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of the values suggested in both the ACI Building Code (2) and AASHTO
Stand ard Spec ific ations (1) of 2 ~ but no more than 3.5..f1"c.
In the case of prestressed concrete members an increased value
of the concrete contribution in the transition state is allowed, if for
the calculated ultimate load and for a given applied prestressing force
the resul ting extreme fiber stress does not exceed the value of 2vcu
(e.g. at the support regions of a pretensioned beam). Note that this is
similar to a tensile stress of 6 to 6 6 ~ This limit in effect
introduces a Vci check into the Swiss procedure. The allowed concrete
contribution in the case of prestressed concrete members is shown in
Fig. 2.7.
In order to avoid failures due to crushing of the web, the
nominal shear stress vn evaluated using the nominal shear force Vn = Vs
+ Vc must not exceed the values v
' which are dependent upon the
concrete strength and the maximum stirrup spacing.
- v
= 5v
for smax = z/2 but s < 12 in.
= 6vcu for smax = z/3 but s < 8 in.
A comparison between these two limits and the upper limit
suggested in the ACI Code (24) and AASHTO Standard Specs. (1) of 10J'fj
is shown in Fig 2.8. The Swiss Code allows much higher shear stresses.
The design procedure for the case of torsion in the Swiss Code
follows the same lines as the truss model. The Swiss Code design
procedures are applicable to both reinforced and partially prestressed
or fully prestressed concrete members, provided their warping resistance
is neglected. As in the CEB-Refined method, torsional moments, as a

Vc: concrete contribution

__ ..... ... tru88 action
lVeu-V]:; 0


Vu shear stress
F Prestressing force under service load condition
A Cross-sectional area of the concrete
Fig. 2.7 Concrete contribution in the case of prestressed concrete
V max (p s i )
6 Vcu
1000 5Vcu

fc (psi)
(000) 2 :3 4
Fig. 2.8 Comparison between the upper limit for the
shear stress in a section
rule, are only to be taken into account in the design if they are
necessary for equil ibrium. For compatibility torsion, the only
requirement is that some reinforcement be placed to control crack
development. No specific information is given as to how to evaluate
this required amount of reinforcement.
The limits for the angle of inclination of the diagonal strut
remain those presented in Eq. 2.1.
The torsional moment for the calculated ultimate load must be
equal or less than the resistance value. The resistance value is made
up of the resistance Ts carried by the truss, and the additional
resistance of the concrete Tc in the transi tion range between the
uncracked state and the full truss action.
The amount of torsion carried by the truss with vertical
stirrups is given by Eq. 2.19.
where Ao is the area described by the perimeter enclosing the
longitudinal reinforcement.
Due to the inclination of the compression field in the truss
model an additional area of longitudinal reinforcement is required to
resist the horizontal component of the inclined compression field which
is assumed to be acting at the centroid of the perimeter u around the
area Ao. The additional area is evaluated using Eq. 2.20.
where Al (T) is the total area of longitudinal steel required to resist
the tension force produced by the torsional moment Tu. Eq. 2.20 follows
directly from Eq. 3.30 derived in Sec. 3.4 of Report 248-2 from
equilibrium considerations in the truss model.
The concrete contribution in the transition state is the same as
the one assumed for the case of shear shown in Figs. 2.6 and 2.7 for
reinforced and prestressed concrete respecti vel y.
The shear stress due to torsion is evaluated using Eq. 2.21
which as in the CEB-Refined method, is derived from the theory of thin-
walled cross sections. The value "be" represents the effective wall