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hooks where the concrete surrounding the anchorage is unrestrained

against spalling.
The yield strength used in the design calculations of the shear
and torsion transverse reinforcement shall not exceed 60000 psi.
The longitudinal reinforcement has to be adequately anchored,
and at least one longitudinal bar or prestressing tendon shall be placed
in each corner of the closed transverse reinforcement required for
torsion. The nom inal diameter of the bar or tendon has to be larger
than s/16, in order to prevent pushing out of the concrete compression
The Canadian code draft seems too complex for general use. The
truss model is obscured by the complex equations required for
deformations and service load strain checks.
2.3 Concrete Contribution in the
Transition State
After comparing a very wide range of test results with the
predictions of the variable angle truss model as a failure model for
reinforced and prestressed concrete members subjected to shear and
torsion, it becomes clear that although the truss model conservatively
represents the behavior of members subjected to shear and/or torsion, it
is not a completely satisfactory failure model for design purposes.
While it is safe and extremely useful for visualizing behavioral and
detailing trends, the model is very conservative for members with low
level s of shear and torsion. This resul ts in higher requirements for
web reinforcement than some current codes and imposes an economic
For the sake of simplicity in the design model, some of the
actions that exist in the actual failure mechanism are not considered in
the truss model. Components of the shear carrying mechanism of a
reinforced concrete member such as the shear carrying capacity of the
concrete compression zone, the dowel action of the long i tud inal
reinforcement, the aggregate interlock mechanisms, and the tensile
strength of the concrete, are implicitly included for redistribution of
forces at ultimate in the truss model with variable angle of inclination
of the diagonals. These components are of increased significance at the
lower levels of shear and torsion loading. Recogni tion of this
contribution by introduction of the transition state should improve the
economics of the procedure by removing unnecessary conservatism.
Since only flexurally underreinforced sections are encouraged
under American design practices, yielding of the longitudinal steel in
the tension chord should always occur at failure in the case of members
subjected to bending and shear. Thus, the dowel action effect of that
reinforcement is neglected in the truss theory. At shear or torsion
failure the truss theory assumes that the shearing stresses on the
section due to shear and torsion are of such magnitude that they would
produce considerable diagonal cracking in the web of the member. Under
these circumstances wide cracks in the web would prevent any further
redistribution of forces due to aggregate interlock mechanisms.
Furthermore, at this level of shear stress, all the tensile capacity of
the web concrete would be depleted.
In actual practice however, often because of the design
procedures, loading conditions, clear span length, or even architectural
constraints, flexure will control the design of a given member. In such
case the shear stresses on the cross section defined as
for shear, and
for torsion, might be of such low magnitude that the shear stresses in
the member at failure would be in a transition state between the
uncracked condition, and the behavioral state where the truss action
would provide the entire resistance of the member. Moreover, the limits
for the inclination of the diagonal strut, and in particular the lower
limit of 26 degrees, which is established in order to prevent extensive
web cracking under service load conditions, might sometimes force a
member into this transition state.
For members in the transi tion state, components of the shear
failure mechanism such as aggregate interlock and the concrete tensile
strength, become of importance. The contribution of these mechanisms to
the ultimate strength of the member can be reflected by an inclusion of
an additional concrete contribution to the shear and/or torsional
capacity in this transition state.
The review of other available design procedures conducted in
Sec. 2.2 has shown the different ways in which this additional concrete
contribution has been introduced in the overall design process.
In general, the shear capacity of a reinforced concrete member
in its uncracked state is taken to be somewhere around 2 to 3 ~
The beneficial effect of the presence of prestress on the shear
strength of a concrete member in its uncracked state is introduced by
increasing the uncracked strength of a reinforced concrete member. The
shear capacity of a reinforced concrete member, before diagonal cracking
occurs, is mul tipl ied by a factor K, which is dependent upon the level
of prestress force in the member. As was shown in Report 248-36, the
presence of prestress in the elastic range has the effect of shifting
the radius of the Mohr circle, causing a reduction in the principal
diagonal tension stress.
This factor K can be derived from the Mohr circle representation
of an element at the neutral axis of a prestressed concrete member,
prior to initial diagonal cracking (see Fig. 2.11).
From Fig. 2.11 the factor K is found to be
K - [1 + (f /f )]0.5
- ps t
where fps is the compression stress at the neutral axis (Le. the
effective prestress force devided by the area of the cross section), and
is the principal diagonal tension stress. The value shown in Eq.