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Experimental Research Method

Experimental research is a highly controlled procedure in which manipulated treatments or

actions from a factor or condition, called the experimental or independent variable, are applied
upon another factor or condition, called the dependent variable, to determine the effect of the
former upon the latter, all other factors or variables being kept constant or equal so that any
changes in the dependent variable is attributable only to the experimental or independent
Manuel and Medel stated that the basic purpose of experimental research is to discover the
influence of one, or more factors upon a condition, group , or situation, purpose of which is to
discover what will be.
In the other hand, Good defined the Experimental method of research as a method or procedure
involving the control or manipulation of conditions for the purpose of studying the relative
effects of various treatments applied to members of sample, or of the same treatment applied to
members of different sample.
A variable is anything that may change or may be changed from one condition to another,
either qualitatively or quantitatively. Examples are age, height, weight, method of
teaching, etc.
An independent variable is anything, condition, process which is controlled and
manipulated by the experimenter and applied on another thing, condition, or
process(dependent variable) intended to have or produce a change in or reaction from the
A dependent variable is anything, a condition, or process exposed to or upon which
treatments or actions from the independent variable are applied.
3Concepts of Causation according to Estolas and boquiren:
1. One to one Relationship.
According to this concept of causation, for every particular cause there is a corresponding
particular effect. One independent variable causes an effect upon one dependent variable.
2. Two-variable Relationship.
This involves two variables causing an effect upon one variable.
3. Complex Relationship.
This is a case where two or more variables causing a single effect.

In addition to those relationships given by Estolas and Boquiren, there are also cases where one
variable causes to or more effects. Take the case of sunlight. Sunlight helps plants manufacture
food through photosynthesis but it also causes evaporation which kills plants unless sufficiently

General Distinguishing Features of Experiments
The general distinguishing features (characteristics) of experiments are as follows: (Estolas
and Boquiren, pp. 141-142)
1 .Experimentation lends itself to easier manipulation because of quantitative entities.
2 .Observation are done under controlled conditions.
3.Gathering of valid facts is rigorous.
4.Experimentation can be conducted in the laboratory, in the classroom, or in the field.
5.Laboratory experiments are intensive and exacting.
6.Most often experiments are limited to a small number cases.
7.There is more thorough analysis of variables factors.