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omputer Termi!olo"y: A to # Access Method: The Al"orithm %y which a! item o& physical data
is ide!ti&ied a!d located' a!d the routi!es exter!al to the applicatio! pro"ram %y which the item
is stored a!d retrie(ed. Access )ath: The route ta*e! throu"h the lo"ical structure o& the data%ase'
i! terms o& the data relatio!ships used %y the system' i! order to locate a desired lo"ical data-
u!it. Access Time: The time i!ter(al %etwee! the i!sta!t the ru!-u!it calls &or a u!it o& data to %e
tra!s&erred to or &rom its user wor* area a!d the i!sta!t the operatio! is completed. Acti(e
+omai!: The collectio! o& (alues pertai!i!" to that domai! which are actually represe!ted at
some i!sta!t. Airea, A !amed lo"ical su%di(isio! o& the addressa%le stora"e space i! the
data%ase' which may co!tai! occurre!ces o& records' sets a!d parts o& sets o& (arious types, a!d
which ca! %e mapped o!to stora"e media. Array: A! dime!sio!al collectio! o& data-items all o&
which ha(e ide!tical characteristics. Assem%ly #a!"ua"es: Assem%ly la!"ua"es were de(eloped
to ma*e pro"rammi!" easier. Associati(e Memory: A processor mai! store i! which data is
ide!ti&ied %y its -alue rather tha! %y a! address a!d upo! which a!y "i(e! operatio! may %e
per&ormed simulta!eously with all data-items meeti!" speci&ied criteria. Associati(e Tra!sactio!:
The pre-de&i!ed processi!" o& o!e or more items i! the data%ase' which is automatically i!(o*ed
o! the cha!"e i! (alue o& some other item. Attri%ute Mi"ratio!: Replaceme!t o& a relatio! %y two
or more o& its pro.ectio!s such that it may %e reco(ered %y ta*i!" the !atural .oi! o& these
pro.ectio!s. /i!di!": The &irm associatio! o& the speci&ic data-types re0uired %y a pro"ram with
that data as physically stored i! the data%ase. a!didate 1ey: A! attri%ute or com%i!atio! o&
attri%utes o& a relatio! such that &or each o& that relatio! the (alue o& the *ey u!i0uely ide!ti&ies
that. a!d !o attri%ute i! the *ey ca! %e discarded without destroyi!" this u!i0ue!ess. hai!: A
co!ti!uous series o& li!*ed records i! which each co!tai!s poi!ters to its successor a!d/or
predecessor i! the chai!' such that it is possi%le &rom a!y poi!t i! the chai! to process all records
%y &ollowi!" the chai! su%se0ue!tly. hec*poi!t: The act o& recordi!" the state o& u!its o& data
a!d those applicatio! pro"rams operati!" o! them' &or the purpose o& reco!structi!" the data a!d
restarti!" the pro"rams. ompositio!: The operatio! o& com%i!i!" two relatio!s with some
domai! i! commo!' where this commo! domai! is the! discarded. ompou!d +omai!: A!
expa!ded artesia! product o& a &i!ite !um%er o& simple domai!s. o!te!t Addressa%le Store
2AS3: A seco!dary stora"e de(ice desi"!ed &or the rapid retrie(al o& data %y a se0ue!tial sca! o&
the (alues stored' rather tha! %y the use o& hardware addressi!" tech!i0ues. o!te!tio!: The
situatio! where more tha! o!e ru!-u!it is attempti!" at the same poi!t i! time to access the same
u!its o& data. urre!cy: The prese!t state o& a ru!-u!it i! terms o& the u!its o& data which it has
last accessed o& each type o& physical a!d lo"ical structures. +ata-A""re"ate: A !amed collectio!
o& data items withi! a record. +ata A!alysis: The detailed a!alysis o& the total data o& a!
e!terprise to ide!ti&y the data eleme!ts a!d the relatio!ships %etwee! them with a (iew to
ratio!ali4i!" the co!trol o& data withi! the e!terprise a!d to mi!imi4i!" data redu!da!cy.
+ata%ase: A "e!erali4ed' commo!' i!te"rated collectio! o& compa!y or i!stallatio!-ow!ed data
which &ul&ills the data re0uireme!ts o& all applicatio!s which access it' a!d which is structured to
model the !atural data relatio!ships which exists i! a! e!terprise. 5& A &i!ite collectio! o& time-
(aryi!" relatio!s de&i!ed o! a &i!ite collectio! o& domai!s. +ata%ase Admi!istrator 2+/A3: A
perso! or perso!s "i(e! the respo!si%ility &or the de&i!itio!' or"a!i4atio!' protectio! a!d
e&&icie!cy o& the data%ase &or a! e!terprise. +ata%ase-+ate-Nams: A !ame "i(e! to a u!it o& data
withi! the data%ase &or the purpose o& ide!ti&yi!" that u!it o& data. +ata%ase +ictio!ary: A
docume!tatio! o& the types o& data-u!its i! the data%ase or a(aila%le &or i!clusio! i! the data%ase
i! terms o& their de&i!itio!' purpose' co!trols' &ormats' relatio!ships with other data-u!its' a!d
other properties rele(a!t to data%ase desi"! a!d applicatio! de(elopme!t. +ata%ase +irectory: A
collectio! o& descriptors o& all u!its o& data that are a(aila%le to the data%ase ma!a"eme!t
system' these descriptors %ei!" deri(ed &rom the data de&i!itio! la!"ua"e stateme!ts. +ata%ase
6a!dler: That part o& the executa%lecode o& the data%ase ma!a"eme!t system which e!a%les ru!
u!its to ha(e access to the data%ase. +ata%ase 7de!ti&ier: The u!i0ue ide!ti&icatio!' o& a u!it o&
data withi! the data%ase' co!sisti!" o& its data-!ame 0uali&ied %y the !ame o& a!y lar"er u!it o&
data o& which it &orms a part' a!d which itsel& is u!i0uely !amed withi! the data%ase. +ata%ase
1ey: The u!i0ue ide!ti&ier assi"!ed %y the +/MS to each a!d e(ery record occurre!ce i! the
data%ase. +ata%ase Ma!a"eme!t System 2+/MS3: The data processi!" system pro(idi!" the
mea!s to access' or"a!i4e a!d co!trol all i!&ormatio! stored i! the data%ase. +ata%ase-
)arameter: A user assi"!ed !ame &or a system commu!icatio! locatio! where%y the ru!-u!it
tra!smits certai! co!trol data to the +/MS. +ata%ase-)rocedure: A routi!e speci&ic to the
re0uireme!ts o& a particular data%ase' writte! %y 8s data%ase admi!istrator a!d stored withi! the
system a!d i!(o*ed %y the +/MS whe!e(er it is !eeded. +ata%ase )rocessor: A
hardware/so&tware system dedicated to the co!trol a!d mai!te!a!ce o& a data%ase' a!d satis&yi!"
re0uests to access the data%ase &rom ru!-u!its i! o!e or more associated host processors. +ata
+escriptio! #a!"ua"e 2++#3: The la!"ua"e used to descri%e the data%ase' or that part o& the
data%ase *!ow! to a pro"ram. +ata +ictio!ary: A sta!dard descriptio! o& all data eleme!ts
rele(a!t to the e!terprise i! terms o& their source, users' ow!ership' relatio!ships' co!trols a!d
stora"e. +ata-7tem: The smallest u!it o& !amed data' a! occurre!ce o& which is a represe!tatio!
o& a (alue. +ata 7!te"rity: The co!cept that all u!its o& data must %e protected a"ai!st accide!tal
or deli%erate i!(alidatio! +ata Ma!ipulatio! #a!"ua"e 2+M#3: The la!"ua"e used to cause data
to %e tra!s&erred %etwee! the applicatio! pro"ram a!d the data%ase. +ata )ri(acy: The co!cept
that u!its o& data ca! %e altered (iewed or processed o!ly %y users who ha(e the proper authority.
+ata Selectio!: The &ormatio! &rom a! existi!" collectio! o& relatio!s' o& a !ew !ormali4ed
relatio! ha(i!" the properties de&i!ed i! the selectio! criteria. +ata Structure: The user9s ow!
co!ceptio! o& his data' i!depe!de!t o& the way i! which it is stored' pro(idi!" a picture o& the
data%ase i! terms o& its structural compo!e!ts a!d attri%utes. +ata 8!it: A "e!eric term de!oti!"
%y collectio! o& data' %e it a data-item' data a""re"ate' record' set or &ile. +eadloc*: The situatio!
where two or more ru!-u!its are competi!" &or the same resources a!d !o!e may procede as
each ru!-u!it is waiti!" &or o!e o& the others to release a resource the latter has already claimed.
+e"ree: The !um%er o& domai!s whom a relatio!. +eri(ed +ata-7tems A data-item who9s'
co!te!ts are "e!erated %y the +/MS. +e(ice Media o!trol #a!"ua"e 2-7#3: The la!"ua"e
used to speci&y the stora"e o& data at a physical le(el' i!cludi!" co!trol o& space o! each de(ice'
o(er&low' %u&&eri!" a!d pa"i!". +istri%uted +ata%ase: A data%ase u!der the o(erall co!trol o& a
ce!tral +/MS' %ut where the de(ices o! which it is stored are !ot all attached to the same
processor. +omai!s: The "roups o& li*e data upo! :hich a relatio! is de&i!ed. E!tity: A perso!'
place' thi!" or e(e!t o& i!terest to the e!terprise' a!d a%out which data may %e recorded. E!tity
Name: The sym%ol %y which a perso!' place' thi!"' class or a!y o%.ect o& thou"ht is *!ow!.
E!tity Stream: All the e!tities o& o!e type' a!d he!ce the &orm i! which the applicatio! processes
its data. E!try: A de&i!itio! i! the schema or su%schema o& a !amed data-u!it type. Exclusi(e
o!trol: A &acility to allow o!ly a si!"le ru!-u!it to operate o! all or part or a data%ase i! order
to pre(e!t multiple co!curre!t i!teractio!s such that the i!te"rity o& the data is preser(ed. File
Ma!a"eme!t: A "e!eric term &or the &u!ctio!s o& creatio!' i!sertio!' deletio! a!d modi&icatio! o&
records, reor"a!i4i!"' sorti!"' mer"i!" a!d other processes commo!ly per&ormed o! &iles. First
Normal Form: The type o& relatio! which has the property that !o!e o& its domai!s ha(e'
eleme!ts which are themsel(es relatio!s. Forei"! 1ey: A se"me!t o& a record which is !ot its
primary *ey' %ut whose eleme!ts arc (alues o& the primary *ey o& some other record. Fu!ctio!al
+epe!de!ce: A! attri%ute or collectio! or attri%utes o& a relatio! is &u!ctio!ally depe!de!t o! a
seco!d attri%ute o& that relatio! i& at (ery i!sta!t o& time' each (alue o& the &irst attri%ute has !o
more tha! o!e (alue o& the seco!d attri%ute associated with it u!der the relatio!. R. A. ; R. /.
6ierarchy: 5!e or more sets o& directed relatio!ships %etwee! two or more u!its o& data' such
that some u!its o& data are co!sidered ow!ers while others are mem%ers' a!d such that' o!e u!it
o& data has !o ow!er' a!d all others ha(e exactly o!e ow!er. 6ost #a!"ua"e: The pro"rammi!"
la!"ua"e used to write the applicatio! pro"ram' a!d i! which the data ma!ipulatio! la!"ua"e
comma!ds are em%edded. 7de!ti&ier: A u!it o& date whose (alue u!i0uely ide!ti&ies a!
occurre!ce o& that u!it o& data or o& a di&&ere!t u!it o& data. 7!(erted File: A stora"e or"a!i4atio!
i! which a! i!dex is pro(ided &or the (alues o& each type o& data-item. <oi!: The operatio! o&
com%i!i!" two relatio!s with some domai! i! commo!' such that all the ori"i!al i!&ormatio! is
preser(ed. #i!*a"e: A mecha!ism &or co!!ecti!" o!e u!it o& data to a!other. #ist: A series o&
li!*ed records i! which each co!tai!s a poi!ter to its successor i! the list. #ist )rocessi!":
)rocessi!" associated items which are li!*ed %y mea!s o& poi!ters. #ocatio! Mode: The method
%y which the +/MS co!trols the assi"!me!t o& data%ase-*eys to records. #o"ical +ata: The data
which the applicatio! pro"ram prese!ts to or recei(es &rom the data%ase. #o"ical Record: A
collectio! o& data-items i!depe!de!t o& their physical e!(iro!me!t. )ortio!s o& the same lo"ical
record may %e located i! di&&ere!t physical records.
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omputer Termi!olo"y: M to = Mem%er Record: A record withi! a set' where that record has a
depe!de!t relatio!ship with the ow!er o& that set. Na(i"atio!: The process %y which a pro"ram is
coded to &ollow access paths de&i!ed %y the data%ase structure. Networ*: 5!e or more
collectio!s o& directed relatio!ships %etwee! three or more u!its o& data such that some u!its o&
data are co!sidered ow!ers while other are mem%ers' where each mem%er may ha(e more tha!
o!e ow!er. 5ccurre!ce: A speci&ic i!sta!ce o& the (alue o& a u!it o& data. 5ptimal Third Normal
Form: A collectio! o& relatio!s are i! the optimal third !ormal &orm' where the !um%er o&
relatio!s used to de&i!e a "i(e! collectio! o& data is at a mi!imum' a!d cache relatio! must !ot
ha(e a!y pair o& attri%utes such that o!e mem%er o& the pair is strictly tra!siti(ely depe!de!t o!
the other i! some relatio!. 5w!er Record: A record which determi!es the existe!ce o& a set' a!d
with which a!y other records o& that set ha(e a depe!de!t relatio!ship. )hysical +ata: The data
which the data%ase ma!a"eme!t system prese!ts to the operati!" system &or stora"e or recei(es
&rom it &or processi!". )lexus E!try: A set o& "roup relatio!s i! which e(ery "roup except the
e!try-de&i!i!" "roup ca! %e su%ordi!ate to a!other "roup a!d participate i! more "e!eral
relatio!s. )oi!ter Array: A collectio! o& poi!ters associated with a! ow!er record a!d used to li!*
it with the mem%er records o& a set. )rimary 1ey: The domai! or com%i!atio! o& domai!s o& a
"i(e! relatio! with u!i0uely ide!ti&ies each type o& that relatio!. )rime Attri%ute: A!y attri%ute
o& a relatio! that participates i! at least o!e ca!didate *ey o& that relatio!. )ri(acy 1ey: A data-
item whose co!te!ts are used %y the +/MS to determi!e i& a loc*ed resource is to %e made
a(aila%le to the ru!-u!it that speci&ied the pri(acy *ey (alue. )ri(acy #oc*: A (alue *!ow! to the
+/MS that is associated with a &acility o& data u!it. )ro.ectio!: The operatio! o& selecti!" &rom a
relatio! speci&ied-domai! a!d the! remo(i!" a!y tuples which are !ow produci!" a. Seco!d
more limited relatio!. Realm: A lo"ical su%-di(isio! o& the data%ase i!to which records o&
speci&ied types may %e stored. Record-5ccurre!ce: A si!"le i!sta!ce o& a !amed collectio! o&
data-eleme!ts o& data-a""re"ates. Record Selectio! Expressio! 2RSE3: The phrase speci&ied i! a
source pro"ram that speci&ies the al"orithm to %e used %y the +/MS to ide!ti&y a speci&ic
data%ase record. Record-Type: A !amed collectio! o& 4ero' o!e or more data eleme!ts or data-
a""re"ates. There may %e a! ar%itrary !um%er o& occurre!ces i! the data%ase o& each record type.
Redu!da!cy: A situatio! where there are multiple occurre!ces o& a particular u!it o& data i! a
data%ase. Relatio!: A relatio! exists %etwee! a "roup o& sets' i& each eleme!t i! each set has a
lo"ical co!!ectio! with the correspo!di!" eleme!ts i! the other sets. Relatio! Model: A lo"ical
(iew o& data i! which all data eleme!ts are "rouped i! relatio!s o& the third !ormal &orm.
Relatio!ship: A relatio! i! which the orderi!" o& domai!s is o& !o si"!i&ica!ce. 5r A mea!i!"&ul
associatio! %etwee! u!its o& data. Reor"a!i4atio!: The process o& rearra!"i!" the relati(e
physical placeme!t o& data-u!its i! the data%ase. Repeati!" Group: A collectio! o& data that
occurs a! ar%itrary !um%er o& times withi! a record occurre!ce' may' co!sist o& data-items'
(ectors a!d repeati!" "roups. Re0uestor: A! i!di(idual desiri!" to use the data i! a data%ase.
Restrictio!: The operatio! o& produci!" a su%set o& o!e relatio!' which co!tai!s all tuples that
are i! commo! with a seco!d relatio!. Restructure: The process o& addi!" to or deleti!" &rom the
types o& data-u!its a!d data-relatio!ship represe!ted i! the data%ase' or rearra!"i!" data-u!its
which are compo!e!ts o& lar"er data-u!its' a!d o& ma*i!" the correspo!di!" cha!"es to its
schema. Roll-/ac*: The process o& re(ersi!" rece!t acti(ities o& the system' to store some o& or
the e!tire data%ase to its state at a pre(ious poi!t i! time. Ru!-8!it: The executio! o& o!e or
more pro"rams. Each ru!-u!it is a separate e!tity ser(iced %y the +/MS with its ow! user
wor*i!" area a!d commu!icatio! locatio!s. Schema: A complete descriptio! o& the data%ase i!
terms o& the characteristics o& the data a!d the implicit a!d explicit relatio!ship %etwee! data-
u!its. Seco!d Normal Form: A relatio! is i! seco!d !ormal &orm i& it is i! &irst !ormal &orm a!d
e(ery !o!-prime attri%ute o& the relatio! is &ully depe!de!t o! each o& its ca!didate *eys. Sel&-
+e&i!i!" +ata: A u!it o& data whose descriptio! appears with its occurre!ce. Set: A !amed
collectio! o& related records represe!ti!" a o!e-to-ma!y relatio!ship %etwee! the ow!er a!d
mem%er records. Set Selectio!: The process %y which the +/MS uses a speci&ied al"orithm to
determi!e the appropriate occurre!ce o& set type &or the purpose o& i!serti!" or accessi!" a
mem%er record. Su%schema: A descriptio! o& those data-8!its a!d relatio!ships &rom a data%ase
o& i!terest to a particular pro"ram. System ommu!icatio! #ocatio!s: The locatio!s used &or
i!teractio! %etwee! the +/MS a!d a ru!-u!it, these i!clude curre!cy status i!dicators a!d error
status i!&ormatio!. Temporary Area: A su%-di(isio! o& addressa%le stora"e space i! the data%ase'
a di&&ere!t occurre!ce o& which is pro(ided &or each ru!-u!it ope!i!" it' a!d which is retai!ed
o!ly duri!" the li&e o& the ru!-u!it. Third Normal Form 2TNF3: A relatio! is i! third !ormal &orm
i& a!d o!ly i& its !o!-*ey domai!s 2i& a!y3 are mutually i!depe!de!t a!d &ully i!depe!de!t o! its
primary *ey. Tra!sposed File: A stora"e or"a!i4atio! i! which data-items o& a "i(e! type are
stored as a (ector' with each o& the data-items &rom a!y o!e record occurre!ce held at the same
relati(e positio! i! each o& the (ectors co!cer!ed. Tra!siti(e +epe!de!ce: +epe!de!ce %etwee!
attri%utes which is i!directly implicit' due to direct &u!ctio!al depe!de!ce with other attri%utes.
Tra!spare!cy: The shieldi!" o& the applicatio! &rom cha!"es to the data%ase. N-Tuple: A!
occurre!ce o& ! related data-eleme!ts such that each is a correspo!di!" mem%er o& ! domai!s
which &orm a relatio!. 8!io!: The operatio! o& com%i!i!" two relatio!s with all domai!s i!
commo!' to"ether with elimi!atio! o& a!y ide!tical tuples. 8!io!-ompati%le +omai!s:
+omai!s o& the same de"ree where each pair o& correspo!di!" domai!s are either %oth o& i!te"er
eleme!ts o& %oth o& character stri!" eleme!ts. 8ser :or*i!" Area 28:A3: The locatio!s where
all data pro(ided %y the +MS i! respo!se to a call &or data is deli(ered' a!d where all data to %e
pic*ed up %y the +MS must %e placed. -ector: A o!e-dime!sio!al' ordered collectio! o& data-
items' all o& which ha(e ide!tical characteristics.