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2(0.31 )(60) = 37.2 kips, which is enough to take care of the additional

requirement due to shear.

Shown in row (7) of Table 4.18 is the additional area of

longitudinal reinforcement due to shear Al (V), evaluated using Eq. 4.51.

Shown in row (8) is the area required for flexure for each of the design

zones of the truss. The area is evaluated using the relation

Al total (M) = Mn

l

zf y

(4.52 )

where Mn is the nominal moment Mn/ at the section where the design

zone starts, z is the vertical dimension of the truss model (43 in.),

and fy is the yield strength of the longitudinal reinforcement (fy = 257

ksi). Equation 4.52 was previously derived in Sec. 3.5.1 of Report

248-2.

Row (9) shows the total area of longitudinal reinforcement due

to shear and bending (row (7) + row (8)) required for each of the design

zones. A comparison of the value shown in row (9) with the total area

of longitudinal reinforcement provided at each of the design zones shown

in row (10) indicates that the requirements for longitudinal

reinforcement at all the design zones would be adequately satisfied.

Finally, the adequate anchorage of the longitudinal prestressed

reinforcement at the support regions must be checked. As was previously

shown, because of the presence of compression fans at the support

regions, the longitudinal reinforcement which continues into the support

has to be prov ided with an anchorage length such that a force V

u

co1.O:' 12

is adequately developed. In this case Vucot Ci 12 is equal to

234

112*cot(41.8)/2 = 63 kips. The ACI Building Code Commentary (2) in Sec.

12.10 indicates that the transfer length ld of strand required to

achieve the effective prestressing stress is given as

(4.53)

where fse is the effective prestressing stress in the strand after all

loses, in this case fse = 152.7 ksi, db is the nominal diameter of the

strand. It is also indicated that this stress varies linearly with the

distance from free end of strand to the distance where the stress fse is

developed in the strand. Thus, for this design example ld = 152.7*0.5/3

= 25.5". As shown in Fig. 4.33, the distance between the centerline of

the support and the end of the beam is 8 in. Thus, the stress that can

be developed in the strand up to that point is f se = 8*152.7/25.5 = 48

ksi and the force that could be developed per strand is 48*( .153) = 7.4

kips. Since eight 1/2 in. strands are continued straight into the

support, the total required force of 63 kips should be equally developed

between those eight strands. Hence, the force to be developed at each

strand is equal to 63/8 = 7.8 kips. Since the available anchorage force

<7.4 kips) is very close to the required (7.8 kips) and due to the

empirical nature of Eq. 4.53, it is then suggested that no special

provision be taken and assume that the required force can be adequately

developed.

4.4.6 Design of the Prestressed Concrete Bridge Girder

Following the ACI/AASHTO Design Procedure. To show the difference

235

in design procedures, the same example previously studied is reworked

using current design procedures.

The member is divided in 5 design zones. The first one is

located at a distance h/2 = 47.25/2 = 23.63" = 1.97 ft from the face of

the support and then 4 ft, 8 ft, 12 ft, and 16 ft from the centerline of

the support, respectively. Since in this design example maximum shear

envelopes and corresponding moments are used, and since the truck live

loading can approach the bridge from either side, the design of the

other hal f of the bridge girder would be essentially the same. Table

4.19 shows the design of the transverse reinforcement according to the

ACI/AASHTO requirements.

In the ACI/AASHTO recommendations, the first critical region for

shear in the case of prestressed concrete members where the support

reaction induces compression is located at a distance h/2 from the face

of the support. Sections located less than a distance h/2 from the face

of the support may be designed for the same shear Vu as that computed at

a distance h/2, except when there are heavy concentrated loads within

the distance h/2 such as the loading case shown in Fig. 4.36a. In such

cases, the member should be designed for the actual shear at that

critical section taking into account the heavy concentrated load. Thus,

the first design region is located 5" from the support centerline which

is the face of the support.

The current AASHTO/ACI procedures define the additional concrete

contribution to the shear strength of the member in the case of

prestressed concrete sections, as given by the smaller of the two values

236

(1)

Design Face of 2

3

4

Section

Support

(2)

Di stance from

the support 0'-5" 4'-0" 8'-0" 12'-0"

centerline (ft)

(3)

V

ci

(kips)

512 258 128 83

(4)

Vcw

(kips) 104 105 105 103

(5)

Vn = Vul <t>

(kips) 144 109 88 68

(6)

Vs = Vn - Vc

(kips) 40 4

(7)

Avis = VS/fyd

(in

2

/in) 0.018 0.002

fy = 60 ksi

(8)

amt. (in

2

/in) Min. 0.006 0.006 0.006 0.006

(9)

Spacing for a 113

U stirrup (in) 12.5 37.5 37.5 37.5

( 10)

Max. allowed stir-

rup spacing (in) 12 12 12 12

Table 4.19 Dimensioning of the web reinforcement for

the bridge girder following AcriAASHTO

recommendations

5

16'-0"

65

103

49

0.006

37.5

12

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