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The Somnambulist and the Hermaphrodite: Deleuze and

Johann de Montereggio and Occultism


Christian Kerslake
One of Gilles Deleuze's first articles, published in 1946, was an introduction to a
new rench edition of an arcane work of philosoph! bearin" the title Mathesis: or Studies
on the Anarchy and Hierarchy of Knowledge, b! one Dr #ohann $alfatti de $ontere""io%1
Deleuze was twent!&one when he published his introduction to the rench edition of
$alfatti's Mathesis, which was the first new edition for a hundred !ears% '$athesis, 'cience
and (hilosoph!' is one of a "roup of fi)e te*ts he published in the period 194+&,, and which
he subse-uentl! repudiated and o.itted fro. rench biblio"raphies of his work% / 0n the
pre)ious rench edition of $alfatti's work 1published in 12493, the entire book had been
"i)en the abbre)iated title of what is in fact the first of its fi)e essa!s, La Mathse% 4he
edition to which Deleuze adds his introduction in 1946 is a re)ised translation of this
)olu.e%5 4he ori"inal book had first been published in 6eipzi" in 124+ as Studien ber
Anarchie und Hierarchie des Wissens, mit besonderer e!iehung auf die Medicin 7'tudies
on the 8narch! and 9ierarch! of Knowled"e, with special reference to $edicine:% 4he
titles and topics of the fi)e separate but interconnected studies are enou"h to show that we
are dealin" with a rather curious )olu.e;
1% '$athesis as 9iero"l!ph or '!.bolis. of the 4riple 6ife of the <ni)erse, or the
$!stical Or"anon of the 8ncient 0ndians' is a detailed account of the principles of esoteric
nu.erolo"!%
/%'Onl! in the (rocess, =ot in the (roduct' is a de)elop.ent of 'chellin"ian
"atur#hiloso#hie, with fre-uent reference to alche.!%
5% On the 8rchitectonic of the 9u.an Or"anis., Or the 4riple 6ife in the >"" and
the 4riple >"" in 6ife' is an application of a nature&philosophical notion of e.br!o"enesis
to the whole of hu.an life%
4% 'On ?h!th. and 4!pe, Consensus and 8nta"onis. in General, and (articularl! in
$an' is an anal!sis of periodicit! in ph!siolo"!%
+% 'On the Double 'e* in General and on 9u.an 'e* in (articular', is an anal!sis of
hu.an se*ualit! fro. the perspecti)e of the esoteric notion of the her.aphrodite%
@ho was this $alfatti and b! what narrow route did the !oun" Deleuze co.e upon
his workA 4he na.e is not fa.iliar fro. histories of @estern philosoph!, nor does it appear
in histories of Ger.an thou"ht in the nineteenth centur!% But it turns out that this eni".atic
fi"ure left i.portant traces in a nu.ber of distinct areas in .odern thou"ht and culture% 9e
was born in 1,,+ in 0tal!, but in the earl! 12CCs based hi.self in Dienna, beco.in" a
ph!sician in the Ger.an ?o.antic tradition, a follower of 'chellin"ian "atur#hiloso#hie%
9e beca.e sou"ht&after as a ph!sician, and beca.e personal ph!sician to .e.bers of
1
=apoleon Bonaparte's fa.il!, and to Beetho)en, as well as to other fi"ures fro. ro!alt!
and the nobilit!% Studies on the Anarchy and Hierarchy of Knowledge was his second book,
published thirt!&si* !ears after his first, an $ntwurf einer %athogenie aus der $&olution und
'e&olution des Lebens 7'ketch of a (atho"enesis out of the >)olution and ?e)olution of
6ife: 112C93% 8nother work on .edicine followed, "eue Heil&ersuche 1124,3, and what
appears to be his final work, published in 12+5, was an account of Kartoffel()ran)heit, with
particular reference to the her.aphroditic nature of the potato 1$alfatti 12+53% 9e died in
12+9% 8lthou"h it is true that his two .ain books are rarel! referred to in histories of
"atur#hiloso#hie, it turns out that Anarchy and Hierarchy e*erted a si"nificant influence in
a .ore subterranean .ilieu of .odern culture% @hen ?enE GuEnon, the leadin" rench
esotericist of his ti.e, re)iewed the 1946 edition of $alfatti, 1whose book was 'one of those
which is often spoken about, but which few ha)e read'3, he acknowled"ed the historical
)alue of the re&publication, due to 'the considerable role that this work and others of the
sa.e "enre pla!ed in the constitution of occultis. at the end of the 19
th
centur!' 1GuEnon
194,; 223% $alfatti's influence is found .ost e*plicitl! in the work of one of the leaders of
the esoteric .o)e.ent of $artinis., GErard >ncausse, otherwise known as '(apus' 1see
?e""io /CC53% (apus appended a detailed anal!sis of $alfatti's Mathesis to his 1294
.edical dissertation L*Anatomie #hiloso#hi+ue et ses di&isions, and in his ensuin" occult
works he continued to refer to $alfatti at crucial points%4
$artinis. was one of the .ain currents of occultis. in the nineteenth centur!,
ori"inatin" in the thou"ht of $artinFs de (as-uall! 1A&1,,43, and his follower 6ouis Claude
'aint&$artin 11,45&12C53% 4he for.er, a 'panish or (ortu"uese #ew, had inau"urated a
nu.ber of secret societies in rance de)oted to theur"ic ritual, while his follower 'aint&
$artin was the author of .!stical tracts 1includin" one entitled L*Homme du d,sir3 which
"a)e pri.ac! to the .!stical task of interior transfor.ation o)er ritual 19ar)e! /CC+3% B!
the end of the 19
th
centur!, a nu.ber of ?osicrucians, ree.asons, 0llu.inati and
theosophists inhabited (aris and asse.bled to for. a new .o)e.ent of rench $artinis.,
in which (apus and 'tanislas de Guaita were the intellectuall! do.inant fi"ures%+ 4he
theoretical foundations of late rench $artinis. were pro)ided b! $alfatti and 9oGne
@ronski 1also cited b! Deleuze, in his .ain philosophical treatise, -ifference and
'e#etition3% 4he philosophical ideas of $alfatti and @ronski .ediated the $artinists'
access to the traditional te*ts of 9er.etic and occult philosoph!%
4he new edition of Anarchy and Hierarchy for which Deleuze wrote the
introduction was issued in a li.ited edition b! a s.all publishin" house, 'Griffon d'Or',
which published books .ostl! on occult the.es in the i..ediate after.ath of the war,
includin" a nu.ber of books on $artinis.% 4he unna.ed editors re)ised the 1249
translation, reproducin" the e*ceedin"l! stran"e illustrations of 0ndian di)inities and
her.aphrodites that $alfatti had included in the Ger.an )ersion%6 Gi)en that $alfatti's
na.e does not appear e)er a"ain in Deleuze's writin"s, we could be for"i)en for thinkin"
that Deleuze's introduction to $alfatti's Mathesis is .erel! a !outhful dalliance with
occultis.% But occult the.es continue to run throu"hout Deleuze's work; not onl! does the
ter. '.athesis' appear at crucial points of -ifference and 'e#etition, alon" with a weird
e.phasis on the esoteric use of the .athe.atical calculus, but his interest in
so.na.bulis., the notion of the world as an e"", the theor! of the second birth and the
recurrin" i.a"e of the her.aphrodite all refer back to ideas found in $alfatti's book% $an!
ideas that can be traced back to $alfatti's Mathesis resurface in dis"uise in one of Deleuze's
2
)aledictor! te*ts, '4o 9a)e Done with #ud".ent', published in 1995 in .riti+ue et
.lini+ue%,
Could the esoteric theor! of .athesis found in $alfatti's Anarchy and Hierarchy be
the ke! that unlocks the .!ster! of Deleuze's a)owedl! 'esoteric' use of the calculus in
-ifference and 'e#etitionA 4here Deleuze e*plicitl! sa!s that there is a mathesis
uni&ersalis that corresponds to his theor! of 0deas 1Deleuze 1962; 121H 19C3% 'tran"el!,
Deleuze's ad.ission that his interest lies in 'the esoteric histor! of differential philosoph!'
1ibid, 1,C3 has been o)erlooked% 0t has been assu.ed that b! 'esoteric' Deleuze si.pl!
.eans 'obscure'H and of course it is true that the fi"ures of 'olo.on $aI.on, 9oGne
@ronski and #ean Bordas&Des.oulin are rarel! referred to in standard histories of the
.athe.atical calculus% But it is also true that both $alfatti's .athesis and @ronski's use of
the calculus pla!ed i.portant roles in the birth of .odern occultis.% 'arane 8le*andrian
writes that '@ronski holds, in occult philosoph!, the place that Kant holds in classical
philosoph!' 18le*andrian 1925; 1553%2 Both $alfatti and @ronski had arri)ed in the
nebulous terrain of occultis. after apprenticeships in post&Kantian philosoph!% @ronski
was the author of the first e*hausti)e presentation of Kant's philosoph! in rench
1%hiloso#hie criti+ue d,cou&erte #ar Kant, 12C53% 9e subse-uentl! de)eloped a post&
Kantian theor! of calculus and atte.pted to de)elop a cabala&influenced philosoph! of the
absolute 1which he called '$essianis.'3 that would surpass that of 'chellin" and 9e"el%
$alfatti was a 'chellin"ean nature&philosopher who de)eloped and s!nthesised 'chellin"'s
ideas in the areas of .edicine, so.na.bulis. and .!tholo"!% Deleuze's interest in these
thinkers re)eals le"acies of post&Kantian philosoph! which are -uite other to the landscapes
of $ar*is., neo&Kantianis., e*istentialis., etc, that are fa.iliar to conte.porar!
continental philosoph!% 0t is a possibilit! worth considerin" that one of Deleuze's
clandestine ai.s, fro. the be"innin", was to contribute to a specificall! post&Kantian
resurrection of the esoteric notion of .athesis%
0n his fascinatin" sur)e! of occultist philosoph!, the surrealist 'arane 8le*andrian
connects both $alfatti's account of '.athesis' and the philosoph! of @ronski with an older
occult tradition of 'arith.osoph!'% 4he notion of .athesis, he tells us, is used b! theolo"ians
and occultists to denote the conJu"ation of .etaph!sics and .athe.atics in a scientia -ei,
or science of God% or instance, in 166C the bishop of Di"ena)o, #uan Cara.uel, wrote a
Mathesis auda/, in which he declared that 'there are nu.erous -uestions in the philosoph!
of the di)ine which can not be understood without .athesis' 1cited in 8le*andrian 1925;
11/3% rances 8% Kates, the scholar of the 9er.etic tradition, has brou"ht to li"ht a tradition
of '.athesis' that first full! e.er"es in >uropean thou"ht in the work of ?a.on 6ull, but
which has influences further back in 8rabic alche.! and the 9er.etic writin"s of 5
rd
centur! 8le*andria% Kates's ai. was to show that Giordano Bruno was burned at the stake
not because of his affir.ation of Copernicanis., but because of his atte.pts to initiate a
'new reli"ion of 6o)e, 8rt, $a"ic and $athesis' 1Kates 1966; 5,1H Kates 1964; 5+43% 0n his
introduction, Deleuze places $alfatti in a .ore .ainstrea. philosophical tradition,
re.indin" us that, despite his .ind&bod! dualis., Descartes too 1accordin" to Baillet's
bio"raph!3 drea.ed of a mathesis uni&ersalis% But he could ha)e cited other earlier and
later philosophical sources with .ore o)ert connections with her.etic esotericis., such as
6eibniz or =o)alis 1both i.portant to his work3% 6eibniz searched for an arithmetica
uni&ersalis or scientia generalis, which would allow one to deal with all possible
per.utations and co.binations in all disciplines% =o)alis in turn took up the proJect of an
arithmetica uni&ersalis 1000, /5&/+H D!ck 19+9; //3% 4his uni)ersal .athesis was to include
3
'all .ental operations, )olitional and aesthetic e*periences, and all knowled"e' 1D!ck 19+9;
953% 8fter @ronski and $alfatti, philosophical interest in .athesis declines, and the works
of (apus and Guaita are notabl! lackin" in philosophical references 1apart fro. to @ronski
and $alfatti the.sel)es3% But the pro.ises .ade for .athesis were )er! "reat% Deleuze
cites $alfatti's clai. that '.athesis shall be for .an in his relations with the infinite, what
loco.otion is for space' 1Deleuze 1946; *)3% 'o the -uestion is; what happened to
.athesisA @as it e)er declared to be i.possibleA Did an!one e)er think there was an! need
to declare it i.possibleA 4hat $alfatti and @ronski both e*plicitl! e*plore the possibilit!
of a #ost(Kantian .athesis, and that Deleuze, the "reat 'conte.porar!' rench philosopher,
takes the. up on it, su""ests that the -uestion of the .eanin" of .athesis needs to be posed
fro. scratch% Kantian philosoph! .a! ha)e killed 'intellectual intuition' && but did it kill
.athesisA
0 do not atte.pt to answer an! of these -uestions in this essa!, the pri.ar! purpose
of which is to pro)ide so.e basic historical infor.ation about #ohann $alfatti de
$ontere""io, whose life turns out to be al.ost as bizarre and fascinatin" as his ideas% 4he
ai. here is to sketch out the back"round and conte*t of $alfatti's life and thou"ht, not to
atte.pt a philosophical anal!sis of his ideas, nor of the details of his possible influences on
Deleuze's thou"ht%9 9is ideas are frankl! so stran"e that a basic realit!&check on his
e*istence and .o)e.ents needs to be carried out before an! further e*a.ination of his
work% 4he first section looks at $alfatti's back"round in .edicine and 'chellin"ian
"atur#hiloso#hie, while the second section looks at the conte*t for his turn to esotericis.
in Studies on the Anarchy and Hierarchy of Knowledge% 0n the concludin" section, 0 .ake
so.e su""esti)e re.arks about Deleuze's relationship to $alfatti and occultis.%
4
Johann Malfatti de Montereggio and Romantic Medicine
$alfatti was born in 0tal! in 1,,+ and in the last decade of the ei"hteenth centur!
co..enced a stud! of .edicine under 6ui"i Gal)ani in Bolo"na% Gal)ani had de)ised the
fa.ous e*peri.ent in which the li.bs of fro"s were electricall! sti.ulated to produce
contractionsH but he had insisted that the electricit! ori"inated in the ani.al rather than in
the .etal conductors which supported it, and his opponent Dolta was pro)ed ri"ht% $alfatti,
howe)er, re.ained de)oted to Gal)ani, who is discussed and lauded in the second essa! of
Anarchy and Hierarchy% 0n 1,9+ $alfatti .o)ed to Dienna to work at the General 9ospital,
under #oseph rank, who was his ne*t .aJor influence% rank was an enthusiastic follower
of the .edical theories of #ohn Brown 11,5+&1,923, whose dru"&based therap! was taken
up with "reat enthusias. b! ph!sicians influenced b! ?o.anticis., and in the first !ears of
the nineteenth centur!, b! 'chellin" hi.self% 0t is essential to understand a little about
'Brunonian' .edicine if we are to understand $alfatti's back"round%
#ohn Brown was a theolo"ian who turned his attention to .edicine after ha)in"
disco)ered the healin" properties of opiu., which he used to cure his "out% 9e had had
little .edical trainin" when he wrote the $lements of Medicine, published in 1,9C in two
)olu.es of church 6atin% 9is basic idea was that or"anis.s should not be treated on the
.echanical .odel as conduits for e*ternal e*citations, but that the! also ha)e an internal
5
e/citability% @hat the doctor should do is e)aluate the co.bination of de"rees of internal
e*citabilit! with the -uantities of e*ternal sti.ulus recei)ed% 6i)in" bein"s respond to
e*ternal and internal sti.uli; e*ternal e*citin" powers include heat, wine and poisons,
while internal sti.uli arise fro. the bodil! functions% (atholo"! can be treated as a result of
o)ersti.ulation 1sthenia3 or understi.ulation 1asthenia3% O)ersti.ulation leads to an
e*haustion of the internal -uantit! of e*citabilit!, while understi.ulation lea)es -uantities
of the intrinsic acti)it! of the or"anis. unused% '9ealth' e.er"es when the appropriate
-uantit! of sti.ulation is found for the patient% One of Brown's well&known dicta was that
'Life is a forced stateH if the e*citin" powers are withdrawn, death ensues as certainl! as
when the e*citabilit! is "one' 1Brown 1,9+; 0, c**)ii3% 'ince the or"anis. necessaril!
depends on sti.uli fro. the e*ternal world, the state of balance .ust be achie&ed rather
than presupposed, and disease is to be treated b! supportin" the self&re"ulatin" power of the
or"anis.%1C
Brown thou"ht that .ost illness was caused b! lack of sti.ulation, which could be
re.edied with )arious .eans, ran"in" fro. spirituous li-uors, alkaloids such as ether,
while 'hi"hest of all, as far as e*peri.ents ha)e !et thrown li"ht upon the subJect, is opiu.'
1Brown 1,9+; 0, 1C,&23% 9e specificall! used li-uid laudanu., also known then as the 'wine
of the 4urks'% Brown disa"reed with pre)ailin" opinion that opiu. was a sedati)e, citin" its
use b! 4urkish soldiers as a counter&e*a.ple% 9e clai.ed that opiu. was the best treat.ent
for "out, as well as nu.erous other disorders% 'Opiu. is not a sedati)eH on the contrar!, as it
is the .ost powerful of all the a"ents that support life, and that restore health, and a trul!
blessed re.ed!, to the di)ine )irtue of which the li)es of so .an! .ortals ha)e been owin",
and in future, will be owin"H so it .ust be identified that spas.s and con)ulsions, o)er
which it has such "reat power, do not consist in increased, but di.inished e*cite.ent, and
that opiu. cures the. b! the sa.e operation b! which it cures an! other of the diseases,
dependin" on debilit!' 1Brown 1,9+; 0, /413% 8l.ost a hundred !ears after the @estern
cri.inalisation of dru"s, it is hard for us to i.a"ine how easil! a)ailable and widel!
consu.ed dru"s like opiu. and hashish were in the nineteenth centur!% or centuries,
opiu. in particular had been in co..on use in >urope as a uni)ersal panacea 1for instance,
a census in 51/ 8D in ?o.e re)ealed ,95 shops sellin" opiu. in the cit! of ?o.e aloneH
>scohotado 1996; /C3% 0n the nineteenth centur! opiu. was e)en re"ularl! ad.inistered to
children 1under brand na.es such as 8tkinson's 0nfant's (reser)ati)e, or 'treet's 0nfant
Luietness3 1Kohn 192,; +43, althou"h the practice was also conde.ned b! so.e
ph!sicians% 8lthou"h the addicti)e properties of opiu. had lon" been known 1see 6ewin
19/4; /,&,43, and accounts such as Luince!'s .onfessions of an 0#ium $ater 112/13 were
widel! read, it was not until a decade or so after the in)ention of .orphine, durin" the
125Cs && and then, e)en .ore decisi)el!, after the deri)ation of heroin in 12,4 && that
opiates be"an to cause widespread )isible death and destruction across >urope and
be!ond%11 Durin" the first half of the nineteenth centur!, a lar"e bod! of .edical opinion
1datin" its linea"e back to fi"ures such as 4ho.as '!denha. in the se)enteenth centur!
and be!ond3 still held stron"l! to the )iew that opiu. was essential to .edicine, and should
be harnessed and put to .ore precise use for a )ariet! of ail.ents, rather than le"all!
prohibited% 8lthou"h conte.porar! reports of Brown's beha)iour su""est that he was in fact
a total, al.ost .aniacal, opiu. addict,1/ the ai. of the $lements of Medicine && to
transfor. the proble. of opiu. throu"h the creation of a 'science' of dosa"es && would
ne)ertheless ha)e been "ranted a welco.e e)en b! .an! sober&.inded doctors workin" in
Britain at the end of the ei"hteenth centur!%
6
8t the turn of the nineteenth centur! Brown's work suddenl! "ained rapid popularit!
in so.e parts of Ger.an! and 8ustria, throu"h the efforts of 8ndreas ?Mschlaub and
8dalbert $arcus, who ran the hospital in Ba.ber" in northern Ba)aria% 4he! de)eloped
their own $rregbar)eitstheorie 1e*citabilit! theor!3 on Brunonian principles% ?Mschlaub
showed that Brunonian 'e*citabilit!' was different in kind to 9aller's .ore .echanical
theor! of '?eiz' 1irritabilit!'3, to which it bore so.e rese.blance% 4he difference was that
Brown posited an internal e*citabilit! which is actualised b! the reception of sti.uliH the
response to sti.uli was therefore the co.bined product of the sti.uli and the internal
e*citabilit! 14sou!opoulos 1922; 6,3% 'ti.ulation does not onl! co.e fro. the outside, but
also tri""ers the powers of internal e*citabilit!% Luantitati)e .easure.ents therefore had to
e*press a proportional relationship% 4he e.er"ence of ichte's philosoph! in 1,94 pro)ided
another conte*t for the reception of Brown's ideas% 'ichte's Wissenschaftlehre is the theor!
of e*citabilit!', wrote =o)alis, e*citedl! 1Wer)e 5; 5253% ichte's account of the relationship
between the '0' and the 'not&0' found its biolo"ical correlate in the relationship between the
or"anis. and its en)iron.ent%
'chellin" too ca.e under Brown's influence, and saw in Brunonian .edicine the
do.ain in conte.porar! science which was .ost suitable to the de)elop.ent of
"atur#hiloso#hie% 0n 1,99, the Ger.an idealist .o)e.ent in #ena had encountered a .aJor
setback when ichte was dis.issed fro. the uni)ersit! of #ena on the char"e of atheis.%
'chellin", who was not under attack, left #ena in solidarit! with ichte, and de)oted hi.self
for the ne*t few !ears to .edicine, in which he had put his hopes for the de)elop.ent of
his )ersion of idealist philosoph!% '0f natural scientists are all % % % priests of the powers of
nature, still the ph!sician "uards the sacred fire at the centre' 1Wer)e ,, 1513% 9is chosen
.edical instructor was ?Mschlaub in Ba.ber", where he sta!ed before "oin" on to Dienna,
where the Brunonian .o)e.ent was also "ainin" force%15 'chellin"'s 1irst 0utline of a
System of a %hiloso#hy of "ature 11,993 was stron"l! influenced b! Brown's ideas%
0 ha)e to sa! that rown was the first to understand the only true and genuine
#rinci#les of all theories of organic nature, insofar as he posited the "round of life in
e*citabilit!% Brown was the first who had had enou"h sense or fortitude to propound that
parado* of li)in" pheno.ena, at all ti.es understood, but ne)er articulated% 9e was the
first who understood that life consists neither in an absolute passi)it! nor in an absolute
acti)it!, that life is a product of a potenc! hi"her than the .erel! che.ical, but without
bein" supernatural, i%e% a pheno.enon sub.itted to no natural laws or natural forces
1'chellin" 1,99; 623%
0n this i.portant 1,99 s!ste., 'chellin" atte.pts to put Brunonian .edicine on a
.ore solid "atur#hiloso#hische basis, 'deducin"' the concept of e*citabilit! accordin" to
transcendental principles% 9e also atte.pts to sol)e the proble. of whether opiu. is a
sti.ulant or sedati)e b! dialectical .eans 1ibid, 65H cf% 16/3% 'chellin"'s own in)ol)e.ent
with opiu. in this period has not been well&docu.ented, but certain inferences can be
.ade% 0t is known, for instance, that in 12CC 'chellin" prescribed opiu. to 8u"uste
BMh.er, the 16 !ear&old dau"hter of his partner, Caroline 'chle"el, who died as a result
1Neltner 19+4; 563% @hether 'chellin" continued to use opiu. after this tra"ed! is unclear,
but his no)el .lara, written after the death of Caroline 1121C3, is full of i.plicit references
to the hallucinator! properties of opiu.%
'chellin" found in Brown the .aterials for a d!na.ic account of the de)elop.ent
of the life&process% 9e su""ested that his concept of a 'for.ati)e dri)e' operatin" throu"h
biolo"ical e)olution was identical to Brown's; that 'or"anic for.ation happens onl! throu"h
7
the .ediation of the #rocess of e/citability' 1'chellin" 1,99; 423 149owe)er, he thou"ht
that Brown's apprehension of the principle of e*citabilit! was 'disco)ered .ore throu"h a
luck! "ropin" than deduced in a scientific wa!', and stated that ?Mschlaub was the onl! one
of 'Brown's disciples 7to: ha)e understood the scientific seeds which lie in his principles'
1ibid, 623% Brown's own account of the d!na.ic relationship between sti.ulation and
e*citabilit! could be confusin"% or instance, o)ersti.ulation resulted in the e*haustion of
internal e*citabilit!, but the latter itself also needed to be supported, and the prescription of
sti.ulants was therefore also necessar!, so Brown's ar"u.ent went, for o)ersti.ulation as
well as understi.ulation% 4hus, rather than cal.in" o)er&e*citation throu"h bloodlettin" 1as
was still co..on3, one si.pl! had to ad.inister .ore opiu.% 'chellin" tried to elicit the
dialectical .eanin" of such apparent contradictions% 4he poles of sthenia and asthenia as
states of disease re-uired that one e*plain what a 'nor.al a.ount of e*citabilit!' was%
'chellin" ar"ued that as e)er! indi)idual or"anis. is in a continual state of self&
reproduction, it re-uires a special 'rh!th.', in which the de"rees of sensible recepti)it! and
'.a"netic' acti)it! are balanced% Disease e.er"es when the rh!th. of self&reproduction is
disturbed, and -ualitati)e chan"es result in the or"anis. 1ibid 162&1,/H see 4sou!opoulos
19223%
'chellin"'s atte.pt to trans.ute 'Brunonian' .edicine into a s!ste. of
"atur#hiloso#hie in turn found its own enthusiastic disciples in Dienna in the earl! !ears of
the new centur!% ro. a histor! of the Dienna $edical 'chool in the nineteenth centur!
16esk! 196+3, we learn that $alfatti pla!ed a leadin" role in this .o)e.ent% $alfatti
worked at the Dienna $edical 'chool as an assistant under #ohann (eter rank 1and his son
#oseph3% 6esk! writes that under the ranks and $alfatti, 'the so&called 'sti.ulatin"'
.edicines, opiu., cinchona bark, ca.phor, wine, etc, now do.inated the therap! of the
Dienna clinic', in place of the custo.ar! pur"ati)es, la*ati)es and e*pectorants 16esk!
196+; 1C3% 9owe)er, the new wa)e of Brunonian .edicine soon ran into proble.s after it
e.er"ed that .ortalit! rates in the Dienna General 9ospital had risen as a result of its
influence% (atients were fre-uentl! to be found l!in" drunk in their beds, after i.bibin"
lar"e, 'in)i"oratin"' doses of wine 1ibid, 113% Gi)en Brown's fer)ent ad)ocac! of opiu., it
is likel! that $alfatti and his cohorts were also deplo!in" lar"e -uantities of that substance%
0n Anarchy and Hierarchy, $alfatti e*plicitl! .entions the use of opiu. as a .eans of
sti.ulatin" what he calls 'artificial fire' 1$alfatti 124+; 1943% 1+ 9is deplo!.ent of
alche.ical ideas in the book also su""ests the use of .ore unusual co.pounds 1such as
arsenic and .ercur!3, but it is unlikel! he was usin" these at the Dienna 9ospitalH this side
of his research was so.ethin" he went on to de)elop onl! later%
Despite the scandal at the hospital, $alfatti did not relin-uish ?o.antic .edicine%
9e beca.e a friend of 0"naz (aul Dital 4ro*ler 11,2C&12663, a follower of 'chellin", who.
he was sti.ulated to stud!% 4he .ain publication b! 'chellin" on .edicine at this point was
the 1,99 s!ste., with its speculati)e appropriation of Brunonian .edicine% 0n 12C9
$alfatti published his first .aJor work, $ntwurf einer %athogenie aus der $&olution und
'e&olution des Lebens 7'ketch of (atho"enesis fro. the >)olution and ?e)olution of 6ife:,
which de)eloped 'chellin"ian "atur#hiloso#hie throu"h the .ore practical .edical ideas
of Brown and ?Mschlaub% 'pecificall!, $alfatti atte.pts to appl! the principles of 'chellin"
and Oken within the sphere of hu.an onto"en!% (refaced b! a lon" introduction in which
$alfatti discusses the current state of "atur#hiloso#hie, the ai. of the work is to present a
co.plete account of the onto"en! of the hu.an bein", fro. '4he 6ife of the etus'
112tusleben3, throu"h childhood, !outh, .aturit! and old a"e, endin" in '$aras.us'
8
1wastin"&awa!3% 'chellin"'s ideas about the self&producti)e nature of the or"anis., alon"
with his theor! of '.eta.orphosis', per.it a deter.ination of the internal polarities and
thresholds of transfor.ation of each sta"e of de)elop.ent% 8lread! for $alfatti, the
e.br!o is the pri.ar! .odel of self&de)elop.ent, with spatial di)isions arisin"
autono.ousl! in the e"" throu"h polarisation of the li)er and brain% 0n 3he Anarchy and
Hierarchy of Knowledge, the .odel of the e.br!o beco.es co.pletel! do.inant, and
'e.br!os' are unco)ered in the abdo.en, the thoracic re"ion, and e)en in the head of the
de)elopin" hu.an bein"% 4he S)etch of %athogenesis is .ore con)entional, albeit within
the nor.s of earl!&nineteenth centur! "atur#hiloso#hie% $alfatti is concerned to identif!
periodic rh!th.s within the bod! itself, for instance, the c!cle of respiration, sleepin" and
wakin", the periodic se*ual i.pulses in .ale and fe.ale 1on rh!th. and t!pe, cf% $alfatti
12C9; **ii3% >ach de)elop.ental sta"e has its own "o)ernin" polarit!, and dise-uilibriu.
within this polarit! is correlated with the tendenc! towards particular patholo"ies% >ach a"e
has its own particular diseases 1childhood has its rickets and scrofula, !outh phthisis
7tuberculosis or lun" disease "enerall!:, .aturit! has arthritis, old a"e scirrhus and cancer3%
4he childhood propensit! to rickets, accordin" to $alfatti, is due to 'the abnor.all!
persistin" direction of the two predo.inant polarities of head and sto.ach, brain and li)er'
1$alfatti 12C9; +2H 6esk! 196+; 593%
B! all accounts after the publication of his first book $alfatti went on to beco.e
hi"hl! sou"ht&after as a ph!sician% 9e was ph!sician to the brother and sister of =apoleon
Bonaparte, as well as =apoleon 00, the Duke of ?eichstadt%16 9e is said to ha)e had an
outstandin" reputation as a doctor, and in 121+ the forei"n heads of state who con)ened for
the Con"ress of Dienna reputedl! benefited fro. sessions with $alfatti 18lt.an 1999; 243%
4he fact that $alfatti "ained such success as a ph!sician to ro!alt!, nobilit! and politicians
usin" a Brunonian s!ste. of .edicine su""ests that, if 'chellin"'s "atur#hiloso#hische
trans.utation of Brunonian .edicine failed to achie)e acceptance in the subse-uent
'official' histor! of science and .edicine, it found a co.fortable niche as a s!ste. of
.edicine for Elites% (erhaps it re.ained a .ore or less 'secret' s!ste. of .edicine, until it
was disco)ered and de)eloped b! the rench $artinists at the end of the centur!%
ro. 12C9 until 121,, $alfatti was Beetho)en's doctor% 4he co.poser and the
doctor enJo!ed a close but turbulent relationship, and $alfatti attended the .aster at his
death&bed% Gi)en $alfatti's de)elop.ent of 'chellin"'s appropriation of Brunonianis., we
can i.a"ine $alfatti preparin" an elaborate s!ste. of in)i"oratin" and into*icatin" potions
for Beetho)en in this period 1which coincides with the end of the second period in the
co.poser's de)elop.ent and the be"innin" of the e*peri.ental final period3% 0n 1214,
Beetho)en wrote a cantata for his doctor 14n lieto brindisi, @erke ohne Opuszahl, 1C53H
'Or >lise' was written for $alfatti's niece, 4herFse% 9owe)er, in 1216, Beetho)en be"an to
de)elop the peculiar illness which was to pla"ue hi. until his death% 4here re.ains
continuin" doubt about the nature of the illness, but Gail 8lt.an has noted that its
s!.pto.s are consistent with arsenic poisonin"% @hispers about Beetho)en's condition of
.ind persisted throu"hout his lifeti.e, but these ru.ours reached a pitch in 121,, 'when
the $aster showed a hi"h de"ree of e*citabilit! and his beha)iour and appearance
deteriorated' 1=ettl 19+,; 993% 0n 8pril 121,, there is a sudden breakin" off of relations with
$alfatti, who Beetho)en then went on to denounce in a letter as a 'sl! 0talian 7ein #fiffiger
italiener: 7who: had powerful secondar! .oti)es 7so star)e "ebenabsichten: where 0 was
concerned and lacked both honest! 7'edlich)eit:and insi"ht 7$insicht:' 16etter of #une 19,
121, to Countess >rdMd!H in Beetho)en 1961; 00, 6253% =e)ertheless, Beetho)en returned to
9
$alfatti for help in 12/, durin" his final illness% $alfatti prescribed the ailin" Beetho)en a
.i*ture of ru., tea and su"ar, and Beetho)en wrote '$iracle of .iraclesP % % % Onl! throu"h
$alfatti's science shall 0 be sa)ed' 1cited in 4ha!er 19/1; 1C5/3% 9owe)er, Beetho)en soon
be"an to o)erindul"e in the frozen punch, and died a few .onths later% 4he possibilit! that
$alfatti correctl! saw that Beetho)en's illness was incurable and therefore tacitl! licensed
his o)erindul"ence in the punch should not be ruled out, and in fact this is how 4ha!er
presents it in his life of Beetho)en 14ha!er 19/1; 1C5/3% 4his in turn leads to the possibilit!
that the reason for Beetho)en's break with $alfatti was a conflict o)er dosa"esH Beetho)en
.a! ha)e been o)erindul"in" in 1216&1,, which would ha)e been linked with his chan"e in
beha)iour and appearance%
0n 1216, $alfatti took up $es.er's theor! of ani.al .a"netis. in a .odified
"atur#hiloso#hische )ersion% '9e had .eanwhile beco.e a practitioner )er! .uch in
de.and in Dienna % % % and treated patients sufferin" fro. paral!sis and chronic sin"ultus b!
.a"netic healin" but without a ba-uet' 16esk! 196+; 513%1, 0n 121, $alfatti beca.e
personal ph!sician to the 8rchduchess Beatri* of >ste, and was sent b! the Diennese court
to in)esti"ate ani.al .a"netis. in the clinic of K%C% @olfart, a follower of $es.er who
had set up a state subsidised clinic in Berlin for the .a"netic treat.ent of the poor 1Gauld
199/; 293% 0n 1251, he was asked b! $etternich, the 8ustrian pri.e .inister, to care for his
seriousl! ill son% 0n 1254, there is record of a )isit to the Catholic theosophist ranz )on
Baader, with who. he discussed the decadence of .edicine due to .aterialis.% Both )on
Baader and $alfatti saw in ani.al .a"netis. the proof of the incorrectness of .aterialis.,
but a"reed that $es.er hi.self had been an 'arch&.aterialist' whose therap! could onl! be
understood properl! within 'chellin"ian pantheis. 1ai)re 1996; +53% 0n 125,, $alfatti
was honoured b! the 8ustrian "o)ern.ent, and beca.e a .e.ber of the nobilit! 1an
$dler3% 9e beca.e the first president of the Diennese 'ociet! of Doctors 15esellschaft der
6r!te3, founded in 125, 1'chMnbauer 1944; 4C53% 0n 124+, when he was se)ent! !ears old,
he published Studies on the Anarchy and Hierarchy of Knowledge% 0n Anarchy and
Hierarchy, $alfatti recalls presentin" his ideas on .athesis in 1241 in a speech at the end
of his ter. as president of the Diennese 5esellschaft 1$alfatti 124+; ,3%
Despite $alfatti's on"oin" success with .e.bers of Elite societ!, a series of his
patients appear to ha)e .!steriousl! died in his care% =o doubt our first suspicions will be
directed at the notorious Brunonian s!ste. of .edicine itself% 9owe)er, the truth .a! not
be so si.ple% $alfatti is suspected of bein" a state assassin in Gail 8lt.an's historical
'whodunnit', 1atal Lin)s: 3he .urious -eaths of eetho&en and the 3wo "a#oleons 119993%
8ccordin" to 8lt.an, $alfatti poisoned Beetho)en, dilutin" lead into the punch,
dispatchin" both =apoleon's sister and the Duke of ?eichstadt in si.ilar wa!s% 8lt.an
su""ests that $alfatti was workin" for the 8ustrian "o)ern.ent 1who had interests in
suppressin" the Duke3, and that this e*plains how he re.ained unscathed, beco.in" a
wealth! and respected fi"ure in the nobilit!, e)en after a series of his hi"h&profile patients
had e*pired 18lt.an 1999; 25&9C, 121&/C+3% 'he concludes that $alfatti is the pri.e
suspect in 'the cri.e of the nineteenth centur!' 11963%
One starts to feel that there so.ethin" a little too perfect about that na.e, Malfatti,
with its literal .eanin" of 'ill&fashioned', and its se.antic resonances 1mal fati % % % 'bad
deeds'A, 'ill fated'A, or Just 'badl! .ade'A3% @ho was this characterA @as he one of the
bi""est .edical buffoons in histor!, accidentall! killin" the "reatest co.poser in the @estA
@as he a state assassinA Or was he in fact Just an e*cellent Brunonian doctor, who
unsuspectin"l! e*posed the disastrous shortco.in"s and dan"ers of Brunonianis. as a
10
's!ste.' of .edicineA 6et us note onl! that in late /CC+, a sa.ple of Beetho)en's hair
showed the presence of )ast -uantities of lead, thus appearin" to confir. the theor! that he
was poisoned% Beetho)en foru.s on the internet are currentl! ali)e with speculations about
the doin"s of the sinister Doctor $alfatti% But the truth .a! be .ore co.plicated than Gail
8lt.an .akes out% 9er thesis is hi"hl! speculati)e, and o)erlooks the possibilit! that
$alfatti's 'poisonin"' of his clients could be the result of o)erzealous application of
Brunonian .edicine, .i*ed with alche.ical recipes in)ol)in" to*ic .inerals% or instance,
if arsenic were detected in Beetho)en's re.ains, that would not necessaril! .ean that he
was deliberatel! poisoned b! it% 8lthou"h arsenic was indeed the poison of choice at this
ti.e, it was used as an aphrodisiac and for health reasons, as well as ha)in" a lon" tradition
of alche.ical use%12 0t see.s possible that arsenic, alon" with other to*ic substances, .i"ht
ha)e ser)ed as eli*irs in $alfatti's phar.ac!, to be used in carefull! re"ulated dosa"es,
rather than as poisons% @hether the lead found in Beetho)en's hair can be traced back to
$alfatti will be a )er! difficult -uestion to answer, and is co.plicated b! the fact that
$alfatti's .edicine was b! this point 112/,3 alread! hi"hl! unorthodo*%
@e lea)e aside now the -uestion of whether $alfatti was responsible for the 'cri.e
of the nineteenth centur!'% $ore research needs to be done% 4he tantalisin" report that the
>uropean heads of state paid hi. a )isit at an international con"ress in 121, certainl! raises
the possibilit! at least that $alfatti pla!ed an i.portant role in an s!ste. of .edicine for
use b! Elites, the risks of which .i"ht indeed ha)e been known b! those who felt it
necessar! to take the., in order to "ain andQor .aintain power, be it creati)e or political%
9owe)er, $alfatti's turn in the 125Cs to .es.eris. and theosoph!, cul.inatin" in the
publication of Anarchy and Hierarchy, is still unaccounted for% 4he ne*t section ai.s to
brin" to li"ht the historical back"round of $alfatti's transition fro. Brunonian
"atur#hiloso#hie in the S)etch of a %athogenesis to the e*tra)a"ant theosophical theories
of .athesis that characterise Anarchy and Hierarchy%
Malfatti and the Esoteric Turn of German dealism
0n 12C6, 'chellin" .ade the ac-uaintance of the ranz )on Baader 11,6+&12413,
who at that ti.e doubled as an en"ineer and as a )ocal ad)ocate for the introduction of the
theosophical thinkin" of BMh.e, 'aint&$artin and the Ger.an .!stical tradition into
Catholic thou"ht and practice% or Baader, the ter. 'theosoph!' indicated a world&)iew in
which hu.an consciousness is understood as the co.in" to consciousness of God hi.self%
0n BMh.e's theosoph!, the course of the world, its de)elop.ent in nature and histor!, was
understood as the .anifestation of a dra.a takin" place in God hi.self% Baader had found
in BMh.e a .eans of e*periencin" the life of God, and thus achie)in" a )ersion of the
intellectual intuition apparentl! e*cluded b! Kant% Baader also introduced the discussion of
se*ualit! into theosoph!% 0n an article published in 'chellin"'s 7ahrbcher in 12C2, Baader
su""ested that there is an analo"! between knowin" and se*ualit!, and that se*ual instinct
and consciousness contains a ne"lected ke! to co"nition% 9e went on to de)elop an
elaborate theor! of lo)e, in which the i.a"e of the her.aphrodite ser)ed as the s!.bol of
the di)ine union achie)ed throu"h the se*ual act 1see Betanzos 19923%
0n the fa.ous 12C9 essa! on hu.an freedo. 'chellin" appealed to BMh.e and
Baader for a conception of pantheis. which could, unlike 'pinoza's, take account of the
e*istence of freedo. and the choice of "ood and e)il% 4he answer was to treat hu.an
freedo. as a replication of God's own inner stru""le between radical selfhood 1e)il, wrath3
and uni)ersalit! 1the "ood, lo)e3% '@rath' 78orn: was a di)ine force rather than a hu.an
weakness, and 'lo)e' was the ele.entar! for. of uni)ersalit!% 8s 4ho.as O' $eara showed
11
in his 192/ work 'omantic 9dealism and 'oman .atholicism, subtitled Schelling and the
3heologians, Baader's influence was decisi)e for 'chellin"% '0 know a .an who is b! nature
a subterranean .an', he wrote "lowin"l! of Baader at one point durin" these !ears, 'in
who. knowin" has beco.e solid realit!H in who. knowin" has beco.e bein", Just as in
.etals sound and li"ht recei)e .ass' 1O'$eara 192/; 24H 'Kritische ra".ente', in Wer)e ,;
/4,3% 0n 12C6, under the influence of Baader, 'chellin" had announced his renunciation of
the ichtean episte.olo"ical approach to philosoph!, statin" that he now was not afraid to
stand in 'the co.pan! of .!stics' 1O'$eara 192/; 24H Wer)e ,, 1/C3% ro. 12C6 onwards,
'chellin" beca.e full! i..ersed in the occult, workin" on so.na.bulis. and
'clair)o!ance'% 9is later philosoph!, cul.inatin" in the .onu.ental '(hilosoph! of
$!tholo"!', was to be do.inated b! theosoph!% ollowin" Baader, his $r!eugungsdiale)ti)
or theor! of potenc!Qpower, beca.e .ore centred around the .odel of the reproducti)e act
1see Beach 1994 for an account of 'chellin"'s theor! of potencies3% 9owe)er, 'chellin"'s
a.bi)alence towards Christianit! beca.e a point of increasin" disa"ree.ent between the
two thinkers% or Baader, theosoph! was ulti.atel! a self&re)elation of the Christian God%
'chellin", on the other hand, increasin"l! tended to treat all reli"ions and .!tholo"!,
whether Christian, (ersian or 0ndian, as e-uall! Justified within their own sphere of
historical de)elop.ent% Baader saw throu"h 'chellin"'s clai. that the dialectic of
.!tholo"ies ter.inated in an o)erco.in" of .!tholo"! itself in the internalised conscience
of Christianit!% 'chellin" had in fact refashioned the notion of 're)elation' b! de)elopin" the
her.etic idea that the onl! re)elation is to be found in the recapitulation in the .ind of
cos.ic and ci)ilizational histor!, with .!tholo"! as a "uide% Baader was also irritated that
'chellin" had taken to .ockin" 'aint&$artin in his lectures 1O'$eara 192/; 1543%19 9e
reJected the late 'chellin"'s de)elop.ent of theosoph! as barbarous and pa"an% '4he li"ht of
Christ', he said, 'did not co.e fro. the swa.p of .!tholo"!' 1ibid3%
0n his 12C9 S)etch of %athogenesis, $alfatti was alread! notin" ?oschlRub's
tendencies towards 'theosophical' thinkin" 1$alfatti 12C9; )3% ?oschlRub was tr!in" to
follow 'chellin" on his increasin"l! erratic path 14sou!poulos 192/; /,3% 'chellin" had
presented the Ger.an&speakin" Brunonians with a philosophical deplo!.ent of
Brunonianis., but had hi.self then "one on to throw hi.self into .!sticis. and
theosoph!% or se)eral !ears, 'chellin" had been followin" the ideas and practices of the
Brunonian doctors && but could the Brunonians now follow hi. into theosoph!A 0n 124+,
with Anarchy and Hierarchy, $alfatti at last outdoes an! pre)ious atte.pt at s!nthesisin"
?o.antic "atur#hiloso#hie and theosoph!, with results unprecedented in either .edicine
or in the histor! of reli"ious thou"ht% $alfatti reJects the residual traces of Christianit! in
'chellin", and traces the ori"ins of theosophical thou"ht back to 9indu .!sticis., which is
the ori"in, he clai.s, of a .!sterious, ecstatic techni-ue of thinkin" he calls .athesis%
$alfatti tells us that the '.other&idea' of his later studies is 'the unit! of science' as spelled
out in 'the .!stical 0rganon of .athesis of the 0ndians' 1$alfatti 124+; **)ii3% 0n his
openin" re.arks to the first stud!, on .athesis itself, he asserts that .etaph!sics and
.athe.atics ori"inall! .aintained a li)in" unit! in ancient 0ndia% 0f we look hard enou"h,
we can find in .athe.atics the '.ute debris of a spiritual .onu.ent' 1ibid, 63% $athe.atics
did not be"in as a for.al science, but functioned as an essential part of an inte"rated s!ste.
of esoteric knowled"e and ecstatic practice% 4he nu.erical decad, and the for.s "enerated
within and fro. it, were ori"inall! related to a s!ste. of occult anato.!, in which the )ital
forces that rule the bod! were ordered hierarchicall! in polarities, potencies and planes% 4he
purpose of mathesis was to articulate bodil! forces nu.ericall!, identif!in" their points of
12
threshold and transfor.ation, and relatin" the. back to .acrocos.ic patterns in the
e)ol)in" uni)erse% @hat $alfatti has to sa! about 0ndian .!sticis. is rooted in ideas fro.
the 4antric tradition of 0ndian .!sticis., the "reat se*o&cos.ic s!ste. which took hold of
$edie)al 0ndia for se)eral centuries before under"oin" con)ulsion and dissolution at
around the ti.e of the flowerin" of the >uropean ?enaissance%/C $alfatti puts 'chellin"'s
e.phasis on $r!eugung 7procreation: ri"ht at the centre of his s!ste., takin" the concept at
both se*ual and .etaph!sical le)els, atte.ptin" to find the pathwa!s between the two% 9e
continuall! focusses on the se*ual and ecstatic aspects of 0ndian .!sticis., la!in" out a
)ast se*ualised ontolo"!, cul.inatin" 1as in Baader's s!ste.3 in the 'her.aphroditic'
consciousness of the hu.an se*ual act% 0n Anarchy and Hierarchy it is as if 'chellin"'s final
theosoph! co.es to co.pletion in a hallucinator! 4antris., in which the li)in" bod! of
God, in its .ost co.plete self&de)elop.ent, itself appears in her.aphroditic for. in
hu.an se*ualit!, where the co.in"&to&di)ine&consciousness beco.es identical to the
ps!chose*ual attain.ent, alon" 4antric lines, of spiritual 'bise*ualit!'% 4his 's!ste.',
unco)ered b! $alfatti, is said to for. the basis for all subse-uent >astern and @estern
esoteric thou"ht, and now furnishes us with the lon"&lost ke! to the ulti.ate s!ste. of
.edicine%
Ger.an ?o.anticis. had had a lon"&standin" fascination with 0ndian tradition,
be"innin" with 9erder and reachin" an earl! hi"h point with riedrich 'chle"el's Language
and the Wisdom of the 9ndians 112C23H $alfatti refers to 'chle"el's work as an influence%/1
0n his %hiloso#hy of Mythology, 'chellin" describes the triad of Brah.a, 'hi)a and Dishnu
as e*e.plifications of his three pri.ar! di)ine powers% 'chellin" did not "i)e pri.ac! to
an! one world reli"ion, and thus treated the 0ndian trimurti as parallel to the >"!ptian triad
of 4!phon, Osiris and 9orus, and indeed the Christian trinit! of God, 'on and 9ol!
'pirit%// $alfatti is .ore reckless in su""estin" that there is one uni)ersal philosoph!
which e.anates first of all fro. 0ndian .!sticis., and then repeats itself in different for.s
throu"hout the histor! of reli"ion, throu"h the =eo&(latonis. of (roclus and Dion!sius the
8reopa"ite, down to BMh.e and 'aint&$artin% 4his con)iction that so.ethin" eternal is
repeated b! )arious 'initiates' throu"hout histor! is a back"round assu.ption of $alfatti's
book, as well as of the esoteric and occult traditions in "eneral% 4he influence of riedrich
Creuzer's idealist histor! of reli"ion, Symboli) und Mythologie der alten :2l)er 1121C&1/3
is also apparent%/5Creuzer had clai.ed that there was ori"inall! one prehistoric reli"ion,
s!ste.atised b! a caste of Oriental priests, who had deliberatel! )eiled their doctrines in
s!.bolsH the cult had tra)elled throu"h >"!pt and arri)ed in Greece, where it underwent a
de"radation into anthropo.orphis.%/4 8lthou"h $alfatti refers to a nu.ber of sources
apart fro. Creuzer he adheres to Creuzer's h!pothesis that a 'pri.ordial re)elation' in the
Orient is at the root of all world reli"ions%
But $alfatti's .ain source for 0ndian reli"ion is =iklas $Oller's 5lauben, Wissen
und Kunst der alten Hindus 73he eliefs, Science and Art of the Ancient Hindus: 112//3%
4he illustrations of 9indu deities and fi"ures which appear unchan"ed in Anarchy and
Hierarchy are but a s.all selection fro. o)er a hundred re.arkable en"ra)in"s appended
to $Oller's )olu.e, with detailed e*plications% =iklas $Oller 11,,C&12+13 worked as a
curator at the .unicipal art "aller! at $ainz, writin" local histories alon"side erudite works
on 0ndian reli"ion and $ithrais. 1Kucharski 1962; /3% 9is 12// work on 0ndian
philosoph!, reli"ion and art is i..ense and bizarre% Despite the acknowled"ed influence of
Creuzer and GMrres, his approach is ori"inal, and is structured around a hi"hl!
.etaph!sical and detailed account of the relationships between 9indu deities, based on
13
their place in a s!ste. of e.anations% On this basis, there are len"th! discussions of cos.ic
se*ualit! 1cf% $Oller 12//; /99&55/3, includin" references to ''hakti&ener"!' 15/53 which
foreshadow $alfatti's later se*o&cos.ic ideas% 4he twelfth chapter deals with the the.e of
'inner Doublin"' 7innern $nt!weiung:, rooted in the stru""le of two cos.ic foundin"
principles of pri.al "ood and pri.al e)il 1ibid, 4653% 4he funda.ental idea that the hu.an
bein" is 'duple*' all the wa! up, fro. its ph!siolo"! up to the her.aphroditic consciousness
of se*ual acti)it!, is central in $alfatti's book, findin" its fullest e*position in the final
chapter on the 'Double 'e*' i.plied b! her.aphroditic consciousness%
4he inau"ural character of $alfatti's Anarchy and Hierarchy co.es fro. its atte.pt
to s!nthesise 0ndian reli"ious ideas with conte.porar! ideas about so.na.bulis.% =either
'histor! of reli"ion', nor '.edicine', $alfatti's te*t stands at the ori"in of the atte.pts of
nineteenth centur! occultis. to co.bine ancient lore with conte.porar! theories of
so.na.bulis.% 9is "uidin" clai. is that .odern "atur#hiloso#hie, in conJunction with
conte.porar! theories of .es.eris., is the condition of possibilit! for the redisco)er! of
the powers of ecstatic healin" first disco)ered in 0ndian occultis.%
4hat which, in the conte.plation of life, was attained in principle throu"h the
.ortification of the senses, b! the abase.ent of the indi)idual, has been subJect in our
ti.es 1althou"h rarel! with enou"h purit! and ele)ation3 throu"h the .eans of a sort of
artificial anticipation of death 1ani.al .a"netis.3% 4he sa.e fact has lon" been obser)ed
in the case of fortuitous alterations of health, which ha)e for their particular effect the
concentration and .o.entar! ele)ation of the so.atic life of the indi)idual% 0n the first
case it is called artificial so.na.bulis., in the second case spontaneous so.na.bulis.
1$alfatti 124+; +3%
or $alfatti, the process of self&healin" throu"h natural and artificial
so.na.bulis. in)ol)es the liberation of the sa.e forces deplo!ed in the occult anato.! of
4antric .!sticis.% But the 0ndians had also had the ad)anta"e of the 'ad.irable .!stical
Or"anon of .athesis' as the .eans to articulate a theosophical anato.!% Conte.porar!
nature&philosophical .edicine, he ar"ued, should therefore return to 0ndian tradition in
order to e*ploit the disco)eries opened up b! recent research into so.na.bulis.% or
whereas conscious thou"ht is nor.all! deter.ined b! self&consciousness, if consciousness
is rela*ed throu"h natural or artificial so.na.bulis., then the sin"le&.inded apprehension
of ps!chic tendencies which are usuall! unconscious beco.es possible, allowin" in turn for
the production of a hi"her s!nthesis of co"nition% $alfatti's Anarchy and Hierarchy is an
atte.pt to control the power of drea.s, to harness what Colerid"e called the 'so.niacal
.a"ic % % % superinduced in the acti)e powers of the .ind' durin" states of artificiall!
induced so.na.bulis. 1Colerid"e 1252; 000, 59,3% '@hat an astonishin" ad)anta"e .an
has drawn fro. the ni"ht&side of his life', re.arks $alfatti in a passa"e that is still to be
found echoin" in Deleuze's late essa! '4o 9a)e Done with #ud".ent' 1Deleuze 1995; 15C3;
'to open up throu"h sleep 7sommeil:, b! .eans of a state of interior )i"il 1the )i"il of sleep
7la &eille du sommeil:3, the hi"hest, .ost hidden astral re"ion; this is what the .a"netic
de)elop.ent of clair)o!ance and ecstas! de.onstrates to us, in the sa.e wa! as the natural
life of drea.s' 1$alfatti 124+; 1+53%
$alfatti's Anarchy and Hierarchy inhabits the borderline between .edicine 1albeit
of an unorthodo* kind3 and occultis.% 0f GuEnon is ri"ht to assert the influence of $alfatti
on later occultis., this is not onl! due to his s!ncretic co.bination of nu.erolo"!,
9er.etis. and 0ndian reli"ion, but also due to his e*plicit discussion and deplo!.ent of
dru"s in the production of 'artificial so.na.bulis.'% @e find traces here of a historical
14
bifurcation between 'occultis.' and 'esotericis.'% @hereas occultists like 'tanislas de
Guaita, (apus and (aul 'Edir 1in his Les #lantes magi+ues, 19C/3 wrote e*plicitl! about the
role of dru"s in attainin" altered or 'hi"her' consciousness, the 'esotericist' tradition tended
to cast its "aze awa! fro. the haunted, half&swa.ped a)enues e*plored b! the
ps!chophar.acolo"ical alche.ist% 8lthou"h $alfatti did not think of hi.self as an
occultist, it is not i.possible to see how his ori"inal s!nthesis of dru"&e*peri.entation with
0ndian ideas of 'subtle' anato.! .i"ht ha)e inspired the ad)entures of a re)i)ed 'occultis.'
at the end of the nineteenth&centur!%
Deleuze and Occultism
@e ha)e seen that $alfatti's influence was felt at a nu.ber of 'sin"ular' points in the
de)elop.ent of .odern thou"ht and culture, in the fields of .usic and .edicine, and in
fin(de(sicle occultis.% 4he histor! of the real and .anifold influence of the post&
'chellin"ian )ein of 'occultis.' on later nineteenth and earl! twentieth&centur! thou"ht and
culture has !et to be written% 4he na.es of the foundin" fi"ures of .odern occultis. &&
$alfatti and @ronski && re.ain al.ost unknown, and Deleuze was unusual for referrin" to
the. at all% 4o what e*tent, then, .i"ht the ideas of $alfatti ha)e continued to influence or
infor. Deleuze's '.ature' philosoph!A Because of the difficult! of $alfatti's central work,
Anarchy and Hierarchy, and the need for a relati)el! detailed preli.inar! anal!sis of the
.eans for e)aluatin" works of this nature,/+ it is not possible to atte.pt here an!
substanti)e co.parison of $alfatti's and Deleuze's theses% '$athesis, 'cience and
(hilosoph!', Deleuze's te*t on $alfatti, .oreo)er, is often "no.ic in itself, particularl! in
its passa"es on the .eanin" of 'initiation'%/64he followin" re.arks .erel! atte.pt to
su""est, as .ini.all! and "entl! as possible, that so.e of Deleuze's ideas .i"ht be
rendered .ore intelli"ible b! bein" related back to the .odern >uropean occult tradition%/,
or e)idence, let us refer to Just one of Deleuze's last essa!s, '4o 9a)e Done with
#ud".ent' 119953% 0n this essa! && which .akes no bones about bein" hi"hl! spooked &&
Deleuze is to be found inhabitin" the sa.e border zone between .edicine and .a"ic as his
old friend Doctor $alfatti% '4o 9a)e Done with #ud".ent' presents four interconnected
practices that Deleuze holds to be essential for a proposed ethics that will break with
'#udeo&Christian' .oralit! and 1in the words of 8ntonin 8rtaud3 'ha)e done with the
Jud".ent of God'% 8lon"side 'power' and the capacit! for 'co.bat', Deleuze proposes that
)isionar! dru" e*perience and occult anato.! ser)e as pri)ile"ed .eans for escapin" 'the
consciousness of bein" in debt to the deit!' which, he sa!s 1followin" =ietzsche3, is the
basic condition of the s!ste. of 'Jud".ent' 1Deleuze 1995; 1/63% 4he conJunction of dru"&
e*perience, on the one hand, and occult anato.!, on the other, installs us fir.l! back
within the conte*t of .odern occultis.% Distinct echoes of the !oun" Deleuze's earl!
encounter with $alfatti can be heard, as he retraces in this piece the path fro. )isionar!
dru" e*perience to occult anato.!% Deleuze was one of the few philosophers to continue
the tradition of ps!chedelic e*peri.entation whose last "reat philosophical proponent was
@illia. #a.es% 4here are a nu.ber of passa"es in his work which discuss dru"&
e*peri.entation 1see Boothro!d /CC6; 1++&2+3% 0n an article published in 19,+ for the
rench $ncyclo#edia 4ni&ersalis, ''chizophrenia and 'ociet!', Deleuze .ade a case for the
i.portance of ps!chophar.acolo"! in the stud! of ps!chopatholo"!%/2 0n passa"es of A
3housand %lateaus, howe)er, and '4o 9a)e Done with #ud".ent', the the.es of dru"&
e*perience and occultis. are re&united once .ore, as the! were in $alfatti% Dru"
into*ication, Deleuze tells us, can harness the power of drea.s, throu"h .aster! of what he
calls sommeil 1a ter. which is inaccuratel! translated as 'sleep' in >n"lish3% (e!ote rites, for
15
instance, 'are not drea.s, but states of into*ication or sommeil'% 4here e*ists, sa!s Deleuze,
a 'drea.less sommeil in which one nonetheless does not fall asleep 7dormer:'H and,
.oreo)er, 'such is the state of Dion!sian into*ication' 1Deleuze 1995; 15C3%/9 4hen,
i..ediatel! after this passa"e, so e)ocati)e of $alfatti's own description of the powers of
sommeil, Deleuze proceeds to i.pl! that the basis of his own theor! of the 'bod! without
or"ans' lies in ideas of occult anato.!, indirectl! deri)ed fro. the tradition of 4antris.%
'4he bod! without or"ans', he be"ins, 'is an affecti)e, intensi)e, anarchist bod! that consists
solel! of poles, zones, thresholds, and "radients'% 9e states that D%9% 6awrence 'paints a
picture of such a bod!, with the sun and .oon as its poles, with its planes, its sections, and
its ple*uses' 1Deleuze 1995; 1513% 4his is the sole e*a.ple "i)en, alon"side a brief
reference to 8rtaud's use of the notion 1which is also occult&influenced3% Deleuze is
referrin" here to 6awrence's 1antasia of the 4nconscious 119/53, which contains a chapter
entitled '(le*uses, (lanes and so on', an account of the 'subtle bod!', .ade up of a ')ital
.a"netis.' or"anised in d!na.ic polarities%5C 6awrence's account of the cha)ras in this
chapter, howe)er, is itself deri)ed, accordin" to @illia. Kork 4indall 11949H confir.ed b!
$ont"o.er! 19943, fro. another piece of occultis., a 4antric interpretation of the Book of
?e)elation no less && 3he A#ocaly#se 4nsealed, published in 191C b! #a.es (r!se, an
associate of $ada.e Bla)atsk!'s "roup of 4heosophists% (r!se reads the Book of
?e)elation as a )eiled account of occult anato.!, deri)ed fro. ancient 4antric sources%51
9e atte.pts to relate each of the s!.bols of the ?e)elation back to the 'intensi)e self&
e)olution' of esoteric practice%5/ 8lthou"h it is i.possible to ar"ue that 6awrence's account
of the bod! in 1antasia of the 4nconscious 1not to .ention his own A#ocaly#se of 19513 is
entirel! deri)ed fro. andQor entirel! consistent with (r!se's own )ersion of 4antric
theosoph!, it shares .an! of the sa.e pre.ises% >)en thou"h 6awrence de)otes hi.self to
shakin" off the faith in a secret '4radition' that is a recurrin" .otif in occultist thou"ht, his
account of the 'subtle', 'intensi)e' bod! is structurall! si.ilar to the theories of occult
anato.! ad)anced b! both (r!se and $alfatti%
4he si.ilarit! of the occult anato.ies of 6awrence, (r!se and $alfatti .a! be due
to the fact that each indirectl! refers itself back to ideas deri)ed fro. 0ndian occultis.H
alternati)el!, the structural identit! .a! arise due to an appro*i.ation of practices between
each of the three thinkers% >ither wa!, it would be unwise to i"nore the te*tual connections
between Deleuze's 'bod! without or"ans' and occult ideas of the 'subtle bod!'% 8"ain, it is
i.possible to ar"ue that Deleuze's account of the bod! without or"ans in '4o 9a)e Done
with #ud".ent' is deri&ed from andQor fully consistent with an! of the )ersions of occult
anato.! held b! 6awrence, (r!se or $alfatti% 6awrence onl! 'paints a picture' of the Bod!
without Or"ansH there could be an! nu.ber of pictures and e)en portraitists of this peculiar
'Bod!'% But it is hard to escape the i.pression that so.e passa"es of the late Deleuze do
see. to carr! the last, d!in" and frenzied echoes of the >uropean occult tradition% 8fter
ha)in" directed the reader in search of a picture of the 'bod! without or"ans' to 6awrence's
te*t on ple*uses and planes, Deleuze states; 'this nonor"anic )italit! is the relation of the
bod! to the i.perceptible forces and powers that seize hold of it, or that it seizes hold of,
Just as the .oon takes hold of a wo.an's bod!' 1Deleuze 1995; 1513% 0t is difficult to
i.a"ine a .ore arcane utteranceH it sounds like so.ethin" out of 6E)i's -octrine and
'itual of High Magic%
0n order be able to assess the possible influence 1or not3 of occultis. on Deleuze,
and on .odern thou"ht in "eneral, we need to be open to reconcei)in" our ideas about the
histor! of .odern >uropean philosoph!, its relation to practical techni-ues which put in
16
-uestion the traditional di)ision between bod! and .ind, and to s!ste.s of '.edicine' that
ha)e .ore in co..on with ?enaissance .a"ic or 0ndian occultis. than with an! current
@estern conceptions of .edicine%
!otes
1 Called '#ean' in the rench translationH so.eti.es also called 'Gio)anni'%
/ 4he rench biblio"raph! of Deleuze's writin"s published at the end of 3he -esert
9sland, a collection of earl! articles o.its all te*ts published prior to 19+5, apparentl! in
accordance with wishes e*pressed b! Deleuze prior to his death% 9owe)er, an >n"lish
biblio"raph! b! 4i.oth! $urph! lists the .issin" articles 1$urph! 19963% 4hese writin"s
are on -uite disparate subJects% 4he! be"in with two so.ewhat libido&soaked .usin"s on
se*ualit!, centred around a pronounced cult of wo.an 1e%"% 'Description of a @o.an',
''tate.ents and (rofiles'3% 'ee Keith @% aulkner's translations of these articles in Angela)i
,;5 1/CC/3 and 2;5 1/CC53 respecti)el!, and his co..entar! on the. 1aulkner /CC/3% 4he
other articles are 'ro. Christ to the Bour"eoisie', published in the literar! Journal $s#ace,
which co.bines esoteric, elitist political ideas with a dialectical account of the relationship
of Christian 'interiorit!' and .odern capitalist bour"eois subJecti)it!H and an introduction to
Diderot's La 'eligieuse fro. 194,% 8ll these te*ts are e*tre.el! interestin" and deser)e
further stud!H there .a! e)en be a funda.ental unit! to these writin"s as a "roup% But it is
ar"uabl! the introduction to $alfatti's Mathesis that is the .ost interestin" for Deleuze
scholars, for both Deleuze's introduction and, .ore intri"uin"l!, $alfatti's own work, shed
une*pected li"ht on so.e of the .ore obscure concepts of Deleuze's philosoph!% Da)id
?e""io has posted a draft translation of Deleuze's $alfatti piece online 1see ?e""io /CC53%
5 0t still contains a 1249 preface b! a (olish $essianist, Christian Ostrowski% 'ee
?e""io /CC5%
4 'ee the philosophical chapter of (apus's What is 0ccultismA, translated into
>n"lish in 1915 1(apus 19CC3% 0n his article on $alfatti, Da)id ?e""io notes that another
$artinist, (aul 'Edir, "a)e lectures on $alfatti at the turn of the centur! to the Amities
s#irituelles or"anisation in (aris 1?e""io /CC53%
+ (apus clai.ed to ha)e been initiated into $artinis. in 122/ b! a .es.erist,
9enri Delaa"e 112/+&122/3% Guaita is the .ore eni".atic fi"ure, and beca.e notorious
when #oris&Karl 9u!s.ans broadcasted alle"ations that Guaita had killed another rench
wizard 1the 8bbE Boullan3 in a .a"ical feud% 19e denied this alle"ation, clai.in" that
Boullan had died of natural causes3% Guaita wrote a .assi)e 1and unfinished3 atte.pt at a
s!nthesis of occult philosoph!, 3he Ser#ent of 5enesis, based on the ideas of #akob BMh.e
and >liphas 6E)i a.on" othersH the last chapter of the third )olu.e was to be de)oted to
.athesis, but he died of a .orphine o)erdose at the a"e of 56% Guaita also possessed a cop!
of the 1249 rench edition of $alfatti's Mathesis, which is described as 'e*tre.el! curious
and rare' in the auction catalo"ue of his occult librar! 1(hilipon 1299; 2+3% Da)id 8llen
9ar)e!'s recent sur)e! of $artinis., eyond $nlightenment: 0ccultism and %olitics in
Modern 1rance 1/CC+3 "i)es a lucid and colourful account of the .o)e.ent and its
influences% 4he $artinists were e*tre.el! prolific for about two decades, with two
Journals, L*9nitiation and La :oile d*9sis, and "roups spreadin" as far afield as 0tal! and
?ussia% L*9nitiation was founded in 1222 and continued until 1914% 4here was also an
offshoot of $artinis., the Gnostic Catholic Church, which atte.pted to brin" about a
return to .ore Gnostic ideas about the relation of spirit to .atter% or this church, the wa!
of sal)ation la! throu"h the two e*tre.es of libertinis. or asceticis.% 9owe)er, the
17
popularit! of these .o)e.ents did not sur)i)e the first world war, which clai.ed the li)es
of .an! of the ke! pla!ers%
6 4he .edie)alist $arie&$adeleine Da)! edited a series entitled ''ources and ires'
7'ources et feu*: for Griffon d'Or% Deleuze had dedicated his article 'ro. Christ to the
Bour"eoisie' to her, and had attended intellectual soirEes hosted b! her durin" and after the
war 1also attended b! (ierre Klossowski, #ac-ues 6acan and #ean (aulhan3% 0n the book
series directed b! her are listed a book on pal.istr! 1with a preface b! Da)! herself3,
C!rille @ilczkowski's Man and the 8odiac: $ssay on 3y#ological Synthesis, selections
fro. (aracelsus, #ean ?icher's 194, book on the esoteric si"nificance of the works of
GErard de =er)al, 'trindber"'s 9nferno and, rather on its own, 6ucien Gold.ann's Man,
.ommunity and the World in the %hiloso#hy of 9mmanuel Kant%
, $an! of the artists and writers Deleuze is interested in 1for e*a.ple, 8rtaud,
Castaneda, late D%9% 6awrence, $alcol. 6owr!, $allar.E, $ichau*, 'tockhausen, Dilliers
de l'0sle 8da.3 ha)e stron" interests in occultis.%
2 8lthou"h >liphas 6E)i is often held to ha)e inau"urated the rench occult re)i)al
in 12++ with his -octrine and 'itual of High Magic 1translated into >n"lish as
3ranscendental Magic3, 6E)i was hi.self first initiated into the occult b! @ronskiH prior to
the !ear he spent with @ronski, he had been a utopian socialist 1Chacornac 19/6; 151&159H
$c0ntosh 19,/; 96&1CCH @illia.s 19,+; 66&,C3% 0n an obituar! for @ronski, 6E)i wrote that
he had 'placed, in this centur! of uni)ersal and absolute doubt, the hitherto unshakeable
basis of a science at once hu.an and di)ine% irst and fore.ost, he had dared to define the
essence of God and to find, in this definition itself, the law of absolute .o)e.ent and of
uni)ersal creation' 1cited in $c0ntosh 19,/; 9,&23%
9 'ee .! -eleu!e and the 4nconscious 1Continuu., /CC,3 for .ore on Deleuze's
interest in occultis.Qesoterica% Chapter 4 contains further discussion of $alfatti, and
chapter 6 looks at Deleuze's use of occult approaches to the unconscious%
1C Brown's ideas were also taken up in rance b! % #&D% Broussais, first in his 12//
3rait, de #hysiologie a##li+u,e ; la #athologie 73reatise on %hysiology a##lied to
%athology:, and then in his -e l*irritation et de la folie 7On 0rritation and 0nsanit!:,
published in 12/2% Co.te clai.ed that Broussais' work contained the first for.ulation of
the idea that 'the pheno.ena of disease coincided essentiall! with those of health fro.
which the! differed onl! in ter.s of intensit!' 1cited in Can"uilhe. 1945; 493% Can"uilhe.
shows that what Co.te called 'Broussais's principle' in fact deri)es fro. the ideas of Brown
1ibid, +6&613% rench caricature of the earl! 125Cs, incidentall!, is full of satires and
caricatures about the failure of Broussais' s!ste. to co.bat cholera%
11 4he stor! of opiu. is a kind of historical tra"ed!% B! the end of the nineteenth
centur!, with the increasin" industrialisation and '"o)ern.entalisation' of .edicine 1and as
a result of conflicts of interest between the state, ph!sicians, phar.acists and apothecaries3
opiu. had beco.e subJect to increasin"l! strict le"al controls% ollowin" the earlier spread
of .orphinis., the decisi)e .o.ent in its recent histor! ca.e with the s!nthesis of
diacet!l.orphine in 12,4, which was first .arketed in 1292 in Ger.an! under the brand
na.e '9eroin' 1deri)ed fro. 'heroisch', heroic3% 9eroin entered the ner)ous s!ste. .ore
-uickl!, creatin" sensations of intense pleasure, but the ph!sical withdrawal s!.pto.s
were so .arked that the dru" was unusable without the hi"h risk of addiction% 4he stor! of
the rise of )irulentl! hedonic dru"s like heroin and cocaine in the earl! twentieth centur! is
also the stor! of the loss of another a"e, in which dru" e*peri.entation was an inte"ral
aspect of the ?o.antic tendenc! in .edicine and science% 8n account of the i.portance of
18
dru"s to ?o.antic thinkers in Ger.an! has !et to be written, althou"h it is "enerall!
known that opiu. was i.portant to 'chellin" and =o)alis% On the latter, see =eubauer
19,1, and also Boon's o)er)iew in his infor.ati)e book on dru" use b! writers, 3he 'oad
to $/cess 1Boon /CC/; /2&513% 8lethea 9a!ter's classic 0#ium and the 'omantic
9magination discusses Colerid"e's and De Luince!'s in)ol)e.ent with dru"s in detail%
1/ 4ho.as Beddoes recalls that 'before he be"an his lecture, he would take fort! or
fift! drops of laudanu. in a "lass of whisk!H repeatin" the dose four or fi)e ti.es durin"
the lecture% Between the effects of these sti.ulants and )oluntar! e*ertion, he soon wa*ed
war., and b! de"rees his i.a"ination was e*alted into phrenz!' 1cited in 6awrence 1922;
+3%
15 '$! plan is de)eloped this far% 0 ha)e decided to "o for the su..er to Ba.ber"%
?Mschlaub insists that 0 stud! there #ri&atissima, and, as !ou can i.a"ine, this is Just what 0
want' 1Wer)e ,; 12,3% 8dalbert $arcus wrote to 'chellin" that 'Ba.ber" was one of the first
places where the public hospitals e.plo!ed the Brown s!ste.% =ow Ba.ber" will ha)e the
praise of appl!in" in .edical treat.ent that which !our philosoph! of nature is de)elopin"'%
or these citations, see O'$eara 192/; 5/&5+%
14 '0t is Just b! this process of e*citabilit! that the product is ele)ated, beco.in" a
product of a potenc! hi"her than the .erel! che.ical% 4herefore, in the followin", we will
.ake use of his 7Brown's: concept, as lon" as we are able to lead this concept back to
natural causes' 1ibid3%
1+ Opiu. is placed in a polarit! with ipecacuanha 1a dried root used as a pur"ati)e
and e.etic3%
16 Octa)e 8ubr!'s no)el 3he King of 'ome includes an episode featurin" the
relationship of $alfatti with the brother and sister of =apoleon Bonaparte, Kin" 6ouis
Bonaparte of 0tal! and >lisa Bacciochi% 8ubr! describes how collea"ues )iewed $alfatti as
'.uch less a scientist than a .an of the world% 9is li)el! chatter and the pleasant taste of his
.edicines had endeared hi. to e)er!bod!' 18ubr! 195/; 19C3%
1, $es.er put his patients in a 'ba-uet', a tub filled with '.a"netised' water%
12 4here e)en e*isted a curious tribe of intentional arsenic eaters who inhabited the
.ountain re"ions of 't!ria, 'alzbur" and the 4!rol in 8ustria 1)on Bibra 12++; /143% 4he!
used it to help their breathin" at those altitudes, and it also had other functions in these
societies, both as an aphrodisiac, and as a wei"ht&"ainin" dru" which also induced an
attracti)e ros! "low in the cheeks% Bibra reports that workers in arsenic .ines ha)e health!
and florid looks once the! ha)e endured the first period in the .ines 1/163%
19 Baader's dia"nosis of the faults of 'chellin" and 9e"el is worth notin"; '@e see
the error of both 'chellin" and 9e"el as the! treat the relationship of nature to spirit% or
'chellin" spirit is ne)er free of nature or e.ancipated fro. nature% 19e thinks that freedo.
would .ean bein" without a nature or bein" incorporeal3% @hile, on the other hand, 9e"el
pictures a natureless spirit that is onl! a "host .o)in" o)er fallen nature' 1Baader, Wer)e
1+; +95H cited in O'$eara 192/; 15+3% Baader holds on to an idea of pure, spiritual freedo.,
whereas 'chellin" insists that freedo. ne)er entirel! escapes its roots in irrational will% or
Baader, this .eans that 'chellin" is ulti.atel! not a Christian%
/C$alfatti does not use the word '4antris.' 1fro. 4antra, a 'anskrit word .eanin",
a.on" other thin"s, 'web' 'wea)e', 'warp', 'unfoldin"' and 'e*pansion'3, but his h!perse*ual
readin" of 0ndian .!sticis., and his e.phasis on occult anato.!, su""ests that it is what
he had in .ind% 4here are two for.s of 4antris., 9indu and Buddhist% 4antris. beca.e a
widel! spread cult in 0ndia durin" the ei"hth to ele)enth centuries C>, fro. which .ost of
19
the 4antric te*ts 14antras3 date% 4he tantrikas belie)ed that the 4antras were a 'fifth Deda',
supersedin" the others% But there is still disa"ree.ent as to what e*tent the .a"ical writin"s
in the ancient Athar&a(:eda and the h!.ns to Kali in the 'ig(:eda contain the basic tenets
e*pounded in the 4antric writin"s and culture that e.er"ed in .edie)al 0ndia% Onl! a
portion of 4antric writin"s e*plicitl! deal with se*ualit!H the rest is concerned with .a"ic,
ritual, astrolo"!, the construction of .andalas and the preparation of in"redients for rituals%
/1 ollowin" 9eide""er, it is now often assu.ed that the Ger.an ?o.antic .ind
was oriented s-uarel! towards the Greek world as the pri.ordial source of thou"ht and life%
But it is truer to sa! that it was the ancient Orient which was held to be the cradle of the
idealis. which was then in the ascendant in Ger.an!% 8ccordin" to >rnst Benz, 'chle"el
was con)inced that the disco)er! of Dedic literature would be as i.portant for
conte.porar! Ger.an philosoph! as the redisco)er! of the ancients in the ?enaissance
1Benz 1962; 1,3% $!sticis. was considered to be a pri.ordial re)elation, and 0ndian
.!sticis. in particular was seen b! 'chle"el as bearin" 'e)er!where traces of di)ine truth'
1cited in Benz, ibid3%
// =e)ertheless, $a* $Oller, who translated so.e of the <panishads for 'chellin",
recalled that 'like 'chophenhauer, 7'chellin": considered the <panishads as the ori"inal
wisdo. of the 0ndians and of .ankind' 1cited in Glasenapp 196C; /93% 'ee also 8% 6eslie
@illson, A Mythical 9mage: 3he 9deal of 9ndia in 5erman 'omanticism 119643, and #ean @%
'edlar, 9ndia in the Mind of 5ermany: Schelling, Scho#enhauer and their 3imes 1192/3%
=one of these studies refer to $alfatti, reinforcin" his obscurit!%
/5 Creuzer had schooled hi.self in 'chellin"'s work 1@illia.son /CC4; 1/1&63, and
'chellin" hi.self was in turn to rel! hea)il! on Creuzer's four&)olu.e to.e in his later
philosoph! of .!tholo"!%
/4 S '@hen dealin" with al.ost all .aJor .!ths % % % we .ust, so to speak, first
orient oursel)es to the Orient' 1cited in @illia.son /CC4; 1/93%
/+ 'ee the .ethodolo"ical papers in 8ntoine ai)re T @outer #% 9anne"raaf,
Western $sotericism and the Science of 'eligion 119923%
/6 or a partial anal!sis of so.e aspects of '$athesis, 'cience and (hilosoph!', see
-eleu!e and the 4nconscious, pp% 1/4&15,%
/, @h! use this rather obno*ious ter. 'occultis.', rather than 'esotericis.', which
Deleuze hi.self uses in -ifference and 'e#etition and Logic of Sense, and which is still
used toda! b! one of the .ain traditions of the scholarl! stud! of her.etic philosoph!A
8ntoine ai)re ar"ues for the unit! of the notion of 'esotericis.' b! clai.in" that there are
'si* constituti)e ele.ents% our of these are intrinsic to 'esotericis.'; the doctrine of
uni)ersal correspondences, li)in" nature, i.a"inationQ.editation, and trans.utation% 4he
other two are e*trinsic 1i%e% the! .a! be absent in certain cases3; concordance of traditions,
and trans.ission of knowled"e' 1ai)re 1992; /3% ai)re is sa!in" that the e.phasis on
tradition and initiation should not been taken as essential to esotericis.% 'o wh!, e)en in
spite of Deleuze's use of the ter. 'esoteric', do 0 still want to su""est that the ter.
'occultis.' better describes what is at stake for DeleuzeA irst, because the pri.ar!
e.phasis in 'occultis.' of what is hidden fro. con)entional perception or understandin"
can be contrasted to an 'esotericis.' which still i.plies an 'inner sanctu.' that is re)ealed
throu"h a traditional, established process of initiation% 'econd, in his 19,4 reud $e.orial
6ecture, '4he Occult and the $odern @orld', $ircea >liade .akes an interestin" distinction
between 'occultis.' and 'esotericis.' which has so.e rele)ance to Deleuze's approach%
Basin" his discussion on the role pla!ed b! occultis. in nineteenth&centur! literar! rance,
20
>liade ar"ues for a bifurcation between a conser)ati)e 'esotericis.' which insulates itself
fro. an! contact with wider societ!, and an anti&establish.ent 'occultis.' dedicated to the
transfor.ation of societ! throu"h the production of works of art with s!.bolic power, and
throu"h the desi"n and enact.ent of re)olutionar! political strate"ies% 'Luite another
orientation 7fro. conser)ati)e esotericis.: is e)ident a.on" those rench authors of the
second part of the nineteenth centur! who beca.e attracted to occult ideas, .!tholo"ies,
and practices .ade popular b! UVliphas 6E)i, (apus and 'tanislas de Guaita% ro.
Baudelaire to Derlaine, 6autrea.ont to ?i.baud, to our own conte.poraries, 8ndrE Breton
and his disciples, all these artists utilised the occult as a powerful weapon in their rebellion
a"ainst the bour"eois establish.ent and its ideolo"!% 4he! reJect the official conte.porar!
reli"ion, ethics, social .ores, and aesthetics% 'o.e of the. are not onl! anticlerical, like
.ost of the rench intelli"entsia, but anti&Christian' 1>liade 19,4; +/3% 4here is so.ethin"
about the "aud!, concertedl! s!ncretic approach of occultis. which .akes it .ore suited to
an e.ancipator! Deleuzian perspecti)e than the closed $asonic world of 'esotericis.'%
/2 '(har.acolo"! in the .ost "eneral sense pro.ises to be so e*tre.el! i.portant
for practical and theoretical research on schizophrenia% 4he stud! of the .etabolis. of
schizophrenics opens up a )ast field of research in which .olecular biolo"! has a crucial
role to pla!% 8 che.istr! at once intensi)e and e*periential see.s able to "o be!ond the
traditional or"anicQps!chic dualit! at least in two directions; 13 the e*peri.ental schizoid
states induced throu"h .escaline, bulbocapnine, 6'D, etcH /3 the therapeutic initiati)e to
cal. the an*iet! of schizophrenics, while dis.antlin" their catatonic shell in order to Ju.p&
start the schizophrenic .achines and "et the. runnin" a"ain 1the use of '.aJor
tran-uilizers' or e)en 6'D3' 1Deleuze 19,+; //3% 8t the e*peri.ental le)el, ps!choacti)e
substances can be used to induce schizoid states, sa!s Deleuze% 4he idea that hallucino"ens
can be ps!choto.i.etics was ad)ocated .ost influentiall! in the 19+Cs, but proponents of
this )iew 1such as Gordon Clarid"e3 are still to be found toda!% Deleuze elaborates that
'schizophrenic deliriu. can be "rasped onl! at the le)el of this '0 feel' which e)er! .o.ent
records the intensi)e relation' 1ibid3 between stasis and e*citation% 8t the practical le)el,
Deleuze sa!s, dru"s such as 6'D can help restore )italit! and .o)e.ent to schizophrenics
who ha)e plun"ed into a catatonic stasis% 0f Deleuze's ideas in this area are to be taken as
.ore than .ere sketches of positions, then it should be asked how essential these ideas are
to his own "eneral theor! of schizophrenia, and his philosoph! in "eneral% 4he! .a! be
aberrations or the! .a! be intrinsicH or a"ain, the! .a! be .erel! confused% 4he .eans for
pursuin" and resol)in" such -uestions, howe)er, barel! e*ist at present%
/9 0n the second part of his %syche: 3he .ult of Souls and elief in 9mmortality
among the 5ree)s, >rwin ?ohde contended that Dion!siac into*ication is e)idenced in its
pure for. in the practices of the 4hracian and 'c!thian tribes which bordered 8ncient
Greece% ?eferrin" to 9erodotus's fa.ous account of the funerar! he.p rituals of the
'c!thians 1Histories 0D; ,53, ?ohde stresses that 'into*ication 7'ausch: is "enerall!
re"arded b! sa)a"e tribes as a reli"iousl! inspired condition' 1?ohde 1294; /,53%
(roceedin" to co.pare the use of he.p in the )apour&huts of the 'c!thians, 4hracians with
the practices of the =orth&8.erican 0ndians, ?ohde su""ests that the effects of this
particular perfu.e are consistent with descriptions of 'the real ba)choi at the ni"htl!
festi)al of Dion!sus' 1?ohde 1294; /,43% ?ohde, of course, was a close friend of =ietzsche
durin" the 12,Cs, publicl! defendin" the latter's ideas about Dion!sus in irth of 3ragedy%
9owe)er, ?ohde does not refer to =ietzsche b! na.e in %syche% Deleuze and Guattari also
of course discuss the wa!s of the 'c!thians at len"th in A 3housand %lateaus, but Deleuze
21
ne)er actuall! .akes the .o)e of identif!in" =ietzsche's Dion!siacs, or his pri.al
o)er.en, as 'c!thians or 4hracians% 'o.e .i"ht ar"ue that such e.pirical correlates are
beside the point for Deleuze and Guattari, who are not historians but philosophers% 4he
proble. is how to deter.ine the function of Deleuze and Guattari's historical e*a.ples%
(aul (atton's recent article '$obile Concepts, $etaphor and the (roble. of ?eferentialit!
in Deleuze and Guattari' discusses de)elop.ents in Deleuze scholarship which encounter
and atte.pt to treat this proble. 1(atton /CC63%
5C 0n 3he :isionary -<H< Lawrence, ?obert $ont"o.er! states that 'if one were
forced to described the thou"ht of the later 6awrence in one word, that word would ha)e to
be 'theosophical'% Durin" the period fro. Women in Lo&e to his death, the i.portant new
influences on hi. were theosophical, and his .ost i.portant writin"s were based on ideas
drawn fro. theosophical sources' 1$ont"o.er! 1994; 1623%
51 or instance, the 'se)en breaths' and 'fi)e winds' of #ohn of (at.os are related to
the se)en tatt&as and the fi)e #ranas% 0n 4antris., 'kundalini' denotes )ital ener"!,
s!.bolised as a 'erpent, coiled around the spine% @hile this ener"! initiall! appears to be
se*ual, it is able to .o)e up three pathwa!s 1n;=dis, which (r!se translates as 'pipes' or
'tubes'3 in the bod!, chan"in" in nature as it de)elops% On the one hand, the sushumna is the
pipe leadin" fro. the spinal cord up to the craniu., while ;>d;= and #ingala, correspond
to the left and ri"ht )ertical pathwa!s of the s!.pathetic ner)ous s!ste. 1(r!se 191C; 193%
4he "nostic !o"i tries to awaken each of the se)en cha)ras or 'ner)e centres', which are
arran"ed in ascendin" order up the spine% 4he central path of 'serpent power', the sushumna,
can onl! be acti)ated throu"h the creation of polarities between ;>d;= and #ingala, which
are s!.bolised as .oon and sun% (r!se is happ! to call the cha)ras 'ner)e centres' or
'"an"lia', and e)en su""ests that readers of his work should ha)e a detailed knowled"e of
'ps!cho&ph!siolo"!' 16, 1+3%
5/ '4he esotericist', accordin" to (r!se, 'refusin" to be confined within the narrow
li.its of the senses and the .ental faculties, and reco"nizin" that the "nostic powers of the
soul are hopelessl! ha.pered and obscured b! its i.perfect instru.ent, the ph!sical bod!,
de)otes hi.self to what .a! be ter.ed intensi)e self&e)olution, the con-uest and
utilization of all the forces and faculties which lie latent in that fontal essence within
hi.self' 1(r!se 191C; 23%
"ibliograph#
Ori"inal dates of publication 1in the pri.ar! lan"ua"e3 are "i)en in the first set of
brackets, dates of translations at the end of the reference%
8le*andrian, 'arane 119253 Histoire de la #hiloso#hie occulte 1(aris; 'e"hers3%
8lt.an, Gail '% 119993 1atal Lin)s: 3he .urious -eaths of eetho&en and the 3wo %
8ubr!, Octa)e 1195/3 3he King of 'ome, trans% >% 8bbot 1(hiladelphia; 6ippincott3%
Beach, >dward 8llen 119943 3he %otencies of 5od?s@: Schelling*s %hiloso#hy of
Mythology 18lban!; '<=K3%
Beetho)en, 6udwi" )an 119613 3he Letters of eetho&en, ed% >% 8nderson 16ondon;
$ac.illan3%
Benz, >rnst 119623 3he Mystical Sources of 5erman 'omantic %hiloso#hy, trans%
B%?% ?e!nolds T >%$% (aul 1(enns!l)ania; (ickwick, 19253%
Betanzos, ?a.on 119923 1ran! &on aader*s %hiloso#hy of Lo&e, ed% $%$% 9er.an
1Dienna; (assa"en Derla"3%
Bibra, >rnst )on 112++3 %lant 9nto/icants, trans% 9% 'chleiffer 1?ochester; 9ealin"
8rts (ress, 199+3%
22
Boon, $arcus 1/CC/3 3he 'oad to $/cess: A History of Writers on -rugs 1=ew
Kork; 9ar)ard <ni)ersit! (ress3%
Boothro!d, Da)e 1/CC63 'oucault and Deleuze on 8cid', in .ulture on -rugs:
"arco(.ultural Studies of High Modernity 1$anchester; $anchester <ni)ersit! (ress3%
Brown, #ohn 11,9+3 3he $lements of Medicine, trans% fro. 6atin b! the author
16ondon; #% #ohnson3%
Can"uilhe., Geor"es 119453 3he "ormal and the %athological, trans% C%?% awcett
1=ew Kork; None, 19913%
Chacornac, (aul 119/63 $li#has L,&i: ',no&ateur de l*occultisme en 1rance 1(aris;
Chacornac3%
Colerid"e, 'a.uel 4a!lor 112523 Literary 'emains, ed% 9%=% Colerid"e 16ondon;
@illia. (ickerin"3%
Deleuze, Gilles 119463 '$athFse, science et la philosophie', in #ean $alfatti, La
Mathse, ou anarchie et hi,rarchie de la science 1(aris; Griffon d'Or, 19463% 'ee ?e""io
1/CC53 below for online draft translation%
&&&119623 -ifference and 'e#etition, trans% (% (atton 16ondon; 8thlone, 19943%
&&&119,+3 ''chizophrenia and 'ociet!', in 3wo 'egimes of Madness 1trans% 8% 9od"es
T $% 4aor.ina, /CC63% irst published in $ncylo#edia 4ni&ersalis, )ol% 14 1(aris;
>nc!lopedia <ni)ersalis, 19,+3, pp% 69/&694%
&&&119953 '4o 9a)e Done with #ud".ent', in $ssays .ritical and .linical, trans%
D%@% '.ith 1$inneapolis; <ni)ersit! of $innesota, 199,3%
D!ck, $artin 119+93 "o&alis and Mathematics 1=orth Carolina; Chapel 9ill3%
>liade, $ircea 119,43 '4he Occult and the $odern @orld', in 0ccultism, Witchcraft,
and .ultural 1ashions 1Chica"o; <ni)ersit! of Chica"o, 19,63%
>scohotado, 8ntonio 119993 A rief History of -rugs 1?ochester; (ark 'treet
(ress3%
ai)re, 8ntoine 119963 %hiloso#hie de la nature: #hysi+ue sacr,e et theoso#hie
A:999e(A9A sicle ?%aris: Albin Michel@<
ai)re, 8ntoine T 9ane"raaff, @outer #% 1eds%3 119923 Western $sotericism and the
Science of 'eligion 1<trecht; (eeters3%
aulkner, Keith 1/CC/3 'Deleuze in <tero; Deleuze&'artre and the >ssence of
@o.an', Angela)i ,;5, /CC/%
Gauld, 8lan 1199/3 A History of Hy#notism 1Ca.brid"e; Ca.brid"e <ni)ersit!
(ress3%
Glasenapp, 9el.uth )on 1196C3 9mage of 9ndia, trans% '% 8.bike 1=ew Delhi;
0ndian Council for Cultural ?elations, 19,53%
GuEnon, ?enE 1194,3 ?e)iew of #% $alfatti de $ontere""io, La Mathse .om#tes
'endus1(aris; Dillain et Belho..e, 19,53%
9ar)e!, Da)id 8llen 1/CC+3 eyond $nlightenment: 0ccultism and %olitics in
Modern 1rance 1Dekalb; =orthern 0llinois <ni)ersit! (ress3%
Kohn, $arek 1192,3 "arcomania: 0n Heroin 16ondon; aber, 192,3%
Kucharski, 9einz 119623 '=achwort' to 1962 facsi.ile reprint of =iklas $Oller,
5lauben, Wissen und Kunst der alten Hindus 1>ditions 6eipzi", 19623%
6awrence, Chris 119223 'Cullen, Brown, and the (o)ert! of >ssentialis.' in @%%
B!nu. T ?% (orter, runonianism in ritain and $uro#e 16ondon; @ellco.e 0nstitute for
the 9istor! of $edicineH 'upple.ent to Medical History<
6awrence, D%9% 119/53 1antasia of the 4nconscious 16ondon; 'ecker3%
23
&& 1195/3 A#ocaly#se 16ondon; 'ecker3%
6esk!, >rna 119,63 3he :ienna Medical School of the BC
th
.entury 1Balti.ore;
#ohns 9opkins <ni)ersit! (ress3%
6ewin, 6ouis 119/43 %hantastica, trans% fro. 19/, Ger.an edition b! (%9%8% @irth
1Der.ont; (ark 'treet (ress, 19923%
$alfatti de $ontere""io, #ohann 112C93 $ntwurf einer %athogenie aus der
$&olution und 'e&olutiondes Lebens 1Dienna3%
&&&1124+3 Studien ber Anarchie und Hierarchie des Wissens, mit besonderer
e!iehung auf die Medicin 16eipzi"; Brockhaus3, trans% into rench as La Mathse, ou
anarchie et hi,rarchie de la science 1(aris; Griffon d'Or, 19463%
&&& 1124,3 "eue Heil&ersuche: 9: 5elungene :ertilgung des grauen Staares durch
einer neue Dussere Heilmethode< 99: HDufige $ntstehung des schwar!en Staares aus dem
'a#hagra 1Dienna; $echitharisten&Con"re"ations&Buchhandlun", 124,3%
&&& 112+53 erichte ber die !weiEDhrigen gnstigen :ersuche !ur $rgrndung und
eseitigung der Kartoffel(Kran)heit, wie sie auf der :illa Malfatti bei Hiet!ing gemacht
wurden 1Dienna3%
$c0ntosh, Christopher 119,/3 $li#has L,&i and the 1rench 0ccult 'e&i&al 16ondon;
?ider3%
$ont"o.er!, ?obert >% 119943 3he :isionary -<H< Lawrence: eyond %hiloso#hy
and Art 1Ca.brid"e; Ca.brid"e <ni)ersit! (ress3%
$Oller, =iklas 112//3 5lauben, Wissen und Kunst der alten Hindus 1$ainz; lorian
Kupferber"3% acsi.ile reprint 1>ditions 6eipzi", 19623%
$urph!, 4i.oth! '% 119963 'Biblio"raph! of the @orks of Gilles Deleuze', in (%
(atton 1ed%3 -eleu!e: A .ritical 'eader 1O*ford; Blackwell, 19963%
=ettl, (aul 119+,3 eetho&en $ncylo#edia 16ondon; (eter Owen3%
=o)alis 119693 Wer)e, ed% Gerhard 'chulz 1$unich; Beck3%
=eubauer, #ohn 119,13 ifocal :ision: "o&alis* %hiloso#hy of "ature and -isease
1Chapel 9ill; <ni)ersit! of =orth Carolina3%
O'$eara, 4ho.as 1192/3 'omantic 9dealism and 'oman .atholicism: Schelling
and the 3heologians 1=otre Da.e; =otre Da.e <ni)ersit! (ress3%
(apus 7GErard >ncausse: 119CC3 What is 0ccultismF, trans% % ?othwell 16ondon;
?ider, 19153%
(atton, (aul 1/CC63 '$obile Concepts, $etaphor, and the (roble. of ?eferentialit!
inDeleuze and Guattari', in 3hamyrisG9ntersecting: %lace, Se/ and 'ace, issue on
'$etaphoricit! and the (olitics of $obilit!', ed% $% $ar"aroni T >% Kiannopoulol, )ol% 1/,
no% 1 1October /CC63%
(hilipon, ?enE 112993 Stanislas de 5uaita et sa biblioth+ue occulte 1(aris;
Dorbon3%
(r!se, #a.es $or"an 1191C3 3he A#ocaly#se 4nsealed 16ondon ; #%$% @atkins3%
?e""io, Da)id 1/CC53 '#ean $alfatti de $ontere""io; 8 Brief 0ntroduction', in
Wor)ing %a#ers on .ultural History and .ontem#orary 3hought, paper 1 1=o)e.ber
/CC53, a)ailable at 8 draft translation of Deleuze's $alfatti piece is attached to this piece%
?ohde, >rwin 112943 %syche: 3he .ult of Souls and elief in 9mmortality among
the 5ree)s, )ol% 00, trans% @%B% 9illis 1=ew Kork; 9arper T ?ow, 1966H first translated
19/+3%
'Edir, (aul 119C/3 Les #lantes magi+ues< otani+ue occulte 1(aris, 19C/3%
24
'chellin", %@%#% 11,993 1irst 0utline of a System of the %hiloso#hy of "ature, trans%
K%?% (eterson 18lban!; '<=K /CC43%
&&& 112+6&12613 SDmmtliche Wer)e 1'tutt"art and 8u"sbur"; #%G% Cotta'scher
Derla"3%
'chMnbauer, 6eopold 119443 -as medi!inische Wien: 5eschichte, Werden,
Wrdigung 1Berlin; <rban T 'chwarzenber"3%
4ha!er, 8le*ander @heelock 119/13 Life of eetho&en, ed% >% orbes 1(rinceton;
(rinceton <ni)ersit! (ress, 19643%
4indall, @illia. Kork 119493 -<H< Lawrence and Susan his .ow 1=ew Kork;
Colu.bia <ni)ersit! (ress3%
4sou!opoulos, =ell! 119223 '4he 0nfluence of #ohn Brown's 0deas in Ger.an!', in
@%% B!nu. T ?% (orter, runonianism in ritain and $uro#e 16ondon; @ellco.e 0nstitute
for the 9istor! of $edicine3%
@illia.s, 4ho.as 8% 119,+3 $li#has L,&i: Master of 0ccultism 18laba.a;
<ni)ersit! of 8laba.a3%
@illia.son, Geor"e '% 1/CC43 3he Longing for Myth in 5ermany: 'eligion and
Aesthetic .ulture from 'omanticism to "iet!sche 1Chica"o; <ni)ersit! of Chica"o3%
Kates, rances 119643 5iordano runo and the Hermetic 3radition 1Chica"o;
<ni)ersit! of Chica"o3%
&&&119663 3he Art of Memory 16ondon; ?outled"e3%
Neltner, 9er.ann 119+43 Schelling 1'tutt"art; ro..anns3%
$hristian %ersla&e is a ?esearch ellow at the Centre for $odern >uropean
(hilosoph! at 6ondon% 9is research focuses on post&Kantian Ger.an philosoph! and
twentieth&centur! rench philosoph! 1particularl! Ber"son and Deleuze3% 9e is the author
of -eleu!e and the 4nconscious 1Continuu. /CC,3%
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