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STRESS IN CORPORATE MANAGEMENT- INDIAN PERSPECTIVE :

STRESS IN CORPORATE MANAGEMENT- INDIAN PERSPECTIVE C.S.J.M. UNIVERSITY, KANPUR SUBMITTED


BY: JEETENDRA RAI SANTOSH KUMAR CHAURASIA SEEMA KUSHWAHA SAURABH KUMAR ANUJ
BANUDHIA

STRESS :
STRESS 1 Stress is a conscious or unconscious psychological feeling or physical situation which comes after as a result of
physical or/and mental positive or negative pressure to overwhelm adaptive capacities. We can even regard stress as wear
and tear on the body in response to stressful agents. These agents stressors could be physical, physiological, psychological or
socio cultural. Thus, stress is not an anxiety disorder and it is normative concept.

CONCEPT OF STRESS ON NON LIVING :
CONCEPT OF STRESS ON NON LIVING (a) Stress is basically effect of one object on another. It may be on living or
non-living object. (b) In connection with non living object stress on another object is expressed by three terms pressure,
strain and stress. (i) Pressure is load per unit area or stress per Unit area (ii) Strain is the physical change in the object when
load is applied (iii) Stress is the impact of one object on another physically.

CONCEPT OF STRESS ON LIVING BEING :
CONCEPT OF STRESS ON LIVING BEING 3 In connection with living objects specially human beings it is used in
physical science, medical science and social science. (a) In physical science stress can be perceived as in non living objects
(b) In medical science, the term stress is the bodys general response to environmental environment (c) In social science,
stress is a condition, arising from interaction of two or more persons and characterized by changes within the persons that
force them to deviate from their normal functioning.

OVERVIEW OF STRESS :
OVERVIEW OF STRESS 4 Stress is a conscious or unconscious psychological feeling or physical situation which comes
after as a result of physical or/and mental positive or negative pressure to overwhelm adaptive capacities. 5. In other words,
stress is a psychological process initiated by events that threaten, harm or challenge an organism which exceeds available
coping resources, and it is characterizes by psychological responses that are directed towards adaptation.

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6. We can even regard stress as wear and tear on the body in response to stressful agents. Such stressors could be physical,
physiological, psychological or socio cultural. Thus, stress is not an anxiety disorder and it is normative concept.

OVERVIEW OF STRESS :
OVERVIEW OF STRESS 7. (a) It may not be dyfunctional i.e. it may be self stimulated i.e. Eu-stress, examples Stress for
creative work Entrepreneurial work Keen competition (b) It can be temporary or long term, severe or mild depending upon
duration and type of cause.

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(c) It may be result of stimuli of any form. Examples:- (i) Interpersonal interaction (ii) Event etc. (d) Stimuli produces
following kinds of deviations in the individual. (i) Physical (ii) Psychological (iii) Behavioral (e) It is more comprehensive
than anxiety. Anxiety operates only in emotional and psychological sphere.

CAUSES OF STRESS :
CAUSES OF STRESS 8. Listing the causes of stress is tricky. There can be innumerable stress factors, since different
individuals react differently to the same stress conditions. Extreme stress situations for an individual may prove to be mild
for another, for yet another person the situations might not qualify as stress symptoms at all, stress is often termed as a
twentieth century syndrome, born out of mans race towards modern progress and its ensuing complexities.

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10 ATTITUDE It is said that life acts and you react. Our attitude is our reaction to what life hands out to us. A significant
amount of stress symptoms can be avoided or aroused by the way we relate to stressors. Stress is created by what we think
rather than what has actually happened. For instance, handling adopted children, adolescents, academic failure, retirement or
sudden loss of money needs a relaxed attitude, focused will and preparedness to face the quirks of life positively. Otherwise
one tends to feel stressed and reacts in anger and frustration.

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LIFES SITUATIONS Major life events such as divorce, death, mid life crisis, financial worries, persistent strain of caring
of a chronically sick child, nagging health problems, or managing a physically or mentally challenged family member can
act as a potential stressors. One just cant wish away situations. Even conditions such as prolonged unemployment or sudden
lay off from a job can leave a person under tremendous stresses. One just cant walk away from situations. Moreover one has
to live through these situations, in the right spirit, to make living a worthwhile experience.

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13. Stress also comes from our social and personal context and from our psychological and emotional reactions to such
conditioning. 14. Children and women subjected to mental or physical abuses are known to suffer from the tremendous,
constant anxiety and burnout. 15.Though anger, fear and other negative emotional reactions are natural and necessary, we
need to channel them constructively to create a balanced state in our body and mind. GENETICS while no parental issue
guarantees that the same issue will be duplicated in their children, parental stress certainly places the children at a great risk
of becoming stressed as well. Besides being at higher genetic risk

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for stress, children of stressed parents can also learn the tendency to get stressed out in reaction to lifes challenges from
their parents. Doctors at Mayo clinic, USA opinioned that situations that create stress are as unique as you are. A research
article published in the British medical journal, suggests The psychological condition of the mother may affect fetal
development. Its identified that specific genes three endorphin groups, which constitute our stress hormones 20. Children
of stressed out parents are more likely to be ill equipped to handle stressors positively

AREAS OF STRESS :
AREAS OF STRESS 21 .Possible areas where we can be under stress our life (a) Work (b) Gender (c) Home, family,
children, relatives (d) Society and friends (e) Leisure and sports

EFFECTS OF STRESS :
EFFECTS OF STRESS 22. Stress can have positive as well as negative impact on performance of any individual (a).
EUSTRESS The stress which causes positive effects is called Eustress. (b). DISTRESS Negative effects is called distress.

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(c).ILO REPORT 2004 ON STRESS RELATED EFFECTS As per director general, ILO, Juan Somavia more workers died
due to work stressors than the wars. Examples:- 6000 workers a day i.e. one every 15seconds suffers from work related
illness due to stressors. (ii) Behind 2.2 million work related fatalities and 60 million illnesses annually basic cause is stress
which leads to illness or accidents.

CAUSES OF STRESS i.e. STRESSORS :
CAUSES OF STRESS i.e. STRESSORS

STRESSORS RELATED TO WORK :
STRESSORS RELATED TO WORK OCCUPATIONAL DEMANDS (a) Making decisions (b) Constant monitoring (c)
Unstructured tasks (d) Repeated exchanges of informationi.e. meetings, conferences (e) Unpleasant physical conditions (f)
New technology

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COMPETING DEMANDS That is role juggling between family attention and job attention.Example, most common is
working mothers ROLE AMBIGUITY AND ROLE CONFLICT (a) Role ambiguity: if work activities are ill defined then
the person who is carrying out these activities will not behave as others because role is not clearly defined (b) Role conflict:
where two or more persons have different and sometimes opposing expectations of a given individual OVERLOADS AND
UNDERLOADS: Quantitative overload Qualitative overload- due to lack of required skills or abilities to perform a job.

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Quantitative under load leads to boredom. Qualitative under load dulls the mental simulation. 28. RESPONSIBILITY FOR
OTHERS: Managers, who are responsible to motivate other people, reward/punish them. Such commitments producers
higher level stress. LACK OF SOCIAL SUPPORT When individuals believe that they have friendship and support of others
at work their ability to resist adverse effects seems to increase LACK OF PARTICIPATION When employees are invited to
participate in decision making process n their areas of concern, then the employees perceive to have more control over their
own environment thus reducing the stress.

STRESSORS NOT RELATED TO WORK :
STRESSORS NOT RELATED TO WORK 31. MAJOR STRESSFUL EVENTS (a) Death of spouse (b) Divorce (c) Marital
separation (d) Death of close family member (e) Personal injury or illness (f) Marriage (g) Fired from a job (h) Retirement
(i) Death of close friend (j) Son or daughter leaving home

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(k) Trouble with in laws (l) Trouble with boss (m)Pregnancy (n) Change in residence HASSELS OF DAILY LIFE
(a)HOUSE HOLD HASELS- shopping, preparing Meals (b)TIME PRESSURE HASSELS- too many things to do, too many
responsibilities (c) INNER HASSELS-being lonely, fear of confrontation (d)ENVIRONMENTAL HASSELS-
Neighborhood deterioration noise (e) FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY- concern about owing money

STRESSORS-AN INDIAN PERSPECTIVE :
STRESSORS-AN INDIAN PERSPECTIVE The cause of stress is not activity but the attitude with which we approach the
work (a)Action performed out of attachment causes stress. Such actions spring from selfishness and breed further selfish
action actions. (b)Stress is caused if sufficient room is not given for the mind to expand. (c)Stress is caused by taking ones
pleasures easily A mind pulsating with unfulfilled desire causesstress. (d)Attitude of doer is another factor causing stress.

EFFECTS OF STRESSORS AN INDIAN PERSPECTIVE :
EFFECTS OF STRESSORS AN INDIAN PERSPECTIVE 34.Before we start this topic, it becomes necessary to discuss
theANATOMY OF HUMAN CONCIOUSNESS. (a) It has always been regarded that human personality comprises of spark
of life called ATMAN. It has five layers which ore concentric and act as protectors of the ATMAN (b) Deeper layer is called
as layer of BLISS (c) Surface layer is divided into four sub categories. Air sheath Mental sheath Intellectual sheath Food
sheath

ANATOMY OF HUMAN CONCIOUSNESS :
ANATOMY OF HUMAN CONCIOUSNESS (a). FOOD SHEATH (b). AIR SHEATH (c). MENTAL SHEATH (d).
INTELLECTUAL SHEATH (e). BLISS SHEATH

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Bliss sheath Or anandmaya kosa atman Intellectual sheath Or vigyanamaya kosa Mental sheath Or manomaya kosa 0r
pranamaya kosa Air sheath Food sheath Or annamaya kosa Bliss sheath Or anandmaya kosa ATMAN Intellectual sheath Or
vigyanamaya kosa Mental sheath Or manomaya kosa 0r pranamaya kosa Air sheath Food sheath Or annamaya kosa

NEGATIVE EFFECTS OF STRESS ON HEALTH :
NEGATIVE EFFECTS OF STRESS ON HEALTH 35 Physical Problems:- High level of blood pressure, high level of
cholesterol, ulcer, arthritis etc. these have a drastic effect on the individuals, families and organizations. 36 Psychological
Problems:- Anger, anxiety, depression, nervousness, irritability, tension, boredom depending upon nature of stress and
capacity of individual to bear stress

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37 Behavioral Problems:- Alcoholism, more smoking, drug taking etc. are the effects usually associated with stress. People
under stress may gain weight and thus behave differently

HOW DOES STESS AFFECTS HEALTH :
HOW DOES STESS AFFECTS HEALTH 38. Stress can be positive, keeping us alert and ready to avoid danger. Stress
becomes negative when a person faces continuous challenges without relief or relaxation between challenges. As a result, the
person becomes oven worked and stress related tension builds. 39. Stress also becomes harmful when people use alcohol,
tobacco or drugs to try to relieve their stress Consider the following (a) Forty three percent of all adults suffer adverse health
effects from stress.

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(b) Seventy five to 90% of all doctors office visit are for stress related ailments and complaints. (c) Stress can play a part in
problems such as headaches, high blood pressure, heart problems, diabetes, skin conditions, asthma or arthritis in addition to
depression and anxiety. (d) The occupational safety and health administration declared stress a hazard of the workplace.
Stress costs American industry more than $300 billion annually. (e) The lifetime prevalence of an emotional disorder is more
than 50%, often due to chronic, untreated stress reactions.

SURVEY REPORT ON STATUS OF STRESS IN PUBLIC SECTOR UNDERTAKING :
SURVEY REPORT ON STATUS OF STRESS IN PUBLIC SECTOR UNDERTAKING 39. (a) in June 2002, summer
training project was undertaken by an IBM student to ascertain the status of stress in HAL KANPUR. (b) A survey was
conducted on 100 employees of different departments . Each employee was given 25 questions, 14 related to personal
characteristic related stress.

STRESS MANAGEMENT :
STRESS MANAGEMENT 40. PERSONAL MANAGEMENT OF STRESS (a) One should try to have a taste for literature,
games, and movies, so that one can help his mind in stress reduction. (b) One should try to balance his emotional life with
his work life. If in imbalance occurs stress increases.

41. PERSONAL MANAGEMENT- INDIAN PERSPECTIVE :
41. PERSONAL MANAGEMENT- INDIAN PERSPECTIVE (a) Friends and relatives play a very vital role in reduction of
stress. (b)Life is full of success and failures so one should adjust all his goals as per his or her capabilities. (c)Meditation i.e.
silently repeating a mantra over and over again results in mental and physical relaxation. (d)During last couple of years,
YOGA has evolves as a stress reduction strategy. YOGA word comes from the word YUJ meaning join.

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42. ORGANISATIONAL MANAGEMENT (a) The organization attempts to remove existing or potential stressors to
prevent their employees to suffer from stress. (b)Designing an individuals job profile in such a manner that the maximum
potential of employees comes out without causing him stress (c)They hire such an individual whose skills, personality and
work skills matches with his job requirements (d)Nowadays, organizations maintain physical fitness centers such as
swimming pools and even provide psychological counseling to cater needs of their employees.

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43. SOCIAL MANAGEMENT (a) ECONOMIC CONDITIONS- one should look at his economic status not from
comparison points of view, but Contentment point of view (b) CULTURAL- making sure by society that people have
cultural diversions at affordable cost . (c) ENVIRONMENTAL- every one cannot and need not be at same level of
achievement & subjective level of satisfaction derives by a person should be adjusted.

FACTORS AFFECTING STRESS LEVEL :
FACTORS AFFECTING STRESS LEVEL 44. (a) OPTIMISM AND PESSIMISM Studies indicate that,optimistic persons
are much less likely to report physical illness and symptoms of illness during highly stressful period.Pessimists give up their
efforts to reach goals withwhich stress is interfering. HARDINESS It distinguishes stress resistant people from those who
are more susceptible to its harmful effects. Hardiness has three ingredients. (i) COMMITMENT- hardy people show higher
level of commitment, deeper involvement in their jobs and other life activities.

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(ii) CONTROL- hardy people have got belief that they can influence events in their lives. (iii) CHALLENGE- they perceive
change as a challenge and an opportunity to grow rather than as a threat to their security. (b)BEHAVIOR PATTERN Some
people are highly competitive and hard driving, respond more strongly then others in various situations of stress
(c)TENSION DISCHARGE RATE Some people take the tension in their stride, and leave the tension behind in office when
they leave for home. In contrast other people take the tensions to home as a baggage.

THE 5 Rs OF STRESS MANAGEMENT :
THE 5 Rs OF STRESS MANAGEMENT (a) Recognition of the causes and sources of the threat or distress; education and
consciousness training. (b) Relationships identified for support, help, and reassurance (c) Removal from the threat or
stressor; managing the stimulus. (d) Relaxation through techniques such as meditation, massage, breathing exercises or
imagery. (e) Re-engagement through managed re-exposure and Desensitization.

SUMMARY :
SUMMARY

THANK FOR YOUR PARTICIPATION :
THANK FOR YOUR PARTICIPATION






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management at work:
management at work

General Awareness:
General Awareness What is stress? Type of stress Individuals Body origin & body system Adoption syndrome
Symptoms

What is stress:
What is stress Stress is the wear and tear our minds and bodies experience as we attempt to cope with our
continually changing environment External Internal Types of stress

Stress feelings:
Stress feelings Worry Tense Tired Frightened Elated Depressed Anxious Anger

External stressors:
External stressors Physical Environment Social Interaction Organizational Major Life Events Daily Hassles

Physical environment:
Physical environment Noise Bright Lights Heat Confined Spaces

Social interaction:
Social interaction Rudeness Bossiness Aggressiveness by others Bullying

Organizational:
Organizational Rules Regulations Red - Tape Deadline

Major events in life:
Major events in life Birth Death Lost job Promotion Marital status change

Daily hassles:
Daily hassles Misplaced keys Commuting Mechanical breakdowns

Internal stressors:
Internal stressors Lifestyle choices Negative self talk Mind traps Personality traits

Lifestyle choices:
Lifestyle choices Caffeine Lack of sleep Overloaded schedule

Negative self talk:
Negative self talk Pessimistic thinking Self criticism Over analysing

Mind traps:
Mind traps Unrealistic expectations Taking things personally All or nothing thinking Exaggeration Rigid thinking

Personality traits:
Personality traits Perfectionists Workaholic

Kind of stress:
Kind of stress Negative It is a contributory factor in minor conditions, such as headaches, digestive problems,
skin complaints, insomnia and ulcers. Excessive, prolonged and unrelieved stress can have a harmful effect on
mental, physical and spiritual health

Positive:
Positive Stress can also have a positive effect, spurring motivation and awareness, providing the stimulation to
cope with challenging situations. Stress also provides the sense of urgency and alertness needed for survival
when confronting threatening situations.

Symptoms of stress:
Symptoms of stress Physical symptoms Mental symptoms Behavioral symptoms Emotional symptom

Physical symptoms:
Physical symptoms Sleep pattern changes Fatigue Digestion changes Loss of sexual drive Headaches Aches
and pains Infections Indigestion Dizziness Fainting Sweating & trembling Tingling hands & feet Breathlessness
Palpitations Missed heartbeats

Mental symptoms:
Mental symptoms Lack of concentration Memory lapses Difficulty in making decisions Confusion Disorientation
Panic attacks

Behavioral symptoms:
Behavioral symptoms Appetite changes - too much or too little Eating disorders - anorexia, bulimia Increased
intake of alcohol & other drugs Increased smoking Restlessness Fidgeting Nail biting Hypochondria

Emotional symptoms:
Emotional symptoms Bouts of depression Impatience Fits of rage Tearfulness Deterioration of personal hygiene
and appearance

Stress awareness:
Stress awareness ABC STRATEGY A = AWARENESS What causes you stress? How do you react?

ABC strategy:
ABC strategy B = BALANCE There is a fine line between positive / negative stress How much can you cope with
before it becomes negative ?

ABC strategy:
ABC strategy C = CONTROL What can you do to help yourself combat the negative effects of stress ?

Change your behavior:
Change your behavior Be assertive Get organized Ventilation Humor Diversion and distraction

Equality & basic rights:
Equality & basic rights 1) The right to express my feelings 2) The right to express opinions / beliefs 3) The right to
say Yes/No for yourself 4) Right to change your mind 5) Right to say I dont understand 6) Right to be yourself,
not acting for the benefit of others

Assertive skills:
Assertive skills Establish good eye contact / dont stare Stand or sit comfortably - dont fidget Talk in a firm,
steady voice Use body language I think / I feel What do you think? How do you feel ? Concise and to the
point

Benefits:
Benefits Higher self-esteem Less self-conscious Less anxious Manage stress more successfully Appreciate
yourself and others more easily Feeling of self-control

Get organized:
Get organized Poor organization is one of the most common causes of stress. Structured approaches offer
security against out of the blue problems. Prioritising objectives, duties and activities makes them manageable
and achievable. Dont overload your mind. Organisation will help avoid personal and professional chaos

Humor :
Humor Good stress reducer Applies at home and work Relieves muscular tension Improves breathing Pumps
endorphins into the bloodstream - the bodys natural painkillers

Diversion and Distraction:
Diversion and Distraction Take time out Get away from things that bother you Doesnt solve the problem Reduce
stress level Calm down Think logically

Change your lifestyle:
Change your lifestyle Diet Smoking & Alcohol Exercise Sleep Leisure Relaxation