

2. Explain the fabrication of composite biosensors and mention the reasons for ease
in commercial scale up.
[16]

3. What is ion-sensitive field effective transistors (ISFET)? Explain the mechanism of


signal processing at the ion selective membrane interface.
[16]

4. Explain the cyano transfer technique of immobilizing the bioactive material to


surface acoustic wave transducer. [16]

5. Give an account of applications of various biosensors for veterinary uses. [16]

6. Give details about the measurement of volatile organic compounds in air by genet-
ically modified green florescent protein based biosensors.
[16]

7. Give an account of program self-assembly pathways of DNA monomers forming


dendrimers to detect the target nucleation molecule.
[16]

8. Explain how we can develop local-search algorithms that are particularly suited to
biocomputers.
[16]

⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

1 of 1
Code No: R05412303 Set No. 2
IV B.Tech I Semester Supplimentary Examinations, March 2009
BIO SENSORS AND BIO ELECTRONICS
(Bio-Technology)
Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80
Answer any FIVE Questions
All Questions carry equal marks
⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

1. Write the limitations which impede the use of enzymes as biological elements for
therapeutical applications.
[16]

2. Explain in detail the mechanism of processing of signals to signal transducer in


affinity based biosensors.
[16]

3. Explain the principle and fabrication of thermal transducers for general calorimetric
biosensors.
[16]

4. Discuss the design of various types transducers employed in chemiluminescence


sensors.
[16]

5. Explain in detail about DNA biosensors and in detail about the method of esti-
mating DNA damage using DNA biosensors. [16]

6. Give an account of detection of chemically induced DNA damage by various air


pollutants and monitoring by DNA based biosensors.
[16]

7. Write the pattern of auto catalytic duplex formation by a cross-catalytic circuit.


[16]

8. It is possible to create a biological device, capable of learning and having multi level
architecture and a high degree of behavioral complexity, explain this assumption
based on Belousov-Zhabotinsky media photosensitive processing.
[16]

⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

1 of 1
Code No: R05412303 Set No. 3
IV B.Tech I Semester Supplimentary Examinations, March 2009
BIO SENSORS AND BIO ELECTRONICS
(Bio-Technology)
Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80
Answer any FIVE Questions
All Questions carry equal marks
⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

1. What is inactivation? Write in detail about various mechanisms of inactivation of


biological materials.
[16]

2. Detail then various methods available for estimating the precision, accuracy and
stability of enzyme sensors.
[16]

3. Explain stepwise the evens which occur between bioactive material and conducti-
metric transducers. [16]

4. What are multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNT) and explain how they are coor-
dinates with screen printed carbon electrodes for detecting the biological response.
[16]

5. Explain in detail about DNA biosensors and in detail about the method of esti-
mating DNA damage using DNA biosensors. [16]

6. Explain the operation of automated water analyzed computer supported system(AWACSS)


during the measurement surface, ground and drinking water for pathogens.
[16]

7. Explain in detail about the Sticker mode architecture of biomolecular computer


system.
[16]

8. Describe in detail the two light photosynthetic light systems themselves useful as
processor in photonic biomolecular computers.
[16]

⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

1 of 1
Code No: R05412303 Set No. 4
IV B.Tech I Semester Supplimentary Examinations, March 2009
BIO SENSORS AND BIO ELECTRONICS
(Bio-Technology)
Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80
Answer any FIVE Questions
All Questions carry equal marks
⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

1. Explain the process of for monitoring the odor and freshness of foods using biosen-
sors
[16]

2. Detail then various methods available for estimating the precision, accuracy and
stability of enzyme sensors.
[16]

3. Explain in detail the principle and construction and operation of optical fiber
biosensors.
[16]

4. Write short notes on the following.

(a) Delay line transducers


(b) Angel beam transducers.
(c) Shear wave transducers. [5+6+6]

5. State and explain how impedimetric technique is useful to monitor the microbial
contamination in fish and meat. [16]

6. Explain how impedimetric nano structured DNA based biosensors measures the
extent of DNA damage by various environment pollutants. .
[16]

7. Give an account of program self-assembly pathways of DNA monomers forming


dendrimers to detect the target nucleation molecule.
[16]

8. Explain the DNA hybridization technique for pre fabrication of silver wires in pho-
tonic biocomputers.
[16]

⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

1 of 1