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2(0.31 )(60) = 37.2 kips, which is enough to take care of the additional
requirement due to shear.
Shown in row (7) of Table 4.18 is the additional area of
longitudinal reinforcement due to shear Al (V), evaluated using Eq. 4.51.
Shown in row (8) is the area required for flexure for each of the design
zones of the truss. The area is evaluated using the relation
Al total (M) = Mn
l
zf y
(4.52 )
where Mn is the nominal moment Mn/ at the section where the design
zone starts, z is the vertical dimension of the truss model (43 in.),
and fy is the yield strength of the longitudinal reinforcement (fy = 257
ksi). Equation 4.52 was previously derived in Sec. 3.5.1 of Report
248-2.
Row (9) shows the total area of longitudinal reinforcement due
to shear and bending (row (7) + row (8)) required for each of the design
zones. A comparison of the value shown in row (9) with the total area
of longitudinal reinforcement provided at each of the design zones shown
in row (10) indicates that the requirements for longitudinal
reinforcement at all the design zones would be adequately satisfied.
Finally, the adequate anchorage of the longitudinal prestressed
reinforcement at the support regions must be checked. As was previously
shown, because of the presence of compression fans at the support
regions, the longitudinal reinforcement which continues into the support
has to be prov ided with an anchorage length such that a force V
u
co1.O:' 12
is adequately developed. In this case Vucot Ci 12 is equal to
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112*cot(41.8)/2 = 63 kips. The ACI Building Code Commentary (2) in Sec.
12.10 indicates that the transfer length ld of strand required to
achieve the effective prestressing stress is given as
(4.53)
where fse is the effective prestressing stress in the strand after all
loses, in this case fse = 152.7 ksi, db is the nominal diameter of the
strand. It is also indicated that this stress varies linearly with the
distance from free end of strand to the distance where the stress fse is
developed in the strand. Thus, for this design example ld = 152.7*0.5/3
= 25.5". As shown in Fig. 4.33, the distance between the centerline of
the support and the end of the beam is 8 in. Thus, the stress that can
be developed in the strand up to that point is f se = 8*152.7/25.5 = 48
ksi and the force that could be developed per strand is 48*( .153) = 7.4
kips. Since eight 1/2 in. strands are continued straight into the
support, the total required force of 63 kips should be equally developed
between those eight strands. Hence, the force to be developed at each
strand is equal to 63/8 = 7.8 kips. Since the available anchorage force
<7.4 kips) is very close to the required (7.8 kips) and due to the
empirical nature of Eq. 4.53, it is then suggested that no special
provision be taken and assume that the required force can be adequately
developed.
4.4.6 Design of the Prestressed Concrete Bridge Girder
Following the ACI/AASHTO Design Procedure. To show the difference
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in design procedures, the same example previously studied is reworked
using current design procedures.
The member is divided in 5 design zones. The first one is
located at a distance h/2 = 47.25/2 = 23.63" = 1.97 ft from the face of
the support and then 4 ft, 8 ft, 12 ft, and 16 ft from the centerline of
the support, respectively. Since in this design example maximum shear
envelopes and corresponding moments are used, and since the truck live
loading can approach the bridge from either side, the design of the
other hal f of the bridge girder would be essentially the same. Table
4.19 shows the design of the transverse reinforcement according to the
ACI/AASHTO requirements.
In the ACI/AASHTO recommendations, the first critical region for
shear in the case of prestressed concrete members where the support
reaction induces compression is located at a distance h/2 from the face
of the support. Sections located less than a distance h/2 from the face
of the support may be designed for the same shear Vu as that computed at
a distance h/2, except when there are heavy concentrated loads within
the distance h/2 such as the loading case shown in Fig. 4.36a. In such
cases, the member should be designed for the actual shear at that
critical section taking into account the heavy concentrated load. Thus,
the first design region is located 5" from the support centerline which
is the face of the support.
The current AASHTO/ACI procedures define the additional concrete
contribution to the shear strength of the member in the case of
prestressed concrete sections, as given by the smaller of the two values
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(1)
Design Face of 2
3
4
Section
Support
(2)
Di stance from
the support 0'-5" 4'-0" 8'-0" 12'-0"
centerline (ft)
(3)
V
ci
(kips)
512 258 128 83
(4)
Vcw
(kips) 104 105 105 103
(5)
Vn = Vul <t>
(kips) 144 109 88 68
(6)
Vs = Vn - Vc
(kips) 40 4
(7)
Avis = VS/fyd
(in
2
/in) 0.018 0.002
fy = 60 ksi
(8)
amt. (in
2
/in) Min. 0.006 0.006 0.006 0.006
(9)
Spacing for a 113
U stirrup (in) 12.5 37.5 37.5 37.5
( 10)
Max. allowed stir-
rup spacing (in) 12 12 12 12
Table 4.19 Dimensioning of the web reinforcement for
the bridge girder following AcriAASHTO
recommendations
5
16'-0"
65
103
49
0.006
37.5
12