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IV B. Tech I Semester Supplementary Examinations, March 2009

REMOTE SENSING AND GIS APPLICATIONS

(CIVIL ENGINEERING)

Time: 3 hours Max. Marks: 80

Answer any FIVE questions

All Questions carry equal marks

********

1. (a). Explain Principles of analytical and digital photogrammetry

(b) Explain the necessity of ground control points for aerial photography [8+8]

(b) Briefly explain how information is extracted from remote sensing images [8+8]

(b) Explain in detail various elements of visual image interpretation. [8+8]

(b) Explain various advantages of GIS [8+8]

(b) Explain spatial data and non spatial data with suitable example [8+8]

(b) Explain various GIS categories. [8+8]

7. Explain in detail any one model for estimating soil erosion in GIS environment.[16]

8. Explain how GIS and remote sensing techniques are used in identification of sites for

artificial recharge structure [16]

*******

Code No: R05 410103 SET No. 2

IV B. Tech I Semester Supplementary Examinations, March 2009

REMOTE SENSING AND GIS APPLICATIONS

(CIVIL ENGINEERING)

Time: 3 hours Max. Marks: 80

Answer any FIVE questions

All Questions carry equal marks

********

1. (a) Explain image parallax in photogrammetry [8+8]

(b) Briefly explain windows in the electromagnetic spectrum.

2. (a) Write various spectral regions used for earth remote sensing. [8+8]

(b) Briefly explain about passive remote sensing and active remote sensing

techniques.

3. (a) Explain in detail different types of platforms and digital image data [8+8]

formats.

(b) Briefly explain Visual Analysis Methods

(i)Buffering.

(ii)Overlaying a polygon theme with a point theme

(iii)Overlying a line theme with a polygon theme.

(iv)Reclassification

(b) List out some of the major international GIS vendors [8+8]

water quality data. [16]

********

SET No. 3

Code No: R05 410103

IV B. Tech I Semester Supplementary Examinations, March 2009

REMOTE SENSING AND GIS APPLICATIONS

(CIVIL ENGINEERING)

Time: 3 hours Max. Marks: 80

Answer any FIVE questions

All Questions carry equal marks

********

1.(a) Explain basic geometric characteristics of aerial photographs

(b) Briefly explain the establishment of ground control points [8+8]

(b)Explain atmospheric interactions with electromagnetic radiation. [8+8]

3.(a)Explain general procedure for photo interpretation [8+8]

(b)Briefly explain application of aerial photo interpretation to terrain

evaluation.

4.Explain the following . [8+8]

(i)Vector GIS

(ii)Raster GIS

5.Explain data collection, data input, data manipulation and data output

modules in GIS [16]

6.Describe the following:

(i)Layer based GIS mapping

(ii)featured based GIS mapping [8+8]

7.Develop a simple data models for use in the following applications

i.Wasteland management

ii.Forestry studies [8+8]

8.Explain how GIS and remote sensing techniques are used in reservoir sedimentation

studies [8+8]

******

Code No: R05 410103 SET No. 4

IV B. Tech I Semester Supplementary Examinations, March 2009

REMOTE SENSING AND GIS APPLICATIONS

(CIVIL ENGINEERING)

Time: 3 hours Max. Marks: 80

Answer any FIVE questions

All Questions carry equal marks

********

1.(a) With a neat sketch deduce basic parallax equation

(b).The calibrated x and y fiducial distances for camera are 233.48 and 233.78

mm. The corresponding x and y measured distance on a photographic print from

this camera are 232.37 and 232.36 mm. The uncorrected x and y photo coordinates

of a point measure 101.63 and 94.32 mm. Find the corrected photocoordinates of

the point. [8+8]

of earth surface.

(b)List out various advantages and disadvantages of remote sensing [8+8]

(i) Geometric correction methods

(ii) Radiometric correction methods [8+8]

(i)Manual digitization and its advantages and disadvantages over automatic

digitization.

(ii)Rubber sheeting [8+8]

5.Explain various procedures / models for storage of vector and rater data in GIS [16]

6.Explain the following advanced tools of GIS analysis along with suitable

examples

(i) Proximity analysis

(ii) Spatial operation

(iii) Terrain analysis

(iv) Network analysis [4X4]

7. Explain how GIS and remote sensing techniques are used in flood control studies[16]

8. Explain how GIS and remote sensing techniques are used in ground water

modeling [16]

*******

Code No: R05410203 Set No. 1

IV B.Tech I Semester Supplimentary Examinations, March 2009

POWER SYSTEM ANALYSIS

(Electrical & Electronic Engineering)

Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80

Answer any FIVE Questions

All Questions carry equal marks

⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

(a) Graph

(b) Tree

(c) Co-tree

(d) Cut-set. [16]

Figure 1d

2. Build Zbus for the 3-bus system connection given as: [16]

element bus code impedance

1 1-2 j0.1

2 1-2 j0.25

3 1-3 j0.1

4 2-3 j0.1

3. Explain the Algorithm of GS method for load flow solution. Also discuss the effect

of acceleration factor on the same method. [16]

4. Derive N-R (Polar form) equations and N-R (Rectangular form) equations and

explain difference between these methods. [16]

1 of 2

Code No: R05410203 Set No. 1

Figure 5

6. (a) Symmetrical components of a set of unbalanced 3 phase voltage are V0 = j0.6;

V1 = 0.866 + j0.5; V2 = 0.693-j0.4 A. Determine original unbalanced phasors.

(b) Explain the significance of positive, negative and zero sequance components.

[10+6]

7. (a) A 50 Hz transmission line 500 km long with constants given below ties up two

large areas

R = 0.11 ohm / Km, L = 1.45 mH / Km, C = 0.009 micro farads / Km.

Find steady state stability limit if |VS | = |VR | = 200KV .

(b) A generator supplies power to an infinite bus via line as shown in figure 7b. The

machine delivers 1.0 pu power and both terminal voltage of the generator and

infinite bus are 1.0 pu. All the reactances are on a common base. Determine

power angle equation. [8+8]

Figure 7b

8. A generator supplies power to an infinite bus over a double circuit line. Its P-δ

curve is denoted by P = 100 sinθ. On occurence of fault P-δ curve is denoted by

P = 30 sinθ. After fault is cleared P-δ curve is given by P = 70 sinθ. Determine

critical clearing angle if generator supplies 50 MW initially. [16]

⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

2 of 2

Code No: R05410203 Set No. 2

IV B.Tech I Semester Supplimentary Examinations, March 2009

POWER SYSTEM ANALYSIS

(Electrical & Electronic Engineering)

Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80

Answer any FIVE Questions

All Questions carry equal marks

⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

1. Form the network matrices Ybr and Zloop using singular transformation for the

network connections given below: [16]

element p-r

1 1-2 (1)

2 1-2(2)

3 1-3

4 2-4

5 3-5

Self

Bus code Impedence

Mutual

1-2 0.6

Bus code Impedence

1-3 0.5

1-2(1) 0.1

3-4 0.5

1-2(1) 0.2

1-2(2) 0.4

2-4 0.2

2. Form the primitive impedence matrix for the given system and hence primitive

admittance matrix. [16]

Self Mutual

Bus code (element) Impedence Bus code Impedence

1-2 (1) 0.6

1-3 0.5 1-2 (1) 0.1

3-4 0.5

1-2 (2) 0.4 1-2 (1) 0.2

2-4 0.2

3. Explain the treatment of PV buses in Gauss-Seidel load flow method. What is the

effect of Q-limit enforcement on rate of convergence of the method? [16]

(b) For the power system shown in figure 4b compute [B ′ ] and [B ′′ ] matrices.

[6+10]

Bus code Impedances (P.u) Half line charging admittance (P.u)

1-2 (0.06+j0.18) j0.005

1-3 (0.02+j0.06) j0.006

2-3 (0.04+j0.12) j0.005

1 of 3

Code No: R05410203 Set No. 2

Figure 4b

5. (a) Show that p.u impedance of a transformer referred to either HV or LV side is

same.

(b) Draw p.u impedance diagram of the network shown in figure 5. Choose base

quantities in transmission circuit. [6+10]

Figure 5

6. Draw zero sequence network for the system shown in figure 6. [16]

Figure 6

7. (a) A transmission line has generalized circuit constants

A = 0.93 + j0.016; B = 20 + j140.

Find steady state stability limit if |VS | = |VR | = 220KV

2 of 3

Code No: R05410203 Set No. 2

(b) Define “synchronizing coefficient”. [16]

in figure 8. A 3 phase fault occurs at point P. If fault is cleared by simultaneous

opening of breakers at both ends of the faulted line at 4.5 cycles after fault occurs.

Plot swing curve through t = 0.2 secs. Take H = 4 MJ/MVA. [16]

Figure 8

⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

3 of 3

Code No: R05410203 Set No. 3

IV B.Tech I Semester Supplimentary Examinations, March 2009

POWER SYSTEM ANALYSIS

(Electrical & Electronic Engineering)

Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80

Answer any FIVE Questions

All Questions carry equal marks

⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

1. Form the network matrices Zloop using non-singular transformation for the network

connections: [16]

element p-r

1 1-2 (1)

2 1-2(2)

3 1-3

4 2-4

5 3-5

Self

Bus code Impedence

Mutual

1-2 0.6

Bus code Impedence

1-3 0.5

1-2(1) 0.1

3-4 0.5

1-2(1) 0.2

1-2(2) 0.4

2-4 0.2

2. Form the primitive impedence matrix for the given system and hence primitive

admittance matrix. [16]

Self Mutual

Bus code (element) Impedence Bus code Impedence

1-2 (1) 0.6

1-3 0.5 1-2 (1) 0.1

3-4 0.5

1-2 (2) 0.4 1-2 (1) 0.2

2-4 0.2

(b) What is slack bus? How do you select a slack bus in a given system? [8+8]

4. Perform one iteration of FDLF method for the system shower in figure 4:

1 of 3

Code No: R05410203 Set No. 3

Figure 4

Slack Bus-1: V = 1.05 +j 0.0

P - V Bus -2: |V2 | = 1.03 p.u. : P2 = 0.5 p.u.; 0.1 < Q2 > 0.3

Load Bus -3: P3 = 0.6 p.u., Q3 = 0.25 p.u. [16]

network shown in figure 5. Find bus voltages and line currents during fault. [16]

Figure 5

6. A generator having solidly grounded neutral and rated 50 MVA, 30 KV has positive,

negative and zero sequence reactances of 0.25, 0.15 and 0.05 pu. What reactance

must be placed in the neutral to limit LLG fault current that for a 3 phase fault.

[16]

(b) Two turbo alternators with ratings given below are connected via a short line.

Machine 1: 4 pole, 50 Hz, 60 MW, 0.8 pf lag.

moment of inertia 30, 000 kg-m2

Machine 2: 2 pole, 50 Hz, 80 MW, 0.85 pf lag.

moment of inertia 10,000 kg-m2 .

Calculate the inertia constant of single equivalent machine on a base of 200

MVA. [16]

2 of 3

Code No: R05410203 Set No. 3

8. (a) Derive swing equation of a single machine connected to infinite bus.

(b) A synchronous generator is feeding 250 MW to a 50 Hz large network over a

double circuit line. The maximum steady state power that can be transmitted

over line with both circuits in operation is 500 MW and is 350 MW with any

one of the circuit. A solid 3 phase fault at network-end of one the line causes

it to trip. Find critical clearing angle before which circuit breakers have to

trip. [8+8]

⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

3 of 3

Code No: R05410203 Set No. 4

IV B.Tech I Semester Supplimentary Examinations, March 2009

POWER SYSTEM ANALYSIS

(Electrical & Electronic Engineering)

Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80

Answer any FIVE Questions

All Questions carry equal marks

⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

1. Form the network matrices Ybr and Zloop using singular transformation for the

network connections given below: [16]

element p-r

1 1-2 (1)

2 1-2(2)

3 1-3

4 2-4

5 3-5

Self

Bus code Impedence

Mutual

1-2 0.6

Bus code Impedence

1-3 0.5

1-2(1) 0.1

3-4 0.5

1-2(1) 0.2

1-2(2) 0.4

2-4 0.2

2. Explain modification of the bus impedance matrix for changes in the network.[16]

3. The YBus of a 5-bus system is (5×5)matrix. The system has an off nominal tap

ratio transformer between buses 3 and 5 as shown in figure 3 if the transformer

outage takes place, how are the YBU S elements are modified. [16]

Figure 3

4. Derive necessary expressions for the off-diagonal and diagonal elements of the sub-

matrices J1 , J2 , J3 and J4 for carrying out a load flow study on power system by

using N-R method in Polar form. [16]

same.

(b) Draw p.u impedance diagram of the network shown in figure 5. Choose base

quantities in transmission circuit. [6+10]

1 of 2

Code No: R05410203 Set No. 4

Figure 5

6. A balanced 200 V, 3 phase supply feeds balanced resistive load as shown in figure

6. If the resistance Rbc is disconnected. Determine Ia , Ib and Ic and symmetrical

components of Ia , Ib and Ic . [16]

Figure 6

7. A generator supplies 1.0 pu power to an infinite bus as shown in figure 7. The

terminal voltage and infinite bus voltage are 1.0 pu. All the reactances are on a

common base. Determine steady state stability limit: [16]

(b) when one line is switched off.

Figure 7

8. (a) What are the assumptions made in deriving swing equation.

(b) Explain point by point method of determine swing curve. [6+10]

⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

2 of 2

Set No.1

Code No: R05 410302

IV B. Tech I Semester Supplementary Examinations, March 2009

CAD/CAM

(Mechanical Engineering)

Time: 3 hours Max. Marks: 80

Answer any FIVE questions

All Questions carry equal marks

********

1.a) Discuss the advantages of computer aided design.

(b) Explain with the help of a block diagram the hardware structure of a CAD

work station

2.(a) Explain the methods of defining lines, arcs and Circles in wire frame

modeling?

(b) What is the importance of studying geometric modeling in CAD? Explain

briefly.

3. What is blending function? Explain reparametrisation of a surface.

4. What do you mean by primitive instancing? Explain CSG scheme for complex

solid modeling objects representation. Sketch with appropriate dimensions

and explain the limitation.

5. (a) Discuss the data required for Computer Assisted Part Programming.

(b) Distinguish the features of Turning Center with that of conventional lathe.

6. (a) What is Group Technology? Mention some of the benefits associated with

application of GT.

(b) Discuss in brief the retrieval type of compute aided process planning.

(b) Discuss briefly the steps needed to analyze a material handling problem.

8. Draw the CIM cycle and explain the various components of it.

*******

Set No.2

Code No: R05 410302

IV B. Tech I Semester Supplementary Examinations, March 2009

CAD/CAM

(Mechanical Engineering)

Time: 3 hours Max. Marks: 80

Answer any FIVE questions

All Questions carry equal marks

********

1. (a) Write a short note on (i) Stroke writing and (ii) Raster scan techniques.

(b) Discuss how Computer Aided Design is advantage in the product

development.

2. (a) With suitable figures explain the the method of displaying holes and curved

ends in wire frame modeling?

(b) What a wire frame model? Discuss its advantages and disadvantages.

(a) Ruled surface

(b) Surface of revolution

(c) Composite surface

(d) Cylindrical surface

(b) Describe the properties that a solid model should capture mathematically.

(b) Enumerate the advantages of Computer Assisted Part Programming when

compared to Manual Part Programming.

6. (a) Explain the composite part concept in group technology with an example.

(b) Explain the generative type of computer assisted process planning.

(b) Discuss the various elements of ASRS.

8. List out the various elements of a CIM system and explain each one of them

briefly.

******

Set No.3

Code No: R05 410302

IV B. Tech I Semester Supplementary Examinations, March 2009

CAD/CAM

(Mechanical Engineering)

Time: 3 hours Max. Marks: 80

Answer any FIVE questions

All Questions carry equal marks

********

1. With the help of block diagram explain the hard ware configuration of a typical

stand-alone CAD system.

(b) What is meant by a concatenation matrix? Demonstrate how translation,

scaling and rotation operations can be performed simultaneously on a graphic

element using concatenation matrix.

3. Write the mathematical representation, application and limitations of the

following surfaces.

(a) Spherical surface

(b) Composite surface

4.(a) Differentiate between solid modeling and surface modeling methods and

representation schemes.

(b) Discuss the how to represent surface normal and neighborhoods for B -

representation.

(b) Discuss the special features of Turning Center.

(a) Composite component

(b) Design and manufacturing attributes

(c) Hybrid structures

(b) Explain the basic components of Direct Numerical Control System.

(b) Explain briefly the scope of Computer Integrated Manufacturing.

******

Set No.4

Code No: R05 410302

IV B. Tech I Semester Supplementary Examinations, March 2009

CAD/CAM

(Mechanical Engineering)

Time: 3 hours Max. Marks: 80

Answer any FIVE questions

All Questions carry equal marks

********

1. (a) Discuss the reasons for implementing a computer aided design system.

(b) Explain the display devices used in the computer aided design.

geometric modeling.

(a) Ruled and cylindrical surface

(b) Spherical and Cylindrical surface.

4.(a) Describe various commonly used primitives for solid modeling and explain the

Boolean operations.

(b) Differentiate between solid modeling and surface modeling methods and

representation schemes.

Computer Numerical Control.

(b) Discuss the features of Machining Center with that of conventional.

6.(a) Explain the composite part concept in group technology with an example.

(b) Explain the benefits of a well designed classification and coding system for

group technology.

7. (a) Discuss briefly the steps needed to analyze a material handling problem.

(b) Discuss the various advantages and disadvantages of AGVs

(b) What are the advantages and limitations of CIM.

******

Code No: R05410403 Set No. 1

IV B.Tech I Semester Supplimentary Examinations, March 2009

OPTICAL COMMUNICATIONS

( Common to Electronics & Communication Engineering and Electronics &

Telematics)

Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80

Answer any FIVE Questions

All Questions carry equal marks

⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

1. (a) Bring out the advantages of adopting optical fiber communications over other

form of communication system.

(b) What are the various elements of an optical communication system? Explain

the function of each element. [8+8]

2. (a) What is absorption in optical fiber? Explain in detail the three types of

mechanisms of absorption in an optical fiber.

(b) Write notes on “Scattering losses in fiber”. [8+8]

3. (a) Calculate the insertion loss of the connector when the power in the fiber is

100 µw and the output power after the connector is 80 µw.

(b) A multimode graded index fiber exhibits the pulse broadening of 0.2 µs over

a distance of 15 Km. Estimate:

i. Optimum bandwidth of fiber

ii. Dispersion per unit length

iii. Bandwidth length product. [8+8]

4. (a) A step index fiber has a core refractive index of 1.5 and a core diameter of 50

µm. The fiber is jointed with a lateral misalignment between the core axes of

5 µm. Estimate the insertion loss at the joint due to the lateral misalignment

assuming uniform distribution of power between all guided modes when:

i. There is a small air gap at the joint

ii. The joint is considered index matched.

(b) Write short notes on V-groove splices. [8+8]

5. (a) Describe all the factors giving rise to losses while coupling optical power be-

tween any two devices of a fiber optic link.

(b) What is a pig-tailed device? List out the advantages and disadvantages of

pig-tailing either a fiber optic source or a fiber optic detector.

(c) Write expressions for power coupling from an LED into a step index fiber for

larger and smaller active area relative to the area of the fiber.

[5+5+6]

6. (a) Discuss if a quantity such as minimum incident photon energy is specified for

proper operation of a photodiode.

1 of 2

Code No: R05410403 Set No. 1

(b) A PIN diode generates one electron-hole pair for three incident photons at

850nm wavelength. Calculate:

i. The quantum efficiency of the device if the entire photo generated elec-

trons are collected at the detector terminals.

ii. The quantum efficiency of the device if the entire photo generated elec-

trons are collected at the detector terminals.

iii. Minimum possible band gap energy of the detector material. [6+10]

rate on a given fiber optic link.

(b) Estimate the maximum NRZ data rate allowed for transmission over an 8 Km

optical fiber link operating at 850nm wavelength specified below: [10+6]

Inter-modal dispersion rise-time = 5ns/Km

Intra modal pulse broadening = 1ns/Km

Detector rise-time = 6ns.

8. (a) Enumerate the necessity of line coding of signals before transmission over

optical fibers?

(b) Differentiate between Source coding, channel coding and Line coding?

(c) Describe a method to measure chromatic dispersion in optical fibers?[4+6+6]

⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

2 of 2

Code No: R05410403 Set No. 2

IV B.Tech I Semester Supplimentary Examinations, March 2009

OPTICAL COMMUNICATIONS

( Common to Electronics & Communication Engineering and Electronics &

Telematics)

Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80

Answer any FIVE Questions

All Questions carry equal marks

⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

1. (a) Explain the field distribution for lower order modes in a symmetrical wave

guide.

(b) Explain mode theory for circular wave guide. [8+8]

i. Mode field diameter

ii. Modal bire fringence.

(b) Explain the effect of bending to losses? What is micro bending? How it can

be reduced.

[8+8]

3. (a) Compare the optical parameters of free space with dispersive and non disper-

sive mediums.

(b) A butt jointed fiber convector used on multimode step index fiber with a core

refractive index of 1.42 and a relative refractive index difference of 1% has an

angular misalignment of 90 . There is no longitudinal or lateral misalignment

but there is a small air gap between the fibers in the convectors. Estimate the

insertion loss of the convector. [8+8]

(b) A planar LED is fabricated from GAS which has a refractive index of 3.6.

i. Calculate the optical power emitted in to air as a percentage of internal

optical power for the device when the transmission factor at the crystal

air interface is 0.68.

ii. When the optical power generated internally is 50% of the electrical power

supplied, determine the external power efficiency. [8+8]

5. (a) Derive an expression for power coupled from a surface emitting LED into a

step index fiber of acceptance angle,150 . Assume the source emission to be

Lambertian and its active area to be larger than the cross section area of the

core of the optical fiber. The air gap between the devices can be assumed to

be negligibly small. Make assumptions as per the requirement and state all of

them.

(b) Discuss about the losses encountered while coupling optical power from an

optical fiber into a fiber optic receiver. [8+8]

1 of 2

Code No: R05410403 Set No. 2

6. (a) Define quantum limit of a fiber optic receiver. What is the effect of detector

dark current on quantum limit?

(b) Describe briefly various sources of noise in a general fiber optic receiver. Iden-

tify the PIN receiver noise component that is dominant in receiver SNR com-

putation. [8+8]

7. (a) Discuss all the criteria to select the set of components sufficing design of a

fiber optic link.

(b) Describe the types of dispersion predominant in single mode and multimode

fiber optic links.

(c) Estimate the effect of such dispersion on system rise-time for above types of

fibers. [6+5+5]

with suitable setup.

(b) Describe how timing gitter , noise margin and best sampling time can be

estimated from eye patterns. [8+8]

⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

2 of 2

Code No: R05410403 Set No. 3

IV B.Tech I Semester Supplimentary Examinations, March 2009

OPTICAL COMMUNICATIONS

( Common to Electronics & Communication Engineering and Electronics &

Telematics)

Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80

Answer any FIVE Questions

All Questions carry equal marks

⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

i. Total internal reflection

ii. Axial Numerical aperture in a graded index fiber.

(b) What is V-number in connection with optical fiber? What is its significance?

(c) A single mode step index fiber has a core diameter of 7 µm and core refractive

index of 1.49. Estimate the shortest wavelength of light which allows single

mode operation when the refractive index difference for the fiber is 1%.

[4+4+8]

i. Mode field diameter

ii. Effective refractive index.

(b) A power of 3 dBm is available at the output of a fiber of length 14 km. If the

attenuation coefficient α is 0.5 dB/m, determine the amount of power which

was coupled in to the fiber input. [8+8]

3. (a) Calculate the insertion loss of the connector when the power in the fiber is

100 µw and the output power after the connector is 80 µw.

(b) A multimode graded index fiber exhibits the pulse broadening of 0.2 µs over

a distance of 15 Km. Estimate:

i. Optimum bandwidth of fiber

ii. Dispersion per unit length

iii. Bandwidth length product. [8+8]

4. (a) A step index fiber has a core refractive index of 1.5 and a core diameter of 50

µm. The fiber is jointed with a lateral misalignment between the core axes of

5 µm. Estimate the insertion loss at the joint due to the lateral misalignment

assuming uniform distribution of power between all guided modes when:

i. There is a small air gap at the joint

ii. The joint is considered index matched.

(b) Write short notes on V-groove splices. [8+8]

5. (a) With the help of neat diagrams describe lens coupling mechanisms to improve

coupling efficiency from a fiber optic source.

1 of 2

Code No: R05410403 Set No. 3

(b) Differentiate between Lambertian and monochromatic optical sources in terms

of power coupling into a single mode fiber.

(c) What is equilibrium numerical aperture? Explain the significance of equilib-

rium numerical aperture on source to fiber power coupling. [6+5+5]

6. (a) Define quantum limit of a fiber optic receiver. What is the effect of detector

dark current on quantum limit?

(b) Describe briefly various sources of noise in a general fiber optic receiver. Iden-

tify the PIN receiver noise component that is dominant in receiver SNR com-

putation. [8+8]

rate on a given fiber optic link.

(b) Estimate the maximum NRZ data rate allowed for transmission over an 8 Km

optical fiber link operating at 850nm wavelength specified below: [10+6]

Inter-modal dispersion rise-time = 5ns/Km

Intra modal pulse broadening = 1ns/Km

Detector rise-time = 6ns.

8. (a) Describe phase shift method for measurement of chromatic dispersion in op-

tical fibers with the help of suitable schematics.

(b) Calculate Full width at Half Maximum(FWHM), 3-dB electrical and optical

bandwidths of an optical fiber whose output response is Gaussian in shape

with RMS pulse width given as:

i. 2ns

ii. 0.5ns. [8+8]

⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

2 of 2

Code No: R05410403 Set No. 4

IV B.Tech I Semester Supplimentary Examinations, March 2009

OPTICAL COMMUNICATIONS

( Common to Electronics & Communication Engineering and Electronics &

Telematics)

Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80

Answer any FIVE Questions

All Questions carry equal marks

⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

1. (a) Explain what is meant by a graded index fiber giving an expression for possible

refractive index profile. Discuss the transmission of light through graded index

fiber.

(b) Explain different types of optical fibers in terms of refractive index profile,

cross sections and dimensions. [8+8]

2. (a) Explain what is meant by:

i. Modal bire fringence

ii. The beat length in a single mode fiber

(b) A multi mode graded index fiber has a refractive index at the core axis of 1.46

with cladding refractive index of 1.45. The critical radius of curvature which

allows large bending losses to occur as 84 µm, when the fiber is transmitting

light of a particular wavelength. Determine the wavelength of the transmitted

light. [8+8]

3. (a) What is pulse broadening? Analyze pulse broadening in a graded index wave

guide.

(b) A certain optical fiber has attenuation of 3.5 dB/ Km at 850 nm. If 0.5 mw

of optical fiber is initially launched in to the fiber, what is the power level in

mw after 4Km? [8+8]

4. (a) A step index fiber has a core refractive index of 1.5 and a core diameter of 50

µm. The fiber is jointed with a lateral misalignment between the core axes of

5 µm. Estimate the insertion loss at the joint due to the lateral misalignment

assuming uniform distribution of power between all guided modes when:

i. There is a small air gap at the joint

ii. The joint is considered index matched.

(b) Write short notes on V-groove splices. [8+8]

5. Write short notes on the following:

(a) Radiation patterns of a Lambertian source with necessary equations.

(b) Radiation from a monochromatic source and power coupling into a fiber.[8+8]

6. (a) Define responsivity and quantum efficiency in relation to a fiber optic receiver.

Discuss if these parameters are dependent on the preamplifier and post am-

plifier circuitry of the receiver.

1 of 2

Code No: R05410403 Set No. 4

(b) Compute the wavelength at which the numerical values of quantum efficiency

and responsivity of a photodiode operating at 820 nm wavelength become

equal.

Use the necessary physical constants listed.

Speed of light in vacuum =3 × 108 m/s

Electron charge =1.602 × 10−19 C

Planck’s constant =6.6256 × 10−34 J-S

Boltzman’s constant =1.38 × 10−23 J/K

(c) Describe the factors on which the speed of response of a photo diode depends.

[6+5+5]

7. (a) Explain various factors contributing to overall optical system rise time.

(b) Calculate the system rise time for a 6 Km fiber optic link of following specifi-

cations. [10+6]

Rise time of the LED and its drive electronics = 14ns

Material dispersion related rise time degradation = 21ns

Bandwidth of the optical receiver = 25MHz

Bandwidth-distance product of the fiber =400 MHz-Km

Mode mixing factor, q = 0.7

8. (a) List the conditions under which cut-back method of measurement of fiber

attenuation yields more accurate values.

(b) Suggest a non-destructive method for measurement of fiber attenuation. Men-

tion the principle behind this method.

(c) Output of a PIN detector preamplifier of an optical receiver for 1.6Km fiber

is 2.26 Volts at 820nm wavelength. The output of PIN preamplifier increases

to 9.06 Volts when this fiber is cutback to 4m length at the same wavelength.

Compute the total attenuation and attenuation per unit length (dB/Km) of

the cut-off fiber. [5+5+6]

⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

2 of 2

SET No.1

Code No: R05 410506

IV B. Tech I Semester Supplementary Examinations, March 2009

MOBILE COMPUTING

(Common to Computer Science & Engineering and Information Technology)

Time: 3 hours Max. Marks: 80

Answer any FIVE questions

All Questions carry equal marks

********

b) Discuss about CDMA. [8]

b) Discuss about DHCP. [8]

b) What are hoarding techniques? Explain about them. [8]

b) What is data dissemination? Explain about indexing techniques. [8]

b) What are properties of a MANET? Explain. [8]

b) Discuss about MAC layer of Bluetooth. [8]

***********

SET No.2

Code No: R05 410506

IV B. Tech I Semester Supplementary Examinations, March 2009

MOBILE COMPUTING

(Common to Computer Science & Engineering and Information Technology)

Time: 3 hours Max. Marks: 80

Answer any FIVE questions

All Questions carry equal marks

********

b) What is mobile computing? What are its novel applications? [8]

2. Assume that there are N stations. Stations transmit without sensing the

channel.Under what conditions the performance f this scheme is good. When the

performance is poor, How carrier sensing helps to improve the situation. When carried

sensing helps little. What is the suggested solution then?

[16]

3. a) Discuss about optimizations in Mobile IP. [8]

b) Explain about DHCP. [8]

b) Explain about snooping TCP and mobile TCP. [8]

b) Discuss about new data delivery mechanisms. [8]

b) Discuss about various routing algorithms of MANETs. [8]

a) WAP

b) Bluetooth

c) J2ME [5+6+5]

*******

SET No.3

Code No: R05 410506

IV B. Tech I Semester Supplementary Examinations, March 2009

MOBILE COMPUTING

(Common to Computer Science & Engineering and Information Technology)

Time: 3 hours Max. Marks: 80

Answer any FIVE questions

All Questions carry equal marks

********

wireless and mobile networks. [16]

3. (a) What are the entities that are part of mobile IP? Explain them with an

example network.

(b) What is tunneling in mobile IP? [8+8]

4. Compare the classical approaches to make the TCP suitable for mobile

environment. Give their relative advantages and disadvantages. [16]

b) What are transactional models? Explain in detail.

[8]

6. (a) The push based broad cast are not suitable for large data size, justify.

(b) Explain about on demand data scheduling. [8+8]

(a) WDP

(b) WTLS [8+8]

************

SET No.4

Code No: R05 410506

IV B. Tech I Semester Supplementary Examinations, March 2009

MOBILE COMPUTING

(Common to Computer Science & Engineering and Information Technology)

Time: 3 hours Max. Marks: 80

Answer any FIVE questions

All Questions carry equal marks

********

1. What is electromagnetic spectrum? Which part of the spectrum is used for wireless and

mobile communications? Consider all possibilities like building a network, cellular

communications, and satellite networks etc.

[16]

b) Write the difference among S/T/F/CDMA. [8]

scalability, efficiency, and compatibility in all respects with existing applications and

internet protocols. Explain. 16]

5. (a) Discuss the necessity of cache and briefly discuss about caching invalidation

mechanism.

(b) Explain the Query processing of database. [8+8]

6. (a) What are the steps involved in retrieving the indexed data frames.

(b) Explain on-demand data scheduling scheme for variable size of items. [8+8]

(b) What are the essential features of MANET?

(c) What are the applications of MANET? [6+5+5]

8. (a) With a neat diagram explain the WAP architecture.

(b) Discuss briefly the user scenarios of Bluetooth. [8+8]

***********

Code No: R05410803 Set No. 1

IV B.Tech I Semester Supplimentary Examinations, March 2009

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING PLANT DESIGN AND ECONOMICS

(Chemical Engineering)

Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80

Answer any FIVE Questions

All Questions carry equal marks

⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

2. What is turn over ration? How this turn over ration method is applied to estimate

the capital investment? [16]

3. Explain the method of estimating the cost of piping and what are the items to be

included in the piping cost estimation. [16]

4. The capitalized cost for a piece of equipment has been found to be Rs. 55,000. This

cost is based on the original cost plus the present value of an indefinite number of

renewals. An annual rate of interest of 12% is used. The salvage is zero and service

life is estimated to be 10 years. Under these conditions, what would be the original

cost of the equipment? [16]

5. Self insurance is being considered for one portion of a chemical company. The

fixed-capital investment involved is Rs. 2,50,000, and insurance costs for complete

protection would amount to Rs. 2,000 per year. If self insurance is used, a reserve

fund will be set up under the companys jurisdiction, and annual insurance premiums

of Rs. 1,500 would be deposited in this fund under an ordinary annuity plan. All

money in the fund can be assumed to earn interest at a compound annual rate of

5%. Neglecting any charges connected with administration of the fund, how much

money would be deposited in the fund at the beginning of he program in order to

have enough money accumulated to replace a complete Rs. 2,50,000 loss after 10

years. [16]

(b) A piece of equipment originally costing Rs. 40,000 was put into use 12 years

ago. At the time the equipment was put into use, the service life was estimated

to be 20 years and the salvage and scrap value at the end of the service life were

assumed to be zero. On this basis, a straight line depreciation fund was set up.

The equipment can now be sold for Rs. 10,000, and a more advanced model

can be installed for Rs.55,000. Assuming the depreciation fund is available for

use, how much new capital must be supplied to make the purchase? [4+12]

(b) Discounted cash flow

(c) Net present worth

1 of 2

Code No: R05410803 Set No. 1

(d) Capitalized cost. [4+4+4+4]

with the help of a graph of annual cost versus reflux ratio.

(b) What is linear programming? Explain the basic methods involved, with an

example. [6+10]

⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

2 of 2

Code No: R05410803 Set No. 2

IV B.Tech I Semester Supplimentary Examinations, March 2009

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING PLANT DESIGN AND ECONOMICS

(Chemical Engineering)

Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80

Answer any FIVE Questions

All Questions carry equal marks

⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

1. What is a process layout. Explain with a neat diagram the layout of any chemical

industry that you have visited. [16]

(b) Explain Marshall and swift equipment cost indeces. [8+8]

3. The total capital investment for a chemical plant is Rs. 10,00,000/- and the working

capital is Rs. 1,00,000/- if the plant can produce an average of 8000 kgs of final

product per day and production during 365 days in a year, What selling price in

rupees per kg of product would be necessary to give a turnover ratio of 1.0? [16]

4. A new storage tank can be purchased and installed for Rs. 10,00,000. This tank

would last for 10 years. A worn-out storage tank of capacity equivalent to the new

tank is available, and it has been proposed to repair the old tank instead of buying

the new tank. If the tank were repaired, it would have a useful life of 3 years before

the same type of repairs would be needed again. Neither tank has any scrap value.

Money is worth 12 percent compounded annually. On the basis of equal capitalized

costs for the two tanks, how much can be spent for repairing the existing tank?[16]

5. (a) How are the major insurance requirements for manufacturing concerns classi-

fied?

(b) Write about

i. Tax exemptions for dividends received

ii. Contributions

iii. Investment credit

iv. Capital gains tax. [8+8]

an example.

(b) The total value of a new plant is Rs. 2,000,000. A certificate of necessity has

been obtained permitting a write-off of 60% of the initial value in 5 years. The

balance of the plant requires a write-off period of 15 years. Using the straight

line method and assuming negligible salvage and crap value, determine the

total depreciation cost during the first year. [8+8]

1 of 2

Code No: R05410803 Set No. 2

(b) A company has three alternative investments which are being considered. Be-

cause all three investments are of the same type of unit and yield the same

service, only one of the investments can be accepted. The risk factors are the

same for all three cases. Company policies, based on the current economic

situation dictate that a minimum annual return on the original investment

of 15% after taxes must be predicted for any unnecessary investment with

interest on investment not included as a cost. (This may be assumed to mean

that other equally sound investments yielding a 15% return after taxes are

available) Company policies also dictate that, where applicable, straight-line

depreciation is used and, for time value of money interpretations, end-of-year

cost and profit analysis is used. Land value and pre-startup costs can be ig-

nored.

Given the following data, determine which investment, if any, should be made

by alternative-analysis profitability-evaluation method of capitalized costs.

In-vest- Total initial Working Salvage value Service Annual cash Annual

ment fixed capital at end of life, flow to cash

num -capital . investment, service years project expenses

-ber - investment, Rs. life, after (constant

Rs. Rs. taxes, for

Rs. each

year),

Rs.

1 100,000 10,000 10,000 5 See yearly 44,000

tabulation*

2 170,000 10,000 15,000 7 52,000 28,000

(constant)

3 210,000 15,000 20,000 8 59,000 21,000

(constant)

*For investment number 1, variable annual cash flow to project is:

year 1 = Rs. 30,000, year 2 = Rs. 31,000, year 3 = Rs. 36,000, year 4 =

Rs.40,000, year 5 = Rs. 43,000. [4+12]

8. (a) Describe the general procedure for optimizing two independent variables both

analytically and graphically.

(b) Discuss about the intangible and practical considerations in optimum design.

[8+8]

⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

2 of 2

Code No: R05410803 Set No. 3

IV B.Tech I Semester Supplimentary Examinations, March 2009

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING PLANT DESIGN AND ECONOMICS

(Chemical Engineering)

Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80

Answer any FIVE Questions

All Questions carry equal marks

⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

1. (a) What are the types of designs for carrying out design project.

(b) Give the list of items that should be considered in making feasibility survey.

[8+8]

3. A process plant making 200 tons per year of a product selling for Rs. 40 per lb

has annual direct production costs of 10 Crores at 100 percent capacity and other

fixed costs of Rs. 3.5 Crores. What is the fixed cost per pound at the break-even

point? If the selling price of the product is increased y 10 percent, what is the

Rupee increase in net profit at full capacity if the income tax rate is 38 percent of

gross earnings? [16]

(b) A concern borrows Rs. 50,000 at an annual, effective, compound-interest rate

of 10 percent. The concern wishes to pay off the debt in 5 years by making

equal payments at the end of each year. How much will each payment have

to be? [6+10]

5. (a) Define:

i. Normal tax

ii. Surtax

iii. Capital gains tax

iv. Excess profits tax.

(b) Write about the major insurance requirements for manufacturing concerns.

[8+8]

(b) A piece of equipment originally costing Rs. 40,000 was put into use 12 years

ago. At the time the equipment was put into use, the service life was estimated

to be 20 years and the salvage and scrap value at the end of the service life were

assumed to be zero. On this basis, a straight line depreciation fund was set up.

The equipment can now be sold for Rs. 10,000, and a more advanced model

can be installed for Rs.55,000. Assuming the depreciation fund is available for

use, how much new capital must be supplied to make the purchase? [4+12]

1 of 2

Code No: R05410803 Set No. 3

(b) A company has three alternative investments which are being considered. Be-

cause all three investments are of the same type of unit and yield the same

service, only one of the investments can be accepted. The risk factors are the

same for all three cases. Company policies, based on the current economic

situation dictate that a minimum annual return on the original investment

of 15% after taxes must be predicted for any unnecessary investment with

interest on investment not included as a cost. (This may be assumed to mean

that other equally sound investments yielding a 15% return after taxes are

available) Company policies also dictate that, where applicable, straight-line

depreciation is used and, for time value of money interpretations, end-of-year

cost and profit analysis is used. Land value and pre-startup costs can be ig-

nored.

Given the following data, determine which investment, if any, should be made

by alternative-analysis profitability-evaluation method of minimum payout pe-

riod with no interest charge.

In-vest- Total initial Working Salvage value Service Annual cash Annual

ment fixed capital at end of life, flow to cash

num -capital . investment, service years project expenses

-ber - investment, Rs. life, after (constant

Rs. Rs. taxes, for

Rs. each

year),

Rs.

1 100,000 10,000 10,000 5 See yearly 44,000

tabulation*

2 170,000 10,000 15,000 7 52,000 28,000

(constant)

3 210,000 15,000 20,000 8 59,000 21,000

(constant)

For investment number 1, variable annual cash flow to project is: year 1 = Rs.

30,000, year 2 = Rs. 31,000, year 3 = Rs. 36,000, year 4 = Rs.40,000, year 5 = Rs.

43,000. [4+12]

8. A plant produces refrigerators at the rate of P units per day. The variable costs

per refrigerator have been found to be Rs.47.73 + 0.1P1.2 . The total daily fixed

charges are Rs.1750, and all other expenses are constant at Rs.7325 per day. If the

selling price per refrigerator is Rs.173, determine:

(a) The daily profit at a production schedule giving the minimum cost per refrig-

erator

(b) The daily profit at a production schedule giving the maximum daily profit

(c) The production schedule at the break-even point. [4+6+6]

⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

2 of 2

Code No: R05410803 Set No. 4

IV B.Tech I Semester Supplimentary Examinations, March 2009

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING PLANT DESIGN AND ECONOMICS

(Chemical Engineering)

Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80

Answer any FIVE Questions

All Questions carry equal marks

⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

(b) Factors affecting profitability of investments

(c) Optimum economic design

(d) Optimum operation design. [4+4+4+4]

(a) Building

(b) Land

(c) Engineering and supervision

(d) Construction expenses. [4+4+4+4]

3. What costs will go into the estimation of a building cost? What is the criterion

adopted in building cost estimation? [16]

4. Compute the worth of 10 years of Rs. 10,000 bond just issued which pays 6% semi

annually, if the desired yield rate is 7% what is the value when it has 5 years to go

before maturity at 7% yield? [16]

5. (a) Write about the legal responsibilities of a concern with regard to accidents or

other emergencies.

(b) Write abut self insurance and discuss about the several ways of applying self

insurance. [10+6]

(b) A piece of equipment originally costing Rs. 40,000 was put into use 12 years

ago. At the time the equipment was put into use, the service life was estimated

to be 20 years and the salvage and scrap value at the end of the service life were

assumed to be zero. On this basis, a straight line depreciation fund was set up.

The equipment can now be sold for Rs. 10,000, and a more advanced model

can be installed for Rs.55,000. Assuming the depreciation fund is available for

use, how much new capital must be supplied to make the purchase? [4+12]

7. (a) Describe the minimum payout period with and without interest charge for

determining profitability.

1 of 2

Code No: R05410803 Set No. 4

(b) A company has three alternative investments which are being considered. Be-

cause all three investments are of the same type of unit and yield the same

service, only one of the investments can be accepted. The risk factors are the

same for all three cases. Company policies, based on the current economic

situation dictate that a minimum annual return on the original investment

of 15% after taxes must be predicted for any unnecessary investment with

interest on investment not included as a cost. (This may be assumed to mean

that other equally sound investments yielding a 15% return after taxes are

available) Company policies also dictate that, where applicable, straight-line

depreciation is used and, for time value of money interpretations, end-of-year

cost and profit analysis is used. Land value and pre-startup costs can be ig-

nored.

Given the following data, determine which investment, if any, should be made

by alternative-analysis profitability-evaluation method of minimum payout pe-

riod with no interest charge.

In-vest- Total initial Working Salvage value Service Annual cash Annual cash

ment fixed capital at end of life, flow to expenses

num -capital . investment, service years project (constant

-ber - investment, Rs. life, after taxes, for

Rs. Rs. Rs. each

year),

Rs.

1 100,000 10,000 10,000 5 See yearly 44,000

tabulation*

2 170,000 10,000 15,000 7 52,000 28,000

(constant)

3 210,000 15,000 20,000 8 59,000 21,000

(constant)

*For investment number 1, variable annual cash flow to project is:

year 1 = Rs. 30,000, year 2 = Rs. 31,000, year 3 = Rs. 36,000, year 4 = Rs.40,000,

year 5 = Rs. 43,000. [4+12]

reference to scale formation in evaporation and determining the cycle time for

maximum amount of heat transfer.

(b) In continuation of part (a) obtain the cycle time for minimum cost per unit

of heat transfer. [8+8]

⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

2 of 2

Set No.1

Code No: R05 411002

IV B. Tech I Semester Supplementary Examinations, March 2009

PC Based Instrumentation

(Electronics and Instrumentation Engineering)

Time: 3 hours Max. Marks: 80

Answer any FIVE questions

All Questions carry equal marks

********

1. (a) Define the term ‘operating system’ and explain ‘plug-in-slots’ relevant to personal

computers.

(b) With the aid of internal architecture explain PCI bus.

2. (a) What is meant by Data Acquisition and explain the various components of it.

(b) Explain the data Acquisition system control using add-on-card.

effective data transfer. Give a suitable example.

4. Starting from the basics, explain the overview of programmable logic controller system

with neat sketch.

5. Consider an example to explain the approach for programming of PLC for on-off inputs.

Also create the ladder diagrams.

6. (a) What are the various PLC intermediate functions? Explain about metric functions.

(b) Explain any one of the basic PLC function, in detail.

7. With neat diagram, explain the operation of analog programmable logic controller and its

networking concept.

8. Explain the method of operation of HART protocol with its structure. Also give the

applications of HART protocol.

******

Set No.2

Code No: R05 411002

IV B. Tech I Semester Supplementary Examinations, March 2009

PC Based Instrumentation

(Electronics and Instrumentation Engineering)

Time: 3 hours Max. Marks: 80

Answer any FIVE questions

All Questions carry equal marks

********

1. Explain how to interface a computer for data acquisition system and how to perform the

controlling process. Consider a simple and suitable example.

(b) Write notes on plug-in data acquisition boards.

necessary assembly language programming.

4. Starting from the basics of programmable logic controller, explain the various input and

output modules of PLC systems. Draw the necessary diagrams.

5. Consider a relevant example explain the approach for programming of PLC for on-off

outputs. Also create the ladder diagrams.

(b) What are the various basic PLC functions? Explain about register basics.

7. Explain the various advanced functions of PLC particularly PLC- PID functions.

Consider a suitable example.

(b) Write notes on smart transmitters and actuators.

******

Set No.3

Code No: R05 411002

IV B. Tech I Semester Supplementary Examinations, March 2009

PC Based Instrumentation

(Electronics and Instrumentation Engineering)

Time: 3 hours Max. Marks: 80

Answer any FIVE questions

All Questions carry equal marks

********

1. (a) Explain the following with respect to personal computer.

(i) Operating system.

(ii) I / O ports.

(iii) Plug-in-slots.

(b) Write notes on PCI bus.

2. With suitable example, explain about Data acquisition and control using standard add-on

cards.

(i) Data Transfer.

(ii) Scaling.

(iii) Linearization.

4. Staring from the basics of programmable logic controller, explain the various power

supplies and isolators required for implementing PLC system. Draw the necessary

diagrams.

5. Explain the programming approach of PLC for on-off inputs with suitable example.

Also create the ladder diagram.

6. (a) What are the various timers and counter functions of PLC. Explain in detail.

(b) What are the various arithmetic functions required for PLC and explain with simple

example.

7. (a) With suitable diagram explain the networking of programming logic controller.

(b) Write notes on analog PLC.

(b) Explain the concepts of field bus.

*******

Set No.4

Code No: R05 411002

IV B. Tech I Semester Supplementary Examinations, March 2009

PC Based Instrumentation

(Electronics and Instrumentation Engineering)

Time: 3 hours Max. Marks: 80

Answer any FIVE questions

All Questions carry equal marks

********

1. (a) Explain how to interface an input signal to data Acquisition system and its control.

(b) What is meant by PCI bus? Explain its internal architecture.

(b)Write notes on Backplane bus-VXI.

3. What are the various considerations of PC programming? Write down the necessary source

code using c++ for data transfer through PC by consider a suitable example.

(i) Overview of PLC.

(ii) Input modules.

(iii) Output modules.

(iv) Power supplies.

5. Explain the programming methodology of PLC for on-off outputs with suitable example.

Also create the ladder diagrams.

6. (a) What are the basic PLC functions? Explain Timer functions.

(b) What are the PLC intermediate functions? Explain matrix functions.

7. Explain with suitable example, advanced functions such as networking of PLC and PLC-

PID functions.

8. (a) What are the various auxiliary commands and functions available for PLC

programming languages? Give suitable example.

(b) Explain the method of operation and structure of HART Protocol

*******

Code No: R05411301 Set No. 1

IV B.Tech I Semester Supplimentary Examinations, March 2009

ADAPTIVE CONTROL SYSTEMS

( Common to Electronics & Control Engineering and Instrumentation &

Control Engineering)

Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80

Answer any FIVE Questions

All Questions carry equal marks

⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

(b) Explain the concept of Autotuming. [8+8]

(b) Derive the solution for least squares estimation problem. [8+8]

3. Consider a process

1

G(s) = s(s+a)

where a is an unknown parameter. Assume that the desired closed loop system is

ω2

Gm (s)= s2 +2δωs+ω 2 . Construct Continuous and Discrete time STR algorithms for

y(t+1) + ay(t) = bu(t) + e(t+1) + ce(t)

Where |c| < 1 and {e(t)} is a sequence of independent random variables with unit

variance. Design a suitable minimum variance controller. [16]

5. (a) If the derivative of the Lyapunov function is negative semidefinite, the solution

converges to the set { x / W(x) = 0 }, Justify.

(b) Explain the operational view of dynamic system with definitions and illustrate

the definitions with an example. [8+8]

6. (a) Draw the block diagram of an MRAS for adjustment of a feed forward gain

based on MIT rule.

(b) Explain the properties of adaptive systems involved in it. [8+8]

7. (a) Derive the equation for pulse transfer function obtained in sampling the system

having relay oscillations.

(b) Explain the method of describing function. [8+8]

(b) Explain the compensation of non-linear actuator using gain scheduling. [8+8]

⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

1 of 1

Code No: R05411301 Set No. 2

IV B.Tech I Semester Supplimentary Examinations, March 2009

ADAPTIVE CONTROL SYSTEMS

( Common to Electronics & Control Engineering and Instrumentation &

Control Engineering)

Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80

Answer any FIVE Questions

All Questions carry equal marks

⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

(b) Auto tuning. [8+8]

(b) Differentiate between recursive least square estimation and extended least

square estimation. [8+8]

3. In sampling a continuous time process model with h = 1, the following pulse transfer

function is obtained :

Z+1.2

H(z) = Z 2 −Z+0.25

The design specifications states that the discrete time closed loop poles should

correspond to the continuous time characteristic polynomial s2 +2s+1.

(a) Design a minimal order discrete time indirect STR. The controller should have

integral action and give a closed loop system having unit gain in stationary.

Determine the Diophantine equation that solves the design problem.

(b) Suggest a design that includes direct estimation of the controller parameters.

[10+6]

4. (a) Describe the principle of minimum variance control which is used to minimize

the cost function J(u,t) = E{y2 (t)+ ρu2 (t)} where y(t) is the output of the

system, u(t) is the control signal and E {} is the expectation.

(b) Explain about indirect LQG-STR based on Ricatti equation. [8+8]

(b) Positive definite and semi definite functions

(c) Finding Lyapunov functions

(d) Uniform Lyapunov stability. [4+4+4+4]

(b) Parameter adjustment law. [8+8]

1 of 2

Code No: R05411301 Set No. 2

k

7. Consider a process described the transfer function G(s)= 1+sτ e−sL . Obtain the

amplitude margin for the system and show that it is identical to the setting obtained

by applying Zieler-Nichols rule. [16]

[16]

⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

2 of 2

Code No: R05411301 Set No. 3

IV B.Tech I Semester Supplimentary Examinations, March 2009

ADAPTIVE CONTROL SYSTEMS

( Common to Electronics & Control Engineering and Instrumentation &

Control Engineering)

Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80

Answer any FIVE Questions

All Questions carry equal marks

⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

(b) Write about certainity equivalence principle.

(c) Write about different steps to construct an adaptive controller. [6+5+5]

(b) Write about recursive least squares with exponential forgetting. [8+8]

(b) Explain direct self tuning algorithm for non-minimum phase systems. [7+9]

4. (a) Explain the properties of minimum variance and moving average self tuners.

(b) Explain about linear quadratic STR. [8+8]

(b) State and prove Lyapunov stability theorem for time varying systems. [6+10]

(b) Parameter adjustment law. [8+8]

k

G(s)= 1+sT e−sL . Show that the parameters T and L are exactly satisfy the following

relations: T+L= AK0 , T = eAk 1 [16]

(b) Gain scheduling can be used to compensate non-linearities - Discuss. [8+8]

⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

1 of 1

Code No: R05411301 Set No. 4

IV B.Tech I Semester Supplimentary Examinations, March 2009

ADAPTIVE CONTROL SYSTEMS

( Common to Electronics & Control Engineering and Instrumentation &

Control Engineering)

Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80

Answer any FIVE Questions

All Questions carry equal marks

⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

(b) Explain in detail about dual control. [8+8]

y(t+1) + ay(t) = bu(t) + e(t+1) + ce(t) ; t = 1,2

where u(t) and e(t) are sequences of independent random variables with zero mean

values and standard deviations 1 and σ. Assume that the parameters a and b of

the model

y(t+1)+ay(t)=bu(t)

are estimated by least squares. Determine the asymptotic values of the estimates.

[16]

b c

where G1 (s)= (s+a) ;G2 (s)= (s+d) , a and b are unknown parameters and c and d

are known. Construct discrete time direct self tuning algorithm for the partially

known system. [16]

4. Considering basic direct self tuning controller algorithm, discuss different ways

to incorporate reference values in the controller. What are the properties of the

following ways for taking care of the reference value?

(a) Use the difference y-uc instead of y in the algorithm, and introduce an inte-

grator in the controller.

(b) Estimate the parameters using the model

y(t+d)=R*u+S*y-T*uc +E

and let the controller be R*u=S*y+T*uc . [16]

5. (a) State and prove Lyapunov stability theorem for time invariant systems.

(b) Explain methods for finding Lyapunov functions. [8+8]

b c

G(s) = G1 (s)G2 (s) where G1 (s) = s+a , G2 (s)= s+d

where a and b are unknown and c and d are known parameters. Discuss how to

make an MRAS based on the gradient approach. Let the desired model be described

ω2

by Gm (s) = s2 +2δωs+ω 2. [16]

7. (a) Explain Ziegler-Nicholas step response method and explain its characteristics.

(b) What are the methods based on relay feedback? Explain. [8+8]

1 of 2

Code No: R05411301 Set No. 4

8. Gain scheduling reduces parameter variations. Explain with suitable examples.

[16]

⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

2 of 2

Code No: R05412205 Set No. 1

IV B.Tech I Semester Supplimentary Examinations, March 2009

TELEMETRY AND TELECONTROL

(Instrumentation & Control Engineering)

Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80

Answer any FIVE Questions

All Questions carry equal marks

⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

1. (a) How is the voltage converted to current for use in telemetring system? Explain

with suitable diagram and analysis.

(b) Write a short note on two wire line zero loop?

(c) Write about the advantages and disadvantages of voltage telemetry system?

[4+4+8]

2. How can a sawtooth wave form be generated using a relaxation type circuit? Ex-

plain its operation and calculate its output voltage. [16]

3. Twenty one data channels, with subcarrier centre frequencies ranging from 400 Hz

to 165 kHz have been designed for telemetry use. All have a frequency deviation

of ± 7.5%. assuming a modulation index of 5, obtain intelligence bandwidth of

channel 1 for a frequency of 165 kHz. Also find the rise time. Assume that frequency

division has been used. [16]

(b) Sketch the block diagram of such a system both on the transmitter and receiver

sides, and, for modulation and demodulation. Explain the operation? [8+8]

6. Describe the conditions for total internal reflection within a fibre. [16]

7. What is meant by digital Telecontrol method with coding method? Explain about

electro mechanical systems with low and high telegraph speeds in digital pulse code

method. [16]

(b) Telecontrol apparates [8+8]

⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

1 of 1

Code No: R05412205 Set No. 2

IV B.Tech I Semester Supplimentary Examinations, March 2009

TELEMETRY AND TELECONTROL

(Instrumentation & Control Engineering)

Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80

Answer any FIVE Questions

All Questions carry equal marks

⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

(b) What are the characteristics of transmitters and receivers in data transmission

through PLCC?

(c) What is the use of line traps in PLCC data transmission? [4+8+4]

the Nyquist rate into 8 bit samples. What should be the bandwidth (baseband

transmission) and the quantization signal-to-noise ratio? [16]

3. What is the bandwidth requirement of the overall channel(FM) if there are 7 data

channels with cut-off frequencies 6,8,11,14,20,25 and 35 Hz? The IRIG standard

specifies the subcarrier centre frequency for the 14 Hz cut-off signal channel as 960

Hz. [16]

5. Write above the frequency bands of satellite communication with its applications?

[16]

6. What is coherent fibre optical communication system and how is this technique

Usually applied? What advantage is derived from such a system? [16]

(b) Tele Control using information Theory [8+8]

⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

1 of 1

Code No: R05412205 Set No. 3

IV B.Tech I Semester Supplimentary Examinations, March 2009

TELEMETRY AND TELECONTROL

(Instrumentation & Control Engineering)

Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80

Answer any FIVE Questions

All Questions carry equal marks

⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

(a) Why is the scope of hydraulic and pneumatic methods of data transmission

limited?

(b) Why is it necessary to protect transmission channel from sources of interfer-

ences in voltage telemetring system?

(c) What is differences between dc and ac telemetring systems? [4+4+8]

2. Draw the block diagram of pulse telemetry system and explain about each block.

[16]

3. (a) What makes PPL discriminator so popular in communication applications?

(b) In a PLL discriminator the phase detector has a gain of 5 V/r, the VCO has

a gain of 10 KHz/volt and the controller gain is 15. If the phase locking fails

by ± 10%, by how much is the frequency output in error? Assume set phase

and frequency as 300 and 10 MHz respectively? [8+8]

4. Describe:

(a) PAM

(b) PDM

(c) PFM

(d) PCM. [16]

5. What are the different types of MA(Multiple Access) systems. Explain them by

comparision. [16]

6. (a) Explain the attenution in optical fibers with figures?

(b) Differentiate between stepindex and graded index fibers? [8+8]

7. Explain briefly the Telecontrol methods [16]

8. Explain briefly the following:

(a) Telecontrol apparaters

(b) Telecontrol using information Theory. [8+8]

⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

1 of 1

Code No: R05412205 Set No. 4

IV B.Tech I Semester Supplimentary Examinations, March 2009

TELEMETRY AND TELECONTROL

(Instrumentation & Control Engineering)

Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80

Answer any FIVE Questions

All Questions carry equal marks

⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

1. (a) Distinguish between a three line and two line electrical type of transmitter.

(b) What type of variable does it transmit?

(c) Which one more popular in industry and why? [8+4+4]

2. What are the different pulse codes used in telemetry systems? Explain these with

pulse diagrams. [16]

3. (a) What are the two basic discriminator techniques used in the FM demodulator

system? How do they differ in function?

(b) Draw the circuit scheme of a Foster-Seeley discriminator and explain its oper-

ation with appropriate vector/phasor diagrams for different conditions, such

as fin > fc , fin < fc and fin = fc . Obtain analytically and also sketch the

output voltage-input frequency relation. [6+10]

4. In a PCM system, a 7 bit encoder is used. Suppose each level represents a voltage

of 1 V, What is the range of the encoder? Find out the quantization error on

account of PCM if a voltage of 126.80 involved. [16]

6. (a) Draw a block diagram of a fibre optic communications system and describe

the function of each component.

(b) What are the advantages of fibre optic communication? [10+6]

7. (a) With a neat sketch explain the telecontrol system used in short wave trans-

mission installation.

(b) Give an account of Telecontrol console. [8+8]

(b) Remote guidance.hfill[8+8]

⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

1 of 1

Code No: R05412303 Set No. 1

IV B.Tech I Semester Supplimentary Examinations, March 2009

BIO SENSORS AND BIO ELECTRONICS

(Bio-Technology)

Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80

Answer any FIVE Questions

All Questions carry equal marks

⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

1. Mention the technical and functional characteristics required to assess the quality

of biosensors.

[16]

2. Explain the fabrication of composite biosensors and mention the reasons for ease

in commercial scale up.

[16]

signal processing at the ion selective membrane interface.

[16]

surface acoustic wave transducer. [16]

6. Give details about the measurement of volatile organic compounds in air by genet-

ically modified green florescent protein based biosensors.

[16]

dendrimers to detect the target nucleation molecule.

[16]

8. Explain how we can develop local-search algorithms that are particularly suited to

biocomputers.

[16]

⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

1 of 1

Code No: R05412303 Set No. 2

IV B.Tech I Semester Supplimentary Examinations, March 2009

BIO SENSORS AND BIO ELECTRONICS

(Bio-Technology)

Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80

Answer any FIVE Questions

All Questions carry equal marks

⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

1. Write the limitations which impede the use of enzymes as biological elements for

therapeutical applications.

[16]

affinity based biosensors.

[16]

3. Explain the principle and fabrication of thermal transducers for general calorimetric

biosensors.

[16]

sensors.

[16]

5. Explain in detail about DNA biosensors and in detail about the method of esti-

mating DNA damage using DNA biosensors. [16]

pollutants and monitoring by DNA based biosensors.

[16]

[16]

8. It is possible to create a biological device, capable of learning and having multi level

architecture and a high degree of behavioral complexity, explain this assumption

based on Belousov-Zhabotinsky media photosensitive processing.

[16]

⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

1 of 1

Code No: R05412303 Set No. 3

IV B.Tech I Semester Supplimentary Examinations, March 2009

BIO SENSORS AND BIO ELECTRONICS

(Bio-Technology)

Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80

Answer any FIVE Questions

All Questions carry equal marks

⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

biological materials.

[16]

2. Detail then various methods available for estimating the precision, accuracy and

stability of enzyme sensors.

[16]

3. Explain stepwise the evens which occur between bioactive material and conducti-

metric transducers. [16]

4. What are multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNT) and explain how they are coor-

dinates with screen printed carbon electrodes for detecting the biological response.

[16]

5. Explain in detail about DNA biosensors and in detail about the method of esti-

mating DNA damage using DNA biosensors. [16]

during the measurement surface, ground and drinking water for pathogens.

[16]

system.

[16]

8. Describe in detail the two light photosynthetic light systems themselves useful as

processor in photonic biomolecular computers.

[16]

⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

1 of 1

Code No: R05412303 Set No. 4

IV B.Tech I Semester Supplimentary Examinations, March 2009

BIO SENSORS AND BIO ELECTRONICS

(Bio-Technology)

Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80

Answer any FIVE Questions

All Questions carry equal marks

⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

1. Explain the process of for monitoring the odor and freshness of foods using biosen-

sors

[16]

2. Detail then various methods available for estimating the precision, accuracy and

stability of enzyme sensors.

[16]

3. Explain in detail the principle and construction and operation of optical fiber

biosensors.

[16]

(b) Angel beam transducers.

(c) Shear wave transducers. [5+6+6]

5. State and explain how impedimetric technique is useful to monitor the microbial

contamination in fish and meat. [16]

6. Explain how impedimetric nano structured DNA based biosensors measures the

extent of DNA damage by various environment pollutants. .

[16]

dendrimers to detect the target nucleation molecule.

[16]

8. Explain the DNA hybridization technique for pre fabrication of silver wires in pho-

tonic biocomputers.

[16]

⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

1 of 1

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