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Comparison of Field-Oriented Control and Direct

Torque Control for Permanent Magnet


Synchronous Motor Using Two Level Inverter
S.Ashok Subramanian
1
, M.Murugan
2
,
1, PG Scholar, Francis Xavier Engineering College, Tirunelveli.
2, Assistant Professor, Francis Xavier Engineering College, Tirunelveli.
Abstract- This paper presents a comparative
study on two most popular control strategies
for permanent magnet synchronous motor
(PMSM) drives. The comparison is based on
various criteria including basic control
characteristics, dynamic performance and
implementation complexity. The study is done
by simulation using the simulink power system
block set allows a complete representation of
the power section and the control system. The
simulation and evaluation of DTC control
strategy is performed using actual parameter of
PMSM fed by space vector modulation and
FOC control strategy fed the PMSM by an
IGBT PWM inverter.
I. INTRODUCTION
Permanent magnet synchronous motors are
used in many application that required rapid
torque response and high performance
operation. The PMSM is very similar to the
standard wound rotor synchronous machine
expect that the PMSM has no damper
windings and excitation is provided by a
permanent instead of a field winding. The high
efficiency, high steady state torque density and
simple controller of the permanent magnet
motor drives compare with the induction
motor drives make them a good alternative.
The permanent magnet synchronous machine
(PMSM) is basically an ordinary AC machine
with windings distributed in stator slots. So
that the flux created by stator current is
sinusoidal and permanent magnet produce
magnetic field in the air gab.
The PMSM has two high performance
control strategies that is FOC and DTC. They
have been invented in the 70s and in the 80s.
These control strategies are lift on the
operation principle by their objective are the
same. These control strategies are effectively
control the motor torque and flux in order to
force the motor to accurately track the
command trajectory regardless of the machine.
The purpose of this paper is to present a
comparative study on these two control
strategies in order to clarify which control
technique is best suitable for PMSM. This
comparative is based on the various criteria
including basic control characteristics, static
and dynamic performance and implementation
complexity.
II. MODELLING OF PMSM
The model of PMSM without damper
winding has been developed on rotor reference
frame using the following assumptions;
1) Saturation is neglected.
2) The induced EMF is sinusoidal.
3) Eddy currents and hysteresis losses are
negligible.
4) There are no field current dynamics.
Voltage equations are given by,
v
d
= R
s
i
d

r

q+
d
d
/dt
v
q
= R
s
i
q

r

d
+d
q
/dt (1)
Flux Linkages are given by,

d
= L
d
i
d
+
f

q
= L
q
i
q (2)
Substituting equations 2. 9 in 2.10,
v
d
= R
s
i
d

r
L
q
i
q
+d/dt (L
d
i
d
+
f
)
v
q
= R
s
i
q

r
L
q
i
q
+ d/dt (L
q
i
q
) (3)
Arranging the equations in matrix form,
[
d
q
=_
Rs +SIJ Iq
rIJ Rs +sIq
] [
d
q
+[
0
ox]

The developed torque is being given by,
Te=(3/2) P (d iq q id) (4)
Substituting the d,q values is above
equation, The torque equation becomes,
Te=3/2 P [(Ld-Lq) IdIq+Iqf)] (5)
The mechanical torque equation is,
Te=TL+Bm+Jd m/dt (6)
Solving for the mechanical speed from
equation,
m=(Te-TL-B m/J)dt (7)
and m=r(2/p)
In the above equation Wr is the rotor electric
speed, where as Wm is rotor mechanical
speed.
III.DESCRIPTION OFFIELD-ORIENTED
CONTROLANDDIRECTTORQUE
CONTROL SCHEMES
A. Field oriented control system
The primary principle in controlling a
PMSM drive is based on field orientation.
Since the magnetic flux generated from the
PM rotor is fixed in relation to the rotor shaft
position, the flux position in the coordinates
can be determined by the shaft position sensor.
In (2), if Id = 0 , the d-axis flux linkage d is
fixed. Since f is constant for a PMSM, the
electromagnetic torque is then proportional to
Iq which is determined by closed-loop control
Te=3/2 P f Iq (8)

Hence the representation follows,
Te= Kt Iq (9)
Where
Kt=3/2 P f
(10)
The rotor flux is produced only in the q axis
while the current vector is generated in the
axis in the field-oriented control. Since the
generated motor torque is linearly proportional
to the q-axis current, as the d-axis rotor flux is
constant in (2), the maximum torque per
ampere can be achieved [3].
Fig:1 System configuration for field oriented
PMSM
B. Direct Torque Control system
Since M. Depenbrock and I. Takahashi
proposed Direct Torque Control (DTC) for
induction machines in the middle of 1980s,
more than one decade has passed. It is getting
more and more popular nowadays. The basic
idea of DTC for induction motor is to control
the torque and flux linkage by selecting the
voltage space vectors properly, which is based
on the relationship between the slip frequency
and torque.
In the late 1990's, DTC techniques for the
Permanent Magnet Synchronous Machine
(PMSM) machines have appeared [4]. Figure
shows the direct torque control of PMSM
drives.
I. Stator flux estimation method:
The stator flux is estimated using the
following equation
s=(Vs-Rs is)dt (11)
Using the above equation, the amplitude of
the flux and the region where the flux is
present, can be estimated. If the resistance
term in the stator flux estimation is neglected,
the variation of the stator flux linkage will
only depend on the applied voltage vector as
shown in Fig. 1.For a short interval of time,
namely the sampling time, Ts = t, the stator
flux linkage, s position and amplitude can be
changed by applying the stator voltage vector,
Vs. The position change of the stator flux
linkage vector, s, will affect the torque.
During the sampling interval time or switching
interval, one out of the six voltage vectors is
applied. The goal of controlling the flux in
DTC is to keep its amplitude within a pre-
defined hysteresis band. By applying a
required voltage vector stator flux linkage
amplitude can be controlled [3].
To select the voltage vectors for
controlling the amplitude of the stator flux
linkage the voltage plane is divided into six
regions, as shown in Fig. 3. In each region two
adjacent voltage vectors, which give the
minimum switching frequency, are selected to
increase or decrease the amplitude of stator
flux linkage, respectively. For example,
according to the Table I, when the voltage
vector V2, is applied in Sector 1, then the
amplitude of the stator flux increases when the
flux vector rotates counter clockwise.
If V3,is selected then the stator flux linkage
amplitude is decreases.
Fig.2 Incremental stator flux linkage space
vector representation in the DQ-plane.
II. Torque estimation method:
Electromagnetic torque is estimated using
stator linking flux components and measured
stator currents using the following equations:
Te=3p/4(d iq-q id) (12)
The magnitude of stator flux and
electromagnetic torque are compared with
their reference values using the corresponding
hysteresis controller. Hysteresis controllers are
employed to maintain the torque and stator
flux within a prescribed limit. The output of
these controllers, in addition to the location of
stator linkage flux in particular sector is fed to
a switching table to select a voltage vector
producing desired torque. To determine the
proper applied voltage vectors, information
from the torque and flux hysteresis outputs, as
well as stator flux vector position, are used so
that circular stator flux vector trajectory is
divided into six symmetrical sections
according to the non zero voltage vectors as
shown in Fig. 3
Fig.3 Voltage space vectors
The switching table for controlling both
the amplitude and rotating direction of the
stator flux linkage is given in Table I
TABLE I
SWITCHING TABLE
T
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6)

=
1
T=1 V2(110) V3(010) V4(011) V5(001) V6(101) V3(010)
T=0 V6(101) V1(100) V2(110) V3(010) V4(011) V5(001)

=0
T=1 V3(010) V4(011) V5(001) V6(101) V1(100) V2(110)
T=0 V5(001) V6(101) V1(100) V2(110) V3(010) V4(011)
The output of the torque hysteresis
comparator is denoted as , the output of the
flux hysteresis comparator as and the flux
linkage sector is denoted as . The torque
hysteresis comparator is a two valued
comparator; = 0 means that the actual value
of the torque is above the reference and out of
the hysteresis limit and =1means that the
actual value is below the reference and out of
the hysteresis limit. The flux hysteresis
comparator is a two valued comparator as well
where = 1me a n s that the actual value of the
flux linkage is below the reference and out of
the hysteresis limit and = 0 means that the
actual value of the flux linkage is above the
reference and out of the hysteresis limit. We
define and to be the outputs of the
hysteresis controllers for flux and torque,
respectively, and (1) - (6) a s the sector
numbers to be used in defining the stator flux
linkage positions. In Table I, if =1, then the
actual flux linkage is smaller than the
reference value. On the other hand, if = 0,
then the actual flux linkage is greater than the
reference value. The same is true for the
torque.
Fig.4 Typical DTC PMSM drive system
IV. SIMULATION RESULTS
In this section, static and dynamic
performances of FOC and DTC schemes are
obtained by simulation using the MATLAB/
Simulink Power System Blockset. Since the
objective of the work is to compare the control
strategies, the same power section is used in
both systems. It is necessary to make a
comparison of static and dynamic
characteristics of both technical command and
under the same operating conditions
(reference, charges disturbance etc.), and in
the same configuration simulation (step
sampling, time simulation,) In this paper we
will present the advantages and disadvantages
of each type of command, better command
will be the one that best meets the requirement
to know:
Best performance static and dynamic.
Best prosecution guidelines control.
Best releases disturbance.
Insensitivity to changes in parameters.
Fig.5 Simulink diagram of FOC
Fig.6 Simulink diagram of DTC
A. Comparision of stator flux amplitude wave
form
Fig. 7 Illustrates the simulation results of
both DTC and FOC stator flux amplitude wave
form, in (a )the DTC stator flux ripple is 0.26
range. In (b) the FOC stator flux ripple is 1.25
(a)

(b)
Fig 7: Stator flux amplitude wave form for
DTC and FOC
B. Comparison of speed settling
Fig. 8 illustrates the simulation results of
both technical command FOC hysteresis and
the DTC, in (a) the speed settling the DTC
settled the PMSM speed at 4 rad/sec. In (b)
FOC it is settled at 5 rad/sec.
(a)
(b)
Fig 8: Speed selling wave form for DTC and
FOC.
V. COMPARISON BETWEEN THE DTC
AND THE FOC
The DTC does not necessitate any
mechanical measure such as the one of speed
or position of the machine; of more the
sensitiveness to the machine parameters
clearly is lessened in the case of the DTC,
since the flow estimation is done according to
a single parameter to know the resistance
stator.
In addition, PWM is replaced, in this order
by a simple table of commutation which the
return, so much easier. The order DTC has for
advantages:
The reduction of the time of response of the
couple.
The hardiness in comparison with the
variation of the parameters of the machine and
nutrition.
The direct imposition of the amplitude of the
undulations of the couple and flow.
She adapts herself by nature to the absence of
sensor
Mechanical connected to the tree motor.
She presents major problems:
The absence of mastery of the harmonic
ones of couple.
The check vector by orientation of the flux
rotorique FOC was developed to eliminate
internal coupling of the machine, provoking
variations of the flux linkage to the Torque.
The control vector by orientation of the flux
rotorique presents a number of advantages:
To allow a decouplage between the flux and
the torque rather simple, thus a wide beach of
speed.
And a number of inconveniences:
Weak hardiness to the variations Parametric
and in particular to the one of the constant one
of time rotorique.
Necessitated of a modulation one for the
order come close to the inverter that provokes
delays, especially down with frequency of
modulation.
TABLE III
PARAMETERS OF THE PMSM USED IN
THIS PAPER
Rated output power 1500 W
Magnetic flux linkage 0.175 web
Poles 4
Stator resistance 0.2
q-axis inductance 0.0085 H
d- axis inductance 0.0085H
Inertia 0.089 KG.M
2
Friction coefficient 0.005N.M.S/rad

VI. CONCLUSION
In this paper, main characteristics of field-
oriented and direct torque control schemes for
PMSM drives are studied by simulation with a
view to highlighting the advantages and
disadvantages of each approach. It is difficult
to clearly state on the superiority of DTC
versus FOC because of the balance of the
merits of the two schemes. We one conclude
that the vector order it better is adapted (load
variation), and the responses with the DTC are
quicker.
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