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Lecture 2: Conditional and Bi-Conditional Propositions P a g e | 1

Discrete Structure / Discrete Mathematics


Lecture 2: CONDITIONAL and BICONDITIONAL
PROPOSITIONS

CONDITIONAL CONNECTIVE

Let p and q be propositions. The implication p q is
the proposition that is false only when p is true and q
is false; otherwise it is true. p is called the hypothesis
and q is called the conclusion. The connective is
called the conditional connective

Example 2.1

Construct the truth table of the implication p q

Solution.
The truth table is:


.
Example 2.2

Show that p q p v q.

Solution.
The truth table is:

p q p p v q p q
F F T T T
F T T T T
T F F F F
T T F T T

It follows from the previous example that the
proposition pq is always true if the hypothesis p is
false, regardless of the truth value of q.

In terms of words the proposition p q also reads:

(a) if p then q.
(b) p implies q
(c) p is a sufficient condition for q
(d) q is a necessary condition for p
(e) p only if q

Example 2.3

Use the if-then form to rewrite the statement: I am
on time for work if I catch the 8:05 bus."


Solution.
If I catch the 8:05 bus then I am on time for work.


In propositional functions that involve the connectives
, v, . and the order of operations is that is
performed first and is performed last.

Example 2.4

a. Show that (p q) p . q.
b. Find the negation of the statement: If my car
is in the repair shop, then I cannot go to
class.


Solution.
c. Show that (p q) p . q.
p q p q (p q) q p . q
F F T F T F
F T T F F F
T F F T T T
T T T F F F

a. My car is in the repair shop and I can get to
class."




CONVERSE, OPPOSITE and CONTRAPOSITIVE

- The converse of p q is the proposition q p.
- The opposite or inverse of p q is the
proposition p q.
- The contrapositive of p q is the proposition
q p.

Example 2.5

Find the converse, opposite, and the contrapositive of
the implication:

If today is Thursday, then I have a test today."


Solution.

The converse If I have a test today then
today is Thursday.
The opposite If today is not Thursday then I
don't have a test today.
The
contrapositive
If I don't have a test today
then today is not Thursday












Lecture 2: Conditional and Bi-Conditional Propositions P a g e | 2
Example 2.6

Show that p q q p.

p q q p q p p q
F F T T T T
F T F T T T
T F T F F F
T T F F T T

Example 2.7

Using truth tables show the following:
a. p q = q p
b. p q = p q


Solution:

a. p q = q p

//example 2.2: p q p v q
//therefore: q p q v p
//and: p v q q v p

p q p q p v q q v p
F F T T T T
F T T F T = F
T F F T F = T
T T F F T T

p q p q q p q p
F F T F F T
F T T = T F F
T F F = F T T
T T T T T T



Solution:

b. p q = p q

p q p q p q p q
F F T T T T
F T T F F = T
T F F T T = F
T T F F T T

BICONDITIONAL CONNECTIVE

The biconditional proposition of p and q, denoted by
p q, is the propositional function that is true when
both p and q have the same truth values and false if p
and q have opposite truth values. Also reads, p if and
only if q" or p is a necessary and sufficient condition
for q."

Example 2.8

Construct the truth table for p q:


Solution:










Example 2.9

Show that the biconditional proposition of p and q is
logically equivalent to the conjunction of the
conditional propositions p q and q p:


Solution:

p q pq q p q p (p q)v( q p)
F F T F F T T
F T T T F F F
T F F F T T F
T T T T T T T