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Battery and Charger Sizing

EDSA MICRO CORPORATION


16870 West Bernardo Dr. Suite 330
San Diego, CA 92127
U.S.A.

Copyright 2008
All Rights Reserved
Version 5.20.00 October 2008

Battery and Charger Sizing



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Table of Contents



I. Introduction............................................................................................................................ 1
II. Definition of Terms................................................................................................................. 2
III. Start Standalone Battery Sizing............................................................................................. 4
IV. Battery Library........................................................................................................................ 5
V. Required Data for Performing Battery Sizing Calculation.................................................... 22
VI. Standalone Battery Sizing Analysis..................................................................................... 22
VII. Battery Sizing Analysis Based on Graphical User Interface................................................ 36
VIII. Revision History................................................................................................................... 43
IX. Program Limitations............................................................................................................. 44
X. Battery Sizing Warning Messages....................................................................................... 44




Note: You can view this manual on your CD as an Adobe Acrobat PDF file. The
file name is:

Battery Sizing BatSize.pdf


You will find the Test/J ob files used in this tutorial in the following location:

C:\DesignBase\Samples\BattSiz = Battery Sizing

Test Files: New_proj
Kw-cp
Ieeetest
Ieee-48x
Ieee-485
Ge
Boundary
Battery-Sizing


ALL RIGHTS RESERVED
COPYRIGHT 2008

Battery and Charger Sizing




I. Introduction

This section illustrates step-by-step instructions for using EDSA to perform battery-sizing calculations
based on IEEE 485-1983. The purpose of the tutorial is to familiarize the user with many functions of
EDSA (i.e. data entry, performing analysis and reporting). All EDSA programs are completely menu
driven with help instructions. By moving the cursor to each field, the related help instructions appear at
the bottom of the screen. This guide is designed for first time users and steps through the various
commands and options for performing battery-sizing calculations including entering and editing battery
curves in the library.

Tutorial overview:

1. Definition of terms
2. Start Standalone Battery and Charger Sizing
3. Battery Library
4. Required Data for Performing Battery Sizing Calculation
5. Standalone battery sizing analysis
6. Run Battery Sizing Calculations, Review and Print Report


1

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II. Definition of Terms

Derating Factors: Applied to ensure that battery capacity is adequate at the end of its life.

Age: The aging factor allows the battery to meet its duty cycle as it reaches the end of its
service life. Factor is an extra 25% per IEEE 485.

Note: In EDSA DC Load Flow, the aging coefficient factor has a different meaning. It is used to
represent battery capacity degradation from aging after it is used for a period of time. It is
always less than 1.0

Temperature: its operating temperature affects the available capacity of a cell. The standard
temperature for stating cell capacity is 25 C. For temperature below 25 C a correction factor
is used to determine the cell rating that will supply the required amps-hours (AHs) at the lower
temperature. The program maintains a table of suggested factors that can be changed to
account for new or unusual conditions. Consult IEEE 485 with regard to rated temperature and
ambient temperature.


Continuous Load: Continuous loads are energized throughout the duty cycle, such as indicating lights,
inverters, annunciators etc. Although EDSA can handle more than one continuous load, it is important to
note that:

1. The duration of a continuous load should be equal to the length of the entire duty cycle;
2. Continuous loads start at time t =0 min.

The program will warn you if these conditions are violated.

Non-Continuous Load: A load energized during only a portion of the duty cycle as, for instance:

1. Emergency motors;
2. Critical ventilation system motors;
3. Communication system power supplies;
4. Fire protection system.


Momentary Load: A load that runs one minute or less as, for instance:

1. Switchgear operations;
2. Motor-driven valve operations;
3. Isolation switch operations;
4. Field flashing of generators;
5. Motor starting current;
6. Inrush current.

Random Load: A load that can occur at any point in the duty cycle, and cannot be confined to any
particular portion of the cycle. A load that occurs at random should be shown at the most
critical time of the duty cycle in order to simulate the worst case load on the battery.
These may be non-continuous or momentary loads. To determine the most critical time, it
is necessary to size the battery without the random load(s) and to identify the portion of
the duty cycle that controls battery size. Then the random load(s) should be superimposed
on the end of that controlling section. All random loads are assumed to occur
simultaneously.
2

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Maximum System Voltage: The maximum allowed battery voltage. The cell voltage required for
satisfactory charging will limit the number of cells. The number of cells is
calculated as follows:

Voltage) (Recharge Charging For Required Voltage Cell
Voltage Battery Allowable Max.
Cells of # =


Assuming that 2.33 VPC is required for charging, and that the maximum allowable system voltage is
140 Vdc, then:

#Of Cells =140/2.33 =60.09 (60 cells)

Minimum System Voltage: The minimum allowed battery voltage. The maximum number of cells that
allows the lowest end-of -discharge cell voltage. The number of cells is
calculated as follows:

Voltage Cell Discharge - of - End
Voltage Battery Allowable Min.
Cells of # =


Assuming that 1.75 VPC is the desired end-of-discharge cell voltage, and that 105 Vdc is the minimum
allowable voltage, then:

#of Cells =105/1.75 =60

Calculations resulting in a fractional cell should be rounded off to the nearest whole number of cells.



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III. Start Standalone Battery Sizing


Step 1: Select
Selection
Step 2: Select
Standalone Battery
and Charger Sizing

To run the Battery and Charger Sizing program, select Selection/Standalone Battery and Charger
Sizing from the EDSA main menu.





The available options are:
1. File
2. Edit Data
3. Run

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4. Plot
5. Tools

Each of the options will be explained in detail later in this tutorial.


IV. Battery Library

Battery Library can be open using the main EDSA menu or using Battery and Charger Sizing program.


Select Database >
Battery Library

Select Database ->Battery Library from the main EDSA menu.


Select Library

Alternatively, select Tools ->Battery Library from the Battery and Charger Sizing menu.

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A. Edit Existing Battery Curves



To open an existing battery library select File ->Open from the battery library window. Select appropriate
manufacturer from the DesignBase2 ->Data folder. For this demonstration select C&D battery library.


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Select DCU D-376A

Now select DCU D-376A as the Battery Identifier (in this example DCU is the battery type, D-376A is the
discharge characteristics curves).


Select Edit >Edit Battery

To edit battery data, select Edit ->Edit Battery from Battery Library menu.


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Select Cell
Voltage
Review/Edit cell
curve


To view the available Cell Voltages use the key.
As shown above, the data points for cell voltage of 1.75 V are displayed. By clicking on the Graph
button the Battery Discharge Curves (Ampere versus Amp-Hours per positive Plate) are displayed.



Select Print to
print the curves


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The appropriate curve (1.75 A) is displayed in Ampere-hours versus Amperes. To print the curves, select
the Print icon from the toolbar.




Selecting the Rt/Kt option from Select curve type returns the battery discharge curve in Time versus
Rt.

From the Battery Sizing Graphic menu the user can change the colors of the title, curves, or scale label.


Step 1: Select
Properties
Step 2: Select
Channels
Step 3: Select
General
Step 4: Select
desired color

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To change the color of the curve, select Properties/Channels/General. Select the desired color. This
process can be repeated for each curve.


Select List
Batteries


Select Edit ->List Batteries to generate a listing of all cell voltages for the selected manufacturer. The
list can be printed or saved in Excel (CSV file).


Use the button to delete the selected battery.
Use the button to copy the selected battery. Battery can be saved under different name as
illustrated in the below screen capture. After the battery is renamed it can be edited and its characteristic
can be changed.



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B. Entering New Battery Curves

This section will cover entering a new battery.



Step 1: Select
File >New
Step 2: Define
file name


From the Battery Library screen select File ->New.

Give the name to the new battery file (TutorialNew in this example).

From the Battery Library screen select Edit ->Add Battery.


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For this exercise, input Tutorial for Manufacturer and Tutorial Battery for Battery Identifier.

The initial voltage is:

Amps 1 = 23 Volt 1 = 1.95
Amps 2 = 160 Volt 2 = 1.69


There are two options for data entry format:

Discharge (Amps versus Amp-Hours)

When entering Amps and Amps-hours, the time is automatically calculated in minutes using the
following formula:

Time (min) =Amp-hours * 60 / Amps

Rt/Kt (Time, Rt, Kt)

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Kt is the ratio of rated Amps-hour capacity to the Amperes that can be supplied by that cell for T
minutes at ( ) to a given end-of-discharge Voltage. C 25 F 77

T Time at Amps
Rating Hours - Amp Nominal
Kt =


Rt is simply the number of Amps that each positive plate can supply for T minutes to a given end-of-
discharge Voltage.

Plates Positive of Number
T Time at Amps
Rt =





Select Curves tab.

Choose discharge entry format.

Start entering the battery discharge characteristics. Enter 1.75 for cell voltage.

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Step 1: Select
Next Page
Step 2: Input
additional values


Now tab to the Amperes field and input the Amps value, then tab to the Amps-Hrs field and input the
Amps-hour value. The time is automatically calculated. Continue inputting values until line 10 is
populated.

Click Next Page button. Input data in line 11 as shown above.


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Step 2: Type 1.8
Step 1: Select Insert
New Cell Voltage
Step 3: Enter data as
shown


Repeat the process for cell voltage 1.8 amps.

Click Insert New Cell Voltage

Type 1.8 in the appropriate field.

Add the new curve using data from the above picture.


Repeat this proces to enter battery curves for cell voltages 1.85, 1.90 and 1.95 volts. Necessary data are
shown in the following screen captures.


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Battery curve for cell voltage 1.85 V.



Battery curve for cell voltage 1.90 V.


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Battery curve for cell voltage 1.95 V.



To see a battery cell discharge curve, use the Graph button from Edit Battery screen.

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Once the battery data is entered click OK on the Edit Battery screen. Edit Battery window will disappear.
Battery summary data will be shown on the left side of the Battery Library window. All the cell discharge
curves will be shown as well.


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C. Temperature Correction Factors


Temperature Correction factors can be edited Tools ->Temperature Correction Factors from Battery
Library screen.









The correction factors for non-standard temperatures for starting cell capacity ( ) are input in this
table (Refer to IEEE 485). This factor is used to determine the cell rating that will supply the required
amps-hours (AHs) at the lower or higher temperature.
C 25


The available options are: Add, Edit, Delete or List. A total of 40 different temperatures can be entered.
If the temperature specified in the analysis falls between two values in the table, a linear interpolation is
performed. Use the mouse or arrow keys to move through the list of temperature correction factors.

To add a new entry to the temperature corrections factors table simply click on the button. The
user can select the temperature to be added in Celsius or Fahrenheit by clicking the desired units. The
program will automatically insert a new record at the end of the list, sort the data and place it in the
correct sequence.

Note that the system will automatically convert the temperature values if the user changes the basis of
the measurement units used for input. Let us add a temperature correction factor of 1 at 130 . F

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Click on the button.



Notice that the entry has automatically been updated and the equivalent temperature in has been
calculated. In addition, the user can edit or delete an existing entry.
C

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Clicking the button generates a listing of the Temperature Correction Factors and saves in the
text file as shown in the above screen capture.



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V. Required Data for Performing Battery Sizing Calculation

Following are the required data for performing battery-sizing calculations:

1. Battery Discharge Characteristics
2. Derating Factors (Age, Temperature, Altitude)
3. Load Profile (Continuous, Non-Continuous, Random, and Momentary Loads, Start and Stop Time,
Load in Amps)
4. Total Battery Number of Cells
5. End of Discharge Voltage per Cell
6. Maximum Allowable System Voltage
7. Minimum Allowable System Voltage
8. Cell Recharge Voltage
9. Charging Time
10. Ni-Cad Constant
11. Lead-Acid Constant



VI. Standalone Battery Sizing Analysis


Prior to performing Battery Sizing analysis the user should verify that the discharge curves for the battery
of interest are contained in the battery library. If not, the user must create the battery curves in the cell
library as discussed in an earlier section.





To run the Battery Sizing Program select Selection/Battery Sizing from the EDSA main screen.


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To start a new job select File ->New.



The program will bring up the Battery Sizing Data editor.




After entering a brief job description, use Footnote to enter additional explanatory text to be saved with
the numeric data.Up to 1024 characters can be entered. Select Metric in this example.

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It is recommended that the Tab key be used when initially creating a job file, since it automatically guides
you in an orderly manner through the correct fields.

For this example, select Rt as the Type of Analysis. The following analysis methods exist:

Rt Calculates the cell size in terms of the number of positive plates
Kt Calculates the cell size in amperes-hours
KW Used for calculating batteries for UPS service




Select the Battery dialog box from Battery Sizing Dataand specify a manufacturer and cell (Battery
Identifier) from the programs battery library to be used in the analysis.


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Select Tutorial for manufacturer and Tutorial Battery for cell.






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Continue tabbing and entering the necessary fields until the screen looks like the one shown above. Note
that some fields are interconnected; change in one field will cause changes in other field(s).

The Number of Cells and End of Discharge fields will be calculated automatically after specifying and
leaving the Cell Recharge Voltage field.

Charging for Required Voltage Cell
Voltage Battery Allowable Maximum
Cells of Number =


Cells of No.
Voltage System Minimum
Voltage Discharge of End =


Altitude Derating Factor is a new feature of the Battery and Charger Sizing program. Default value of the
factor is 1. If the battery is used on higher altitudes the factor becomes lower. The following table,
obtained by one battery manufacturer can be used as guide for determination of altitude derating factor.
For more accurate information please contact the manufacturer.

Temperature and Altitude Derating Tables for Battery Chargers
Temperature K factor Altitude K factor
To 104
0
F (40
0
C) 1.00 To 3300ft (1000m) 1.00
To 122
0
F (50
0
C) 0.83 To 5000ft (1500m) 0.94
To 140
0
F (60
0
C) 0.64 To 1000ft (3000m) 0.82

Since the previous screen has been completed, the next step is to specify the load profile. Select Load
tab from the Battery Sizing Data screen.



Click the button to begin specifying the loads.


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The Load Type can be specified as Continuous, Non-Continuous,Random or Momentary.
The Start Time and Stop Time fields both require the Hour, Minute, Second.



Add a non-continuous load of 683.1 Amps, starting at 00:00:00 and lasting for 1 minute 00:01:00. Click
the button to continue adding loads.


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The list will automatically sort after the Stop Time field is exited. In order to edit an entry, click on it in
the list and click on the field to be changed. The new entry can then be edited. To delete an entry, select
the load to be deleted and click the button.

After defining all the loads, click the button to save the entries. The program permits up to
1000 differents loads to be defined for each job in the duty cycle.


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Now click Save from the Battery Sizing Data to save the newly created job file. Save the file as
Battery Tutorial.BTR.








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To open Battery Tutorial job file use File ->Open command from the main Battery Sizing menu.

Locate the file Battery Tutorial.BTR file on your disk. Battery Sizing Data window will open.





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Click Duty Cycle Diagram and the battery duty cycle curve will be displayed.




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Use the Copy to Clipboard button to copy the results to the Windows clipboard for pasting into another
application (i.e. Microsoft Word).

0 50 100 150 200
Ti me i n Mi nutes
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
A
m
p
e
r
e
s
Battery Duty Cycle Curves
Nominal


In Microsoft Word the graph can be pasted using the Paste Special command and inserting as a
Picture, not as a Picture enhanced metafile.



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Click the Voltage Graph icon and the battery voltage profile curve will be displayed.



You can: scroll, zoom, use the cursor to read (x,y) values from graph, change propreties, copy, paste or
save this graph using the available toolbar.

Battery and Charger Sizing


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Click Run icon to run battery and charger sizing analysis.

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Warning screen appears if the selected End of Discharge Voltage falls between library values. Click OK
to perform interpolation.



Battery and charger sizing report will be automaticly displayed. You can print, save, change fonts, or put
the report on the clipboard. To close the window, click Done.











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VII. Battery Sizing Analysis Based on Graphical User Interface

This section will explain how to use battery sizing analysis within your EDSA models.




Open BATTERY_SIZING.AXD drawing located in DesignBase2 ->Samples ->BattSize folder.



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Edit the battery. Data necessary for battery and charger sizing analysis are already entered in battery
Load Flow tab



Select Battery and
Charger Sizing


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Select Selection >Battery and Charger Sizing from the main EDSA menu. Battery and Charger Sizing
dialog box will open.


Review battery data in the above window. They are identical to the data in Load Flow tab of the battery
editor.

Battery and Charger Sizing can be performed:

1. Using Total Connected Loads as Constant Current
2. Using Power Flow Results

Select option 1, and click on Calculate button to proceed.


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Battery Sizing window will be opened. Battery tab will contain all the data enterd in Load Flow tab of
battery editor. Load tab will contain all the loads from the job file.








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Battery duty cycle curve can be displayed by clicking on Duty Cycle Diagram icon.




Battery voltage profile curve can be displayed by clicking Voltage profile icon.


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Battery and charger sizing report can be displayed by clicking on the Run icon.

User can close Battery Sizing program, return to EDSA model and run Buttery and Charger Sizing
again.



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This time user can run the program using power flow results. After user clicks on Calculate button, DC
power flow will automaticly run. Power flow results will be transferred in battery sizing program.



Comparing the above load data with the one obtained with Using Total Connected Loads as Constant
Current option user can observe differences in battery loding. User should proceed to generate results in
the same manner as in the previous case.

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VIII. Revision History

Revision History
Rev. Description
0 Original issue
1 Change Battery Duty Cycle graph to separate the random load from main profile
2 Added battery margin
3 Added Battery Voltage, Temperature, Battery Library icons to the toolbar and fixed
voltage profile when time is increments of seconds.
4 Added Warnings
5.10.00 Screens are redesigned. Continuous load introduced to charger sizing. Designed
new battery library. Introduced battery sizing from power flow solution. Introduced
altitude derating factor.
5.20.00 Adjusted for changing to ODBC database.

In Revision 5 the following Changes were made to the Battery Sizing Program:

For the purpose of charger sizing Continuous Load is introduced. If a load varies through N
periods, the continuous load will be calculated as min(P
1
, P
2
, P
3
P
N
). Here P
i
is value of the
load in period i.

New battery cell library is designed. New library uses only one file for each battery manufacturer
(*.BTL file). Previous library needed three different files (*.BVL, *.BTR and *.BTB) per each
manufacturer. Library can be opened using the main EDSA menu (Database >Battery Library)
or using Battery and Charger Sizing program.

Battery sizing can be done using:
o Total connected loads as constant current
o Power flow results
The second option was not available in the previous release.

Altitude Derating Factor is introduced in battery data dialog. Default value of the factor is 1. If a
battery is to be used on higher altitudes user can derate it. Typical value of derating factors
(obtained from one manufacturer) are shown in the following table:

Temperature and Altitude Derating Factors
Altitude K factor
To 3300ft (1000m) 1.00
To 5000ft (1500m) 0.94
To 1000ft (3000m) 0.82


All the Battery and Charger Sizing screens have been redesigned.



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IX. Program Limitations

Maximum of 40 temperature correction factors
Maximum of 1000 different loads per job/analysis
Maximum of 20 battery manufacturers
Maximum of 200 cells per battery manufacturer
Maximum of 10 different cell voltage per battery
Maximum of 40 capacitance factors per cell voltage group



X. Battery Sizing Warning Messages



EDSA Battery Sizing version 5.10.00 and 5.20.00 checks to see if:

End of Discharge is available in the library
End of discharge- is between two curves in the library
End of discharge- is less than lowest voltage in the library
End of Discharge- is higher than highest voltage in the library


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If End of discharge is in the library, then

Proceed with analysis

If End of discharge is between two curves in the library, then

A pop-up screen is displayed and requests user input

WARNING! Curve for End of Discharge is not available in the Manufacturer Data Library.
Please select an option.

Note:
Selected End of Discharge Voltage is ______ and falls between ____ and ___ in the library

It is strongly recommended that the Discharge curve of the End of Discharge Voltage
(minimum cell voltage to be used in the cell sizing) be included in the Battery Library.

Calculate Battery Discharge from interpolation
Use End of Discharge Voltage that is less than user input


If user selects Interpolation, then Battery Sizing generates a curve that will be part of the battery job file
not the library (EDSA does not update the library). In this case we know the voltage and amps so we
calculate amps-hours.


If End of discharge is less than the lowest voltage in the library, then

A pop-up screen is displayed and requests user input

WARNING! Curve for End of Discharge is less than the lowest voltage available in the
Manufacturer Data Library. The Discharge Curve for the Lowest Voltage will be utilized.

It is strongly recommended that the Discharge curve of the End of Discharge Voltage
(minimum cell voltage to be used in the cell sizing) be included in the Battery Library.


Battery Sizing uses the discharge curve for the lowest voltage in the Library.

If End of discharge is higher than the highest voltage in the library, then

A pop-up screen is displayed and request user input.

WARNING! Curve for End of Discharge is higher than the highest voltage available in the
Manufacturer Data Library. The Discharge Curve for the Highest Voltage will be utilized.

It is strongly recommended that the Discharge curve of the End of Discharge Voltage
(minimum cell voltage to be used in the cell sizing) be included in the Battery Library.


Battery Sizing uses the discharge curve for the highest voltage in the Library.

IN THE REPORT we have added a Warning with proper note BASED ON EACH CASE.