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Un

on reinforced concrete T-beams.

(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10)

Vc VTEST-Vc

H

TEST

Pvfy

Level of

Hember V

l10 Huo

tan !l I K

Kactual

prestress

1D (kips) (psi)

26-1 12.5 0.44 0.91 79 0.27 1.09 1.0 1.0

0.0

29a-1 16.9 0.31 0.71 53 0.23 0.82

29b-1 16.4 0.32 0.71 53 0.23 0.83

213.5-1 18.4 0.29 0.65 35 0.17 0.76

29a-2 9.6 0.58 0.97 62 0.20 1.24

213.5a-2 16.0 0.36 0.71 42 0.18 0.86

318-1 10.7 0.48 0.99 93 0.29 1.18

321-1 16.4 0.27 0.73 79 0.33 0.82

313.5-2 8.8 0.56 1.04 65 0.25 1.37

318-2 14.9 0.37 0.79 64 0.25 0.93

321-2 15.5 0.36 0.75 55 0.22 0.89

218-2 15.8 0.44 0.73 31 0.13 0.94

39-3 9.6 0.53 1.06 55 0.28 1.28

313.5-2 12.6 0.52 0.95 65 0.21 1.17

318-3 17.8 0.36 0.77 48 0.19 0.91

321-3 21.2 0.19 0.63 42 0.20 0.69

x = 0.99 N 16

s = 0.21

Tests re20rted by Palaskas. 't,tioabe Darwin

!321

on reinforced concrete T-beams.

(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10)

Vc VTEST-V

c

H

TEST

PVfy

Level of

Hember

Vuo Muo

tan 0- I K

Kactual

prestress

1D (kips) (psi) (a/f

A25 11.4 0.22 0.46 32 0.17 0.58 1.0 1.0 0.0

A25a 10.6 0.29 0.50 32 0.15 0.67

A50 6.0 0.39 0.62 74 0.29 0.84

A50a 7.3 0.33 0.58 75 0.31 0.77

A75 5.2 0.45 0.75 97 0.31 1.00

825 11.9 0.20 0.55 32 0.19 0.65

650 8.3 0.35 0.76 76 0.32 0.94

C25 10.2 0.21 0.31 32 0.18 0.43

C50 5.1 0.40 0.50 76 0.26 0.75

x = 0.74 N=9

s = 0.18

Overall for Tabh 2:q x = 0.90 N=25

s = 0.23

Table 2.4 Evaluation of reinforced concrete members with light

amounts of web reinforcement under bending and shear

failing in the transition state

57

58

However, on close examination of these specimens, it was found that poor

detailing of the reinforcement was the cause for these premature

failures.

In the case of the specimens from Ref. 31 all but 26-1 had

stirrup spacings in the longitudinal direction in excess of d/2 and in

some instances larger than d. As previously explained in Sec. 2.4.2 of

Report 248-3, large stirrup spacings do not allow the formation of a

uniform diagonal compression field. Instead, those large spacings cause

the excessive concentration of diagonal compression forces in the joints

of the truss formed by the longitudinal and transverse reinforcement

which then produced premature failures by pushing out of the

longitudinal corner bars. Furthermore, when the stirrup spacing is even

larger than d, the first diagonal crack which opens at 45 degrees in

reinforced concrete members will run untouched by a single stirrup

producing a sudden failure of the member.

For those members from Ref. 32 the cause of failure was the

inadequate detailing of the longitudinal reinforcement. The

longitudinal reinforcement consisted of ASTM A416 Grade 270 seven-wire

stress-reI ieved strand. The yield strength of this type of strand is

usually defined as the value of stress corresponding to a strain of 0.01

and is usually about 240-250 ksi. The transverse reinforcement used in

these specimens was made out of low carbon, smooth wires. These wires

were annealed and the yield stress obtained was between 60 and 70 ksi.

The long i tud inal rein forcement was left unstressed, thus creating an

enormous difference between the yield strengths of both reinforcements

59

which then led to an excessive redistribution of forces causing very

large strains in transverse reinforcement and in the diagonal

compression strut leading to a premature failure.

This problem does not exist in prestressed concrete members

because the initial tensioning of the strand eliminates the difference

between the strain required to produce yield in the transverse

reinforcement which is usually made out of deformed reinforcing bars

(40-60 ksi) and that required to yield the longitudinal prestressed

reinforcement (Grades 250-270).

The excessive redistribution of forces required in these members

from Ref. 32 is illustrated by the very low values of the angle of

inclination of the diagonal strut required at failure in those members.

The values of tana for each member are shown in column (6) of Table

2.4. As can be seen they differ considerably from the tam= 1.0

equivalent to the 45 degree angle corresponding to initial diagonal

cracking of the concrete member. Of even more importance they fall well

below the lower limit of tana) 0.5 introduced into the design

provisions. These specimens violate that limit severely.

Finally, it must be noted that for the case of prestressed

concrete members subjected to bending and shear, the current AASHTO/ACI

Specifications (1,2) require that the concrete contribution shall be

given by the smaller of the two values vcw and vci where vcw represents

the shear required to produce first inclined cracking in the web of the

member, and vci is the shear stress required to produce first flexure

60

cracking and then cause this flexural crack to become inclined. These

two shear mechanisms have been previously explained in Report 248-2.

The web shear cracking mechanism, v

cw

' is the shear stress in a

nonflexurally cracked member at the time that diagonal cracking occurs

in the web. The design for web shear cracking in prestressed concrete

members is based on the computation of the principal diagonal tension

stress in the web and the limitation of that stress to a certain

specified value. The ACI/AASHTO Specifications indicate that a value

3.5.fii should be used as the limit value of this principal diagonal

tension stress. As seen in Fig. 2.11 from a Mohr's circle it can be

shown that the value of the shear stress at the centroid of the web of a

prestressed concrete beam prior to cracking, vcr' is given by

(2.49)

where f

t

is the principal diagonal tension stress and fps is the

compressive stress due to prestress. In the current AASHTO/ACI

recommendation, f

t

is substituted by the limiting value 3.5.ffJ. and for

simplification the expression is reduced to the generally equivalent

(see Fig. 2.10 of Report 248-2) straight line function

vcw = vcr = 3.5.fFc + 0.3 fps

(2.50)

In the derivation of the proposed concrete contribution for

prestressed concrete members the same approach was followed (see Fig.

2.11) to obtain the value of the shear stress required to produce

initial diagonal cracking in the web of a member uncracked in flexure

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