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Absenteeism and Truancy on Academic Performance of Secondary
School Students in Ogun State, Nigeria

(usa% )itila*o (.
+epart,ent of Educational -oundations and (anage,ent
#la.isi #na.an/o 0ni1ersit*% 2go-Iwo*e% #gun State% Nigeria
E-,ail3 titila*o1'234*a5oo.co,

Abstract
)5e stud* in1estigated a.senteeis, and truanc* and t5eir i,pact on t5e acade,ic perfor,ance of secondar*
sc5ool students in #gun State. 2 sur1e* researc5 design was e,plo*ed and two 5*pot5eses were generated and
tested in t5e stud*. 6espondent were two 5undred SSS2 students t5at were rando,l* selected fro, fi1e selected
secondar* sc5ools. )5e* responded to Non-Sc5ool 2ttendance 2ssess,ent Scale t5at was used for data
collection for t5e stud*. +ata were anal*7ed using si,ple percentages and weig5ted ,ean% and all t5e 5*pot5eses
were tested at &.&5 le1el of significance. -indings re1ealed t5at peer group factors% socio econo,ic .ac8ground
of t5e students% poor acade,ic perfor,ance of students% are contri.utor* factors to a.senteeis, and truanc* in
our secondar* sc5ools. It was suggested t5at% parents s5ould guide t5eir c5ildren and .e of good ,odels% also
t5e* s5ould pa* serious attention to financial and ,aterial needs of t5eir c5ildren.
Keywords3 2.senteeis,% )ruanc*% 2cade,ic Perfor,ance% Peer group% Student

Introduction
Pro.le,s affecting students9 acade,ic perfor,ance in Nigeria include a.senteeis, and truanc*. )5ese are
.e5a1iours t5at students e:5i.ited t5at de1iate fro, t5e social nor,s of t5e sc5ool. It 5as caused serious
pro.le,s to t5e s,oot5 running of t5e sc5ool s*ste,% t5e progress of t5e students and also t5e o1erall education
progra,,e. )5ere are a lot of effects of truanc* and a.senteeis, on a c5ild and societ* in general. 2.senteeis,
and truanc* ,a* lead a c5ild to .eco,e 5ardened cri,inal in future life% if not cur.ed (2.a*o,i% 2&&2. ;5en a
c5ild tends to get in1ol1ed in acts suc5 as running awa* fro, sc5ool% 5e ,a* not 5a1e ti,e to concentrate on
5is<5er studies% w5ere.* 5a1ing negati1e i,pact on t5e acade,ic perfor,ance of suc5 a c5ild. )5is will ,a8e
suc5 a c5ild neglect 5is intended goals and if t5is 5appens% suc5 a c5ild will not .e a.le to concentrate on 5is<5er
education and 5is<5er career will co,e into a stand still. In a situation w5ere a c5ild is alwa*s pla*ing t5e truanc*%
suc5 a c5ild will .e ,issing a lot of lessons and definitel* will not 8now an*t5ing .eing taug5t .* t5e teac5er.
2s a result% suc5 a c5ild will ne1er ac5ie1e an* goal in 5is<5er education and career.

Truancy and Absenteeism
Education is t5e process of learning to li1e as a useful and accepta.le ,e,.er of t5e co,,unit* and a good
citi7en (-erranti% 1==3. )5e sc5ool 5as .een esta.lis5ed as t5e agent of t5e societ* to ,ould t5e 5a.its% interest%
attitudes and feelings of c5ildren and trans,it t5e societal nor,s% culture% 1alues and traditions fro, one
generation to anot5er. )5e sc5ool as an institution is a place of learning ,oralit* and inculcate discipline to t5e
students. +espite t5is% so,e students still do not attend classes. Students9 a.sence fro, sc5ool for une:cused
reasons is referred to as truanc*.
>owe1er% t5e situation in our secondar* sc5ools regarding t5e issue of a.senteeis, and truanc* is pat5etic.
2.senteeis, and truanc* are presentl* ,a/or pro.le,s facing our sc5ools% and t5e da,aging effects to students9
acade,ic perfor,ances 5a1e largel* .een o1erloo8ed. 2de*e,o (1==! sees a truant as ?2 c5ild w5o often sta*s
awa* fro, sc5ool wit5out an* good reason. 2.senteeis, is regular persistent a.sence fro, wor8 or sc5ool w5ile
truanc* is an act of or practice of deli.eratel* sta*ing awa* fro, sc5ool wit5out an* acceptance reason% w5et5er
or not t5e parents or guardians 8now and appro1e of it (-ugle,an @ 6ic5ardson% 2&&1. 2 truant is a c5ild t5at
does not go to sc5ool t5ere.* di1erting to so,ew5ere else or wandering around (Sa*eler% 1==7. 2 truant lea1es
5o,e .ut does not reac5 sc5ool% 5e escapes fro, sc5ool or class to engage in an* ot5er acti1ities t5at catc5 up
5is i,aginations (Aa..% 1==7. Aullatt and Be,oine (1==7 also opined t5at truanc* is a1oidance .e5a1iour
towards sc5ool as a result of t5e e:istence of ot5er reinforcing acti1ities outside t5e sc5ool% ot5er t5an t5e 5o,e.
6ot5,an (2&&1 opined t5at ?truanc* is an act of sta*ing awa* fro, sc5ool wit5out lea1eC. )ruanc* is a pro.le,
.ecause t5e a.sent students cannot .enefit fro, t5e 1arious progra,,es t5at t5e sc5ool offers. Effects of truanc*
include lower acade,ic ac5ie1e,ents (Da8er @ Jansen% 2&&& and cri,inal acti1ities (Aarr*% 2&&1.
)ruanc* and a.senteeis, are signs of ,alad/ust,ent t5at reEuire ps*c5ologicall* treat,ent (Areen% 2&&1. It is
an act of indiscipline and t5is 5as .een causing ,isunderstanding a,ong adolescence% teac5ers% parents and in
t5e societ* (2.a*o,i% 2&&2. )ruants increase t5eir ris8 for dropping out of sc5ool and 5ig5 sc5ool dropouts are
,ore li8el* to .e une,plo*ed or end up in prison t5an students w5o graduate fro, 5ig5 sc5ool or college. )5ere
are four categories of truantsF students .eing in sc5ool .ut a.sent in class% students neit5er in classroo, nor in
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t5e sc5ool .ut at 5o,e% t5ose neit5er in t5e sc5ool nor at 5o,e% and t5ose w5o a.sent t5e,sel1es fro, classes as
a result of t5e difficult* in t5e sc5ool su./ects or disli8e for t5e su./ect or teac5er (#wodunni% 1==G.
Stoll (1==3 su.,itted t5at factors responsi.le for pupils9 truanc* are ,an* and 1aried. Bansdown (1==& 1iewed
t5at t5ere is no point in see8ing single factor e:planation for a co,ple: p5eno,enon li8e truanc*. -actors
influencing truanc* fall into four .road categoriesF c5ild< personalit*% fa,il*% sc5ool% and societ*< co,,unit*
(6o5r,an% 1==3F Hinder% >arland% ;il8in @ ;a8efield% 1==5. #sarenren (1==G also discussed t5e causes of
truanc* a,ong sc5ool c5ildren under factors resident in t5e 5o,e% sc5ool en1iron,ent% peer-group% culture% and
societ*. In t5e sa,e 1ein% Aesinde (2&&5 5as also identified t5e contri.utor* role of go1ern,ent in truanc*
.e5a1iour a,ong sc5ool c5ildren. Bac8 of interest in education of c5ildren 1aries and t5is depends on t5e c5ild.
If a c5ild is not interested in education and in suc5 a situation% a c5ild w5o is not interested in education if forced
to do would alwa*s s5ow truanc* and a.senteeis, 5e<s5e would not go to sc5ool alwa*s as e:pected% ,an*
ot5er t5ings t5at can also influence t5e interest of a c5ild in education. 2 pupil ,a* .e ill or sic8 and ,a* .e
8ept at 5o,e in good fait5 until t5e c5ild is well and .e a.le to ,o1e a.out freel* wit5out an* pro.le, (>arrison%
1=='.

Peer Group actor and Truancy
)5oug5% ,an* sc5olars (6ot5,an% 2&&1F Aallowa*% 1=!5F Aa..% 1==7F #erle,ans @ Jen8ins% 1==! 5a1e
.la,ed t5e c5ild for truanc* .e5a1iour% t5e peer influence 5ad .een identified as a ,a/or factor influencing a
c5ild9s truanc* .e5a1iour. 2ccording to #,oegun (1==5% a c5ild would rat5er prefer to spend ,ost of 5is da*s
in t5e ,idst of 5is peers w5ere 5e would .e 5appier and ,ore rela:ed. 2nd t5is gi1es roo, for undue peer
influence particularl* in antisocial .e5a1iours li8e truanc*. #wodunni (1==G opined t5at it is easier for student
to *ield to t5e pressure fro, t5eir colleagues t5an to o.e* t5e teac5er and t5e sc5ool aut5orit*. 6o5r,an (1==3
opined t5at peers 5a1e an in1alua.le and influential role to pla* in pro1iding .ot5 t5e support and conte:t
necessar* for t5e learning of new s8ills and t5at t5e* act as reinforcing agents of sociali7ation. In a stud*
conducted .* #sarenren (1==G reported t5at regardless of w5et5er c5ildren9s attitudes and conducts were
appro1ed .* parents or ot5er adults% adolescents atte,pt to ,odel 5is .e5a1iour according to w5at represents t5e
standard of 5is peer group. 2de.isi% (1==G gi1es a critical anal*tical influence of peer group as a strong factor
t5at causes truanc* and a.senteeis,. )5e t*pe of friends a student 8eeps pla*s an i,portant role. -or e:a,ple
student fro, well .e5a1e 5o,es ,a* .eco,e truant or a.sence fro, sc5ool as a result of ,i:ing wit5 .ad
students w5o are not discipline at 5o,e.

Absenteeism and Truancy on Students! Academic Performance
)5ere are different 1iews on t5e possi.le effects of truanc* and a.senteeis, on students9 acade,ic perfor,ance
in our sc5ools. #*e.an/i (1==7 agreed t5at an* c5ild w5o sta*s awa* fro, sc5ool will ,iss so ,an* lessons t5at
5e will as a result fall .e5ind ot5er c5ildren in t5e class. S5e also stressed t5at t5e i,pact on eac5 indi1idual
concerned and t5eir acade,ic perfor,ance s5ould .e 1iewed as a 1er* serious ,atter of concerned to
parents.I)ruanc* and a.senteeis, can lead to frustration in t5e sense t5at w5en a c5ild repeats a class for ,ore
t5an two or t5ree *ears% 5e will get tired and .eco,e frustrated.
#wen (2&&1 sa*s t5at truanc* and a.senteeis, ,a* lead a c5ild into drug addiction% and in ,ost cases student
t5at a.sent fro, sc5ool% 5is or 5er Intelligent Juotient (IJ would .e going retarded and suc5 students would
score .elow a1erage in 5is class wor8 .ecause 5e ,issed all t5e nor,al sc5ool lessons and all t5e acade,ic
sc5ool training w5ic5 5e is suppose to 5a1e acEuired. >e would also associate wit5 .ad group t5at pus5 5i,
an*5ow. 2n*t5ing t5e* do 5e will also do wit5out 5a1ing an* second t5oug5t o1er it and t5is will e1entuall* lure
5i,<5er into cri,inal acti1ities suc5 as stealing% s,o8ing% cultis,% narcotics etc. all t5ese will increase 5is
confidence in 5is .ad .e5a1iour w5ic5 e1entuall* 5a1e .ad i,pact on 5is acade,ic success% 5is .rain will .e
affected and 5is wa* of t5in8ing will all .e in negati1e for,.

"ome actor and Truancy
)5e 5o,e is a powerful deter,inant factor in t5e .e5a1iour of c5ildren. 2dedipe (1==! opined t5at c5ildren
w5o are not adeEuatel* ,onitored .* t5eir parents ,a* s5ow a 1ariet* of un5ealt5* s*,pto,s in .e5a1iours.
2de.isi (1==G opines .ro8en 5o,es as a factor t5at causes truanc* and a.senteeis, in c5ildren .ecause in ,ost
.ro8en 5o,e t5ere is no proper care for t5e c5ild. Eisen.or* (1==! 1iews truanc* as t5e fear of .eing awa* fro,
parents.
)5ese delinEuent *out5s ran awa* fro, 5o,e% and pose t5reats to t5e future de1elop,ent of a nation. 2ccording
to Eric8son and Kurl (1==G% so,e of t5e parents s5ow no interest in t5eir c5ildren de1elop,ent in ter,s of
acade,ic support and ot5ers. )5erefore in ,ost cases a c5ild turn truant .ecause parent do not s5ow an* interest
in t5eir acade,ic perfor,ance at a particular stage suc5 a c5ild ,a* .e easil* lure into truanc*. Sc5ool age
c5ildren and teens w5o are unsuper1ised during t5e 5ours of sc5ool are far ,ore li8el* to use alco5ol% drugs and
to.acco% engage in acts of cri,inalit* and ot5er 5ig5 ris8 .e5a1iours% recei1e poor grades% and drop fro, sc5ool
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t5an t5ose c5ildren w5o 5a1e t5e opportunit* to .enefit in constructi1e acti1ities and super1ised .* responsi.le
parents and adults (>arrison% 1=='.

Statement of the Problem
)5e sc5ool 5as .een esta.lis5ed as t5e agent of t5e societ* to ,ould t5e 5a.its% interest% attitudes and feelings of
c5ildren and trans,it t5e societal nor,s% culture% 1alues and traditions fro, one generation to anot5er. +espite
t5is% so,e students still do not attend sc5ool classes. (an* of our *out5s now run awa* fro, sc5ools w5ile in
,an* of t5e cases% t5e parents .elie1e t5e* are attending sc5ool classes. ;5ile t5e* are awa* fro, sc5ool% t5e*
e:ercise freedo, in engaging in a lot of /u1enile delinEuencies li8e fig5ting and drug a.use. )5is situation in our
sc5ools is 5ig5l* worriso,e. )ruanc* is a pro.le, .ecause t5e a.sent students cannot .enefit fro, t5e 1arious
progra,,es t5at t5e sc5ool offers. Effects of truanc* 5a1e .een reported to include lower acade,ic
ac5ie1e,ents% delinEuent and cri,inal acti1ities. It 5as .een esta.lis5ed t5at a.senteeis, and truanc* are cogs in
t5e w5eel of teac5ing learning.

#esearch "ypotheses
)5e researc5 tested t5e following non-directional 5*pot5eses at &.5 le1el of significance3
1 Peer group will not significantl* contri.ute to t5e act of truanc* and a.senteeis, in our secondar*
sc5ool.
2. )5ere is no significant i,pact of a.senteeis, and truanc* on t5e acade,ic perfor,ance of student in
#gun state% Nigeria.

$ethodology
#esearch %esign
2 descripti1e sur1e* sa,ple design was adopted for t5is researc5. )5is stud* e:a,ined t5e effects of truanc*%
a.senteeis, and t5eir i,pact on acade,ic perfor,ance of secondar* sc5ool students.

Population, Sample and Sampling Techni&ue
)5e targeted population for t5is stud* consisted of all t5e secondar* sc5ool students in #gun State of Nigeria.
)5ere are twent* one secondar* sc5ools in #gun State% Nigeria. 2 representati1e fraction of t5e students was
rando,l* selected. In selection of t5e sa,ple% t5e si,ple rando, sa,pling ,et5od was adopted. -i1e (5
secondar* sc5ools were rando,l* selected% and fort* S.S.2 students were rando,l* selected fro, eac5 of t5e
sc5ools as respondents (a total sa,ple of two 5undred students in all.

#esearch Instrument
Non-Sc5ool 2ttendance 2ssess,ent Scale (N22S% an instru,ent designed .* t5e researc5er was used to collect
data. )5e Scale was di1ided into four sectionsF sections 2 e:plored t5e personal data of respondents% section D
contained ite,s on peer group% section K contained ite,s on socio-econo,ic .ac8ground% section + contained
ite,s on t5eir effects on students9 acade,ic perfor,ance and section E contained ite,s on solutions. Ite,s were
rated on Bi8ert scale of four options3 S2 strongl* agree% (2 agree% (+ disagree% (S+ strongl* disagree.
)5e 1alidit* of t5e Scale was .ased on t5e content 1alidit* to ensure t5at t5e* ,easures w5at t5e* are e:pected
to ,easure. Ite,s on t5is scale were gotten t5roug5 literature. )5e researc5er t5en criticall* re1iewed and
,odified t5e, for sta.ilit* and ensured t5at t5e* were capa.le of eliciting t5e e:pected responses. 2fter t5e first
draft% t5e Euestionnaires were gi1en to colleagues for ,odification.

#esults
)5e results are presented in ta.les 1 and 23
"ypothesis One' Peer group will not significantl* contri.ute to t5e act of truanc* and a.senteeis, in our
secondar* sc5ool.
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Table (3 -reEuenc* count% percentages% ,ean standard de1iation and c5i- sEuare of peer group contri.ution to
t5e act of truanc* and a.senteeis, in our secondar* sc5ools.
SN Ite,s S+ + 2 S2 (n S+ :L Sig.
1 )5e t*pe of peer group a
student 8eeps pla*s a
significant role in t5e act of
a.senteeis, and truanc* in
sc5ool.
15
(7.5M
1'
(7.&M
53
(2G.GM
117
(5!.!M
3.37 &.=1 1'1.1 .&&&
2 Students fro, well .e5a1ed
5o,es .eco,e truant as a
result of .ad friends.
= ('.5M 23
(11.GM
==
('=.7M
G!
(3'.2M
3.1' &.7= 1&3.2 .&&&
3 Dro8en 5o,e lead a student to
/oin .ad group.
23
(11.GM
27
(13.GM
5=
(2=.GM
=&
('5.2M
3.&= 1.&2 5=.1 .&&&
' So,e students a.sent
t5e,sel1es fro, sc5ool due to
t5e effect of t5e peer-groups.
G'
(32.2M
2G
(13.1M
5!
(2=.1M
51
(25.GM
2.'! 1.1= 1G.! .&&1
5 Peer-group influence can lead a
student to so,e .ad 5a.its e.g.
s,o8ing% cultis,% stealing etc
= ('.5M 3&
(15.1M
G5
(32.7M
=5
('7.7M
3.2' &.!7 !7.1 .&&&

6esults in )a.le 1 a.o1e re1ealed t5at a greater percentage of t5e respondents agreed wit5 t5e state,ent t5at t5e
t*pe of peer-group a student 8eeps pla* a significant role in t5e act of a.senteeis, and truanc* in sc5ool and t5is
will affect t5eir acade,ic perfor,ance ((ean N 3.37F S+ .=1F )*N 1'1.&!F p O .&5. 2lso% ,ost of t5e
respondents esta.lis5ed t5at students fro, well .e5a1ed 5o,es .eco,e truant as a result of .ad friends ((ean N
3.1'F S+N .7=+ )*N 1&3.21F p O .&5.. In addition% ,a/orit* of t5e respondents also agreed wit5 t5e state,ent t5at
.ro8en 5o,e lead a student to /oin .ad group ((ean N 3.&=F S+ N 1.&2F :*N 5=.&7F p O .&5 )5e respondents
5a1e di1ided opinion on t5e state,ent t5at so,e students a.sent t5e,sel1es fro, sc5ool due to t5e effect of t5e
peer-groups ((ean N 2.'!F S+ N 1.1=F )* N1G.!2F p O.&5. >owe1er% ,ost of t5e respondents agreed wit5 t5e
state,ent t5at peer-group influence can lead a student to so,e .ad 5a.its for e:a,ple s,o8ing% cultis,% stealing
etc. ((ean N 3.2'F S+ N .!7F :* N !7.&5F pO .&5 )5erefore% t5e null 5*pot5esis% w5ic5 stated t5at peer group%
will not significantl* contri.ute to t5e act of truanc* and a.senteeis, in our secondar* sc5ool s .* t5e findings
of t5is stud* was re/ected.
Table ,3 -reEuenc* count% percentage% ,ean% standard de1iation and c5i-sEuare 1alues of i,pact a.senteeis,
and truanc* on t5e acade,ic perfor,ance of students in #gun State.
S+ + 2 S2 (ean S+ :L Sig.
1 Students9 poor perfor,ance in
acade,ic is as a result of
a.senteeis, and truanc*
2'
(12.1M
'1
(2&.GM
'!
(2'.1M
!G
('3.2M
2.=! 1.&G '1.3' .&&&
2 Kontinuous repetition of t5e
sa,e class .* student can .e as
a result of a.senteeis, and
truanc*
1'
(7.&M
G=
(3'.7M
7&
(35.2M
'G
(23.1M
2.7' .!= '1.GG .&&&
3 Dad 5a.its suc5 as stealing%
s,o8ing% cultis,% t5ese .ad
5a.it can 5a1e i,pact on
acade,ic perfor,ance of an*
student.
12
(G.GM
!2
('1.2M
'=
(2'.GM
5G
(2!.1M
2.75 .=' 5&.35 .&&&
' 2.senteeis, and truanc* lead to
student poor acade,ic
perfor,ance in t5e sc5ool.
17
(!.5M
G1
(3&.7M
G1
(3&.7M
G&
(3&.2M
2.!2 .=G 2!.7G .&&&
5 0nseriousness wit5 acade,ic
wor8 can ,a8e student to repeat
classes% w5ic5 can lead to
truanc* and a.senteeis, in t5e
sc5ool.
13
(G.5M
25
(12.GM
G2
(31.2M
==
('=.7M
3.2' .=1 =1.23 .&&&

)a.le 2 a.o1e indicated t5at ,ost of t5e respondents agreed wit5 t5e state,ent t5at students poor perfor,ance in
acade,ic is as a result of a.senteeis, and truanc* ((ean N 2.=!F S+ N 1.&GF )* -'1.3'F p O.&5. In addition%
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,a/orit* of t5e respondent agreed t5at continuous repetition of t5e sa,e class .* students can .e as a result of
a.senteeis, and truanc* ((ean N 2.7'F S+ N .!=F )* - '1.GGF p O.&5. (a/orit* of t5e respondents agreed wit5
t5e state,ent t5at student wit5 cri,inal or .ad 5a.it suc5 as stealing% s,o8ing% cultis,% t5ese .ad 5a.it can 5a1e
i,pact on acade,ic perfor,ance of an* students ((ean N 2.75F S+ N .='F )* - 5&.35F pO.&5. 2lso% ,ost of t5e
respondents agreed wit5 t5e state,ent t5at a.senteeis, and truanc* lead to student poor acade,ic perfor,ance
in t5e sc5ool ((ean N 2.!2F S+ N .=GF :L N 2!.7GF p O.&5. (a/orit* of t5e respondents also agreed t5at lac8 of
seriousness wit5 acade,ic wor8 can ,a8e student to repeat classes% w5ic5 can lead to truanc* and a.senteeis,
in t5e sc5ool ((ean N 3.2'F S+ N.=1F :L N=1.23F p O.&5.
)5erefore% t5e null 5*pot5esis% w5ic5 stated t5at t5ere is no significant i,pact of a.senteeis, and truanc* on t5e
acade,ic perfor,ance of students in #gun State% was .* t5e finding of t5is stud* re/ected. >ence% a.senteeis,
and truanc* 5as a negati1e on student9s acade,ic perfor,ance.

%iscussion of indings
)5e result of 5*pot5esis one re1ealed t5at peer group will significantl* contri.ute to t5e act of truanc* and
a.senteeis, in our secondar* sc5ool. )5is result is line wit5 t5e assertion of #,oegun (1==5 t5at a c5ild would
rat5er prefer to spend ,ost of 5is da*s in t5e ,idst of 5is peers w5ere 5e would .e 5appier and ,ore rela:ed.
2lso% #wodunni (1==G opined t5at it is easier for student to *ield to t5e pressure fro, t5eir colleagues t5an to
o.e* t5e teac5er and t5e sc5ool aut5orit*. )5is result also lend credence to findings of 6o5r,an (1==3 w5o
reported t5at peers 5a1e an in1alua.le and influential role to pla* in pro1iding .ot5 t5e support and conte:t
necessar* for a.senteeis, and truanc*. In a si,ilar stud*% #sarenren (1==G reported t5at regardless of w5et5er
c5ildren9s attitudes and conducts were appro1ed .* parents or ot5er adults% adolescents atte,pt to ,odel 5is
.e5a1iour according to w5at represents t5e standard of 5is peer group. 2de.isi (1==G opined peer group as a
strong factor towards truanc* and a.senteeis,. )5e t*pe of friends a student 8eeps pla*s an i,portant role.
2de.isi (1==G gi1es a critical anal*tical influence of peer group as strong factor t5at cause truanc* and
a.senteeis,. >e also gi1es .ro8en 5o,es as anot5er factor t5at cause truanc* and a.senteeis, in c5ildren
.ecause ,ost .ro8en 5o,es lac8 proper care for t5e c5ild.
#utco,e of 5*pot5esis two s5owed t5at t5ere is a significant i,pact of a.senteeis, and truanc* on t5e acade,ic
perfor,ance of student in #gun State. )5is result is supported t5e findings of Da8er and Jansen (2&&& t5at t5e
effects of truanc* include lower acade,ic ac5ie1e,ents. #*e.an/i (1==7 also agreed t5at an* c5ild w5o sta*s
awa* fro, sc5ool will ,iss so ,an* lessons t5at 5e will as a result fall .e5ind t5e ot5er c5ildren in t5e class. S5e
also stressed t5at t5e i,pact on eac5 indi1iduals concerned and t5eir acade,ic perfor,ance s5ould .e 1iewed as
a 1er* serious ,atter of concerned to parents. Is*a8u (2&&2 reported lac8s of teac5ing a,ong t5e factors t5at
contri.ute to acts of truanc* and a.senteeis, in sc5ool.

.onclusion
Dased on t5e ,a/or findings of t5is stud*% it can .e concluded t5at3
1. Peer group will significantl* contri.ute to t5e act of truanc* and a.senteeis, in our secondar* sc5ools.
2. )5ere is a significant i,pact of a.senteeis, and truanc* on t5e acade,ic perfor,ance of students in
#gun State% Nigeria.

#ecommendations
)5e following reco,,endations were ,ade .ased on t5e findings of t5is stud*. 2 conscious i,ple,entation of
t5ese reco,,endations will go a long wa*s in t5e i,pro1e,ent on t5e cases of truanc* and a.senteeis, in our
secondar* sc5ools
- Parents s5ould guide t5eir c5ildren into t5e rig5t pat5 and t5e* .e good ,odels to t5eir c5ildren.
- Parents s5ould pa* serious attention to t5e financial needs of t5eir c5ildren and pro1ide t5eir sc5ool
,aterials
- Parents s5ould .e interested in t5e peer group or friends t5eir c5ild ,o1e wit5 or 8eep and watc5 t5eir
acti1ities wit5 8een interest.
- Parents% teac5er and t5e sc5ool principals s5ould endea1our to .e steadfast and .e concerned wit5 t5e tas8
of ,a8ing students to .e responsi.le and discipline rig5t fro, t5e *out5% so t5at t5e nations e:pectation
on t5e, as future leaders ,a* .e attained.

.onclusion
#ne of t5e pro.le,s t5at affect t5e acade,ic perfor,ance of students in secondar* sc5ool s*ste, toda* in
Nigeria is t 2.senteeis, and )ruanc*. -ro, t5e stud*% effort 5ad .een ,ade to 8now t5e e:tent and 5ow it
affects t5e students 1iewing truanc* and a.senteeis, in relation to acade,ic perfor,ance% it can .e seen t5at t5e
two constitute a great significant effect on t5e future life of t5e student a.sentees and truants. In conclusion% t5e
i,pacts of a.senteeis, and truanc* on acade,ic perfor,ance of secondar* sc5ool students are as follows3
Journal of Education and Practice www.iiste.org
ISSN 2222-1735 (Paper ISSN 2222-2!!" (#nline
$ol.5% No.22% 2&1'

!G
- Bac8 of seriousness on t5e part of t5e studentsF Poor sc5ool and acade,ic perfor,ancesF Students .eco,ing
pro.le,atic teac5ers in t5e sc5ool as well as 5is parents at 5o,eF )5e 5a.itual a.sentee c5ild will ,iss a lot
of class wor8 and ,a* .eco,e drop-outF 2.senteeis, and )ruanc* ,a* /eopardise t5e future of t5e student
and conseEuentl* 5is contri.utions to life and national de1elop,entF )5e societ* will 5a1e a lot of people
t5at are sociall* ,isfits since ,ost of t5ese a.sentees and truants will ser1e no useful wa*s in t5e societ*.

#//#/N./S
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,ni-ersity of *enin, *enin !ity, Nigeria .
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2de*an/u% ).#. (1===. Adolescence and the school setting. I.adan3 >eine,ann Educational Pu.lications.
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of Education% National Kenter for Education Statistics. ;as5ington% +.K.
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Aallowa*% +. (1=!5. /chools and persistent absentees. #:ford3 Perga,on Press.
Aallowa*% +. (2&&1+. 9ich schools Poor /chools3 The Promises of E:ual Educational opportunity. K5icago3 )5e
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+elinEuenc* Pre1ention. #JJ+P3 0S +epart,ent of Justice.
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>arrison% >. (1=='. +epart,ent of Justice9s +rug 0se -orce Progra,F 0.S.
>erson% H. (1===. Self-Ser1ing .iases in t5e attri.ution process3 a re-e:a,ination of t5e fact or fiction Euestion.
Journal of Personalty and social psychology. "2, 32'&#.
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)reat,ent of )ruanc*. ,npublished Ph. D. Thesis, ,ni-ersity of 4badan.
Is*a8u% S. (2&&2. )5e i,pact of professional de1elop,ent on teac5ers self- conception. Teaching and Teacher
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Hinder% H.% >arland% J.% ;il8in% 2.% @ ;a8efield% 2. (1==5. Three to remember8 /trategies for dissatisfied pupils.
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;5* c5ildren re/ect sc5ool. Bondon3 Qale 0ni1ersit* Press.
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