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If this limit is then applied to members AD.l


l
l.37a, AD.14.37b,
and 8D.14.23, the ratio of v
u
(Test)/[K2 Jij], with K = 1.0, becomes
1.05, 1.40, and 1.69, respectively.
In the subsequent sections the design recommendations based on
the truss model are introduced. These recommendations are appl icable to
both reinforced and prestressed concrete members, subjected to shear
and/or torsion in the transition state as well as in the full truss
action state. However, in the uncracked and in the transition state the
design shear force should be adjusted in accordance with proposed values
(see Fig. 2.14) to recognize the concrete contribution. However, in the
case of prestressed concrete members a value of K greater than 1.0 is
only allowed in those sections of the member where the stress in the
,
extreme tension fiber does not exceed 6 ~
2.4 General Assumptions and Design Procedures
in the Truss Model Approach
The design approaches for the cases of bending-shear and
torsion-bend ing-shear were I treated separately in Report 248-2 in Secs.
3.6.1 and 3.6.2.
In this section, the variable angle truss model design
approaches developed in Report 248-2 and the specific problems and
limits in application, as well as the results from the evaluation of the
truss model using a wide variety of published data in Report 248-3, are
translated into detailed design recommendations. These design
recommendations are applicable to either prestressed or normally
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reinforced concrete sections containing web reinforcement. They are
suitable for the design of sections subjected to:
a. Shear and Bending
b. Shear and Torsion
c. Shear, Torsion and Bending
These provisions do not consider certain areas of shear such as
two-way or punching shear and shear friction. Current provisions for
such special cases would have to be added.
The general assumptions for the application of the truss model
in the design procedure are:
1. Prior to failure, yielding of the longitudinal reinforcement is
required. This limits consideration to underreinforced
sections.
2. Diagonal crushing of the concrete does not occur prior to
yielding of the transverse reinforcement. This requires an
upper limit for the concrete stresses as well as limits on the
angle of inclination of the diagonal compression struts.
3. Only uniaxial forces are present in the reinforcement (thus
dowel action is neglected).
4. The steel reinforcement must be properly detailed so as to
prevent premature local crushing and bond failures.
The general design procedure based on the truss model is easy to
conceptualize and use. Basically the procedure consists of 6 steps:
1. Select an appropriate truss system for the load pattern and
structural constraints.
2. Assume a compression diagonal incl ination that is wi thin the
I imi ts which are based on Sec. 3.3 of Report 248-2 (25
0
< 0: <
65
0
).
3. Check the web concrete stress fd in the diagonal compression
elements of the truss to guard against web crushing.
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4. Compute the area of transverse reinforcement required as truss
tension verticals. Select spacing to satisfy both equilibrium
and practical spacing limits. Check to see if the amount
provided satifies the minimum web reinforcement requirement.
5. Determine the area of 10ngitl,1dinal reinforcement required for
the combined actions. The additional longitudinal reinforcement
required for shear and for torsion should be added to flexural
requirements.
6. Provide adequate detailing of the steel reinforcement. Adequate
detailing of the longitudinal and transverse reinforcement is of
utmost importance in the Truss Model design approach since the
reinforcement is required to develop its full yield strength
prior to failure.
2.4.1 Selection of the Truss System. Thi s step impl ies the
selection of a truss model which is in equilibrium with the applied
loads and structural constraints.
Examples of the truss model selection have been given in Report
248-3 for the case of deep beams and brackets, and in Report 248-2 for
the case of members of constant depth cross section with rectangular,
solid and hollow, L, T, and I shapes.
In this step of the design procedure lies the real advantage of
the truss model approach. In the case of very complex situations, the
truss model approach helps the designer to visualize internal structural
patterns which can adequately carry the loads.
Once the designer has chosen a truss model which is suitable to
carry the applied loads, he then can analyze the internal forces using
the chosen truss model. He then can proceed to dimension the truss
members so that those internal forces can be carried safely. If
necessary, the initial truss model can be revised. Finally, using the
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chosen truss model, he can draw the necessary conclusions for the
adequate detailing of the reinforcement.
Further examples on the selection of truss systems are given in
Chapter 4.
2.4.2 Inclination of the Compression Diagonal Members of the
Truss System. The Space Truss Model with variable angle of inclination
of the compression diagonals departs from the traditional truss model
with constant 45 degree angle diagonals proposed by Ritter (5) and
generally adapted by Morsch (34) (who did recognize the variable angle
of inclination). Hence, it is a more realistic truss model.
However, as explained in the earlier reports, limits on the
angle of inclination of the diagonal concrete compression struts must be
introduced. The proposed limits allow the angle of inclination to vary
between 25 and 65 degrees. These lower and upper limits help to:
1. Provide adequate inclined crack width control at service load
levels.
2. Maintain the compression diagonal stresses within prescribed
limits helping to prevent diagonal crushing of the concrete
prior to yielding of the transverse reinforcement.
3. Prevent excessive redistribution of forces. First inclined
shear crac ks in ord inar y rein forced concrete members occur at
about 45 degrees and the development of cracks at other angles
requires the transmission of forces across the first cracks.
Since the capacity for this transmission may be limited,
excessive red istribution of internal forces caused by designing
for angles which deviate too much from 45 degrees must be
avoided
4. Avoid excessive strains in the reinforcement and prevent
extremely wide crack openings. As shown in Sec. 3.3 of Report
248-2, when the angle deviates too greatly from 45 degrees, in
order for yield to be developed in both longitudinal and
transverse reinforcement, very high strains are required in the